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Petrdleos Mexicanos
Mixico, D.F.


A defined relationship has been found to exist between Early in the life of reservoirs, it is required to make volu-
the parameters a and m of equations relating formation resis- metric estimates of hydrocarbon reserves; therefore, original
tivity factor and porosity having the general form F = a/ qP, hydrocarbon volumes in place calculations are necessary. Many
for sands and carbonate rocks. One of the main conclusions cases are where reservoir parameters, $ and S , used for this
drawn from this research is that the value of g must not be purpose, generally must be determined by well logs only.
changed indepentently of its concomitant variable g, or pre- Then, the assumption of m and n values is a must. For semi-
serve the latter constant and equals one. It is concluded also quantitative, approximate analysis, this may not be so critical;
that there are probably two chief causes for variations of a and near values are enough. In quantitative applications, however,
m: amount of porosity and degree of homogeneity or hetero- they can be of great influence in final results.
geneity of pore geometry. It is found that values of the called
cementation exponent, m, as low as 0.02 and as high as 5 are Undoubtedly, a great part of the success in interpretation
possible. For both of the lithology types studied it has been techniques lies on the well log analyst's experience in assuming
observed, statistically, for the number of data available, that right m values and other parameters, and his knowledge of the
the higher values of m tend to occur when homogeneous area where the wells are located. By the method here pre-
porosity and shale free conditions seem to exist. Thus, high sented much of this assumption is avoided, or facilitated. As
cementation exponents can be found even though the forma- mentioned above, final results can be in large error if adequate
tions are not consolidated or few consolidated. This is not in values of m are not assumed; Jordenl*, shows errors from 80
agreement with the current general criteria many of the well to 120% may be introduced in hydrocarbon volume calcula-
log analysts seem to follow, that the value of m must increase tions due to uncertainty of m and n values, compared to best
as $ decreases. The latter, partially, is true, in a broad sense, if estimate, by well logs, even under the assumption all other
the porosity change brings along a lithology change. The data are accurately known. It is clear the effect this may have
method here presented permits avoiding, in a great part, the on the results derived from the application of calculated vol-
ambiguity in selecting m values. It is further concluded that umes in reserve estimates and reservoir behavior studies, for
there may be some other possible practical field applications example. The problem of saturation exponent, n, is not less
of cementation exponents. serious. Generally, a value of 2.0 is assumed. Nevertheless, it
has been found, n may vary from about 1.O to close 4.0.
In applying the method for determining mysome negative One of the main purposes of this study is to provide the
values of m are found. It is postulated that these values may be necessary support for estimating, or assuming, more real values
real; probably they are attributes of low porosity fractured of m and n, in order that $ and ,S values determined by well
reservoirs and/or secondary vugular porosity. It is visualized, log analysis are more accurate.
this apparent anomaly may be used for detecting fractured and
vugular porosity zones. In the past, several methods have been used for calculat-
ing porosity using well logs only. Those of Archie', and
Winsauer et a12, for clean formations, have been historicdly
The problem of saturation exponent, n, is also analyzed
the more known. Others, more elaborated, including shale
and some practical approaches are shown to solve it. It is
content corrections, utilize, however, one of these basic rela-
confirmed that water salinity and permeability are the princi-
ti0ns3J9. On utilizing one of these methods the assumption
pal variables affecting this parameter.
of cementation exponents, m, is necessary; the general criteria
being, up to date, the more cemented the reservoir rock the
Many new laboratory information and data reported by higher the value of m. The advent of porosity logs such as
other authors of a and m data confirm the results of this acoustic logs, density gamma-gamma, and neutron porosity
study. logs, have eliminated much of these assumptions in porosity

and 2.4; in this same work he published a list of data from
references of other authors revealing the wide n variations.



I there are many wells relatively old, having for this same reason Basic Data
One hundred and two a and m data of F Q, relationships
of 98 wells throughout the Mexican Republic were utilized.
This represents more than 1,700 F and 4 determinations.
Besides a and m data of 15 similar formulae found in the
literature of U.S.A. fields were used. Tables 1 and 2 contain
this data. F 4 relations of wells mentioned above were ob-
tained by conventional laboratory methods; i.e., measuring
porosities and resistivities on cores 100%water saturated. In
order to test the accuracy of the correlation, a and m data
Early results of this research have been published else- published by Carothers and Porter' and obtained only from
where *, 9 . Now, with new additional information and new well logs were used. Table 3 lists this data.
presentation of data, a better statistical correlation has been
Data of sands, sandstones and carbonates are included in
achieved. The problem of well log quantitative interpretation
this correlation. It comprises also a very wide range of geologi-
formula parameters, m and a, and n, has been a matter of
cal ages from Miocene to Pennsylvanian. Also included are
research and study by other authors who used diverse methods
shaly sands and some fractured carbonates. Water salinity used
and sometimes for reasons nothing or little to do with the
varied from about 8,500 ppm to 300,000 ppm. Porosity range
problem of petroleum production, directly. Some of the spot-
was from about 4.0% to a little more than 30 percent, and
lights of such studies, besides those of Archie' and Winsauer et
permeability ranged from about 1 md to about 1000 md. The
a12, cited above, will be briefly mentioned below in relation to correlation was divided into two large groups:
this subject.
1) Sands and sandstones, which hereafter will be re-
ferred to as sands; and
Helander and Campbelllo listed a number of factors to 2) Carbonate rocks.
which the cementation exponent variation may be attributed.
Among these are degree of cementation, grain packing, com-
paction, classification, type and tortuosity of porosity system,
and the presence of conductive solids. This same problem was TABLE I
analyzed by Owen' from models, in which porous space was Data For a-m Correlation. Sands and Sandstones
built up by voids interconnected by tubes. From his work it
may be concluded that the resulting formation factor-porosity Well Sal.
relationship is similar to that of Winsauer et a12. Wyllie and \ or a m n K 8 Age
Gregory' 3, also by artificial porous media models, studied the Data 103ppm
influence of cementation and the particle shape on formation
factor; they also concluded the F 4 relationship must be of 1 CZ 6.13 0.78 3.14 80 116 0.305 Mioc.
the form F =a/ Cpm. 25

Regarding the parameter-n, very much research has also cz

1.18 1.6 2.42 109 541 0.267 Mioc.
been conducted. FattI4 has found, through models simulating
porous media of different geometry, n values varying between

1.0 and 3.6. I c z k o w ~ k ifound

~ ~ by using analog models a
0.96 1.82 2.0 58 168 0.266 Mioc.
value of the order of 2.5. A very important contribution to
this problem is the work of Von Gonten and OsobaI6; their ccL
1.33 1.13 1.43 60 43 0.191 Mioc.
laboratory results yielded a mathematical expression which
indicates the value of n is, at the same time, a function of
other parameters; the most important of these is water
8.1 0.49 1.92 100 108 0.205 Mioc.
1.53 1.64 2.18 115 90 0.222 Mioc.
, A similar conclusion may be drawn from the work of
Waxman and Smits*o. Walther" carried out laboratory ccL
3.71 0.95 1.55 55 15 0.18 Mioc.
(-)experiments for determining m and n values at confining pres-
sure and formation temperature. Under these conditions, he
found that m varies between 1.66 and 2.10, and n between 1.6
1.53 1.94 1.47 105 150 0.228 Mioc.


0.72 2.0 2.12 120 127 0.236 Mioc.
1.63 1.43 1.60 118 122 0.203 Mioc.

0.67 2.05 1.88 48 540 0.248 Mioc.
5.51 0.58 2.06 25 340 0.287 Mioc.

PTS 10.9 0.93 2.83 150 200 0.215 Mioc. HR 1.05 2.05 1.55 25 509 0.298 Mioc.
l1 141-D 35 3-D

PTS 11.8 0.74 4.40 250 46.5 0.216 Mioc. HR 2.17 1.47 1.61 25 430 0.261 Mioc.
l2 144 36 4-D

l3 153-D
0.61 2.7 1.72 150 0.31 Mioc. HR 0.67 2.27 1.27 25 496 0.264 Mioc.
37 10-D

l4 170-D 2.07 1.38 - 150 0.116 Mioc.
0.35 2.64 6 0.239 Mioc.

PTS 2.27 1.66 2.20 200 963 0.248 Mioc. 0.278 2.59 3.05 160 310 0.242 Mioc.
l5 216 39 152-D
l6 ccHP
112 6.84 0.45 1.97 60 345 0.209 Mioc. 40 159 0.267 2.53 3.9 160 392 0.251 Mioc.

7.3 0.72 3.11 135 91 0.209 Mioc. MGLL 3.56 1.10 1.27 250 11 0.212 Mioc.
l7 143-D 41 618

l8 205
2.26 1.16 2.4 160 174 0.217 Mioc. cRR 3.87 1.04 1.42 130 9.5 0.161 Mioc.
42 702

l9 307
1.04 1.77 0.805 170 164 0.272 Mioc.
2.32 0.94 1.48 54.5 83 0.20 Mioc.

0.85 1.83 0.74 170 176 0.256 Mioc.
4.79 1.23 300 0.217 Mioc.

1.36 1.47 1.34 185 31 0.226 Mioc. SRMN 3.6 1.14 2.89 150 218 0.254 Mioc.
21 347 45 11

22 353
1.27 1.59 0.84 165 169 0.267 Mioc.
SRMN 1.44 1.44
3.6 250 431 0.235 Mioc.

1.89 1.37 1.62 190 123 0.243 Mioc. SRMN 3.82 0.76 2.06 130 815 0.267 Mioc.
23 365 47 13-D

24 396
1.71 1.54 0.73 190 230 0.30 Mioc. SRMN 0.76 1.94 126 0.173 Mioc.
48 20-D

GLP 7.45 0.65 75 0.248 Mioc. SRMN 0.0042 5.67 2.87 250 70 0.241 Mioc.
25 11-D 49 39-D

4.1 1.32 75 0.217 Mioc. SRMN 0.57 2.09 1.68 150 50 0.213 Mioc.
26 16-D 83

GLP 4.49 1.14 75 0.259 Mioc. 1.89 1.29 2.1 115 86 0.225 Mioc.
27 23-D 51 19

GLP 3.77 1.24 53 850 0.215 Mioc. SNT 1.34 1.83 2.35 128 247 0.258 Mioc.
28 27-T 52 2

GLP 6.58 0.64 1.93 45 596 0.272 Mioc. SNT 0.77 2.06 1.67 105 69 0.230 Mioc.
29 30-T 53 26

GLP 7.02 0.60 1.82 80 353 0.301 Mioc. SNT 1.08 1.71 1.87 112 539 0.247 Mioc.
30 39 54 27

GLP 8.32 1.05 1.40 75 365 0.284 Mioc. TCN 0.37 2.13 2.5 129.5 265 0.236 Mioc.
31 44 55 4-D
t4m2 1)
GLP 0.70 2.02 1.44 75 624 0.232 Mioc. TCN 0.95 1.61 2.21 100 80 0.206 Mioc.
32 64 56 21-D


! 57
4.19 1.22 1.82 70 345 0.218 Mioc. 82 * 0.62 2.15 - - - - Olig.
, *Data after car other^.^^
3.63 1.18 1.70 70 225 0.206 Mioc.
**Not considered in the a - m correlation but included in the
, n - P correlation.
SMNT 2.21 1.17 1.91 8.5 117 0.239 Mioc.
59 3T
SMNT 16.5 0.44 1.84 22.5 171 0.232 Mioc. TABLE II
6o 14 Data for a - rn Correlation. Carbonate Rocks
2.38 0.99 1.83 22.5 171 0.255 Mioc. sal. - -
33 or a m n 103ppm K 8 Age
GBC 5.41 0.78 1.16 8.5 41 0.163 Olig.
62 4 RNQ 1 1.93 2.58 50 2.6 0.15 Jr.
l 4
RcBz 1.66 1.6 1.085 9.5 5.6 0.182 Eoc.
63 10 RNQ 1.76 2.01 1.65 50 3.1 0.17 Jr.
2 6

30.74 0.03 25 0.147 Eoc.
ATN 2.35 1.74 - 10 0.39 0.108 Cret.
3 3
CBD 1.74 1.45 1.43 15 10 0.118 Olig.
65 5 BCDN 3.22 1.79 - 50 0.27 0.102 Cret.
MTY 4.58 0.89 0.99 26 393 0.194 Olig. - -
66 69 BcDN 1.52 1.83 - 0.129 Cret.
RMz 17.7 0.66 1.45 11 2 0.108 Olig.
67 10 ccBN 3.96 1.42 - 50 - 0.11 Cret.
6 8
RN 4.65 1.02 2.8 15 0.4 0.122 Olig.
68 2 CCBN 5.23 1.47 1.79 60 0.93 0.08 Cret.
dj69 sRL 5.03 1.03
1.59 13 6 0.171 Eoc.
CNTS 0.63
2.23 .48 100 2.1 0.17 Jr.

VBT 0.83 2.38 0.96 33 0.91 0.216 Eoc.

70 7 CNTS 0.81 1.91 .44 60 1.5 0.11 Cret.
HR 15.5 0.02 0.232 Mioc. -
71 39-D cNTs 2.51 1.76 50 - 0.135 Cret.
lo 234-D
**72 GLP
73 1.49 1.36 2.6 59 0.036 0.04 Mioc.
CNTS 0.71 2.01 - 35 0.34 0.16 Cret.
**73 302
0.61 2.08 1.08 190 0.25 Mioc. CNTS
12 298 0.88 1.95 - 50 - 0.139 Cret.
**74 SRMN
84 2.05 1.26 1.37 250 0.197 Mioc.
- 13 298 2.55 1.5 - 50 - 0.095 Jr.
75 * 1.45 1.54 - - -
76 * 1.45 1.7 - - - -
GLL 1.99 1.63 1.32 51 10.8 0.092 Cret.
l4 3
77 * 1.65 1.35 - - - -
3.4 1.74 - 60 0.54 0.179 Cret.
78 * 1.38 1.66 - - - Cret.
MCPC 10.3 1.2 2.37 60 4.7 0.145 Cret.
79 * 1.5 1.57 - - - EOC. l6 80

- - - Penn. ppTL 2.05 1.72 - 80 2.1 0.092 Cret.

l7 1

- - - - pRc 1.46 1.86 - 50 - 0.09 Cret.


1 1 I
l9 217
9.01 1.12 - 50 - 0.085 Cret. -
Empirical a m Relationship

PRC An equation was fitted to data plotted as mentioned

1.79 1.77 - 60 - 0.11 Cret.
2o 215 above, resulting as:
1.204 2.03 1.33 50 12.2 0.136 Cret.
21 295 -
m = A B log a (1)
0.77 2.46 - 60 - 0.113 Cret.
22 94
For sands, the value of constants A and B is as follows:
TMPS m = 1.8 - 1.29 log a (2)
23 21-D 0.33 2.63 3.42 60 0.5 0.13 Jr.
T.Jnf. and for carbonate rocks:
TMPS m = 2.03 - 0.9 log a (3)
24 21-D 1.0 1.98 1.48 100 76 0.12 Jr.
For the particular data of Carothers and Porterla, this
TMPS relationship becomes :
1.36 1.68 1.16 35 0.31 0.183 Cret.
25 134-T m = 1.72- 1.66loga (4)
THNS 2.43 1.57 2.11 29 0.13 Cret.
26 277 TABLE 111
PRC Porosity Formulae Parameters From Well Logs
1.41 1.95 - 50 - 0.13 Cret.
27 277 (After Carothers and Porter1*)

1.34 1.98 - - 0.129 Jr. a m
28 169-D
3.7 0.86
SG - 2.7 1.14
65 0.43 - - 0.056 Cret.
29 7 3.5 1.06
SG 3.6 0.80
10 1.0 1.9 50 - Cret. 3.25 0.9 1
30 7
3.2 0.97
SG SOY - Jr . 3.25 0.96
78 0.39 1.97
31 7 190 3.4 0.8 1
3.4 0.79
32 * 2.62 1.66 3.35 0.95
1.o 1.8
33 ** 0.45 2.38 - Jr .
1.7 1.35
3.0 0.95
34 ** 1.0 2.04 3.01 1.06
3.0 1.13
35 ** 0.85 2.14 Cret.
3.35 0.9 1
3.5 0.98
36 ** 1.18 1.88 Cret.
3.0 0.9 1
1.o 1.85
37 ** 1.0 2.19 Penn.
4.0 0.73
3.55 0.76
38 ** 1.25 1.78 Dev.
2.1 1.07
3.0 0.72
*Taken from reference26. 3.0 1.o
**Data after CarothersZS. 2.5 0.72
2.45 0.89
The general procedure consisted of plotting on semi-log 3.0 0.8 1
paper, a data on logarithmic scale and those of m on linear 4.0 0.57
scale. Figures 1 and 2 show this correlation. A departure is 3.4 0.7 1
clear, at the intersecting point of the sand and carbonate data 3.35 0.88
trend; this can be better observed on Figure 3. Figure 4 is a 2.2 1.o
similar correlation obtained with data of Corothers and 2.7 1.o
Porter 3.4 0.84



Plot showing the a-m correlation for sands


Ii f 0 5 10 I 5 2 0

Chart for determining a or m

2 5 30 . 35

3 10

0.6 \
I I m I
05 10 15 20 25

Expressions (2), (3) and (4) show that a and m are inter-
related and that every determination of m must involve the
calculation of a. The problem, then, is how to determine m.
This is achieved as indicated below.

0 ..-
The more general form relating formation factor to
porosity is considered to be:

From this expression is obtained: this is not the general case. Then, it is necessary to correct F
values for residual hydrocarbon saturation before calculating a
and m when using information from the mud filtrate invaded
log 4
. I
zone. This may be achieved by the following expression:

By equating right side of expressions (1) and (6) and solving

for a, we obtain: F = F,, (1 - S,,)"' (8)

log a --A log 4 t log F (7)

1tBlog4 where n' is the saturation exponent which must be applied in
the mud filtrate flushed zone. As will be seen later, n' may not
As is observed through expressions (1) and (7), a and m necessarily be equal to the value of n normally used in the non
can be determined by using well log data only. F can be ob- invaded zone. Values of 4 must also be corrected, if necessary.
tained<from resistivity logs, and 4 from porosity logs such as In applying Equations (1) and (7), or using Figures 5 and 6,
sonic and density logs. A and B are selected according to lith- negative values of m may result. Some core data published by
ology. Waxman and Smits20 also shows this same characteristic.
Normally, they are low permeability cores, despite occasional
In order to simplify the a and m determination, charts of high porosity. It is postulated these values may be real and
Figures 5 and 6 were constructed, which are solutions of probably characterize fractured rocks and/or vugular porosity
Equations (1) and (7). It is assumed that F corresponds to in some cases; they may fall in the range of low porosity-low
100% mud filtrate or formation water saturation. In practice, formation factor or high porosity-high formation factor.






10 20 30 40 0 60 70 80

,cj 20

I ?

1 10
'i (Yo)
g 8
I 6
I 5

Ii 4



1 /


PRACTICAL APPROACHES FOR DETERMINING n Expressions (9) and (10) can also be written:

Method of Von Gonten and Osoba n = 0.904 - 0.51 5 log R,,, + 0.325 log K (1 1)

Von Gonten and Osoba'6 obtained the following expres- n = 1.347 - 0.519 log R, (1 2)
sions for n:
Figure 7 is a graphical solution of Equations (11) and
(12); they comprise a wide range of permeability and water
n = 0.90397 - 0.22386 LR,,, + 0.14144 LK (9) resistivity. Solid lines belong to Equation (1 1) and the dashed
one to Equation (1 2). A water salinity scale has been added in
n = 1.34650 - 0.22566 LR, (10) order to ease the calculation of n.
Author's Approximate Approach
where K is the absolute permeability in md, and R,,, is the
( ) water resistivity measured at 75'F. Same authors give other Data of n and water salinity contained in Tables 1 and 2
1 k=J expressions for n, which include a larger number of parameters were plotted on Figure 8. Points are very scattered; neverthe-
~ being, therefore, each time more accurate. However, as noted less, they have a similar trend as the curves of Equations (1 1)
by the authors, the decrease in average error would be minor. and (12). The resulting relationship is as follows:



1 I I I I 1 I

Salinity (lo3 ppm of NaCl)



n = 1.095 t 0.192 LP (13) tion of causes for this variation. Perhaps this may aid in iden-
tifying the porous media characteristics which cause these
where P is water salinity in thousands ppm. In decimal loga- fluctuations.
rithms, Equation (13) becomes:
Figures 9(a) through 9(r) are histograms of porosity
n = 1.095 + 0.442 log P (14) which show the porosity frequency distribution of cores from
some of the wells included in this study. The maximum value
of m found in this study was 5.67. It belongs to sands of well
SRMN 39-D, which shows the minimum scattering of data
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS (Figure 90)); this means homogeneous porosity, but not neces-
sarily high permeability. On the other hand, lower m values are
a m Relation more frequent where both dispersion of points and hetero-
geneity of porosity increase, e.g., well CTS-20 (Figure 9(k)). It
It has been apparent that cementation exponent, m, may can also be noted that the lower m values tend to occur when
vary within a very wide range. Following is a possible explana- lower porosity values are present.

, S A N D S
60 S A N D S

nI I
GRR 702
m i 104
0 i 387

P O R O S I T Y I%l

- LSO - 152 0
D : 0278

20 I .

P 0 R 0 S I T Y ( % I

-8 40 5PTS-151
m: 2 . 7

30 a i 0.61
3 10
26 Y
6 k I ' 28 P O R O S I T Y 1%)
P 0 R 0 S I T Y (%)

lc S A N D S

P 0 R O S I 7 Y ( % )
CTS - 20
m : 0 031

e )

L S D - 159
m i 2 53
= 0 267

B 2oLLLtl

0 10

22 24 26

P OR 0 S I T Y (%) P0R0 SIT Y 1%)

t 30,- c c n p - 112
SRMN- 39 0
m - 5 67
(I = 0 0 0 4 2

23 24 25

L J P O R O S I T I ( % ) POROSITY (%I

Porosity frequency histograms from core analysis

FIGURE 9 (a-I)


$ 3 0
m : 2.6
0 = 0.33
>. 2 0
V - (P)
W - 1
3 '0
LA 0 -

P R C - 295
rn = 2 . 0 3

g 20
I I a = I . 204

3 10

I2 14 18 IS 2 0 2 2

P O R O S I T Y ( OlO 1

--$ t
I I BCDN- 123
rn: 1.79
a :3 . 2 2

I0 12 14 16

P O R O S I T Y ( OlO 1
Porosity frequency histograms from core analysis
FIGURE 9 (p-r)
this plot, C and K are equivalent to a and m, respectively. The
general trend of these curves as compared with those of Figure
3 is surprisingly similar. This lends certain support to the
results obtained in this study. The greater slope curves are
characterized by lower initial porosity. Also, Wyllie and
Gregory' found an m value of more than 4. According to the
statistical data here presented, this value should correspond
with a rather homogeneous rock, despite the artificial cemen-
tation process. As the authors reported, the artificial porous
media they created in the laboratory was made up principally
of glass beads of one and two sizes, i.e., it was not a very
heterogeneous mix of grains. This situation compares with that
existing in cores of well SRMN-39D,which gave an m value of
more than 5 .
Figures 11A and B are frequency distributions of m, for
both carbonate rocks and sands; ij5 are arithmetic average
01 05 I ,2 3 4 5 10 values of porosities found within the respective range of m, for
K 19'
data considered (see Tables 4 and 5). This also shows the
Relation between C, K and $0 for cemented agregates of general trend for the m increase with porosity increase. It can
spherical particles, $0, is the initial porosity before cementa- be observed that the lower m values correspond with lower
tion of partides (after Wyllie and Gregory' porosities. The approximate resulting mode was m = 1.25 for
FIGURE 10 sands, with a 32% frequency; and m = 1.75 for carbonates
with a 55% frequency. This gives the following statistical
Usually, carbonate rocks have lower porosity than sands.
formulae for the data considered in this study:
Each rock type, however, has its own a-m relationship as a
proper characteristic. As may be seen in Figure 3, both sands 2.65
F=- (1 5 )
and carbonate curves intersect at a point whose approximate $1.25
coordinates are m = 2.53, a = 0.27. for sands, and
Figure 10 is reproduced from the work of Wyllie and 2.1
Gregory13. It was obtained from data of artificial porous $1.75
systems, mostly of cemented aggregates of spheric particles. In for carbonates.


Statistical Data For Frequency Distribution Diagrams
1 6C Of Fig. 11A Taken From Table II For Carbonates.

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

m Interval Mid Amount Frequency %
Point of Data (3) I z
8 Arit.

0-0.5 0.25 2 6.5 5.3

0.5-1 .o 0.75 1 3.2 4.5
1.0-1.5 1.25 5 16.1 10.3
1.5-2.0 1.75 17 55.0 12.5
2.0-2.5 2.25 5 16.0 15.0
2.5-3.0 2.75 1 3.2 13.0
I 10
I: = 31 100.0

2 3
Histogram of m frequency for carbonates


I "

0 I 2 3
Histogram of m frequency for sands

Statistical Data for Frequency DistributionDiagrams
Of Fig. 11B Taken From Table I,For Sands.

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 2 3 4 5 6 20 30 40

m Interval Mid Amount Frequency %
Q kit. Plot showing the relation between m and c$ for sands and
Point of Data (3) I I:
carbonates (numbers in parenthesis indicate the frequency of
0-0.5 0.25 5 7.1 0.205 m in percent).
0.5-1.0 0.75 15 21.1 0.228 FIGURE 12
1.0-1.5 1.25 23 32.4 0.209
1.5-2.0 1.75 15 21.1 0.242
2.0-2.5 2.25 8 11.3 0.242 Data of m and c$ on Tables 4 and 5 were plotted on
Figure 12. It can be observed that the points of more statisti-
cal value tend to fall on the same straight line. Points which
deviate very much from this trend are of minor statistical
I: = 71 100.0 value; it represents 6.4 percent for carbonates, and 1.4 percent
for sands. Possibly this deviation indicates a different real For Limestones:
trend of physical mean; the available statistical information,
however, is not enough to completely asseverate it. Neverthe- m = 7.3 t 6.13 log 4 (18)
less, one interesting thing should be mentioned at this point: for porosity from 0.08 to 0.18; being more dependable be-
for carbonate rocks, in the low porosity-low m value range, tween 0.10 and 0.15.
there is some evidence of fracturing in cores. For sands, the
porosity range is very reduced compared with the variation of It is very common in practice to use a cementation
m; therefore, the slope of the curve is very high; there is also exponent m = 2. By setting m = 2 and solving equations (2)
some dispersion of points. For carbonate rocks the situation is and (3) can be obtained:
different. Here the points of greater statistical value, which
represent 93.6 percent of total points, fall on the same line For sands:
and, practically, there is no dispersion. In the high m and 4
range there are also points falling out of the main average F=-
statistical curve. 42
The apparent regularity in the variation of m with respect and for carbonates:
t o 4 is important. This would be a short rough alternate
method for estimating my very suited when using computer 1.08
oriented interpretive techniques which utilize porosity logs.& 42
The resulting average relationships are as follows:
From these two equations an average round value for a of
For Sands: 0.90 results. This is a value similar to that suggested by Tixier
et a124 of: F = 0.81/@~~.
m = 14.4 t 20.2 log 4 (17)
for a porosity range from 0.20 to 0.32. However, the results Table 6 contains a and m laboratory new data, obtained
are less accurate in the 0.224.25 range. Therefore, the poros- after this study was completed. If these data are plotted on
ity interval within which this relation can be dependable is Figures 1 and 2, they will fall within the dispersion range for
very reduced. data included in the study. This fact shows the dependability
of the a-m relationship that Equations (2) and (3) found.
New Laboratory Data In Table 7 are reproduced a and m data from HiJl and
MilbuanZ1; it includes information from clean to very shaly
SANDS CARBONATES sandstones and from limestones. Again, if these data are plot-
ted on Figures 1 and 2 they will be in fair agreement with the
a m K a m K relationship found for a and m. As may be seen from Table 7,
0.7 1.72 19 9.9 1.38 9 a qualitative general trend of increase of m exists with increase
1.17 1.70 432 1.45 1.85 1.2 in permeability and decrease in shale content. This partially
0.56 2.39 0.15 8. 1.15 3 agrees with the tortuosity concept stated by some authors22*
0.4 1 2.01 167 3.09 1.52 10 2 3 ; the values of a are low where permeability is high. For
3.45 1.02 0.331 3.11 1.65 43 essentially clay free sands, the value of m will be more depen-
0.62 1.92 2.0 1.83 1.67 44 dent on pore geometry; for very shaly sands the porous system
1.1 1 2.01 6.1 0.84 1.87 0.2 becomes more complicated and m will be a more complex
1.02 1.02 50 11.32 0.73 1 function which includes pore geometry and clay content. High
5.12 1.02 7 1.38 1.69 4 porosities do not always mean high values of m; if perme-
2.13 1.59 2 9.25 0.96 0.5 ability is very low values of m would also be very low.
2.33 1.23 23 7.55 1.159 0.1
2.36 1.14 12 6.59 1.19 0.4 Large errors may be committed in calculating formation
1.49 1.36 0.04 2.60 1.50 2 factors by improperly assuming values of cementation expo-
0.61 2.08 101 2.60 1.50 2 nents. From Figures 5 and 6 it may be followed that for a
1.97 1.40 57 1.876 1.656 0.4 given porosity, 4 > 17% and $ > 7.8%, and for formation
1.71 1.37 80 0.24 2.63 5 factors F < 25 and F < 182, respectively, calculated formation
6.83 0.40 198 1.16 1.73 11 factors will be lower with m = 2 than using any other lesser
0.55 2.08 61 7.59 1.14 0.2 value, all other conditions remaining the same. The reverse
0.18 1.64 238 0.69 1.92 6 occurs when the real value of m is greater than 2. The effects
1.54 1.28 219 0.81 2.18 4 of these differences on water saturation calculations are
2.05 1.26 44 2.39 1.23 26 1 obvious. It may also be shown from the same figures that the
4.65 1.07 3 12.8 1.12 12.6 contrary happens when 4 < 17% and 4 < 7.8%, and F > 25
5.01 1.1 18 0.18 1.13 2.12 18.7 and F > 182; higher values of F are calculated setting m = 2,
8.73 0.56 40 1.02 2.02 469 than any other lower value of m; again errors in water satura-
6.44 0.83 51 0.72 2.13 2.6 tion may sometimes be large.
Description and Petrophysical Characteristics of Rocks
From The Work Of Hill and Milburn*‘
Characteristic Range

0 Type of Formation
clean Sandstones
clean, medium to fme grained friable quartz
Age, Locality
No.of Perm. Porosity
Samples (md)
35 0.2-1500
(%I -- a m
11-26 0.78 1.92
sand. Maior cement material present is Weeks Island,
calcite and quare. LO*
2 clean, fine grained friable quartz sand. Cretaceous Paluxy sand, 50 0.1-1500 8-26 0.47 2.23
Somewhat argillaceous. Quitman, Texas; and
Mitchell Creek, Texas
3 Clean, fine to very fine grained consolidated Ordovician 44 0.1-300 7.15 1.3 1.71
quartz sand. Simpeon sand,
Marshall, Oklahoma
Shaly Sandstones 4 Wcaceous, shaly, fme grained to silty hard Eocene 72 0.1-100 9.22 1.8 1.64
quartz sand. Cementing material is chiefly Lower Wilcox sand, CrWO
quartz. Sheridan, Texas Groups)
5 I-Iighly calcareous, shaly, medium to fme Oligocene 63 0.1-1500 72 6 1.7 1.65
grained arkosic sandstone. Cementing Fno sand, W O
material is chiefly calcite. Seeligson, Texas Groups)
Very Shaly sandstones 6 Very M y , very fme grained to silty, Cretaceous, 36 0.1-15 7.31 1.7 1.80
consolidated quartz sand. Taylor sand,
Big Foot, Texas
Limestones 7 Medium grained fossiliferous, oolitic, lime- Cretaceous 13 0.1-80 7-19 2.3 1.64
Type I/III A and stone. Pettlt Limestone,
III/I B and C Chapel HiU, Texas
Type In and III/I 8 Course to fine graiued oolitic bestone. Jurassic 42 0.3-2500 9-26 0.73 2.10
Magnolia, Arkansas
Type I1 A and B 9 chalky siliceous limestone. Devonian 58 0.1-15 7.30 1.2 1.88
Crossett, Texas r

Type 111 F/VF C/B 10 Fine to very fme gained fossiliferous lime- Cretaceous 37 0.1-70 8-30 2.2 1.65
I/III F/VF A stone containing a small quantity of Rodessa Limestone,
dolomite and some siliceous m a t e d Tennessee Colony, Texas
UTOTAL 450 0.1-2500 7-30 1.40 1.78

Saturation Exponent n formation, the general expression giving the formation factor
Wyllie and Gregory13 have noted that even though for the flushed zone after correction for residual hydrocarbon
saturation exponent n is a constant for a particular porous saturation, is the same Equation (8) which can be written as
media, it varies according to the laboratory method used for
its determination. They mention that significant differences
can be found, for example, depending on whether the method F-
--(1Rxo - Sr#
used is by capillary imbibition or by drainage. However, more
recently Von Gonten and OsobaI6 have found the saturation Figure 7 shows that if the formation conditions are in the
exponent is a function, chiefly, of water resistivity and rock low permeability-low salinity region, n values are lower than 2.
permeability. It can easily be shown that the greater the As generally mud filtrate is the lower salinity solution with
saturation exponent, the greater the calculated water satura- respect to-formation water, there is a great possibility that the
R l/n value of n’ is close to 1.O in many cases.
tion with the Archie relation, S, = (A) ,all other param- .
Rt It can be noted that expressions (12) and (14), which are
eters being the same. This, in practice, may lead to pessimistic
calculations when formations are of low permeability and/or function of salinity, give about the same practical results. In
contain very low salinity water, keeping n = 2; or, on the other some geological provinces, such as the Saline Basin of the
hand, the results will be optimistic when permeability and Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico, there is a salinity-depth
water salinity conditions are in the higher range, assuming all gradient. Then, advantage can be taken of Equation (14) when
of the other parameters are correct. dealing with computer oriented interpretive techniques.

Normally, a value of n = 2 is used for water saturation Waxman and Smits20 have shown that the variables water
calculations in the non-invaded zone. This has given satis- saturation, water resistivity and cation exchange capacity (QJ
factory results in most of the cases. However, this is critical in are interrelated, and proposed an equation relating them. With
the extreme cases cited above. Mud filtrate normally is a low this equation and keeping n constant and equal to 2, calcu-
salinity solution. Usually, when calculating residual hydro- lated water saturation will decrease as R, increases, for a given
carbon saturation in the flushed zone, the same value n = 2 as value of saturation index. They also show that, for a given
for the non-invaded zone is used. In an essentially shale free shale content and water resistivity, calculated water saturation


will decrease as n decreases, also for a given value of saturation RESISTIVITY RESISTIVITY
index. Nevertheless, if it is assumed that, for shaly sands, OHMS - m2/m OHMS - m2/m
permeability is mainly a function of clay content, expressed MICRO INVERSE 1''' I" PROXIMITY LOG

by Q,,approximate values of n may be calculated by Equation 10 10 I00 1000
(1 1).
The above means that, in cases where enough information HOLE DIAMETER INCHES

is lacking, in applying clean formation techniques, one would

obtain improved calculated water saturation values by varying
saturation exponent according to Equation (1 l), and using the

Archie equation modified by the new exponent.


Figures 13 and 14 are, respectively, the induction log and

microlog and microlaterolog of a well drilled through a Juras-
sic limestone formation. Figure 15 is a graphical presentation
which contains computed values of m and . ,S Values of 9
were computed from a sonic porosity log. Set of formulae
used are for clean formations as follows:


(1 - Srh) = S,,, is calculated by:5

s,, = 1 - s r h = 1 - frh (1 - s,)



Where frh is a factor depending mainly on permeability. A

value of 0.5 was considered in this example. The method for
computing ,S and m requires a trial and error procedure; this
is achieved through a computer program. Values of , S are
assumed for computing true value of F; the assumption of
previous values of m are not necessary; nevertheless, they are


calculated as a step in the computing process and may serve as structurally lower, which produces from such a low resistivity
a quality control and one more data for interpretation of f d zone, with only about 10% water cut.
results. Table 8 contains data from computer tabulations. As
may be seen, computed values of m are generally low. Lowest Under the basis of tortuosity concepts, in principle, the
values, however, are observed from 3628 to 3638 m. This higher m values zones are interpreted as the higher absolute
depth interval is contained within a zone characterized by hole permeability and more uniform porosity zones.
diameter enlargements revealing hard, brittle rock; this is con-
firmed by higher values of MLL.Porosity shows practically DO CONCLUSIONS
important variations, as occurs throughout all the other levels,
and is rather within the medium to high range; nevertheless, A defdte relation has been found between parameters a
calculated tortuosity factors, a, are very high. The well was and m of porosity-formation factor equations of the general
perforated from 3530 to 3542 m. After acid treatments form: F = a l p . It was also found that the higher and more
produced initially oil 368 m3/day and 180 m3/m3 gas oil uniform the porosity the higher the cementation exponent, m.
ratio. New a and m laboratory data and other published data con-
f m the reliability of the a-m relation found. A practical
Computed water saturation values from 3656 to 3705 m. method has also been presented for determining cementation
are apparently high. Nevertheless, evidences are from one well, exponents, m, using only well logs.
Sample Well

. L . 7.-
, lG?.Ot
- .-ia . .-
---. -.- . 5 7 --- Z O N A un- -- -264 -
- .63
- .

r. 7?
ZONA NM -255 -.63 .405303E*020
.i 8 11600€*020

iJ1 70953€*020
f- - --__-

.,.-.- ____

-- - 86045E+f3ttl
. I 1.12 - LONA NY ,305 - - 1 0 2 0 936*020


, ,'
The values of m must not be varied independently of 2. Winsauer, W.O.; Shearin, RM.;Masson, P.H.; Williams,M.: Resis-
values of a, or keepingaconstant and equal to one. This latter tivity of Brine Saturated Sands In Relation to Pore Geometry,
AAPG Bull., Feb. 1952.
is only a special case. As a matter of fact, it can be said that
each point in the porous formation has its own set of con- 3. Poupon, A.; Loy, M.E.; Tixier, M.P.: A Contribution to Electric
Log Interpretation in Shaly Sands, Petroleum Technology, June
stants a and m, and large differences may exist from one point 1954.
to another. 4. Poupon, A.; Leveaux, J.: Evaluation of Water Saturation in Shaly
Formations, SPWLA Annual Logging Symposium, 1971.
It is postulated that variations of a and m may be due
5. Poupon, A.; Clavier, C.; Dumanoir, J.; Gaymard, R.; Msk, A:
mainly to amount of porosity, and degree of homogeneity of -
Log Analysis of Sand Shale Sequences A Systematic Approach,
rock porosity. Nevertheless, permeability also seems to play an Journal of Petroleum Technology, July 1970.
important role on m variation. In very low permeability rocks 6. Poupon, A.; Hoyle, W.R.; Schmidt, A.W.: Log Analysis in Forma-
values of m may be very low despite of high porosities. tions with Complex Lithologies, SPE Paper No. 2925,45th AIME
Fall Meeting, 1970.
It has also been found that in low porosity fractured 7. Rodermund, C.G.; Alger, R.P.; Tittman, J.: Logging Empty Holes,
carbonate rocks, cementation exponent, m, is very low, and The Oil and Gas Journal, June 12,1961.
the corresponding values of a very high. Negative calculated 8. Gdmez-Rivero, 0.: Correlacion Estadistica del Exponente de
values of m are also possible. It is postulated that these very Cementacion Coma Una Ayuda en la Interpretacion de RegiStros
de Pozos, Ingenieda Petrolera, July 1970.
low or negative values of m can be used for detecting probable 9. Gdmez-Rivero, 0.:Metodo Para Determinar el Exponente de
natural fractures and vugular porosity zones in wells; research Cementacion y el Factor de Tortuosidad. Su Aplicacion a la
is being conducted in this direction. Solucion de Problemas Practicos de Interpretacion de Registros de
Pozos, Ingenieda Petrolera, May 1971.
The problem of saturation exponent was also reviewed. It 10. Helander, D.P.; Campbell, J.M.: The Effect of Pore Configuration,
is confirmed that n is mainly a function of water resistivity Pressure and Temperature on Rock Resistivity, SPWLA Seventh
and rock texture. Practical approaches for determining n were Annual Logging Symposium, 1966.
indicated. 11. Owen, J.E.: The Resistivity of a Fluid-Filled Porous Body, Petro-
leum Transactions AIME, VoL 195,1952.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 12. Jorden, J.R.: Goals for Formation Evaluation, Journal of Petro-
The author wishes to thank Petroleos Mexicanos for leum Technology, January 1971.
13. Wyllie, M.R.J.; Gregory, A.R.: Formation Factors of Unconsoli-
jpnting permission to publish this paper. Appreciation is also dated Porous Media: Influence of Particle Shape and Effect of
expressed to Mr. Jose’Gdrnez Salinas and Mr. Ignacio Melo Cementation, Petroleum Transactions AIME, 195 3.
Gonza’lez who performed the computer program and the 14. Fatt, I.: The Network Model of Porous Media, Petroleum Trans-
necessary calculations for the sample well. actions AIME, 1956.
15. Iczkowski, Raymond P.: Electrical Conductivity of Partially
Saturated Porous Solids, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., Vol. 9, No. 4,
I 31970.
16. Von Gonten, W.D.; Osoba, J.S.: A Method of Predicting Satura-
tion Exponents in Logging, SPE Paper 2530, 44th Annual Fall
Meeting, 1969.
17. Walther, H.C.: Saturation from Logs Laboratory Measurements
of Logging Parameters, Journal of Petroleum Technology, March
I 18. Carothers, J.E.; Porter, C.R.: Formation Factor - Porosity Rela-
tion from Well Log Data, SPWLA Transactions, 1970.
19. Fertl, Walter H.; Hammack, Gregory W.: A Comparative Look at
Orlando Gomez-Rivero is presently head of the Reserves General Water Saturations in Shaly Pay Sands, The Log Analyst, Vol. XIII,
Department of Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMFX) at Mexico City, which No. 2, Mar-Apr. 1972.
has the responsibility for reserves estimates and well log analysis. After 20. Waxman, M.H.; Smits, LLM.: Electrical Conductivities in Oil
graduating from the Instituto Politdcnico Nacional, Mexico City, with a Bearing Shaly Sands, SOC. Pet. Eng. J. (June 1968), 107-122,
petroleum engineer degree in 1953, he began working for Pemex; f i s t Trans., AIME, 243.
in Coatzacoalcos, Ver., where he was in charge of the South Zone 21. Hill, H.J.; Milburn, J.D.: Effect of Clay and Water Salinity on
Reservoir Engineering Department from 1957 to 1966. He was then Electrochemical Behavior of Reservoir Rocks. Petroleum Trans-
promoted to Mexico City Reservoir Engineering General Offices. He actions AIME, Vol. 207,1956.
has taught well logs at the Instituto Politdcnico Nacional and is the 22. Wyllie, M.R.J.; Gardner, G.H.F.: The Generalized Kozeny-Carman
- -
author of the book: “Registros de Pozos Parte 1 Teoda e Interpre Equation, Its Application to Problems of Multiphase Flow in
tacidn” (433 p. +x) recently published (1975). He has also authored Porous Media, World Oil,March and April, 1958.
and co-authored thirteen articles. He received the 1967 “Juan 23. Wyllie, M.R.J.; Rose, Walter D.: Some Theoretical Consideration
Hefferan” medal prize of the Asociacidn de Ingenieros Petroleros de Related to Quantitative Evaluation of the Physical Characteristics
Mdxico (AIPM) for best article published. He is a member of SPE of of Reservoir Rock - From Electrical Well Log Data. Petroleum
AIME, SPWLA, AIPM and Colegio de Ingenieros Petroleros de M&xico. Transactions, AIME. 1950.
His name has been selected to be listed in Who’swho in the South and 24. Tixier, M.P.; Alger, R.P.; Tanguy, D.R.: New Developments in
Southwest of U.S.A. for the 1977-1978 directory edition. Induction and Sonic Logging. Journal Petroleum Technology.
May, 1960.
REFERENCES 25. Carothers, J.E.: A Statistical Study of the Formation Factor
1. Archie, G.E.: The Electrical Resistivity Log as an Aid In Determin- Relation. The Log Analyst. Vol. IX,No. 5. Oct, 1968.
ing Some Reservoir Characteristics, Petroleum Transactions AIME, 26. Helander, D.P.: Curso Sobre Registros de Pozos. Instituto
1942. Mexican0 del Petrdleo. Mdxico, D.F., 1968.




Continental oil CO.

SUMMARY casing in one well. The 25-30 kc 1-11/16” O.D. tool was run
with a four foot transmitter-receiver (TR) spacing. Two 20 kc
Higher acoustic frequencies are more difficult to attenu- 3-5/8” OD. tools were run, one with the same four foot TR
ate in casing than lower frequencies’. A field test of Company spacing and the other with three foot TR spacing. No gamma-
B’s2 small diameter (1-11/16”) cement bond log (CBL) tool ray was run so only two centralizers were used on each tool as
, with a higher frequency (30 kilohertz) indicated that results shown in Figure 1. All logs were run with no surface pressure
from this tool should be interpreted the same as a shorter on the casing.
spaced 3-5/8” O.D. 20 KH CBL tool. “Quantitative” interpre-
tation based on compressive strength estimates from amplitude
readings can be made with the small tool with four foot trans-
mitter receiver spacing using the compressive strength chart for DISCUSSlON
the three foot spaced larger diameter tool.
A portion of the log made with the 3 4 8 ” 20 KH tool
run with 3’ TR spacing is shown in Figure 2. Top of cement is
TEST PROCEDURE noted at 5718’. Higher amplitudes in the intervals from
5808-18’’ 5934-64’’ and 6036-52’ are caused by fast formation
Three CBL tools were run successively inside 5-1/2” arrivals entering the fmed amplitude gate.


Gate position during logging is shown on the calibration
in Figure 3. The upper scope picture shows the full wave train
display. The lower scope picture shows gate positioning over
# RKER E,. The noise gate eliminates extraneous signals from the XY
plot or VDL.


y 3 518" O.D.

73'84 4'





A correlative log section for the 3-518'' 20 kc tool with 4'
TR spacing is shown in Figure 4.

I CCL I 11 6.4 IS
40 I


T I 6.4 XuNBoND
I6 40 I L “OL 120cl
I 6.4 16
6.4 16
I t
40 lo(



A similar section for the higher frequency 1-11/16” tool

run with 4’TR spacing is shown-in Figuie 5. Gate width and
positioning for both of these logs is the same as that shown by
Figure 3.

At first glance, there is not much difference between COMPARISON OF A1

Figures 2, 4, and 5. All look similar except for the effects of FOR I ’‘/16” AND 3
frequency and TR spacing on the VDL. However, when a. b.
amplitude curves are overlain, it becomes apparent that the
two logs run on 4’TR spacing do not agree as closely as a
FIGURES 6a & b
casual glance would indicate.

Figure 6a is a comparison of the 3’ spaced 3-5/8” 20 KH

amplitude curve with the 4’ spaced 1-11/ 16” 25-30 KH ampli- REFERENCES
r tude curve. Figure 6b compares the 4’ spaced 3-5/8” 20 KH
amplitude curve with the 4’ spaced 1-11/16” 25-30 KH ampli- 1. Chaney, P.E., Zimmerman, C.W., and Anderson, W.L.: “Some
tude curve. Note the agreement is much better in Figure 6a. Effects of Frequency Upon the Character of Acoustic Logs”, J.
Pet. Tech.TAprill966) 407-411.
2. Fertl, W.H., Pilkington, P.E., and Scott, J.B.: “A Look at Cement
Bond Logs”, J. Pet. Tech. (June 1974) 607-617.

Logs run with Company B s small diameter high fre- ABOUT THE AUTHOR
quency tool run on 4’TR spacing should be interpreted in the
same manner as a 3’ spaced 20 KH tool. Compressive strength Paul E. Pilkington is a Staff Engineer in the Production Engineer-
nomographs are available from Company B for this purpose. ing Services group of Continental Oil Company. He holds a B.S. Degree
in Chemistry from the University of Michigan and a B.S. Degree in
The usual precautions required for running valid cement bond
logs (proper tool centering, proper calibration and gate posi-
Petroleum Engineering from Marietta College. He worked for Conti-
nental Oil Company in various assignments in offshore Louisiana prior
t ioning, eliminating the microannulus effect) should be to his current assignment in formation evaluation. Member of SPE
observed. AIME, SPWLA, and NACE.


II ‘ I i
CHAPTER NEWS (continued from page 2)
On September 23rd approximately 50 guests and
members attended the fust regular Chapter Meeting in Fall.
Mr. Jean Claude Minne of Schlumberger spoke on “Log
Evaluation Applications in Field Studies”.

At the present time Chapter activities are focused on the

Fourth European Formation Evaluation Symposium scheduled
for October 18 and 19. A detailed outline of the London
Symposium is also presented in this issue of the Log Analyst. r.): Ings. R Aguilar, R. Marge, P. Caleti, M. Cabrera.

Chapter Mexico bbAsociacionMexicana de Ingenieros y

Technicos en Registros Geofisicos de Pozos” celebrated the
first meeting of this Chapter under the help of the Board of
Directors Mr. Bernardo Martell A., Bernard Douet and Orlando
Gomez R., at the Holiday Inn Downtown Hotel.

General business was discussed at this meeting and some

plans concerning this Association were made.

Also, Mr. Orlando Gomez R. presented his technical

paper “A practical method for determining cementation
exponents and some other parameters as an aid in well log
analysis”. This paper was of great interest and everyone was
very much interested. After the talk a dinner was served and
everyone enjoyed this meeting.

El Chapter de Mexico “Asociacion Mexicana de Ingeni-

eros y Technicos en Registros Geofsicos de Pozos” realizo su
primera reunion bajo la direccion de su comite ejecutivo
formado por 10s ingenieros Bernardo Martell A., Bernard
Douet y Orlando Gomez R, ein 10s salones del Hotel Holiday
Inn,del Centro de la Ciudad.

/ En esta reunion se present0 el trabajo “Un Metodo para

determinar exponentes de cernentacion y algunos otros para-
metros como ayuda en el analisis de registros de pozos” por el
(1. to r.): Ings. J. Ndjera, Arjona, M. Nava, A. Echeverria, R. Aguilar,
Ing. Orlando Gomez R, y ademas se discutieron las bases de
R. Marge.
esta delegacion y se trateron asuntos generales, finalizd dicha
reunion con una cena.

Guests and members met on September 21st at the

Petroleum Club to hear Bill Kithas, Welex, speak on “Lithol-
ogy Gas Detection, Rock Properties from Acoustic Logging


The Southern California Well Logging Society met on

September 21st to hear MI. Gerald D. Heflin of Dresser Atlas
give a talk on the carbon-oxygen log. Mr. Heflin showed
numerous examples of the use of this log in formation evalua-
Mexico City speaker Ing. Orlando Cdmez Rhero. tion, particularly in California areas.






correspond to the developed countries, namely: USA, USSR, more prospective oil-bearing area than the oil-rich Middle East.
Western Europe (includes both free market economy and It may also be surprising to many to see that both regions have
socialist countries), Canada, Japan, Australia, and New very little actual drilling in comparison to their potentially
Zealand. favorable areas.

New Zealand
“In contrast,” the USGS scientist noted, “the United
States, while containing about 10 percent of the world’s pro-
spective oil-bearing area, has a drilling density of about seven
South and
Canada Southeadkii times greater than the average for all the countries of the
world. A corollary implication of this is that in comparison
Eurow with other regions, the drilling targets in the U.S.are shrinking

“Of course,” Grossling said, “the volume of oil in a given

USSR I H region is not necessarily proportional to the size of the favor-

able area, nor is the number of wells drilled a direct indication
of the amount of oil that has been or will be found. Both
points are well illustrated by the Middle East, where a relative-
ly small amount of drilling has developed large amounts of oil.
But this comparison of favorable areas and the numbers of
wells drilled is an indication of the extent to which prospective
On the right side of the chart are shown the developing targets have been tested.
countries or regions: Latin America, the African Continent,
South and Southeast Asia, Peoples Republic of China, and the “While the chart relates only to oil,” Grossling said,
Middle East. “similar implications can be drawn for other energy and
mineral resources such as coal, which is often found in the
The cumulative drilling in each of the regions or countries same sedimentary basins containing oil.”
is shown by circles. Each circle represents 50,000 wells. There
are 63 full circles in the chart, 44 of which are in the United Among other comments by Grossling:
States, 1.0 in the USSR, 4 in Western Europe, 3 in Canada, and
2 in Lath America. In other regions or countries, where there
are less than 50,000 wells, only a proportional sector of the
It may be surprising to note that China has the
smallest prospective oil-bearing area of the regions
full circle is shown. compared, with the exception of Japan. On the
other hand, recent reports indicate that exploratory
An immediate and striking feature on the chart is the drilling is beginning to accelerate in China with con-
heavy concentration of drilling in extremely limited parts of siderable success.
the total world area. Another salient feature shown on the
chart is that the developed countries control 45 percent of the The chart emphasizes the paradox between Japan’s
total prospective area, and the developing countries 55 high-ranking status as an oil consumer and its rela-
percent. tively small area favorable for the occurrence of oil.

Grossling, headquartered at the U.S. Geological Survey’s For the developed non-communist countries, the
National Center, Reston, Va., said that he prepared the chart areas of more significance appear to be Latin
based on estimates he made of the size of prospective areas, America and Africa. The chart suggests that Latin
and of the cumulative petroleum drilling in these areas. America may be a “sleeping giant” in terms of
petroleum potential, for a little less than 100,000
“The chart,” Grossling said, “summarizes information wells have been drilled there in a prospective area
which had not been collected before, judging by the published which is about 1.6 times larger than that of the
literature. It provides a new ‘window’ through which a very USA, where a total of 2.2 million wells have been
complicated situation can be viewed quickly, and from which drilled.
several interesting implications can be drawn.
The petroleum-prospective areas of the world total
“The chart is an attempt to clarify and simplify the about 26.1 million square miles. Over three million
global oil-potential situation which has been a difficult picture oil wells - including both exploration and develop-
to visualize - even for the expert - let along for planners, ment wells - have been drilled since the beginning
policy-makers, and the general public,” Grossling said. of the petroleum industry.

“For example,” Grossling said, “the chart shows at a Grossling emphasized that for most countries, cumulative
quick glance that Latin America along has about four times drilling data are usually not readily available or published. “To I


! C
Born: March 26, 1928 Born: Nov. 8, 1933
Wife's Name: Patricia Wife's Name: Cheri
Children: 3 Children: 3
Employer: Drilex Oil & Gas Inc.. Employer: Dresser Atlas
Denver, Colorado
Tulsa, Oklahoma
Position: Resident Position: Senior Area Log Analysl
Years with Employer: 1 Years with Employer: 12
Degree: Univ. of Southern California, A.B. 1951
Degree: Kansas State University; B.S. 195
Univ. of Denver, Colorado; MBA 1961
Other Employment: Cities Service Oil Co., 6 years
Other Employment: McCullough Tool Co.; 17 years
Offices held in SPWLA:
Sentry Engineering Co.; 5 years
Vice President, Permian Basin Chapter, Oklahoma City
Offices held in SPWLA:
Charter Secretary, Denver
Resident, Tulsa Chapter (1970-1971)
Charter President, Southern California
Director At Large (1971-1972)
First Vice Resident, Denver
Other Societies: SPE, Tulsa Geological Society, Oklahoma City Geolog-
Other Societies: SPE, AAPG, RMAG
ical Society
Publications: 12 technical papers


Born: November 16,1907 Born: August 29,1924

Wife's Name: Ella Wife's Name: Miriam
Children: 2 Children: 1
Employer: Consultant Employer: Marathon LeTourneau Offshore
Years with Employer: 3 Pte. Ltd., Singapore
Degree: Abilene Christian College, Position: President - Managing Director
Abilene, Texas Years with Employer: 3
Other Employment: Schlumberger, 19 years -
Degree: Texas A&M, College- Station,
PGAC, 3 years B.S. 1948
Sinclair Oil and Gas, 12 years Other Employment: Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp., 9 years
Publications: Log interpretation in wells drilled with inverted Pan Geo Atlas Corp., 8 years
. emulsion mud (1963); The use of subsurface tempera- Other Societies: SPE of AIME, SOC. of Naval Architects & Marine
ture to detect geopressure (1970). Engineering


E. A. PASCHAL ("Pat")
Born: Feb. 20,1926
Wife's Name: Margaret Born: Jan. 28,1931
Children: 2 Wife's Name: Jane
Employer: Exxon Co. USA, Children: 2
Denver, Colorado Employer: Sun Oil Co.
/ Position: Formation Evaluation Advisor Dallas, Texas
Years with Employer: 29 Position: Senior Well Log Analyst
Degree: Univ. of Oklahoma, Years with Employer: 7
Norman, Oklahoma; B.S. 1946 Degree : Univ. of Oklahoma,
Offices held in SPWLA: Norman, Oklahoma; B.S. 1955
Publications Committee 1970-1973 Other Employment: Cities Service Oil Co.; 13 years
Vice President Publications 1973-1975 Offices held in SPWLA:
Vice President, Technology 1975-1976 President (1975-1976)
Resident 1976-197 7 Vice President, Technology
Other Societies: SPE, CWLS, DWLS, RMAG Vice President, Membership
Publications: Developments in Exploration Geophysics. Geophysics Vice President, Public Relations
XXXI/2/April 1966 President, Permian Basin Chapter (1966-1967)
President, Dallas Chapter (1971-1972)
N. C. KCSHAV ("Kashi") . Other Societies: AAPG, WTGS, DGS, SPE
Publications: Combining Log parameters as an aid to formation
. . 5
Dec. 13,1937 evaluation (Log Analyst 4/4/62); Use of well logs in
Wife's Name: Hildegard the Permian Basin (Log Analyst 8/1/67)
Children:. 2
Employer: Mobil Oil AG
Hamburg, Germany HOWARD M. PERDUE
Position: Senior Production Engineer
Years with Employer: 8 Born: April 20, 1926
Degree: Central College, Wife's Name: Erline
University ofMysore, India; Children: 2
-, B.S. 1959 Employer: Union Texas Petroleum
Othe; Employment:. Gewerkschaft Brigitta, Hannover, Germany Lafayette, Louisiana
(1964-1968); Preussag, Germany (1959-1963) Position: District Petroleum Engineer
Other Societies: SPE Years with Employer: 21 .


Degree: Univ. of 01klahoma, Norman, Other Employment: Schlumberger, 9 years;
Oklahoma; B.S. 195il Sinclair Oil Co., 8 years
Offices held in SPWLA: Offices held in SPWLA
President, 1Houston Chapter (1961-1962) . Resident, Denver Chapter (1971-1972)
I ncq inL9\
Director At Large (i2uA-L7uJJ Other Societies: SPE of AIME
Other Societies: SPE of AIR4E
Born: Oct. 2,1924
Born: Feb. 1,193
Wife's Name: Leila
Wife's Name: Cherie
Employer : Texas Crude Inc.
Children: 3
Houston, Texas
Employer: Panhandle 1 stern Pipeline Co.
Kansas City vlissouri Position : Petrophysicist
Years with Employer: 1
Position: Manager, G Supply Operations
Degree: Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman;
Degree: Univ. of Ok homa, Norman,
B.S. 1958
. . -
m e r societies: American Gas Association - Committee on Natural Gas
A _ . " . _ .
m.. . . .
urner mnpioymenr:
B.S ,1951

Sinclair Oil & Gas Co., 19 years

Reserves, Chairman of Mid-Continent District; SPE of GTS Corporation, 6 years
Offices held in SPWLA:
AIME, Anadarko Section -
Chairman, Secretary-
Pas1: President, Midland Chapter
Treasurer. Board of Directors: Liberal Geoloeical Y
Other Societies: SPE: of AIME
Society ; Interstate Oil Compact Commission; Nation;11
Soci e t y of Professional Engineers & Southwe!st
ch;aPter of Kansas Engineering Society - Chairmai1,
S ecxetary-Treasurer, State Nominating Committee;
Praifessional Engineers in Industry - State Chairman;
Born: June 5,1929
ierican Petroleum Institute; Registered Professional
Wife's Name: Christiane

Employer: Franlab S.A. Consultant

Position : Vice President International Affairs
Born: Dec. Years with Employer: 12
Wife's Name: Jean Degree: Engineering Ecole Centrale, Engineer, 1950
Children: 2 Naval Academy, France, Engineer, 1952
Employer: Sohio Petroleum Co. Other Employment: Schlumberger, 3 yearsb
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Compagnie Exploration Pt:troliere, 7 years
osition: Senior Staff Engineer Other Societies: Association Francaise De 'l'echnicien Du Petrole
?L' Years with Employer: 20
Univ. of Missouri, Rolla;
Publications: Oil discovery and field exploitation - Paris Basin,
1963 (5th World Petrolleum Congress). Formation
B.S. 1950 evaluation study through c:omputer, 1965.
Offices held in SPWLA:
President, Oklahoma City Chapter (1974-1975)
Other Societies: SPE of AIME
Born: Dec. 10,1923
ROBERT F. SMITH ("Bob") Wife's Name: Thelma
Children: 4
Born: Sept. 7,1922 Employer: Bolivian Sun Oil
Wife's Name: Norine La Paz, Bolivia
Children: 2 Position: Manager of Geology
Employer: Welex Years with Employer: 2
Houston, Texas Degree: Univ. of Nebraska, Lincolr
Position: Development Engineer Other Employment: Sun Oil, Tulsa, Oklahc)ma, 24 years
Years with Employer: 20 Publications: Geology of Tobias Field -- TGS Arbuckle Symposium
Degree: Denison, Granville, Ohio;
Offices held in SPWLA:
President, Houston Chapter (1973-1974)
Vice President, Houston Chapter, 1972-1973 Born: July 30,1927
Secretary, Houston Chapter, 1971-1972 Wife's Name: June
General Chairman, 1977 Symposium in Houston Children: 3
I Other Societies: SPE of AIME Employer: Skelly Oil Co.
Position: Senior Petroleum Engineer
WALTER F. STEPHEN ('Walt") Years with Employer: 16
Degree: Oklahoma State University
Born: March 27,1921 Tulsa University, Advance(1
Wife's Name: Mary Lou post graduate (1957-1962)
Children: 2 Other Employment: Atlantic Refining Co., 3 years
Employer: Sun Oil Co. Texaco, 5 years
L Position:
Dallas, Texas
Log Analyst
Offices held in SPWLA:
President (1966-1967)
Years with Employer: 4 Vice President, Technolog)' (1 965-1966)
Degree: Univ. of Colorado, Boulder Vice President, Public Rela tions (1963-1965)


President, Tulsa Chapter (1962-1963) W. A. (Bill) Grieves R. R. (Rich) Mercer
Other Societies: SPE of AIME, National Society Professional Engineer, Exxon USA, Houston Continental, Calgary
American Petroleum Institute. Rocky Mountain Oil
and Gas Association, National Association Corrosion R. D. (Bob) Hite W. A. (Bill) Schaeffer
Engineers, Chairman-1974 Regional Conference Gas Marathon, Houston
Phillips, London
Processors Association
Publications: “Worldwide Formation Evaluation”, SFWLA Trans- J. H.(Jim) Hollis C. D. Stenberg
actions, 1966; “How To Publicize Technical Meet-
ings”, SPWLA The Log Analyst, 1963; “Environmen- Hunt, Dallas Gulf, Midland
tal Affairs of the Oil and Gas Business”, Federal
Energy Adm Project, Independence Hearings, Denver, E. E. (Moose) King
Colorado and Boise, Idaho, 1974. Atlantic Richfield, Tulsa
B. B. COOLEY, Chairman
Chevron-West, Denver
Born: July 6,1919
Wife’s Name Lois
Dresser Atlas
Minutes of 17th Annual
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
Senior Log Analyst
Business Meeting
Degree: Colorado College, Colorado
Colorado; B.A. 1942 The 17th Annual SPWLA Business Meeting was held at
Other Employment: Schlumberger, 3 years the Marriott Hotel, Denver, Colorado on Thursday, June 10,
Consulting Geologist, 4 years
Other Societies: AAFG, SPE, AGI, Oklahoma City Geological Society
1976. Following a luncheon, the meeting was called to order
by President Pat Paschal at 12:45 p.m. He introduced each
member of his Board as they made their respective reports.
A Call for Symposium Papers Secretary-Treasurer Paul Wichmann read the minutes of
the 1975 Sixteenth Annual Business Meeting. They were
The Houston Chapter of the SPWLA will host the Eigh- accepted as read.
teenth Annual Meeting and Logging Symposium of the Society
of Professional Well Log Analysts in the Astroworld Hotel, Vice-president of Technology W. A. Grieves reported or.
June 5-8, 1977. The Technological Committee invites each the program assembled for this year’s Symposium. The largest
member to contribute to this symposium on subjects relating number of papers yet, 45, were on the program, of which we
to the broad spectrum of formation eveluation. We are solicit- would hear 44.One speaker from Argentina would be unable
ing papers from not only the oil industry but from other areas to get to the meeting. Forty-two papers were published in the
, transactions. He is anticipating the largest attendance ever for
such as minerals, oil shale, thermal development, urban studies
or wherever the art of formation evaluation is practiced. a Symposium. He further reported that his committee had
prepared a set of guidelines for papers submitted to the
This year the Technological Committee would like to Society. They have supplied each speaker with suggestions on
present papers on the evaluation of the active drilling regions their sets of slides. He thanked all the authors for contributing
of the world. Papers from these regions need not be about their works for the Symposium. He then introduced his
startling new developments or heretofore unrevealed analysis committee.
techniques, but should document the drilling objectives in
these regions, tools used in the play and the analysis tech- Vice-president of Membership Wayland Savrc announced
niques employed to complete the formation evaluation that this had been our best year in adding memberships to our
package. rolls. At the start of the year there were 1183 members.
During the year 73 were dropped for nonpayment of dues, 3
A tear-out abstract reporting form is in the front of this resigned, and there was one death. His committee has proc-
magazine. Use it or pass it along to an associate. The technical essed 243 new applications including 17 student members.
program at our annual symposium provides the strength of the This was an increase of 21%. Society membership now stands
SPWLA. We ask for your support. at 1341 which includes 50 students. Five men solicited five or
more new members, and 75 people have solicited one or more
Members of the Technological Committee for t h i s year new members during 1975-1976. The Appalachian Chapter is
are : being re-activated in Morgantown, West Virginia.

George R. Coates R. A. (Bob) Lane Vice-Resident of Public Relations Harold Ham reported
Schlumberger, Houston Shell, New Orleans that notices of this Symposium had been sent to 94 technical
journals and newspapers around the world. In June he had sent
James A. Endacott, Jr. R. Jim Logsdon a notice of our new officers to these publications. He has
McCulloch, Los Angeles Dresser Atlas, Houston visited the Tour and Information Center in Denver for infor-

mation which was sent out concerning Denver. He reported University of Texas to help them attend the Symposium this
that so far 494 have registered for the Symposium with 140 year.
wives in attendance. Last year’s final attendance was 379. He
also reported that Core Laboratories, Inc., had again donated a Executive Secretary Richard Glanville was introduced. He
Hewlitt-Packard Calculator which would be given away by a told the members about the SPWLA booth which is set up to
drawing at the end of the Symposium. disseminate information concerning the Society, and to make
contacts for membership. He mentioned that the home office
Vice-president of Publications Walter Fertl reported that had to expand its storage space. We have Symposium volumes
the six issues of “The Log Analyst” published during the year back through 1966. The Glossary has been selling by mail
had included 19 papers, including color for the first time. Only order. There is also Society jewelry available.
one of these papers had previously been published in the
transactions. He thanked the people who had submitted the
papers. Resident Paschal asked if there were any old business.
There being none, he introduced outgoing past President Desai
Secretary-Treasurer Paul Wichmann presented the Soci- who introduced the new Board of Directors as follows:
ety’s fmancial status as of April 30,1976, as follows:

1976 1975 W. A. Grieves - Resident

Cash on hand - $16,795.23 $23,480.97 B. B. Cooley - Vice-Resident - Technology

Total assets - $40,733.65 $39,488.22 Wm. H. Lang - Vice-Resident - Membership

D. C. Ross - Vice-Resident - Public Relations

Our total assets include 900 unsold copies of the Glossary and
700 copies of the Pulsed Neutron Logging reprint series. W. H. Fertl - VicsResident - Publications
Although our cash balance is declining, there will be some
recovery when these publications are sold. It will still be D. M. Pert - Secretary-Treasure1
necessary for steps to be taken to increase the treasury E. E. King - Director-at-Large, South
E. E. Rodgers - Director-at-Large, North
Director-at-Large for the Northern Region Bob Lane
reported that an invitation had been accepted from Bill Kithas,
President of the Midland Chapter, for Midland to host the He then reported on the following activities: In Society
1978 Symposium which will be held in the El Paso Convention publications this year we have published the Pulsed Neutron
Center. Elton Rodgers will be the general chairman. He report- reprint series. The Board has received material for two new
ed that to date, 500 replies have been received from the ques- series, Acoustic Logs, and Conventional Neutron Logs. These
tionnaire he had made up and which was sent to all members. should be printed next year. We have published a Handbook of
Some of the early information received shows that 425 Information on Policies and Procedures written by Harry
members are happy with the name of our Society and that half Brown which is now available. The only awards this year will
of the respondants said they would attend this Symposium. A be to fifteen year members. There were 622 ballots returned
computer statistical compilation of the results will be made for this year’s Board election; 13 were unsigned and not
and published in The Log Analyst. counted, and nine arrived too late to be counted. Ninetyifour
were received from outside the U.S. The Nominating Commit-
Director-at-Large for the Southern Region Don Pert tee members were Pat Paschal, Wayne Ranta, Ed Saye, and
reported that all chapters were strong and healthy. The only Kanti Desai.
exceptions being Caracas, Venezuela and the Appalachian
Region. Caracas can be started again when its former President Paschal then handed the gavel over to incoming President
Henry Salisch returns from a tour of duty in France. The Bill Grieves who expressed his appreciation to the membership
Appalachian Chapter is in the process of being reorganized and for electing him to the office. He hopes to encourage contin-
located in Morgantown, West Virginia where an organizational ued upgrading of the Society with the transactions, magazines,
and technical meeting had been held in April with himself and and programs. The Society has spent more money in the last
Bob Alger representing the Society. Chapter projects were two years than was taken in, last year by $6,500. He remarked
started in Corpus Christi, Houston, and New Orleans. Corpus on the increased work load in the home office. Some changes
Christi is conducting evening classes for the industry in basic will probably occur in the business office. We will study the
log interpretation, and New Orleans will be compiling a hand- results of the questionnaire to use for guidance. He then called
book on unusual log interpretation examples. He recognized for any new business which the membership would like to

the fine work done by the officers of each chapter this year.
He thanked the Houston, Corpus Christi, Lafayette, Dallas,
and New Orleans Chapters for contributing a combined total
bring up. There was none. He announced that next year’s
Symposium would be at the Astroworld Hotel in Houston
from June 5th through the 8th. The meeting was adjourned at
of $600 which was given to three student members from the 1:30 p.m.


I I I /
. -
MICHAEL D. SCHALL, Atlantic Richfield Co., has been
Chart Shows transferred from Lafavette. Louisiana to Dallas. Texas.
< I

Membership Growth WALLACE E. BROWN, formerly with Texas International

Petroleum Corp., has opened consulting offices in Dallas,
D. B. (Sandy) VAELLO, Dresser Atlas, has been transferred
from Denver, Colorado to Houston, Texas.

1. H. EDWARDS, BP Instruments Ltd., has been transferred

from Botany, Australia to Leicestershire, England.

PER SONGSTAD, Norsk Hydro Petroleum Company, has

been transferred from Denver, Colorado to Sandvika, Norway.

ERlCH EVERED, formerly with Enserch Exploration Inc., has

joined C&K Petroleum Inc. in Midland, Texas.

1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 J. H. WINKLER, Schlumberger Well Services, became manager
of Schlumberger’s Europe Region in London.

C. G. JONES, Getty Oil Co., transferred from New Orleans,

The above chart shows the steady growth of SPWLA Louisiana, to Drumright, Oklahoma.
membership with an increase from 19 Charter Members in
1959 to 1341 total membership (including 50 Student FRANK P. KOKESH moved from Lilburn to Lawrenceville,
Members) at the time of the 17th Annual Business Meeting of Georgia.
June 10, 1976. This chart was prepared by Wayland C. Savre,
Vice President - Membership, 1975-1976. P. REYNARD moved from Paris to Schlumberger Seaco Inc.
in New Delhi, India.

FRANKLIN WHEELER has joined Apache Corporation’s Oil

and Gas Division as Division Engineer at its Denver exploration
News of Members JlMMlE D. SIMPSON is currently associated with H. Ross
Perot in Dallas, Texas.

In Memoriam: With deep sorrow we report the death of JOHN ALBERT0 KHATCHIKIAN, Schlumberger Surenco, trans-
H. BELL, Lafayette, Louisiana. John died of a heart attack on ferred from Buenos Aires, Argentina, to Caracas, Venezuela.
September 13th.
JOHN WILLIAMS, Phillips Petroleum Co., has returned from
GILBERT0 H. BARCENAS, formerly with Conoco, has 6 years in the Far East and Iran to Bartlesville, Oklahoma.
joined Tesoro Petroleum Co., in Santa Flora, Trinidad.
PETER E. MORRIS moved from England to Singapore.
GEORGE DAVIS has joined The Western Company in
Abilene, Texas. CASTRO DULANTO GUILLERMO, Petroperu, transferred
from Talara to Lima, Peru.
ROGER L. SMITH, Schlumberger, has moved from Houston
to Midland, Texas, as an Enhanced Recovery Specialist. CARROLL B. ROGERS, Dresser Atlas, moved from Graham,
Texas to Odessa, Texas.
JOHN J. BRUNS, Champlin Petroleum Co., moved from Ft.
Worth to Houston, Texas as District Geol. Manager. WILLIAM G. ELLIOTT, formerly Texaco Inc., has joined
Mitchell Energy Corp. in Houston, Texas.
J. 0. PACQUIN, Schlumberger Well Services, has been trans-
ferred from Corpus Christi to Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. M. R. J. WYLLIE moved from London, England to Houston,
Texas, with Gulf Energy and Minerals Company.
STEPHEN W. BROWN, formerly with Texaco, has joined
Geochem Laboratories Inc. as Senior Geologist in Houston. CALVIN R. McMICHAEL, formerly with Arkansas Louisiana

Gas Co., has joined Enerco Inc. in Shreveport, Louisiana. E. W. ADAMS moved from Slidell, Louisiana, To Duncanville,
MANFRED BOETEL is with Schlumberger-CED in The
Hague, Netherlands. H. E. REPP, Exxon Company USA, transferred'from Denver,
Colorado to Anchorage, Alaska.
WALTER A. ZUMBRAERAZO, formerly with INECEL, has
joined CEPE as Chief of Exploration in Ecuador. JOSEPH B. TEICHMAN, Sholam Drilling Co., moved from
Miami Beach to Hallendale, Florida.
ROBERT G. VOLKMANN, formerly with Continental Oil Co.,
has joined Flag-Redfern Oil Co. in Midland, Texas. WlLDA K. GARBER moved from Houston, Texas to Ukiah,
L. DUANE DUNGAN, formerly with Texaco, has joined
Union Texas Petroleum in Lafayette, Louisiana. W E S M. PIRARD, Schlumberger Overseas S.A., transferred
from Jakarta, Indonesia to Paris, France.
MIKE E. HARRELL, formerly with Aminoil USA, has joined
MIKE J. GEBHART, Schlumberger Well Services, moved from
The Superior Oil Company in Lafayette, Louisiana. Denver, Colorado to Gillette, Wyoming.

RALPH LLOYD, formerly with Texas Eastern Transmission DAVID BURNS has moved to Linvingston, Scotland, with the
Corp., has joined Good Hope Refiners Inc., in Houston, Texas. Petroleum Industry Training Board.

ELDEN B. ARNOULT, Jr., formerly with GTS Corp., has HOMER E. PICKHARDT, formerly with Schlumberger Well
joined Amoco Production Co., in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Services, has joined Flynn Energy Corp. in Houston, Texas.

WILLIAM A. HEINTZ, formerly with Texas Oil and Gas CLAUDE CHAUVET, Schlumberger Surenco S.A., has moved
Corporation, has joined Clayton W. Williams in Corpus Christi, from Houston, Texas to Maracaibo, Venezuela.
WALTER H. FERTL has been awarded the TAJ (Crown) Gold
RICHARD WOODHOUSE, British Petroleum Co. Ltd., moved Medal of Iran for his outstanding engineering contributions to
from Sunbury-on-Thamesto London, England. the international petroleum industry.

JOHN R. SWITZER moved from Littleton, Colorado, to JEAN RAIGA-CLEMENCEAU has been awarded the Cross of
Houston, Texas. Chevalier de l'Ordre National du Merite by the President of
France for his distinguished services to the French petroleum
GUY R. "Dick" SHORT, Division Sales Engineer with Welex industry.
in Tulsa, has retired.
C. RICHARD GLANVILLE presented a paper, "Logging
O L l A N SHOCKLEY, formerly with Cities Service Oil Programs and Log Analysis Techniques for Norwegian North
Company, has joined Michigan-Wisconsin Pipeline Company in Sea Wells" on September 22nd at the offshore North Sea
Houston, Texas. Technology Conference and Exhibition in Stavanger, Norway.
Co-authors of the paper were FRANK S. MILLARD and
HENRY A. SALISCH, formerly with Schlumberger Surenco, BRYAN E. MORGAN.
has opened a consulting office in Caracas, Venezuela.

PATRICIA P. POTTS, formerly with Oklahoma Natural Gas

Co., has joined Flag-Redfern Oil Co. in Midland, Texas.

SCOTT M. SHEMWELL, Schlumberger Well Services, has been

Fourth European Formation
transferred from Houma, Louisiana to Natchez, Mississippi.
Evaluation Symposium
GARRY M. KRAMCHAK has joined Gulf Energy and Minerals
U.S. in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
The Fourth European Formation Evaluation Symposium,
S. E. SZASZ moved from Long Beach, California, to Tulsa, sponsored by the SPWLA London Chapter, will be held
Oklahoma. October 18th and 19th, 1976, at the Portman Hotel in


London. Seventeen technical papers will be presented at this “Well Log Digitization and Data Reduction,” by M. Gahan
symposium, which will be highhghted by the keynote address (Exploration Computing Ltd.).
given by the President of SPWLA, Mr. W. A. Grieves, Houston, “A Digital Cassette System for Recording Coal and Other Logs,”
Texas. by M. A. Cherrie (BPB Instruments Ltd.).
The technical program includes the following papers: “A Quicker Approach to the Water Saturation in Shaly Sands,” by
J. Raiga-Clemenceau (B.E.I.C.I.F.P.).
“The Buchan Field, Evaluation of a Fractured Sandstone Reser-
voir,” by M. Butler, M. J. Phelan, and A. W. R. Wright “Solids Particle Penetration into Porous Reservoir Rock and its
(Transworld Petroleum). Effects on Well Log Analysis,” by Walter H. Fertl (Dresser
“Thermal Properties of North Sea Rocks,” by T. Evans (Phillips
“The Application of Borehole Geophysical Logging Techniques in
Petroleum Co. Ltd.).
Engineering Geology,” by D. M. McCann (I.G.S.), and C.
“The Carbon/Oxygen Log Measurement,” by P. A. Wichmann, McCann (University of Reading).
E. C. Hopkinson, and W. D. McWhirter (Dresser Atlas).
“ULSEL Logging in Blow-Out Relief Well Drilling,” by G. W.
“The Cased Hole and Exploration Service Epilog,” by M. R. Haanschooten (Shell International).
DeVries, W. C. Vercellino, and P. A. Wichmann (Dresser “The CIBER Service Unit - An Integrated Logging System,” by
Atlas). F. M. Eaton, J. W. Elliott, F. D. Hurlston, R. S. Olsen, D. J.
Vanderschel, and J. P. Warren (Schlumberger).
“A Geological Approach to Formation Ressure Detection,” by L.
Giani, and M. R. M e n (Exploration Consultants Ltd.). “Field Evaluation of Direct Digital Well Logging,” by L. M.
Mosley and L. Britt (Gearhart-Owen, Inc.).
“Fundamentals of the Differential Gamma Ray Log - Interpreta-
tion Techniques,” by M. Hassan, A. Hossin, and A. Combaz Session Chairmen B.E. Shaw (Amoco Europe Inc.),
(Companie Francaise des Petroles). W. M. L. van Rijen (Shell Int.), P. Threadgold (BP Ltd.), and
“Recent Developments in Coal Petrophysics,” by B. A. Lavers and K. Gough (Conoco North Sea Inc.) will be acting.
L. J. M. Smits (Shell International).

“A Focussed Resistivity Tool for Slimline Coal Logging Systems,” The Symposium Committee includes D. W. Mann (Chair-
by J. R. ~Samworth and M. A. Cherrie (BPB Instruments man), P. Threadgold (Technical Chairman), G. Kauffman
Ltd.). (Registration), B. Lee (Arrangements), A. Matiisen (Publicity),
“Progress Report on the Automation of Computer Processed Log L. Standon-Batt (Treasurer), C. Shields (Photographer), and P.
Interpretation,” by A. Poupon and J. Leveau (Schlumberger). Norton (Special Inquiries).

SPWLA Chapter Roster 1976-1977

NORTHERN REGION - Elton E. Rodgers, Director-at-Large

DENVER Steve Mac Alpine Me1 Glerup Jill Whitlock Mike Grace Third
Huber Corp. Texaco Dresser-Atlas Schlumberger Wednesday
160lbirst National’ P. 0. Box 2100 15th Floor Metro 1450 Metro Bank Bldg. at noon
Denver, Colo. 80202 Denver, Colo. 80201 Bank Bldg. 475 17th Street Sept. -May
475 17th Street .
Denver, Colo ,80202
Denver, Colo. 80202
MIDLAND George F. Horst Arthur W. Schmidt Dennis Krawietz Dave Murphey Third
Schlumberger Consultant sohio Shell Oil Co. Thursday
4304 Harvard #8 Chatham Court 1411 W. Texas 2506 Neely at noon
Midland, Texas 79701 Midland, Texas 79701 Midland, Texas 79701 Midland, Texas 79701 Sept. -May
OKLAHOMA George Girouard Jerry E. Upp John Bedwell Ed Smith Third
am Ashland Exploration Co. Tenneco Oil Co. cameo Schlumberger Thursday,
50 Penn Place, Suite 1200 Ciudad Bldg., 139 3000 United Founders Jamestown Office Park Sept. -May
Oklahoma City, Okla.731 18 3000 United Founders Blvd. Blvd., Suite 210 suite 250
OklahomaCity, Okla. 73112 Oklahoma City, !Okla. 7311 2 3037 N.W. 63rd Street
Oklahoma City, Okla.73116
SOUTHERN James A. Endacott, Jr. Bill J. Moore Richard I. Runge Third
CALIFORNIA McCulloch Oil Corp. Dresser-Atlas Chevron Oil Field Research Tuesday
(Los Angeles) 10880 Wilshire Blvd. 2777 Raymond Street 2106 East Sycamore at 5 :30 PM
Los+4ngeles;Calif. 90024 Long Beach, Calif. 90806 Anaheim, Calif. 92806 Except Dt~.-July
TULSA David H. Singer Forrest Fiedler John W. Caldwell Marvin Smith Third
Cities Service Amoco Prod. co. Birdwell Div. Phillips Petroleum Thursday,
P. 0. Box 300 P. 0. Box 591 SSC 248 Frank Phillips Bldg. -
Sept. Nov,
Tulsa, Okla. 74102 Tulsa, Okla. 74102 P. 0. Box 1590 B a r t l d e , Okla. 74004 Jan. -May
Tulsa, Okla. 74102
LONDON Bob Hite Pete Udelhoven Arne Matiisen (Secretary) Leo Standon - Batt (Treasurer)
Phillips Petroleum Schlumberger Dresser Europe SA Central Water Planning Unit
Portland House 1, Kingsway Dresser Atlas Operations Dept. of the Environment
Stag Place London WC 2 197, Knightsbridge Reading Bridge House
London ,SW 1 London SW 7 Reading, Berkshire RG 1 8 PS

PARIS Jean Raiga-clemenceau Eric Blondin Michael Cliff (Secretary) Andre Hossin (Treasurer) First
Ingenieur Principal Gaz de France-D.E.T.N. SPE Schlumberger CFP Wednesday
BEICIP 23 rue Philibert Delorme 20 Rue de BoulainvWers 3943 Quai Andre Citroen bimonthly
366 Avenue Napoleon-Bonaparte 75017 Paris 75016 Paris, France 75739 Paris 15, France beginning
92500 Rueil-Malmaison France February
SPWLA Chapter Roster 1976-1977

SOUTHERN REGION - Erwin E. King, DireetoreLarge

CORPUS G. Milton a a f t James B. Marble F t c h Nielsen M. L. Geldmacher
CHRISTI Core Lab. Inc. Schlumberger Exxon Co., U.S.A. Conoco Oil
102 Wilson Tower 1745 N. Padre Island Dr. 1120 Lawrence Dr. P. 0. Box 226
Corpus christi,T x 78401 Corpus christi,Tx.78401 Kingsville, Tx. 78363 Corpus Christi, Tx. 78403
DALLAS Rollyn Frank Walter Stephen Clyde Dennis J. P. Phillips
Schlumberger sun oil 3605 Royal Lane Sun Oil Company
1030 Republic Bank Tower Hillcrest 635 Office Park Dallas, Texas 75 229 503 N. Central Expressway
Dallas, Texas 75201 12850 Hillcrest Rd. Richardson, Texas 75080
Dallas, Texas 75230
FT. WORTH Joe Elo, Jr. Barry Satterwhite Bob Gross
Bass Enterprises Welex champlin oil
33rd FL Ft. Worth National 730 Commerce Bldg. Ft. Worth, Texas
Bank Bldg., Ft. Worth, Texas 76102
Ft. Worth, Texas 76102
HOUSTON Paul Wichmann R. A. Anderson Doris Breddin (Secretary)
Dresser Atlas Schlumberger Mobil Oil Corp.
P. 0. Box 1407 Box 2175 3 Greenway Plaza East
Houston, Texas 77001 Houston, Texas 77001 Suite 800 a
Houston, Texas 77046
R. W. Clum (Treasurer)
Union Texas
Box 2120
Houston, Texas 77001

LAFAYETTE Tom Caskey Lee C*an Bob Atkinson Noel Covington Second
Texas Pacific Oil Chevron Forest Oil Co. Dresser Atlas Thursday,
P. 0. Box 52468 OCS Box 5 1743 OCS Box 52329 OCS Sept. -May
Lafayette, Louisiana 70501 Lafayette, Louisiana 70501 Lafayette, Louisiana 70501
MEXICO CITY Bernardo Martell Orlando Gomez-Rivero Bernardo Douet
Pemex Pemex Schlumberger Surenco
Tlacoquemectl No. 303 Apdo. 71-011 Bahia san Hipolito
Apto. 302 Mexico 3, DF, Mexico 56-302-302
Mexico 12, DF Mexico Colonia Veronica
Anyures, Mexico 17 DF
(Morgantown, School of Mines, Mineral
w.Virginia) Industries Bldg.
West Virginia Univ.
Morgantown, West Virginia 26506
Additions to Membership EDMONDS, Graydon Preston, Jr. (J); Dresser Industries; 2015 S.
Belmont, Tyler, Texas 75701
FRANCISQUE, Jean-Hewe (M); Compagnie Francaise des Petroles; 6
Rue de la Citadelle; 94230 Cachan, France
i/ MEMBER ELECTED JULY 26,1976 GARCIA, Alejandro, Jr. (M); Shell Oil Co.; Box 2099, Houston, Texas
SHUKIS, Paul Stanley (J); Amoco Prod. Co.; Box 3092, Houston, GRIFFITH, James William (M); Galaxy Oil Co.; 918 Lamar, Wichita
Texas 77001 Falls, Texas 76301
GUPTA, Sur Sevak Prasad (M); ONGC; Jr. Geophysicist (Wells); Box
Nazira (Assam) India
HEAD,Mickey P. (M); GO International; Box 1258, Ft. Worth, Texas
MEMBERS REINSTATED lTOH, Toshinobu (M); Technical Laboratory; Japan Exploration Co.;
3190-1 Masashino, Humura, Tokyo, Japan
BROWN, Charles Alan (J); Kansas-Nebraska Natural Gas Co.; 7446 KALBERER, Lucy F. (J); Shell Oil Co.; Box 831, Houston, Texas
Holland Court, Arvada, Colorado 80005 77001
HURST, William Ronald (A); Go International, Inc.; 2728 Clark Blvd.,
LAYTON, Don L. (M); Schlumberger Well Services; 2000 Classen
Laredo, Texas 78040
Center Ste. 124E, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73106
NICHOLLS, Thomas Edwin (M); Schlumberger Well Services; 2619 N.
Texas Blvd., Apt. 218, Alice, Texas 78332 LINGLE, Richard (M); Terra Tek Inc.; 420 Wakara Way, Salt Lake
QIDWAI, Moin (M); Oil and Gas Development Corp; Shafi Chambers City, Utah 84108
Club Road, Karachi, Pakistan LLOYD, Don Michael (M); Dresser Atlas; Box 547, Tyler, Texas 75701
SUMMERS, Gerald Clifton (M); Simplec Mfg. Co., Inc.; 4230 Shilling McJANNET, George S. (M); US Navy; 4212 Orinda Way, Bakersfield,
Way, Dallas, Texas 75237 California 93306
TRUMPS, Huey (M);Mesa Petroleum Co.; 1700 Dresser Tower, 601 McNULLY, Claude Victor (M); Exxon Co. USA; 2101 Comet St., New
Jefferson St., Houston, Texas 77002 Orleans, Louisiana 70114
MARETT, Graham (M); Schlumberger; 42 Rue St. Dominique, Paris
75007 France
MAROOF, Sabah Ibrahim (J); Geophysical Service Int.; Canterbury
House, Sydenham Rd., Croydon, Surrey, England
STUDENT MEMBERS APPROVED MARTIN, John Richard (M); Dresser Atlas; Ste. 1532 Metro Bank Bldg,
475 17th St., Denver, Colorado 80202
DASTGHEIB, Morteza (S); Texas A&I Univ., Box 1621, Kingsville,
MOORE, Billy Joe (M); Dresser Atlas; 2777 Raymond, Long Beach,
Texas 78363
California 90806
,(ORENO, Wilson Clemente (S); Colorado School of Mines, Petroleum
Engr. Dept.; Golden, Colorado 80401 PAIN, Alan Charles (J); British National Oil Co. Ltd.; Stornoway
SANDERS, Gus Berwick (S); University of Texas-Austin, Petr. Engr. House, 13 Cleveland Row, St. James, London SWlA 1DH England
Dept.; Austin, Texas 78712 PRICE, Randall Keith (J); Texaco, Inc.; 1111 Rusk, Houston, Texas
SHEIKHBAHAIE, Reza (S); Texas A&I Univ.; Box 2234, Kingsville, 77002
Texas 78363 ROBINSON, Alec Edward (J); Amoco Production Research Center;
Box 591, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74102
ROESELER, John William (J); Sun Production Co.; Box 2317,
McAllen, Texas 78501
SCHOLES, Patrick Lynn (M); Schlumberger Well Services; 14043 W.
MEMBERS ELECTED OCTOBER 1,1976 Alaska Dr., Lakewood, Colorado 80228
SHAW, Thomas Patrick (M); Atlantic Richfield Co.; 1407 E. 21st St.,
ATTAWAY, M e n Ransom (J); Dresser Atlas; 100 Bellefontaine, Apt. Tulsa, Oklahoma 74 114
No. 132, Lafayette, Louisiana 70501 SKIPPER, Keith (J); Amoco International Oil Co.; 920 Apple Tree
BAUGHMAN, Richard Allen (M); Dresser Atlas; Ste. 1532 Metro Bank
Lane, Deerfield, Illinois 60015
Bldg., Denver, Colorado 80202
CAMPBELL, Michael Wayne (J); Texaco, Inc.; 8100 Bellaire, No. 1446, SULIK, John F. (M); 3101 Topeka St., Corpus Christi, Texas 78404
Houston, Texas 77036 SULKOSKE, William Charles (J); Union Oil Co., International Division;
COLE, J. Glenn (M); Amoco Production Co.; Rt. 2 Box 38, Sapulpa, 461 S. Boylston St., Los Angeles, California 90017
Oklahoma 74066 WOODRUFF, Kenneth David (M); Delaware Geological Survey; Box
COLLINS, Maurice John (J); Schlumberger Trinidad Inc.; P.O.B. 25, 152, Newark, Delaware 19711
San Fernando, Trinidad & Tobago
CRUTCHER, Charles Lee (M); Amoco Production Co.; 314 E. William
David Pkwy., Metairie, Louisiana 70005
CZUBEK, Jan Andrej (M); Inst. Nucl Physics ul Radzikowskiego 152;
31342 Krakow, Poland
DARLING, Harold Lee (M); Schlumberger Well Services; 109 Dover
Dell, Victoria, Texas 77901
DONOVAN, Harold L. (M); Dresser Atlas; 525 404 Sixth Ave. S.W.,
Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2S OR 9
DRIEDONKS, Franciscus (M); Sarawak Shell Berhad; Lutong, Sarawak,
i ) West Malaysia
DRIVER, James Eugene (M); Schlumberger Well Services; 1300 Main
ROMOSER, Russell Wayne (J); Getty Oil Co.; Box 128, Conroe, Texas
Ste. 1209, Houston, Texas 77002
DUNLAP, Henry Francis (M); Box 98, Wimberley, Texas 78676 77301



74 pages (8%in. x 11 in.) with illustrations.

This publication contains a complete glossary of well logging
terms and expressions plus a complete listing of nomenclature
for the well logging services of major service companies.
Mail order sale prices are $3.00 U.S. funds per copy to SPWLA
members and $5.00 per copy to non-members. All orders of 50
or more copies are $3.00 per copy. Add 5% sales tax for
deliveries in Texas.



Twenty-five selected papers on pulsed neutron logging from

SPWLA, SPE, and ANS literature are presented. A bibliography
on additional selected references is included. 347 pages (8%in.
x 11 in.).
Mail order sale prices are $7.00 U.S. funds per copy to SPWLA
members and $10.00 per copy t o non-members. Add 5% sales
tax for deliveries in Texas.



Single, bound volumes of approximately 25 or more papers (8%

in. x 11 in.) for each year.
Volumes are available for the years 1966 through 1976*,
inclusive. Mail order sale prices are $12.00 U.S. funds per
volume for each of the years 1966 through 1974 and $15.00
per volume for the years 1975 and 1976. Add 5% sales tax for
deliveries in Texas.

(* Available after June 15, 1976.) !

Payment must be sent with each order.

13507 Tosca Lane
Houston, Texas 77079
(Telephone 7 13/468-5930)


I/ I 1 I I
There%room at the top for I

more than one,,.

especialty in Well Logging.
Years ago when it came time to run logs, about all you saw around the rigs
were blue trucks. Haveyou noticed how that’s changed? Now you see a lot of
trucks paintedorange and white. That’s us. Dresser Atlas.

We proved that quality well logging was something you can get from more
than one company. Our resistivity, porosity and auxiliary logs have set
standards recognized as second to none. Dresser Atlas’ well logs and com-
puterized interpretations form a system that yields accurate information to
blend easily into the decision-making process.

We may not be as big as the other company, but we’re as good often better.

Dresser Atlas
DRESSER ATLAS DIVISION, Dresser Industries P. 0. Box 6504 Houston, Texas 77005 713/784-6011


...... .
I I . I : Ill I I. I I :I I
BPB's slimline logging system can
now give you all the advantages of
measuring42 x 21 x 31 cms and
weighing only 19.5 kgs, has a read
taped logs without the difficulties after write facility allowing the
of siting cumbersome and operator to producea general log
expensive equipment at the well via the units output sockets and
head. then, away from the borehole, the
unit can replay taped data to
The latest addition to BPB's produce detail logs, cutting well
slimline surface electronics, our head time by around one half.
tape unit, records data direct from
the logging tool and depth
informationfrom the winch onto 4
channel cassette tapes, The unit,

Time saving in the field of petrophysical analysis IS another feature of our taped logs. Cassette contents can be rapidly transcribed
onto 9 track headed tape making uncontaminatedlog data quickly and cheaply available for computer assisted interpretation.


EUROPE: BPB INDUSTRIES INSTRUMENTS LTD., East bake, Leics.. England. Telex377587BPB E. LEAKE
AUSTRALIA BPB INSTRUMENTS (AUST) PTY. LTD.,3a Pemberton St.,Botany NSW. Telex2657 BPBAA 26571
AFRICA BPB INDUSTRIES (INST) LTD., PO Box 18074333TaljaardSt., Hercules Pretoria SA. Telex 30216 34216SA
N. AMERICA BPB INSTRUMENTS (CAN) LTD., PO Box 5838,Post Station A. Calgary.Telex 108-212-075 WESTROC COY


1 : : 1 . . Ill I I. I I I
Well Logging Engineer

Continental Oil Company has opening for M.S. or Ph.D. Engineer to carry

c: out applied research in the well logging area in their R&D facilities in
Ponca City, Oklahoma. Experience in computer application to well log
analysis is desirable. The position offers excellent opportunities to a well
qualified candidate. Please send resume in confidence to F. R. Conley,
Manager, Production Research Division, Continental Oil Company, P. 0.
Box 1267, Ponca City, Oklahoma 74601


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