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Modelling and analysis of a unit protection

scheme
Mehmet Tümay
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, University of Gaziantep, Turkey
E-mail: tumay@gantep.edu.tr

Abstract This paper presents the modelling and analysis of unit protection of feeders. The protection system module
is linked to the primary power system module in such a way that it acts as a feedback loop. The primary power
system module provides the three-phase voltages and/or currents at the transducer locations. The protection system
module then processes this data, and outputs a circuit breaker status, which can then be feedback to the primary
power system module. The paper also describes the operating principles of the protection unit. Finally, practical
applications of the model under fault conditions are examined.

Keywords dynamic power system modelling; unit feeder protection

The function of an electrical power system is to generate and distribute electrical


energy in most effective and efficient manner possible, while still providing the
consumer with a secure supply. To allow these aims to be met, it is necessary
to operate the plant involved towards the limits of its design capacity, while
still ensuring a minimum disruption.1 Protection is therefore applied to power
systems in order to maintain the safe and economic operability of such systems.
It should be noted however, that protection does not prevent faults from
occurring on the system. It merely attempts to minimise the effects once a fault
has developed. Most faults experienced in a power system occur on the lines
connecting generating sources with usage points. Just as these circuits vary
widely in their characteristics, configurations, lengths, and relative importance,
so do their protection scheme.2 The graded over-current systems, though
attractively simple in principle, do not meet all the protection requirements of
a power system. Application difficulties are encountered for two reasons; first,
satisfactory grading cannot always be arranged for a complex network and
secondly, the grading settings may lead to maximum tripping times too long
to prevent excessive disturbance of the power system. These problems led to
the concept of unit protection whereby sections of the power systems are
protected individually without reference to other sections.
In this paper, a simple power system with four protection units and the flow
diagram of the integrated power system model is described. The relay modelling
and its function are also explained.

Dynamic power system modelling strategy


The integrated dynamic power system model will be divided into two modules
as follows:

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Modelling and analysis of a unit protection scheme 155

1 the primary power system module


2 the protection system module
The protection system module is integrated to the primary power system
module as shown in Fig. 1.
In order to reduce the size and complexity of the code, it is thought appro-
priate that protection system models, e.g. transducers etc., should be distinct
from the historical data that is required for them to operate, e.g. previous filter
inputs and outputs for recursive filtering etc. This will allow each model code
to be used repeatedly. To facilitate this separation of models and data, protec-
tion unit models, and associated protection unit records have been developed.
Each protection unit model contains a model of a transducer, a relay, and a
circuit breaker. However, the protection unit model contains models of two
transducers, two relay units and communications between them and two circuit
breakers. This is required to accommodate the pairing of this type of unit
protection. Each protection unit record stores all the historical data required
for its associated protection unit model to operate.
Figure 2 shows a simple power system protected by four protection units.
Figure 3 shows the general data flow of the program structure. The primary
power system module updates the protection unit records with the relevant
three-phase voltages and/or currents. These records and the protection unit
models then interact to output a circuit breaker status which is feedback to
the primary power system module.

Primary power system module


The primary power system module is based on a three-phase coordinate model
of the test system which incorporates synchronous generation, complete with
prime movers and controllers, generator transformer and network details.3–6

Fig. 1 Integrated dynamic power system.

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156 M. Tümay

Fig. 2 A simple power system with four protection units.

Fig. 3 Flow diagram of the integrated dynamic power system model.

Symmetrical and asymmetrical disturbance conditions can be conveniently


accommodated. The system is formulated in a modular manner consisting of
individual subsystem configurations. Transducers together with their associated
protection devices are interfaced to the main program again using a modular
strategy.7

Transducer modelling
Dynamic modelling of the protective current transformer has been developed
for the transient analysis of the equivalent circuit of the current transformer
using the core model previously described.8 The developed routine is fully
stable and used to simulate the transient response of the current transformer
to asymmetrical fault currents. The core has been represented including

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Modelling and analysis of a unit protection scheme 157

magnetic non-linearity and saturation effects. The line currents are fed to the
CT subroutines from the primary power system module. Secondary currents
are calculated and stored for the power system protection signalling. Figure 4
shows current transformer connections.

Relay modelling

Relay structure
The relay model is divided into following four sub-modules;
1 analogue signal conditioner,
2 analogue to digital converter,
3 relay algorithm including signal conversion,
4 relay status processor.
The analogue signal conditioner models the relay’s pre-filter, filter and inte-
grator. These models have digital transfer functions which represent the ana-
logue transfer functions of the physical components. The analogue to digital
converter conditions the filtered signals so that they can be applied to the
protection algorithm. This will require reducing the sample rate to the relay
sample rate, converting floating point samples to integers, and clipping the
signal if necessary. The inputs to the relay algorithm in general will be d.c.
(Plant Status) inputs as well as the conditioned current and/or voltage samples.
The d.c. (Plant Status) inputs will be stored in the protection unit record. The
algorithm will output a trip or no trip operation signal. The relay status
processor controls the implementation of the microprocessor time delay.
In order to control microprocessor and circuit breaker delays both the relays
and the circuit breaker are given an operating status, and delays are controlled

Fig. 4 Current transformer connections.

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158 M. Tümay

by the combination of these states. At relay model sample No. 1 the algorithm
outputs a no operation signal thus the relay model status stays in ‘no operation’
and the circuit breaker model remains ‘closed’. Since, in real time, the micropro-
cessor would still be processing data.
Only after a specified duration will the trip decision be taken. After this
delay (three power system model samples) the relay model status becomes ‘o/p
trip’ and the circuit breaker model status becomes ‘operating’. The circuit
breaker model remains in operating mode until the circuit breaker algorithm
determines that it should close. This method of controlling these delays allows
the inclusion of a delayed auto reclose scheme, since the method works equally
well in reverse.
Filter evaluation is required to check that the digital filter is as accurate a
model of the physical filter as possible. A program has been developed to
determine the frequency response, of recursive and non-recursive digital filters.
This program inputs the transfer function of the digital filter and outputs the
gain and phase response over a predetermined range of frequencies. However
this program only tests the steady state response of the digital filter, a step
response test will be performed to determine its transient response.7

Relay operation
On a healthy feeder the vector sum of the terminal currents flowing into the
protected zone should equate to zero in accordance with Kirchhoff ’s first law,
any difference current representing either capacitive or fault current. The a.c.
current input module contains an analogue to digital converter. Each line
currents is sampled at the certain rate. Positive (IPPS) and negative phase
sequence (INPS) component values are derived from these and added together
to form a single representative signal, the local end relaying current I (I =
M M
5I −I ), which is then frequency modulated onto a carrier in the VF
NPS PPS
modem module and transmitted via the communication link to the remote
end. A similar signal is received from the remote end and demodulated.
Differential comparison is carried out on the local and remote I signals.
M
The differential comparison process works on a vector summation principle
which takes into account both the waveform amplitude and phase angle. The
local and remote I current waveforms are cross-correlated with reference sine
M
and cosine waveforms to calculate the polar and rectangular coordinates of
their phasors. From this the differential and restraining quantities are calculated.
The differential comparator operates when the following conditions are met:

|I1MR+I2MR|>differential setting

and

|I1MR|+|I2MR|
|I1MR+I2MR|> >bias slope
2

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Modelling and analysis of a unit protection scheme 159

Where
I1MR is the protection unit 1 differential relaying current
I2MR is the protection unit 2 differential relaying current
The relaying currents are amplitude limited to 5xdifferential setting which
results in a true linear comparison at low levels of current to phase comparison
at high levels of current. Calculations are performed on a complete set of
periodic samples which are updated every sample period. If the differential
comparison indicated a trip condition a trip counter is incremented towards a
user-set-target level. For a stable condition or a communication error detector
output the trip counter is reset.

Simulation examples
The two parallel feeders are connected to the busbar for the simulation example.
Figures 5 and 6 show the schematic diagram of the system studied. The current
transformers are connected to the each protection unit of the parallel feeder.

Fig. 5 Fault is applied to the Busbar 2.

Fig. 6 Fault is applied between PU1 and PU2.

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Different fault conditions can be applied to the each of the line and busbars.
The generator, current transformer and the relay settings are given in
Appendix A.
Each graphical overview shows I1 output waveforms together. These are
defined as follows:
I1A, I1B, I1C the line currents of the protection unit one (PU1).
I1PPS, I1NPS, I1ZPS the sequence currents.
I1M the relaying current of the PU1.
I1MD the delayed relaying current of the PU1.
I2M the relaying current of PU2.
IDIFF the final differential current obtained from PU1
and PU2.
IRES restraint current.
COUNT trip count of the relay.

Case A
Various types of faults are applied to the busbar 2. The current passing from
PU1 and PU2 will be the same for that case. The maximum peak to peak
current of each case is shown in Table 1.

Case B
The faults are applied between protection unit 1 and 2. In this case, the current
passing from PU1 and PU2 will be different. These graphs are shown in Figs
7–12 for three different fault conditions (single-phase, phase-to-phase, three-
phase faults).

TABLE 1 Fault is applied to the Busbar 2

Waveform Single-phase fault Line to line fault three-phase fault

I1A 3.51–7 0.93–3.84 1.29–3.42


I1B 2.04–3.41 3.86–0.93 4.69–0.66
I1C 1.72–3.17 0.32–0.33 1.20–3.38
I1PPS 0.96–0.91 1.25–1.16 2.14–2.06
I1NPS 0.61–0.63 0.99–1.04 0.57–0.1
I1ZPS 2.42–4.53 0.11–0.12 0
I1MR 1.76 3.08 0.99
I2MR 1.41 2.46 0.79
IDIFF 3.17 5.54 1.78
IRES 1.27 2.22 0.7
COUNT 6 6 6

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TABLE 2 Fault is applied between PU1 and PU2

Single-phase fault Line to line fault Three-fault phase

Waveform PU1 PU2 PU1 PU2 PU1 PU2

I1A 38.9–24.54 3.56–7.94 41.47–21.0 0.74–4.01 38.9–24.83 1.18–3.63


I1B 2.2–3.89 2.19–3.89 21.28–41.5 4.1–0.74 24.43–48.93 4.99–0.37
I1C 1.86–3.66 1.86–3.86 0.11–0.1 0.32–0.3 36.43–24.58 1.24–3.58
I1PPS 8.82–9.3 1.04–1.0 12.22–13.2 1.3–1.25 24.69–25.56 2.25–2.17
I1NPS 9.48–9.1 0.68–0.72 13.66–12.4 1.06–1.09 1.36–7.38 0.6–0.12
I1ZPS 10.48–6.83 2.54–5.16 0 0.11–0.11 0.84 0
I1MR 20.39 1.98 29.94 3,25 10.92 1.31
I2MR 1.98 8.69 3.24 8,74 1.29 8.3
IDIFF 18.4 6.7 26.72 5,53 9.63 6.99
IRES 0 4.27 0 4,79 0 3.84
COUNT 6 6 6 6 6 6

Fig. 7 PU1 waveforms (single-fault is applied between PU1 and PU2).

Conclusions
In this paper, the modelling and analysis of a unit protection of the parallel
feeders were explained. The modelling strategy of the system was also described.
The modelling strategy of the primary power system and protection module
was described. Four protection system units were used for the protection of
the parallel feeders. Different fault conditions were applied to the different
sections of the system. From the simulation results the maximum fault current

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162 M. Tümay

Fig. 8 PU2 waveforms (single-fault is applied between PU1 and PU2).

Fig. 9 PU1 waveforms (line-to-line fault is applied between PU1 and PU2).

occurred when the line-to-line fault was applied between the two protection
units.
This type of protection system can be applied to a complicated protection
system. The advantage of the method is that it effectively protects the units
without any interaction with the other systems.

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Modelling and analysis of a unit protection scheme 163

Fig. 10 PU2 waveforms (line-to-line fault is applied between PU1 and PU2).

Fig. 11 PU1 waveforms (three-phase fault is applied between PU1 and PU2).

Acknowledgements
Special thanks are due to Professor J. R. Smith and Professor J. R. McDonald
for their help, encouragement and guidance. Thanks are due to the staff in the
group, Dr. R. R. Simpson, Dr F. P. Flynn and Mr D. M. Grant for their
invaluable discussion and technical assistance.

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164 M. Tümay

Fig. 12 PU2 waveforms (three-phase fault is applied between PU1 and PU2).

References
1 Protective Relays Application Guide (GEC Alsthom Measurements Ltd., Stafford, 1990).
2 Applied Protective Relaying (Westinghouse Electric Corporation Relay and Telecommunication
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