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MET82 MAINTENANCEANDSAFETYENGINEERING(3 0 0 3)

Unit–I
Objectives of maintenance-types of maintenance–Breakdown,preventive and predictive
maintenance- Repair cycle-Repair Complexity,Lubrication and Lubricants.Maintenance
of Mechanical transmission systems and process plants.(12hours)
Unit–II
Predictive Maintenance-vibration and noise as maintenance tool-wear debris analysis-
Condition monitoring concepts applied to industries-Total Productive
Maintenance(TPM) -Economics of Maintenance-Computer aided maintenance.
(12 hours)
Unit–III
Reliability:Definition,concept of reliability based design,failure rate,MTTF,MTBF,failure
pattern,system reliability:Series,Parallel and Mixed configurations-Availability and
Maintainability concepts-Applications.(12hours)
Unit–IV
Safety and productivity-causes of accidents in industries–accident reporting and
investigation-measuring safety performance-Safety organizations and functions-
Factories act and rules.(12hours)
Unit–V
Safety Codes and Standards-General Safety considerations in Material Handling
equipments-Machine Shop machineries-pressure vessels and pressurized pipelines–
welding equipments–operation and inspection of extinguishers–prevention and spread
of fire–emergency exit facilities. (12hours)
Text Books :
1.P.Gopalakrishnan-
MaintenanceandSparepartsManagement,PrenticeHallofIndiaPvt.Ltd.,New Delhi, 1990.
2.L.S.Srinath -Reliability Engineering,AffiliatedEast West press, 2003
3. RollandP.Blake -Industrial Safety, PrenticeHall of India Pvt.Ltd., New Delhi,1973.
Reference Books:
1.R.C.MishraandK.Pathak,MaintenanceEngineeringandManagement,PrenticeHall of
India Pvt. Ltd.,NewDelhi, 2002.
2.H.P.Garg, IndustrialMaintenance,S Chand& Co Ltd.,New Delhi, 1990.
3.E.Balagurusamy,ReliabilityEngineering,PrenticeHallofIndiaPLtd.,NewDelhi,2003.
Unit – I
Objectives of maintenance – types of maintenance –Breakdown,preventive and
predictive maintenance - Repair cycle -Repair Complexity, Lubrication and
Lubricants.Maintenance of Mechanical transmission systems and process plants.

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A/PDEPARTMENMMECHENGG(ACET)
1.1MAINTENANCE:
Maintenance is the routine and recurring process of keeping a particular machine
or asset in its normal operating conditions. So that it can deliver the expected
performance or service without any loss or damage.
(Or)
It is an integral part of an organization in its entirety and therefore maintenance
objectives should be established within the framework of the whole so that overall
organizational or corporate objectives and needs are adequately met.

1.2Maintenance Objectives:
Maintain the capability of the company's assets to perform their designed
function thereby increasing shareholder value by maximizing the company's
return on assets.

 Maximizing production or operational throughput

 Identify and implement cost reductions

 Provide accurate equipment maintenance records

 Collect necessary maintenance cost information

 Optimize maintenance resources

 Labor, materials, contract

 Optimize capital equipment life

 Minimize energy usage

 Responsibility for Environmental,Safety,and Health compliance.

Even though maintenance engineering and maintenance have the same end objective
or goal (i.e., mission-ready equipment/item at minimum cost), the environments under
which they operate differ significantly. More specifically, maintenance
engineering is an analytical function as well as it is deliberate and
methodical.Incontrast,maintenance is a function that must be performed under
normally adverse circumstances and stress, and its main objective is to rapidly restore
the equipment to its operational readiness state using available resources.
Nonetheless, the contributing objectives of maintenance engineering include: improve
maintenance operations, reduce the amount and frequency of maintenance, reduce the
effect of complexity, reduce the maintenance.

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A/PDEPARTMENMMECHENGG(ACET)
skills required, reduce the amount of supply support, establish optimum
frequency

1.2.1MAINTENANCETERMS

1.2.1.1 Maintenance: All actions appropriate for retaining an item/part/equipment


n,or restoring it to, a given condition.

1.2.1.2 Maintenance engineering: The activity of equipment/item maintenance that


develops concepts,criteria,and technical requirements in conceptional and acquisition
phases to be used and maintained in a current status during he operating phase to
assure effective maintenance support of equipment

1.2.1.3 Maintenance concept: A statement of the overall concept of the item/product


specification or policy that controls the type of maintenance action to be employed for
the item under consideration

1.2.1.4 Maintenance plan: document that outlines the management and technical
procedure to be employed to maintain an item; usually describes facilities, tools,
schedules, and resources

1.2.1.5 Maintenance person: An individual who conducts preventive maintenance and


responds to a user’s service call to a repair acility,and performs corrective
maintenance on an item. Also called custom engineer, service person,technician,field
engineer, mechanic, repairperson, etc.

1.2.2MAINTENANCEFUNCTIONS

 Develop maintenance policies, procedures and standards for company-


wide incorporation

 Design practicable and implementable schedules of all maintenance work


and spell out maintenance work specification or master sheets

 Ensure the availability of production plant and equipment to carryout


planned/preventive maintenance

 Ensure scheduled inspection and lubrications of machinery

 Carry out calibration as per the calibration plan

 Maintain and carry out repair of buildings, utilities and allied equipment.

 Standardize equipment for replacement and purchase.

 Periodic inspection of all assets to know conditions leading to stoppage of


production.

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A/PDEPARTMENMMECHENGG(ACET)
 Carry out repairs and rectify or overhaul production equipment to ensure
good operational status and availability

 Carry out frequent analysis of pertinent documents so that corrective


actions can betaken

 Initiate procurement actions necessary for maintenance work

 Develop and provide proper management information system to the


management particular attention to be paid for the top management

 Upgrade management skills of supervisory and executive codes

1.3 Types of Maintenance:

Traditionally, 5 types of maintenance have been distinguished, which are


differentiated by the nature of the tasks that they include:

1.3.1 Corrective maintenance: The set of tasks is destined to correct the defects to
be found in the different equipment and that are communicated to the maintenance
department by users of the same equipment.

1.3.2 Preventive Maintenance: Its mission is to maintain a level of certain service


one quipment, programming the interventions of their vulnerabilities in the most
opportune time. It is used to be a systematic character, that is, the equipment is
inspected even if it has not given any symptoms of having a problem.

1.3.3 Predictive Maintenance: It pursues constantly know and report the status and
operational capacity of the installations by knowing the values of certain variables,
which represent such state and operationalability.To apply this maintenance, it is
necessary to identify physical
variables(temperature,vibration,powerconsumption,etc.).Which variation is indicative
of problems that may be appearing on the equipment. This maintenance it is the most
technical, since it requires advanced technical resources, and at times of strong
mathematical, physical and / or technical knowledge.

1.3.4 ZeroHoursMaintenance(Overhaul):The set of tasks whose goal is to review the


equipment at scheduled intervals before appearing any failure, either when the
reliability of the equipment has decreased considerably so it is risky to make
forecasts of production capacity. This review is based on leaving the equipment to
zero hours of operation, that is, as if the equipment were new. These reviews will
replace or repair all items subject to wear. The aim is to ensure, with high probability,
a good working time fixed in advance.

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A/PDEPARTMENMMECHENGG(ACET)
1.3.5 Periodicmaintenance(TimeBasedMaintenanceTBM):the basic maintenance
of equipment made by the users of it. It consists of a series of elementary
tasks(datacollections,visualinspections,cleaning,lubrication,retighteningscrews
,…)forwhichnoextensivetrainingisnecessary,butperhapsonlyabrieftraining.Thist
ypeofmaintenanceisthebasedonTPM(Total Productive Maintenance).

1.4 Breakdown Maintenance:

 Breakdown maintenance involves the repair or replacement of equipment and


components after they have failed. This kind of management strategy can be
contrasted with preventive and, which are designed to avoid equipment failures.

 The breakdown maintenance approach is typically employed when failures are


unlikely to result in workplace injuries or excessive downtime, though the costs
associated with emergency repairs are often prohibitive.

 A policy of breakdown maintenance is sometimes instituted when a facility or


business has scheduled to close or cease operations, especially if there are no
plans to continue using the equipment afterward. Breakdown maintenance is a
reactive policy. This approach avoids the costs associated with inspections and
preemptive repairs by simply allowing components to fail and then addressing
the issue after the fact.

 The term "run-to-failure" is also used to describe this approach to maintenance,


since that is what equipment is allowed to do. Equipment will typically be
lubricated and receive other minor attention under this kind of maintenance
policy, though that is usually the extent of any ongoing maintenance operations.

 Thereareanumberofcoststhatcanbeassociatedwithabreakdownmaintenancepolicy
.Sinceanycomponentcanfailatanytimeunderthisapproach,amaintenancestaffmus
tbereadytodomanydifferenttypesofrepairs.

 Thiscaninvolvemaintainingastockofreplacementpartsforeverypieceofequipmenton
site,orelsepayingforrushshippingonnewcomponentsastheoldonesfail.Therearetypi
callyalsocostsassociatedwithdowntime,sothisapproachtomaintenanceisnotwell-
suitedtoanybusinessoperationthatwouldsufferlargemonetarylosses
fromthesuddenfailure of anygivenpiece ofequipment.

 Apolicyofbreakdownmaintenanceissometimesinstitutedwhenafacilityorbusinessh
asbeenscheduledtoclose.Thisisoftenacalculatedrisk,sincethedecisionassumestha
ttheequipmentwillcontinue runninglong enough forthefacilityto beclosed down.

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A/PDEPARTMENMMECHENGG(ACET)
 Ifthereareplanstoscraptheequipmentattheendoftheperiod,costlypreventivemainte
nance canbe seen as unnecessary.

1.5 PreventiveMaintenance

 Preventive maintenance can bedefinedasfollows: Actionsperformedonatime-or


machine-run-based schedulethatdetect,preclude, ormitigate
degradationofacomponentorsystemwiththeaimofsustainingorextendingitsusefulli
fethrough controllingdegradationto anacceptable level.
 Whilepreventivemaintenanceisnottheoptimummaintenanceprogram,itdoes
haveseveral advantagesoverthat ofa purelyreactiveprogram.
 Byperforming
thepreventivemaintenanceastheequipmentdesignerenvisioned,wewillextendthelif
eoftheequipmentclosertodesign.Thistranslatesintodollarsavings.Preventivemainte
nance(lubrication,filterchange,etc.) will generally run the equipment
moreefficiently resulting in
dollarsavings.Whilewewillnotpreventequipmentcatastrophicfailures,wewilldecrea
se thenumber offailures.Minimizingfailurestranslateinto
maintenanceandcapitalcostsaving.Preventivemaintenance(PM)isanimportantcom
ponent of amaintenance activity.
 Withina maintenance organization it usuallyaccounts fora major
proportionofthetotal maintenance effort.
 PMmaybedescribedasthecareandservicingbyindividualsinvolvedwithmaintenance
tokeepequipment/facilitiesinsatisfactoryoperationalstatebyprovidingforsystemati
cinspection,detection,andcorrectionofincipientfailureseitherpriortotheiroccurren
ceorpriortotheirdevelopmentintomajorfailure.
 Some of themain objectivesof PMare to: enhance capital
equipmentproductivelife,reducecriticalequipmentbreakdowns,allowbetterplannin
gandschedulingofneededmaintenancework,minimizeproductionlossesduetoequip
mentfailures,and promotehealthandsafety of maintenancepersonnel.

There areseven elements ofPreventive Maintenance


1.Inspection:Periodicallyinspectingmaterials/itemstodeterminetheirserviceabilitybyco
mparingtheirphysical,electrical,mechanical,etc.,characteristics(asapplicable)toexpected
standards
2.Servicing:Cleaning,lubricating,charging,preservation,etc.,ofitems/materialsperiodicall
y to preventthe occurrenceof incipientfailures
3.Calibration:Periodicallydeterminingthevalueofcharacteristicsofanitembycomparisonto
astandard;itconsistsofthecomparisonoftwoinstruments,oneofwhichis certifiedstandard
with known accuracy, to detectandadjust anydiscrepancyintheaccuracy of the
material/parameter beingcompared tothe establishedstandardvalue
4.Testing:Periodicallytestingorcheckingouttodetermineserviceabilityanddetectelectrical/
mechanical-related degradation

5.Alignment:Making changes to an item’s specifiedvariable elements for thepurpose


ofachieving optimumperformance

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A/PDEPARTMENMMECHENGG(ACET)
6.Adjustment:Periodicallyadjustingspecified variableelements ofmaterialfor thepurpose
ofachieving theoptimum systemperformance
7.Installation:Periodicreplacementoflimited-lifeitemsortheitemsexperiencingtimecycle or
wear degradation, to maintain the specified systemtolerance

1.6 PredictiveMaintenance

 Predictivemaintenancecanbedefinedasfollows:
Measurementsthatdetecttheonsetofsystemdegradation(lowerfunctionalstate),t
herebyallowingcausalstressorstobeeliminatedorcontrolledpriortoanysignifican
tdeterioration inthe componentphysicalstate.
 Resultsindicatecurrentandfuturefunctionalcapability.Basically,predictivemai
ntenancediffersfrompreventivemaintenancebybasingmaintenanceneedonthea
ctualconditionofthemachineratherthanonsomepresetschedule.Youwillrecallth
atpreventivemaintenanceistime-based. Activitiessuchas changing lubricant
arebased on time,
likecalendartimeorequipmentruntime.Forexample,mostpeoplechangetheoilint
heirvehiclesevery3,000to5,000milestraveled.Thisiseffectivelybasingthe
oilchange needsonequipment

Advantages

• Increasedcomponentoperational life/availability.

• Allows for preemptive corrective actions.

• Decreaseinequipment orprocessdowntime.

• Decreasein costsfor partsand labor.

• Betterproductquality.

• Improved worker and environmentalsafety.

• Improved worker morale.

• Energysavings.

• Estimated 8% to 12%costsavingsoverpreventive

maintenanceprogram.Disadvantages

• Increased investment indiagnosticequipment.

• Increased investment instafftraining.

• Savingspotentialnot readily seenby management.

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A/PDEPARTMENMMECHENGG(ACET)
1.7 RepairCycle

repairoverhaulinvolvesofmechanical,plumbingorelectricaldevice
shoulditbecomeoutoforderorbroken(knownasrepair,unscheduled,orcasualtymainten
ance).Italsoincludesperformingroutineactionswhichkeepthedeviceinworkingorder(kn
ownasscheduledmaintenanceorpreventtroublefromarising(preventivemaintenance).
MROmaybedefinedas,"Allactionswhichhavetheobjective ofretaining orrestoring an
item inor to astate inwhich it canperform
itsrequiredfunction.Theactionsincludethecombinationofalltechnicalandcorrespondin
gadministrative,managerial, and supervisionactions.

1.8 Lubricants

Anymaterialsusedtoreducefrictionwearingsurfacewithhighcoefficientoffrictionby
establishinglow-viscousfilmarecalledlubricants.Lubricantsareavailable in solid
andgaseous forms.

1.9 lubrications

MechanismofLubrication:Thephenomenonoflubricationcanbeexplainedwiththehelpof
thefollowingmechanism;(a)Thick-Filmlubrication(Fluid-
Filmorhydrodynamiclubrication)(b)ThinFilmlubrication(Boundarylubrication)and(c)
ExtremePressurelubrication

1.9.1 Thick-Filmlubrication:

 Inthis,moving/slidingsurfacesareseparatedfromeachotherbyathickfilmoffluid(
atleast1000 A°thick),sothat directsurfacetosurfacecontactand welding of
weldingofjunctionsrarelyoccurs.
 Thelubricantfilmcovers/fillstheirregularitiesofmoving/slidingsurfacesandform
sathicklayerbetweenthem,sothatthereisnodirectcontactbetween the material
surfaces.
 Thisconsequentlyreducesfriction.Thelubricantchosenshouldhavetheminimu
mviscosity(toreducetheinternalresistancebetweentheparticlesofthelubricant)u
nderworkingconditionsandatthesametime,itshouldremainin place
andseparate the surfaces.
 Hydrocarbonoils(mineraloilswhicharelowermolecularweighthydrocarbonswith
about12to50carbonatoms)areconsideredtobesatisfactorylubricantsforthick-
filmlubrication.Inordertomaintaintheviscosityoftheoilinallseasonsofyear,ordin
aryhydrocarbonlubricantsare blendedwith selected long chain polymers.

1.9.2 ThinFilmlubrication:

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A/PDEPARTMENMMECHENGG(ACET)
 Thistypeoflubricationispreferredwhereacontinuousfilmoflubricantcannotpersi
st.Insuchcases,theclearancespacebetweenthemoving/slidingsurfacesislubric
atedbysuchamaterialwhichcangetadsorbed onboththe metallicsurfaces by
eitherphysicalorchemical forces.
 This adsorbedfilm helps tokeep themetalsurfaces awayfromeach other
atleastuptotheheightofthepeakspresentonthesurface.Vegetableandanimaloilsa
ndtheirsoapscanbeusedinthistypeoflubricationbecausetheycangeteitherphysi
callyadsorbedorchemicallyreactintothemetalsurfaceto forma thin film
ofmetallicsoap which can actas lubricant.
 Althoughtheseoilshavegoodoiliness,theysufferfromthedisadvantagethattheywi
llbreakdownathightemperatures.Ontheotherhand,mineraloilsare thermally
stableand the additionof vegetable/animal oils tomineraloils, their oiliness
can also

1.9.3 ExtremePressurelubrication:

 Whenthemoving/slidingsurfacesareunderveryhighpressureandspeed,a high
localtemperature is attained under suchconditions, liquid lubricantsfailto
stick andmaydecompose andevenvaporize.
 Tomeettheseextremepressureconditions,specialadditivesareaddedtominerals
oils.These are calledextremepressureadditives.
 Theseadditivesformmoredurablefilms(capableofwithstandingveryhighloadsan
dhightemperatures)onmetalsurfaces.Importantadditivesareorganiccompound
shavingactiveradicalsorgroupssuchaschlorine(asinchlorinatedesters),sulphur
(asinsulphurizedoils)orphosphorus(asintricresylphosphate).Thesecompounds
reactwithmetallicsurfaces,atexistinghightemperatures,toformmetallicchloride
s,sulphidesorphosphides.

1.10 MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS


ANDPROCESSPLANTS

1.10.1 Goodmaintenancepractice ofgears:

Itisessentialanddesirabletohavegearswithlengthyandsatisfactorylifeperiod.inor
dertoachievethis,itwillbebettertoscheduleaneffectivemaintenanceprograms. If
oilleakage issensed, the unit should be shutdown.
Thiscausetotracedandcorrectiveactiontobeinitiatedandalsotheoilleveltobechecked.Iti
snecessarytoshutdownforaperiodofmorethanaweekandtheunitshouldrunatleast10mi
nuteseachweekwhenitisidle.Thismayhelptokeepgearsandbearingscoatedwithandprev
entrustingduetocondensationofmoisture.Itistheusualexperiencewithasetofgearsinag
earunit.Assumingproperdesign,manufacture,applicationandoperationthatwillbeiniti
alrunningperiodduringwhichifthegearsareproperlylubricatedandnotoverloadedtheco
mbinedactionofrollingandslidingoftheteethmaysmoothandhighpolishundercontinue
dproperconditionsofoperation,gearteethwilltheshowlittleorno sign of wear.

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A/PDEPARTMENMMECHENGG(ACET)
Satisfactoryperformanceof gears/geardrivemainly depend on

 proper designand manufactureofdrive


 selection ofpropertype andsize
 proper installation
 proper useof service
 proper maintenanceofunit init entirelife

1.10.2 maintenancepractice ofguide ways:

Theguidewaysareapartofmachinetoolswhichareusedtooffersmoothsliding
motionbetweenthematingsurfaceandtowithstandheavyloadduringmachiningoperatio
n.Properdesignandmanufactureofguidewayshelpstomaintain/achieveverygoodgeome
tricdimensioningandtolerancingofthejobbeing produced.To havebetterand
satisfactoryperformanceof slideways bearing

 possess adequate load bearingcapacity


 maintain alignmentof guidedparts
 offer minimum frictionparticularlyatlowspeeds
 possess highstiffness

The shape of the guide waysis designed based on:

 loadto be carriedby itanddirectionin which to carry.


 Positionoftransmission element
 Characteristicof wear
 Ease of chipdisposal

Sincetheslidingsurfacemovesandcoveronlyaportionoftotallengthoftheguideways,itisnat
uralthatwearcharacteristicmaynobesameoverthelength.Andalsowearoccursonthesliding
surfaceandguidewaysmaybeduetoanyofthefollowingreason

Sothemaintenanceofguidewaysinvolvesperiodicalinspectionofguidingsurfaceand proper
measuring ofdevelopingwear patternbased on these observation repairingactivity
shouldbe performed.If thelevel of wear exceeds thepermitted limit.

1.10.3 maintenancepractice ofbearings:

Bearingsaremechanicalelements,whichhelptohavefrictionlessshaftrotation.Thetw
obasiccategoriesofbearingsareplainbearingsandrollingbearings.plainbearingsaredesigne
dtosupportwhichrotatesoscillateorreciprocates.eventhoughitlookssimpleandleastexpens
iveofmechanicalcomponents,itwillavailableinwiderange.Theproblemscouldbeavoidedbyp
roperselection,properhandlingand maintenance. The life of arolling contact bearing is
defined as thetotal numberofrevolutionsbefore flanking occurs.

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Unit – II
PredictiveMaintenance -vibration and noise as maintenance tool -wear
debrisanalysis-Conditionmonitoringconceptsappliedto industries-Total
ProductiveMaintenance(TPM)-Economics of Maintenance-Computer aided
maintenance.

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2.1PredictiveMaintenance:
Thisisamethodinwhichtheservicelifeofimportantpartispredictedbasedoninspectionordiag
nosis,inordertousethepartstothelimitoftheirservicelife.Comparedtoperiodicmaintenance,
predictivemaintenanceisconditionbasedmaintenance.Predictivemaintenanceprogramsm
easureequipmentona
regularbasis,trackthemeasurementsovertime,andtakecorrectiveactionwhenmeasureme
ntsareabouttogooutsidetheequipmentoperatinglimits.Repairingequipmentas-
neededrequiresfewerman-
hoursandpartsthanpreventivemaintenance.However,trackingthemeasurementsrequires
newtools,training,andsoftwaretocollectandanalyzethedataandpredictrepaircycles.Itman
agestrendvalues,bymeasuringandanalyzingdataaboutdeteriorationandemploysasurveill
ance system,designedto monitor conditionsthrough an
on-line system.

2.2 vibrationandnoiseasmaintenancetool

Vibration
Hand-arm vibration is vibrationtransmitted fromwork processesinto
workers’handsandarms.It can becaused byoperatinghand-heldpowertools, such
asroadbreakers,andhand-guidedequipment, such as poweredlawnmowers,
orbyholdingmaterials beingprocessed by machines, such aspedestal grinders.

LevelsofVibrationrisk:
Highrisk -above
theExposureLimitValue(ELV)Employeeswho
regularlyoperate:
Hammer actiontoolsfor more than aboutone hourperday; or
Some rotary andotheraction toolsfor morethan about four hoursper
day.Mediumrisk- above the Daily ExposureActionValue (EAV)
Employeeswho regularly operate:
Hammer actiontoolsfor more than about15minutes perday;or
Some rotary andotheraction toolsfor morethan aboutone hourper day.Employees in
thisgroup are likelyto beexposed above the exposureaction value setout in
theRegulations

Workstationdesign –Vibration
Managementshouldassist in improving thedesignof workstations to minimise loadson
employees’hands,wrists, andarmscaused by poorposture;
Devicessuch as jigsandsuspension systems shouldbe considered inorder
toreducethe need to grip heavy tools tightly

Clothing-Vibration
All employees shall beprovided withprotective clothingwhen necessary
tokeepthemwarm and dry.Thiswillencourage good bloodcirculation

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whichshouldhelp

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protect themfrom developingvibration whitefinger; Glovescanbeusedto keep
handswarm,butshouldnotbereliedupontoprovideprotectionfromvibration.Notethatclothi
ngwillfallwithinthedefinitionofPPEandassuchfallswithinthescopeoftheInstructionsforPer
sonal ProtectiveEquipment Use andStorage.

HealthEffectsandSurveillance
EstateDevelopmentServicemustprovidehealthsurveillanceforallemployeeswho,despite
action tocontrol the risk,are likelytobe regularlyexposed abovethe exposurelevels
orareconsidered to be at riskfor anyother reason.
Whenhandheldvibratorypowertools,equipmentandplantareused,withoutsuitablecontrols
,thereisapossibilityofemployeesusingthesetoolsandequipmentonaregularbasisofcontract
ing“hand-
armvibrationsyndrome”(HAVS)commonlyknownasVibrationWhiteFinger(VWF).Whenthis
equipmentisusedtheriskassessmentshoulddetailwhatcontrolsareinplacetoreducetherisk
ofinjury.Frequentusersofthisequipmentshouldbemonitoredorundertakeregularhealthch
ecks

Controlling Construction Noise


Controllingconstructionnoisecanposespecialproblemsforcontractors.Unlikegeneralindus
try,constructionactivitiesarenotalwaysstationary
andinonelocation.Constructionactivitiesoftentake placeoutside where theycan
beaffected
byweather,windtunnels,topography,atmosphereandlandscaping.Constructionnoisemak
ers,e.g., heavy earthmoving equipment, canmove fromlocation to location and islikely
tovaryconsiderably inits intensity throughouta work day
Highnoiselevelsonconstructionworksitescanbeloweredbyusingcommonlyacceptedengine
eringandadministrativecontrols.Thisbookletisfilledwithtipsothercontractorsandhaveuse
dtolowerthenoiselevelsonconstructionworksites.Normally,earplugsand othertypes
ofpersonalprotectiveequipment(PPE)are used
tocontrolaworker’sexposuretonoisyequipmentandworkareas.However,asarule,engineeri
ngandadministrativecontrolsshouldalwaysbethepreferredmethodofreducingnoiselevelso
nworksites.Only,whenthesecontrolsareprovenunfeasible,earplugs as
apermanentsolutionshould beconsidered.
EngineeringControls
Engineeringcontrolsmodifytheequipmentortheworkareatomakeitquieter.Examplesofengi
neeringcontrolsare:substitutingexistingequipmentwithquieterequipment;retro-
fittingexistingequipmentwithdampingmaterials,mufflers,orenclosures; erectingbarriers;
and maintenance.
AdministrativeControls
Thesearemanagementdecisionsonworkactivities,workrotationandworkloadtoreducework
ers’exposuretohighnoiselevels.Typicalmanagementdecisionsthatreduceworkerexposures
tonoiseare:movingworkersawayfromthenoisesource;restrictingaccesstoareas;rotatingwo
rkersperformingnoisytasks;andshuttingdown noisyequipmentwhennotneeded.
Personal ProtectiveEquipment
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EarplugsarethetypicalPPEgiventoworkerstoreducetheirexposuretonoise.Earplugsarethe
controloflastresortandshouldonlybeprovidedwhenothermeansofnoisecontrolsareinfeasib
le.Asageneralrule,workersshouldbeusingearplugswhenevertheyareexposedtonoiselevels
of85dB(A)orwhentheyhavetoshoutinorder to communicate.
Noise
Anysignalthatdoesnotconveyusefulinformation,itcancausestressoraggravationand
loudnoise canbedamagingto theear resultingineither temporary
orpermanenthearingloss.Ideally,dailyexposurelevelstonoiseshouldnotexceed80dBandpe
aksound pressure should not exceed135dB. Wherethey
do,adequatehearingprotectionmustbe made availabletoemployeesupon
theirrequest.Where85dBisexceeded(daily),and137dB(peak),mandatoryhearingprotection
measuresmustbeintroduced.
Workstationdesign –Noise
Silencers shall be used wherever possible on equipment;Noisy work shall be
restrictedto onearea whereverpossible
Clothing-Noise
Noise at workcan cause hearingloss which can be either temporaryor
permanent,depending onthe person,the level ofnoise and the
durationofwork.Ifemployees
aresubjectedtolongdurationsorhighfrequencynoiseonaregularbasisthentheyshould
havehearing tests on aregular basis
Review of RoutineTasksUndertakenandDetermination ofExposureLevels
Oncethenatureoftheworkplace,thetasksandtoolsorequipmenttobeusedareknown,Estate
DevelopmentServicewillprepareandmaintainrecordstoassistmanagementandemployeesi
dentifyrisksandtheirnecessarycontrolmeasures.Inthiscontextandinadditiontoriskassess
mentsandmethodstatements,recordswillinclude schedules containingthe following
information:
Noise:
Areas orworkplaces designatedas Hearing ProtectionZones
Type of earprotectiondevicesand level of
protection/soundreductionafforded
Sound levelsgeneratedbyhand tools,equipment and the like to assist
incalculatingdailyor weekly personalexposure limits

2.3weardebrisanalysis
Weargeneratesdebris.Thedebriscomesinawidevarietyofsizesandshapes.Weardebristurns
motoroilblack.Youcanseeitonyourhandsifyoushakehandswithyourgaragemechanic.Theb
lackinusedoilislikeapigment—itisnanometer-sizecolloidalmetalparticles (and
carbon)suspended in theoil.
Ifyoutakeanoilfilterapart,youwillfindothertypesofweardebris.Someareshinymetalparticle
s

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visibletothenakedeyeandinthemillimetersizecategory.Ifyouareinthesurfaceminingbusine
ss,youwillfindevenlargermetalparticlesinthegravelproducedbyrockcrushers.Thisismetal
thatisgougedfromthemetaljawsinthecrusher.Inafactorygrindingroom,dustsweptupfromt
hefloorandexaminedinascanningelectron microscopewillshow perfectmicron-size
metalspheres from
rapidlysolidifyingdropsofmoltenmetalgeneratedbythegrindingwheel.Examplesoftheseuni
que debrisparticleswill be foundlater inthis chapter.
Weardebrisrepresentslossofgeometricaccuracyofmovingcontactingparts.Itcanalsofoulori
ficesandclosespacedparts.Althoughthetotalmateriallostasweardebris in a machineis
minute compared tothe volume and weightof the moving parts,itcan signalfailureof
gears orbearings, andexpensive repairs orwarranty payments

Wear DebrisAnalysis
Thebasicprincipleofoperationissimple.Arepresentativesampleofoilistestedthroughthe
following cycle.
1. Obtain anoil sample fromamachine.
2. Inthe laboratorytake a measured amountof the fluid anddepositintoa
cleanbeaker. The sampleis thendiluted with asolvent
3. Drawthe samplethrough a membrane filter or use a magnetic
separationtechniquesuchas the rotaryparticledepositor to separate the solids
fromthefluid.
4. The amountof ferrous wear isquantifiedby means of adebrisanalyser such
asthePQ2000 manufacturedby SwanseaTribologyCentre.
5. Visuallyanalyse the debrisat100x magnificationundera reflected
lightmicroscopequantifying the following parameters
Type ofparticle(relating to themechanismof removal)o
Averageparticlessize
oMaximum particlesizeo
Contamination index
Theseparametersarethentrendedinacustomdesignedsoftwarepackageandthediagnosticia
nawards the unita Health Status.The health status
isasingleparameterwhichgivestheunitalevelofthreat.(Healthstatusisaparameterbetween1
-5with1 being a healthy machine and5 being a
machinewhichisimminentlythreatenedwithfailure.)
6. Repeattheprocedure at a decided time interval.

Wear debrisanalysis is a relativelysimple procedure notrequiring ahigh skillslevel


toperform.Evensotheresultsgiveadirectindicationastothelevelofthreatanddamagewithini
ndustrialdrivesabsentfromsomeofthemoresophisticatedtechniques

VisualandMicroscopicExaminationofthe DebrisSamples
Visualandmicroscopicexamination ofthe sampleis asimportant a
sourceofinformationastheregular testingof the debrissamples.

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Priortofilteringthesample,examinationofthesamplevisuallywithinthesamplebottle gives
useful information.Water presentwithin the oilsample canclearly be seeneitherin
theform of emulsification oras adistinctwaterlayer. The general cleanlinesslevel of
theoil may also bedetermined.
Oncefiltered thedebris shouldbe visually examined prior tomicroscopic
examination.Thepresenceofwaterwithinthelubricantcanbedetectedfromthefilterpaper.Th
isisseenintheformoflightcircularareasonthefilterpaper.Wateralsosometimesoxidizesthefe
rrousmaterial,andthepresenceofrustindicatestheingressofwater.Watereffectstheviscosit
yofthelubricant,considerablyreducingtheeffectofthelubricant,increasingwearratesandsh
ouldbeavoided.Frequentlygearboxesbecomecontaminatedwithmineral particlessuch
assilica, coal andshale. Theseproduce fineabrasive wear particles normallyonlyobserved
underthemicroscope. The
uncheckedpresenceofmineralparticlesspecificallyquartzitewithit'shighhardnessshouldbe
avoided.
Themineralparticlesinsuspensionactasagrindingmediumandproducesexcessivebearingw
earwhichleadstolossofgearandshaftlocationwhichfurther accelerates the
wearingprocess.

2.4Conditionmonitoringconceptsappliedtoindustries
Asastartingpointforanydiscussiononconditionmonitoringitisusefultodefinewhatismeant
bytheterm,andtodescribehowitrelatestoothertechniquesusedinthe operationand
maintenance of machines,suchas alarmandshut down systems ormethodsfor failure
andprobleminvestigation.
Well-
performedmaintenanceimpliesseeingasfewcorrectivemaintenanceactionsaspossiblewhile
performingaslittlepreventivemaintenanceaspossible.Thismightseemasautopia,butduring
thepastdecadesstrategiesandconceptshaveevolvedforsupport.Oneoftheseisconditionbas
edmaintenance.Inconditionbasedmaintenance,criticalitemcharacteristicsaremonitored(t
hrough,forexample,vibration ortemperature monitoring) inorder to gainearly
indicationsofan incipient failure. Research, though, hasshown that
conditionbasedmaintenance hasnot beenimplementedona wide
basis.Therefore,thepurposeofthisresearch is to investigatehowa condition
basedmaintenanceapproachcan beimplemented in anindustrial setting, andto developa
methodthat can
assistcompaniesintheirimplementationefforts.Further,theresearchhasbeendividedinthr
eeresearchquestions.Thefirstfocusesonconditionbasedmaintenanceasanapproach;
seekingconstituents
essentialtotakeintoconsiderationwhenimplementingtheapproach.Thesecondfocuses
onthedecision-makingprocessprioranimplementationcan
commence.Finally,thethirdfocusesontheimplementationoftheconditionbasedmaintenan
ceapproach in acompany

Byusingasystemsapproachandacasestudyprocess,howconditionbasedmaintenancecanb
eimplementedasaroutinehasbeeninvestigated.Theresultisanimplementationmethodinwh
ichfoursuggestedphasesarepresented.Themethodstartswithafeasibilitytest.Itthencontin
ueswithananalysisphase,animplementationphase,andanassessmentphase.Thesestepsar
etakeninorder,forexample,to investin theproper conditionbased maintenance
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approachandtoimplementitgradually.Theconclusionscanbesummarizedasfollows:imple
menting conditionbasedmaintenanceconsistsofmanygeneral
enablingfactors,includingmanagementsupport, educationandtraining,
goodcommunication,and motivationetc.
2.5 TotalProductiveMaintenance
TPMisamaintenanceprogramwhichinvolvesanewlydefinedconceptmaintaining
plantsandequipments.Thegoal
ofTPMprogramistosignificantlyincreasestheproduction,atthesametimeincreasing
employeemoraleandjobsatisfaction.TPMphilosophicallyresemblesTQM inmany aspect
such as

Requirementsofcommitment by top levelmanagementRequirementof


empowering employees to initiatecorrective actionAccepting long
range planonanyon goin process.
The five S principlesusedfor implementationsof TPM.SEIRI–
Sort out
SEITON–OrganizeSEISO–
Shine workplace
SEIKETSU–
StandardizationSHITSUKE – Self
disciplinevarious pillarsof TPM
5,S
Principlejishu
hozen(JH)
Kaizen
planned
maintenanceQualitymai
ntenance.training
office TPM
Safety, healthand
environmentImplementationofTPM
:

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Fig2.1 implement of total productivemaintenance

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The main objectives ofTPM areTo
achieve zero defects
Achieve zero accidents and zero break downs in all functional areas
ofan organization
To create different teamofpeople to have activeparticipation.To
aimat minimization ofdefects and
To inculcate autonomous policy.

Fig2.2pillarsoftotalproductivemaintenance

2.5.1Pillar1-5s:

TPMstartswith5S.Problemscannotbeclearlyseenwhentheworkplaceisunorganized.Cleani
ngandorganizingtheworkplacehelpstheteamtouncoverproblems. Making problems
visible is thefirst step ofimprovement

Table2.1 conceptof 5s

EnglishTra Equivalent
JapaneseTerm
nslation 'S'term

Seiri Organisation Sort

Seiton Tidiness Systematise

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Seiso Cleaning Sweep

Seiketsu Standardisation Standardise

Shitsuke Discipline Self - Discipline

SEIRI -Sortout :

Thismeanssortingandorganizingtheitemsascritical,important,frequentlyuseditems,
useless,or items thatare notneedasofnow. Unwanteditemscanbe
salvaged.Criticalitemsshouldbekeptforusenearbyanditemsthatarenotbeusedinnearfutur
e,shouldbestoredinsomeplace.Forthisstep,theworthoftheitemshouldbedecidedbasedonutil
ityandnotcost.Asaresultofthisstep,thesearchtimeisreduced.

SEITON -Organize:

Theconcepthereisthat"Eachitemshasaplace,andonlyoneplace".Theitemsshouldbeplacedb
ackafterusageatthesameplace.Toidentifyitemseasily,nameplatesandcoloredtagshastobe
used.Verticalrackscanbeusedforthispurpose,and heavyitems occupythebottom position
inthe racks.

SEISO -Shine theworkplace:

Thisinvolvescleaningtheworkplacefreeofburrs,grease,oil,waste,scrapetc.Noloosely
hangingwires oroilleakage from machines.

SEIKETSU -Standardization :

Employeeshas todiscuss together and decideon standards for keeping the workplace
/Machines/pathwaysneatandclean.Thisstandardsareimplementedforwholeorganization
andare tested / Inspected randomly.

SHITSUKE -Selfdiscipline :

Considering5Sas away oflifeand bringaboutself-disciplineamong the


employeesoftheorganization.Thisincludeswearingbadges,followingworkprocedures,punc
tuality,dedication tothe organizationetc

2.5.2 PILLAR 2 -JISHUHOZEN ( Autonomousmaintenance ):

Thispillarisgearedtowardsdevelopingoperatorstobeabletotakecareofsmallmaintenanceta
sks,thusfreeinguptheskilledmaintenancepeopletospendtimeonmorevalueaddedactivitya
ndtechnicalrepairs.Theoperatorsareresponsibleforupkeep of theirequipment to prevent
it from deteriorating.

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Policy :

1. Uninterrupted operationofequipments.
2. Flexibleoperatorsto operateandmaintainother equipments.
3. Eliminatingthedefectsatsource throughactive employee participation.
4. Stepwiseimplementation of JH activities.

JISHU HOZENTargets:

1. Prevent the occurrenceof1A /1Bbecause ofJH.


2. Reduceoilconsumption by50%
3. Reduceprocesstime by50%
4. Increaseuseof JHby50%

Steps in JISHUHOZEN:

1. Preparationofemployees.
2. Initialcleanup ofmachines.
3. Take counter measures
4. Fix tentative JHstandards
5. General inspection
6. Autonomousinspection
7. Standardizationand
8. Autonomousmanagement.

Each of theabovementioned stepsis discussed in detailbelow.

1. TraintheEmployees:EducatetheemployeesaboutTPM,Itsadvantages,JHadvantage
sandStepsinJH.Educatetheemployeesaboutabnormalitiesinequipments.
2. Initialcleanup ofmachines :
o Supervisorandtechnicianshoulddiscussandsetadateforimplementingstep1
o Arrangeallitems needed for cleaning
o Onthearrangeddate,employeesshouldcleantheequipmentcompletelywithth
e help ofmaintenancedepartment.
o Dust,stains,oils andgreasehas to be removed.
o Followingarethethingsthathastobetakencarewhilecleaning.TheyareOilleak
age,loosewires,unfastenednitsandboltsandwornoutparts.

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o Aftercleanupproblemsarecategorizedandsuitablytagged.Whitetagsisplacew
hereproblemscanbesolvedbyoperators.Pinktagisplacedwherethe aid
ofmaintenancedepartmentis needed.
o Contentsof tagis transferred toa register.
o Make noteofarea which were inaccessible.
o Finally close the openpartsofthe machineand run themachine.
3. CounterMeasures :
o Inaccessibleregionshadtobereachedeasily.E.g.Iftherearemanyscrewtoopen
aflywheeldoor,hingedoorcanbeused.Insteadofopening a doorfor
inspectingthemachine, acrylic sheets canbe used.
o To prevent workoutofmachine partsnecessary actionmustbe taken.
o Machinepartsshouldbemodifiedtopreventaccumulationofdirtanddust.
4. TentativeStandard :
o JH schedule hasto bemade and followedstrictly.
o Scheduleshouldbemaderegardingcleaning,inspectionandlubricationand it
also shouldincludedetailslike when,what andhow.
5. General Inspection :
o TheemployeesaretrainedindisciplineslikePneumatics,electrical,hydraulics,
lubricantand coolant,drives,bolts, nutsand Safety.
o Thisisnecessarytoimprovethetechnicalskillsofemployeesandtouseinspectio
nmanualscorrectly.
o Afteracquiring thisnewknowledgetheemployees shouldsharethis
withothers.
o Byacquiringthisnewtechnicalknowledge,theoperatorsarenowwellaware
ofmachine parts.
6. AutonomousInspection :
o Newmethods ofcleaning andlubricating areused.
o Eachemployeeprepareshisownautonomouschart/scheduleinconsultationw
ithsupervisor.
o Partswhichhavenevergivenanyproblemorpartwhichdon'tneedanyinspectio
nareremoved fromlist permanentlybasedon experience.
o Includinggood qualitymachine parts.This avoiddefects due to poor JH.
o Inspectionthatismadein preventivemaintenanceisincluded in JH.
o The frequencyof cleanup andinspection is reducedbasedonexperience.
7. Standardization:
o Uptothepreviousstemonlythemachinery/equipmentwastheconcentration.
Howeverinthisstepthesurroundingsofmachineryareorganized.Necessaryite
msshouldbeorganized,suchthatthereisnosearching andsearchingtime is
reduced.

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o Workenvironmentismodifiedsuchthatthereisnodifficultyingettingany item.
o Everybodyshould followthe workinstructions strictly.
o Necessary spares forequipments isplannedandprocured.
8. AutonomousManagement :
o OEEandOPEandotherTPMtargetsmustbeachievedbycontinuousimprove
throughKaizen.
o PDCA ( Plan,Do, CheckandAct ) cycle must beimplemented for Kaizen.

2.5.3 PILLAR 3 -KAIZEN:

"Kai"meanschange,and"Zen"meansgood(forthebetter).Basicallykaizenisforsmall
improvements,butcarried outonacontinual basisand involveallpeoplein
theorganization.Kaizenisoppositetobigspectacularinnovations.Kaizenrequiresnoorlittlein
vestment.Theprinciplebehindisthat"averylargenumberofsmallimprovementsaremoveeffe
ctiveinanorganizationalenvironmentthanafewimprovementsoflargevalue.Thispillarisaim
edatreducinglossesintheworkplacethataffectourefficiencies.Byusingadetailedandthorou
ghprocedureweeliminatelossesinasystematicmethodusingvariousKaizentools.Theseactiv
itiesarenotlimitedto production areasand can beimplemented in administrativeareas as
well.

Kaizen Policy :

1. Practiceconceptsof zero losses inevery sphere ofactivity.


2. relentlesspursuit to achieve cost reduction targets inall resources
3. Relentlesspursuit toimproveoverall plant equipmenteffectiveness.
4. Extensiveuseof PManalysisas atoolforeliminating losses.
5. Focus of easyhandlingofoperators.

KaizenTarget :

Achieveandsustainzeroloseswithrespecttominorstops,measurementandadjustments,def
ectsandunavoidabledowntimes.Italsoaimstoachieve30%manufacturing cost reduction.

Toolsused inKaizen:

1. PM analysis
2. Why-Why analysis
3. Summaryoflosses
4. Kaizenregister
5. Kaizensummary sheet.

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TheobjectiveofTPMismaximizationofequipmenteffectiveness.TPMaimsatmaximization
ofmachineutilizationandnot merely machine
availabilitymaximization.AsoneofthepillarsofTPMactivities,Kaizenpursuesefficientequip
ment,operatorandmaterialandenergyutilization,thatisextremesofproductivityandaimsata
chievingsubstantialeffects.Kaizenactivitiestrytothoroughlyeliminate16majorlosses.

Majorlossesina organisation:

Loss Category

1. Failure losses-
Breakdownloss
2. Setup / adjustment losses
3. Cuttingblade loss
4. Start up loss
Losses that impede equipment efficiency
5. Minorstoppage /Idling loss.
6. Speed loss -operatingat
lowspeeds.
7. Defect/ rework loss
8. Scheduleddowntime loss

9. Managementloss
10. Operatingmotionloss
11. Line organization loss Loses that impede human work efficiency
12. Logistic loss
13. Measurement
andadjustmentloss

14. Energy loss


Loses that impede effectiveuseof
15. Die,jig and toolbreakage loss productionresources
16. Yield loss.

Classificationof losses:

Aspect SporadicLoss Chronic Loss

Causesfor thisfailure canbe This loss cannot be


Causation easily traced. Cause-effect easilyidentifiedandsolved.
relationship is Even ifvarious
simpletotrace. countermeasuresare applied

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This type oflosses
Remedy Easy toestablisha arecausedbecauseof
remedialmeasure hiddendefects in
machine,equipment
andmethods.
Impact/Loss
Asingle loss can becostly Asingle causeis rare -
acombination ofcauses
trendsto be arule
Frequencyof The frequencyof The frequencyof loss
occurrence occurrenceislow and ismore.
occasional.

Specialists in
processengineering,
Usuallythe qualityassurance
Correctiveaction linepersonnelinthe andmaintenancepeople are
productioncan attendtothis required.
problem.

2.5.4 PILLAR 4 -PLANNEDMAINTENANCE:

Itisaimedtohavetroublefreemachinesandequipmentsproducingdefectfreeproductsfortota
lcustomersatisfaction.Thisbreaksmaintenancedowninto4"families" orgroupswhich
wasdefinedearlier.

1. PreventiveMaintenance
2. BreakdownMaintenance
3. CorrectiveMaintenance
4. Maintenance Prevention

WithPlannedMaintenanceweevolveoureffortsfromareactivetoaproactivemethodandusetr
ainedmaintenancestafftohelptraintheoperatorstobettermaintaintheirequipment.

Policy :

1. Achieveandsustainavailabilityofmachines
2. Optimum maintenance cost.
3. Reducesspares inventory.
4. Improve reliabilityand maintainabilityofmachines.

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Target :

1. Zero equipmentfailure andbreakdown.


2. Improve reliability andmaintainabilityby50 %
3. Reducemaintenance cost by20%
4. Ensureavailabilityof sparesall the time.

Six steps in Plannedmaintenance:

1. Equipmentevaluation andrecoding present status.


2. Restoredeteriorationandimprove weakness.
3. Buildingupinformationmanagement system.
4. Preparetimebasedinformationsystem,selectequipment,partsandmembersand
map out plan.
5. Preparepredictivemaintenancesystembyintroducingequipmentdiagnostictechniq
uesand
6. Evaluationofplanned maintenance.

2.5.5 PILLAR 5 -QUALITY MAINTENANCE :

Itisaimedtowardscustomerdelightthroughhighestqualitythroughdefectfreemanufacturin
g.Focusisoneliminatingnon-
conformancesinasystematicmanner,muchlikeFocusedImprovement.Wegainunderstandi
ngofwhatpartsoftheequipment affectproduct qualityandbegin to eliminatecurrent
quality
concerns,thenmovetopotentialqualityconcerns.Transitionisfromreactivetoproactive(Qual
ityControlto Quality Assurance).

QMactivitiesistosetequipmentconditionsthatprecludequalitydefects,basedonthebasiccon
ceptofmaintainingperfectequipmenttomaintainperfectqualityofproducts.Theconditionare
checkedandmeasureintimeseriestoverythatmeasurevaluesarewithinstandardvaluestopr
eventdefects.Thetransitionofmeasuredvaluesiswatchedtopredictpossibilitiesofdefectsocc
urringandtotakecountermeasuresbeforehand.

Policy :

1. Defectfree conditionsand control ofequipments.


2. QM activitiestosupport qualityassurance.
3. Focus ofprevention ofdefectsat source
4. Focus onpoka-yoke.( fool proofsystem )
5. In-linedetectionand segregationofdefects.
6. Effectiveimplementationof operatorquality assurance.

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Target :

1. Achieveandsustaincustomer complaints atzero


2. Reducein-processdefectsby50 %
3. Reduce cost of qualityby50 %.

Data requirements :

Quality defectsareclassified as customerend defectsandin house defects.Forcustomer-


enddata, wehave to getdataon

1. Customerend line rejection


2. Field complaints.

In-house, dataincludedata relatedtoproductsand datarelated toprocess

Datarelated toproduct :

1. Product wisedefects
2. Severityofthe defectand its contribution -major/minor
3. Location ofthedefectwith referenceto thelayout
4. Magnitude andfrequency of its occurrence at eachstage ofmeasurement
5. Occurrence trend in beginning and the end of
eachproduction/process/changes. (Like pattern
change,ladle/furnace liningetc.)
6. Occurrence trend with respect to restoration
ofbreakdown/modifications/periodical replacementof
qualitycomponents.

Datarelated toprocesses:

1. Theoperatingconditionforindividualsub-processrelatedtomen,method,material
andmachine.
2. The standardsettings/conditions ofthe sub-process
3. The actualrecord of the settings/conditionsduring the defectoccurrence.

2.5.6 PILLAR 6 -TRAINING :

Itisaimedtohavemulti-
skilledrevitalizedemployeeswhosemoraleishighandwhohaseagertocometoworkandperfor
mallrequiredfunctionseffectivelyandindependently.Educationisgiventooperatorstoupgra
detheirskill.Itisnotsufficient knowonly "Know-How" by theyshould also learn "Know-
why". Byexperiencetheygain,"Know-
How"toovercomeaproblemwhattobedone.Thistheydowithoutknowingtherootcauseofthepr
oblemandwhytheyaredoingso.Henceitbecomenecessarytotrainthemonknowing"Know-

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why".Theemployeesshouldbetrainedtoachievethefourphasesofskill.Thegoalistocreateafa
ctoryfullofexperts.Thedifferentphaseof skills are

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Policy :

1. Focus onimprovement ofknowledge,skills andtechniques.


2. Creatinga training environment for selflearningbased onfeltneeds.
3. Training curriculum / tools /assessment etc conductive to
employeerevitalization
4. Training to remove employee fatigue and make work enjoyable.

Target :

1. Achieveandsustaindowntimedue towantmen at zero on criticalmachines.


2. Achieveandsustain zero lossesdue to lackofknowledge/ skills / techniques
3. Aim for 100 % participationinsuggestion scheme.

Steps in Educatingand trainingactivities :

1. Settingpoliciesandprioritiesandcheckingpresentstatusofeducationandtraining.
2. Establishoftrainingsystem foroperation andmaintenanceskill upgradation.
3. Training the employeesforupgradingthe operationand maintenance skills.
4. Preparationoftraining calendar.
5. Kick-offofthesystem fortraining.
6. Evaluationofactivitiesand study of future approach.

2.5.7 PILLAR 7 -OFFICE TPM:

OfficeTPMshouldbestartedafteractivatingfourotherpillarsofTPM(JH,KK,QM,PM).OfficeTP
Mmustbefollowedtoimproveproductivity,efficiencyintheadministrativefunctionsandident
ifyandeliminatelosses.Thisincludesanalyzingprocessesandprocedurestowardsincreased
officeautomation.OfficeTPMaddressestwelvemajorlosses.They are

1. Processing loss
2. Cost loss including in areassuch
asprocurement,accounts,marketing,salesleading to highinventories
3. Communication loss
4. Idleloss
5. Set-up loss
6. Accuracy loss
7. Office equipmentbreakdown
8. Communication channelbreakdown,telephoneand faxlines

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9. Time spent on retrievalofinformation
10. Non availabilityof correct on linestock status
11. Customercomplaintsdueto logistics
12. Expensesonemergency dispatches/purchases

Howto start office TPM?

Asenior personfrom oneof the support functions e.g. HeadofFinance,MIS,


Purchaseetcshould beheadingthesub-committee. Members representing all support
functionsand people fromProduction& Qualityshouldbe included in sub committee.TPM
co-ordinate plansandguides the sub committee.

1. Providingawarenessabout officeTPM to allsupportdepartments


2. Helpingthem toidentifyP,Q,C, D,S, M ineach functionin relation
toplantperformance
3. Identifythe scopefor improvementineach function
4. Collectrelevant data
5. Helpthem tosolveproblems intheir circles
6. Make upan activityboard whereprogress is monitoredonboth sides -resultsand
actionsalongwith Kaizens.
7. Fan out tocoverallemployees andcircles in allfunctions.

Kobetsu Kaizen topicsfor OfficeTPM :

 Inventory reduction
 Lead time reduction ofcriticalprocesses
 Motion&spacelosses
 Retrievaltime reduction.
 Equalizingthe workload
 Improvingtheoffice efficiencybyeliminating the timeloss on retrieval
ofinformation,byachieving zero breakdownof officeequipmentlike
telephoneand fax lines.

Office TPMand its Benefits:

1. Involvementofall people in support functions forfocusingonbetter


plantperformance
2. Betterutilized workarea
3. Reducerepetitive work
4. Reducedinventory levelsinallpartsof thesupply chain
5. Reducedadministrativecosts
6. Reducedinventory carryingcost

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7. Reduction in number of files
8. Reductionofoverheadcosts (to include cost of non-production/non
capitalequipment)
9. Productivityofpeoplein support functions
10. Reduction in breakdown ofofficeequipment
11. Reductionofcustomer complaintsdue tologistics
12. Reduction inexpensesdue to emergency dispatches/purchases
13. Reducedmanpower
14. Clean andpleasant work environment.

P Q C D SMin Office TPM:

P-Productionoutputlost due to want ofmaterial,


Manpowerproductivity,Productionoutput lost dueto wantof tools.

Q- Mistakesin preparationof cheques,bills,invoices,


payroll,Customerreturns/warranty attributable toBOPs, Rejection/reworkin
BOP's/job work, Officearea rework.

C-Buying cost/unitproduced,Cost oflogistics- inbound/outbound, Costof


carryinginventory,Costof communication,Demurragecosts.

D- Logisticslosses (Delay in loading/unloading)

 Delayin delivery due to any ofthesupport functions


 Delayin paymentsto suppliers
 Delayin information

S- Safety in materialhandling/stores/logistics, Safetyof soft andhard data.M-

Number ofkaizensin office areas.

How officeTPMsupports plantTPM :

Office TPMsupportstheplant, initiallyin doing Jishu Hozen of themachines


(aftergetting trainingof Jishu Hozen), as in JishuHozen atthe

1. Initial stages machines aremore andmanpoweris less, so the helpofcommercial


departments canbe taken, forthis
2. Office TPM caneliminate the lodes onlinefor no materialand logistics.

Extensionofoffice TPMtosuppliers anddistributors :

Thisisessential,butonlyafterwehavedoneasmuchaspossibleinternally.Withsuppliers it
will lead to on-timedelivery,improved 'in-coming'qualityandcost

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reduction.Withdistributorsitwillleadtoaccuratedemandgeneration,improvedsecondarydi
stributionandreductionindamagesduringstorageandhandling.Inanycasewewillhavetotea
chthembasedonourexperienceandpracticeandhighlightgapsinthesystemwhichaffectboth
sides.Incaseofsomeofthelargercompanies,they havestarted to supportclusters
ofsuppliers.

2.5.8 PILLAR 8 -SAFETY,HEALTH ANDENVIRONMENT:

Target :

1. Zero accident,
2. Zero healthdamage
3. Zero fires.

Inthisareafocusisontocreateasafeworkplaceandasurroundingareathatisnotdamagedbyo
urprocessorprocedures.Thispillarwillplayanactiveroleineachofthe otherpillarson a
regularbasis.

Acommitteeisconstitutedforthispillarwhichcomprisesrepresentativeofofficersaswellaswo
rkers.ThecommitteeisheadedbySeniorvicePresident(Technical).UtmostimportancetoSafe
tyisgivenintheplant.Manager(Safety)islookingafterfunctionsrelatedtosafety.Tocreateawa
renessamongemployeesvariouscompetitionslikesafetyslogans,Quiz,Drama,Posters,etc.r
elatedtosafetycanbeorganized atregular intervals.

2.6 EconomicsOfMaintenance

ConceptofpreventiveMaintenanceispresentlyacceptedinmostoftheindustriesinordertoac
hievetheir plannedproduction. Bothproductionand maintenance havethesameobjective-
toproduceaqualityproductatmaximumefficiencyandminimumcost.
Theoreticallymaintenanceshouldaimatkeepingthemachinesandotherfacilitiesinaconditio
nthatallowsthemtobeusedwithoutanyinterruptionandattheirmaximumprofitmakingcapa
city.Suchasituationcanbeassuredinpracticeonlyifmachines arereplaced frequently or ifa
stand-bymachine ismaintained whichcan
beputintooperationasandwhentheoriginalunitisstoppedforchecks,repairsandcomponent
replacements.
But,noindustrialunitcanpossiblyaffordtothrowawayitscapitalresourcesbyreplacing
machinesfrequently,norcanacompanyblockitsmoneyinequipmentthatwillbeonly
partiallyutilisedbyhaving stand-bys.
Anorganisationhas, undersuch circumstances,toacceptacertain
lossinproductivecapacityofitsinvestmentstoenablemaintenance,toexaminethevariouseq
uipment,repairif not inorder,and putthem back in acondition asrequired bythe users.

AnalysisofMaintenanceCost

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Downtimeofanequipmentcostsmoney
tothecompany,whichismadeupofmaintenancelabourspent,materialsandsparesconsume
d,andsupervisionexercised.Lossofrevenueduetodowntimebecauseofmaintenance,howeve
r,providesasavingtotheorganisationthroughmaintenanceengineeringandmanagementext
ensionoftheusefullifeofplantandfacilitiesandthroughmaintainingthemattheoptimumstan
dardsofoperation.Thissavingconsistsofreductioninwastageandscrappingofmaterials,hig
herlevelofemployeemoraleandtheirsafety,minimisationofprocesstimeandpostponementof
thenecessityofinvestmentforcapitalreplacement.Managementofmaintenancehas,therefor
e,toconcernitselfwiththebalancingofcosts against
gainssoastoevolvethemostsuitablepoliciesanddeterminethemaintenanceeffortrequired,w
hichassaidearlier,isafunctionofcostanditcanvaryfromIndustrytoIndustry.Inestablishing
asystematicmaintenancesystem,thefollowingstagesarenormally gone through.

0stage -Only break-downmaintenance


1st stage -Breakdownmaintenance +certain amount of cleaningand lubrication2nd
stage -Breakdownmaintenance + plannedlubrication andinspection
3rdstage-Inadditiontodegree2,preventivereplacementofspares(renewal)iscarriedout
4th stage -In additionto degree3, thereareperiodic maintenanceschedules
includingoverhauls
5th stage -In additionto degree4, predictivemaintenancetechniques
areadopted.Fromaboveitisassumedthatasthedegreeofmaintenanceeffortincreasesthenu
mber ofbreakdown decreases,while onthe other hand maintenance
costincreases.Hence,theremust besome compromise inordertoachievethe
optimummaintenanceeffort.

2.7 computeraidedMaintenance

Computer-aidedmaintenancethatutilize
softwaretoorganizeplanning,schedulingandsupportofmaintenanceandrepair.Acommona
pplicationofsuchsystemsisthemaintenanceofcomputers,eitherhardwareorsoftware,them
selves.Itcanalsoapplytothemaintenanceofothercomplexsystemsthatrequireperiodicmaint
enance,suchasremindingoperatorsthatpreventivemaintenanceisdueorevenpredictingwh
ensuch maintenance should beperformedbased onrecorded pastexperience
Significantadvancesincomputerhardwareandsoftwaredevelopmenthaveaffectedmostarea
sofbusinessandindustry,andtheareaofmaintenanceplanningandmanagementisnoexcepti
on.Theuseofcomputerizedmaintenancemanagementsystems,whicharecommonlyreferred
toasCMMS,isnolongeraluxuryorfrivolousbusinessoverhead;inmanycases,itisrequiremen
t.EnterprisesthatwanttoattainISO,QScertificationwilldiscoverthatapplicationofCMMSisa
fundamentalrequirementtosuccessfullyobtainand maintainsuch certifications.
Avarietyofsoftwarepackagesareavailable,andmanyhavebeenaroundforanumberofyears.T
oday,CMMSareusedforallaspectsofmaintenanceplanning,managementandcontrol.CMM
Smustbeflexibleandadaptable,becauseeveryfirmisconsideredunique.Ageneralguidehasb
eendeveloped,whichcaneasilybeappliedtospecificsituationstoassistinjustifyingthecompu
terforMaintenanceSystemEvaluation(MSE).MSEhasalwaysrequiredthemanipulationoflar
geamountsofdataanddevelopmentofmorecost-effectiveprocessingstorage
anddatabasesystems has

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broughttheuseofcomputerstotheforeinthisarea.Since,therelationshipsarecomplexbetwee
nfactorsaffectingmaintenanceactivitiesandtheirinteractions;acomputer-
aidedmodelisdevelopedwithmainpurposeofdeterminingtheevaluationfactorsandtheirpoin
ters.Thismodelwillapproximatethecomplexrelationsforpracticalpurposes..Itwillalsoperfor
minstantcorrectiveactionsrequiredaccordingtothedegreeofdeviationanditseffectonthepro
ductioncontinuationandwiththeminimum shutdownspossible

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Unit – III
Reliability: Definition, conceptof reliability based design, failure rate,
MTTF,MTBF, failure pattern,systemreliability:Series,Paralleland
Mixedconfigurations
- Availabilityand Maintainability concepts- Applications.

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3.1 Reliability:
 Theterm“reliability”inengineeringreferstotheprobabilitythataproduct,asystemora
particularcomponentwillperformwithoutfailureunderthespecifiedconditionandfor
aspecificperiodoftime.Thus,itisalsoknownasthe “probabilityof survival”.
 Toquantifyreliability,atestisusuallyconductedtoobtainasetof“time-to-
failure”sampledata;say{ti,i=1,N).Thesamplecanthen
befittedtoaprobabilitydensityfunction,f(t),ortoaprobabilitycumulativefunction,F(t)
.The“reliabilityfunction”isdefinedas:R(t)=1-
F(t).HencethebehaviorofR(t)isconjugatetothatofF(t),thecumulativeprobabilityoffail
ureintime.However,failureofanengineeringproduct,orsystem,maystemfromsuchr
andom factors asmaterial defects,loss ofprecision,accidentaloverload
,environmentalcorrosion, etc.The effects
onfailureofthetheserandomfactorsareonlyimplicitinthecollecteddata{ti,i=1,N);andi
tisdifficulttoascertainwhichfactor is predominantand when itis
predominant,fromusingF(t).

3.2IndicesofReliability
Reliabilitycanbespecifiedbytwoparametersnamely:
1. Mean time betweenfailures (MTBF)
MTBFis thecritical characteristicfor repairable system and is themean or averagetime
between twosuccessive failuresof the system.MTBF can beobtainedby runningan item
or equipment for apredeterminedlength of time under specified conditionsand
calculating the averagelengthof time betweenfailures.
Iffor example, an itemfailssix timesin anoperating periodof 60,000hrs, MTBF
is 10,000 hrs.However, ifthe identicalitems operatingunder similar
conditionsarestudied,MTBF
isgiven by:
MTBF= (Total operatinghoursof allitems)/Total numberof failuresthat occur
For example if 20 identicalitems operate for 5,000hrsduring which 40failuresoccurand
are
rectified,MTB
F =40
5000×20
= 2,500 hrs
MTBF can also be expressed as the inverse of failure rate, λ as follows:
MTBF =1/λ
The exponentialdistribution,the most basic and widely used reliability
predictionformula,modelsmachineswith the constant failure rate, or the flatsection of
thebathtub curve. Mostindustrialmachines spendmostof their lives inthe
constantfailurerate, soit iswidely applicable. Belowis the basic equation forestimating
thereliability of amachine that followsthe exponential distribution.

wherethe failurerate is constant as afunction oftime:

Where:
R(t) = Reliabilityestimate for a periodof time,cycles, miles,etc. (t).
e=Base of thenatural logarithms(2.718281828)
λ = Failure rate (1/MTBF)

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Ifforexample,we assume aconstant failure rate of0.1 fora primemover and
runningforsix years
withouta failure, the projectedreliability is 55 percent,which iscalculatedas follows:R(6)
= 2.718281828-(0.1* 6)
R(6) = 0.5488 =~ 55%
In other words,after six years, about45%of the population ofsimilar
primemoveroperating insimilarapplicationcan be expected tofail. It isworth reiterating
atthispoint that thesecalculationsprojectthe probabilityforapopulation.Any
givenindividual from the populationcould fail onthefirst dayof operationwhile
anotherindividualcouldlast 30years.That is the
natureofprobabilisticreliabilityprojections.

Ifforexample,we assume aconstant failure rate of0.1 for a primemover and


runningforsix yearswithout afailure,the projected reliabilityis 55 percent,
whichiscalculated asfollows:
R(6) = 2.718281828-(0.1*
6)R(6) = 0.5488 =~ 55%
In other words,after six years, about45%of the population ofsimilar
primemoveroperating insimilarapplicationcan be expected tofail. It isworth reiterating
atthispoint that thesecalculationsprojectthe probabilityforapopulation.Any
givenindividual from the populationcould fail onthefirst dayof operationwhile
anotherindividualcouldlast 30years.That is the
natureofprobabilisticreliabilityprojections.

2.Meantimetofailure(MTTF)
This is used forcomponentsor items thatarenotrepairable such as filament
lamps,fuses,resistors,capacitors,etc. The value ofMTTFcan becalculated from
lifetestresults,whichcan beobtainedbystressingalarge numberof
componentsunderknown conditions foraperiodand noting thenumberof failures.

MTTF= (Length of testtime)/ (Number of failures).


Anothermethod whichthough is moreaccuratebut costly is runtofailure
specifiednumber ofcomponents underspecifiedconditions.

3.3Failure Rate
 Failureisanyeventthatadverselyaffectssystemcriteria.Forexample,thecriteriacould
includeoutputinasold-
outcondition,ormaintenancecostorcapitalresourcesinaconstrainedbudgetcycle,en
vironmentalexcursionsorsafety,etc.

 Failurerateisthetimerateofchangeoftheprobabilityoffailure.Sincethelatterisafuncti
onoftime,failurerateisalsoafunctionoftime.However,intermsoffailurerate,onecano
btainphysicalinformationastowhichfactoriscontrollingthefailurebehaviorand/orw
henitiscontrollingthefailurebehavior.

 Thefailurerateisabasiccomponentofmanymorecomplexreliabilitycalculations.Dep
endinguponthemechanical/electricaldesign,operatingcontext,environmentand/o
rmaintenanceeffectiveness,amachine’sfailurerateasafunctionoftimemaydecline,re
mainconstant,increaselinearlyorincrease geometrically

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Fig3.1ProfileofEquipmentFailure(BathTubCurve)

Failures donot generally occurat auniform rate, but followadistribution in


timecommonlydescribedas a"bathtub curve." Thelife of a device can be divided into
threeregions:
(i) InfantMortality Period:This periodisthatof‘running in’, where the failure
rateprogressively improves.
 The failure rate is generally high but shortbeforedecreasingdue to design
ormanufacturingerrors, defective parts,defectsinmaterials,
misuse,misapplication, outof manufacturing tolerance. Failure at this period
can beavoided by subjectingthe product to specifiedperiod ofsimulated tests,in

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hope

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thatmost early failuresare weeded out,vigorous tests during
commissioning,design improvement,stricter material selection, tightenedquality
control, andthe useof redundancy, which is built intotheproduct to provide
afail-safefeature.
(ii) UsefulLifePeriod:Atthisperiod,failurerateisatitslowestandremainsconstantforprod
uctsthatdonotcontainfataldefectsorthathavesurvivedtheinfancy period.
 This constant-rate modeis generallydue to randomevents
fromwithout,ratherthanbyinherentfactorsfromwithin.Sucheventsarebeyondtheco
ntrolduringtheperiodsofdesign,prototypedevelopment,manufacturing,etc.butmay
be resultthrougheither accident orpoor operationormaintenance.
 Failuresmaybereducedbyfollowinggoodoperatingandmaintenanceprocedures.The
constantrateperiodisoftenusedtoformulatethepricing,Guarantee andservicing
policiesoftheproduct;thelatterisofparticularimportanceincommerce.Productwitha
constantfailureratehastheuniqueattributethatitsprobabilityoffailureisindependen
toftheproductspastservicelife; this aspectaids theease of
 mathematicalmodellinginrepairfrequency,spare-
partinventory,maintenanceschedule,etc.
(iii) WearOutPeriod:Theperiodoccurstowardthetailendoftheproductusefullifeandisasso
ciatedwithincreasingfailurerate.Thefailureisbecauseofoldageoftheequipmentmaterialfati
gue,corrosion,contactwear,insulationfailure,andsoon.Productswithrapidly12increasingf
ailureratesrequirecorrectivemeasuressuchasregularityofinspection,maintenance,replac
ement,etc.Thecentralconcerninthewear-
outperiodistheabilitytopredicttheprobableservicelifewithasuitablemodel,sothataprudent
scheduleforpreventivemaintenancecanbeformulated.Generally,theinfant mortalitymode
is aquality controlissue, while the wear-out modeis
amaintenanceissue.Therandomfailureorconstantratemode,ontheotherhand,iswidely
used as the basis for productreliabilityconsiderations

3.4CalculatingSystemReliability
System reliability depends on the reliabilities ofthevarious components inthe
system.Therefore, to calculatethe reliability of a system,the system should
bedividedintosubsystems.A systemmaybeconnectedin series orparallel.

SystemsinSeries
Inthe seriessystem, theability to employsubsystem Bdepends upon the
operatingstateof subsystem A. IfsubsystemA is notoperating,thesystem is down
regardless ofthecondition ofsubsystem
To calculate thesystemreliability fora systemis series, thereis the need to
multiplytheestimated reliability of subsystem A at time(t) bytheestimated reliability
ofsubsystemB at time (t). The basicequation for calculatingthesystem reliability of
asimpleseries systemis:

Where:
Rs(t)–System reliabilityfor given time(t)
R1-n(t)–Subsystemor sub-function reliability forgiven time(t)
So, for asimple systemwiththree subsystems, orsub-functions,each
havinganestimatedreliabilityof 0.90 (90%) at time (t),

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thesystem reliabilityis calculatedas 0.90 X 0.90X 0.90 = 0.729,or about73%.

Fig3.2 reliabilityinseries
SystemsinParallel
Design engineers at times incorporate redundancy into criticalmachines.
Reliabilityengineerscallthese parallel systems and may be designedasactive parallel
systemsor standby parallel systems.Theblock diagramfora simple twocomponent
parallelsystemis shown To calculate thereliability of anactiveparallel system, where
bothmachines are running,use thefollowingsimple equation:

Fig3.3 reliabilityin parallel

Where:
Rs(t)–System reliabilityfor giventime(t)
R1-n(t)–Subsystemor sub-function reliability forgiven time(t)

The simple parallel system in our example withtwo components inparallel,


eachhaving a reliabilityof0.90,has a total system reliability of 1–(0.1 X 0.1)=
0.99.Therefore, the systemreliability wassignificantly improved.

3.5AvailabilityandMaintainabilityconcepts
AvailabilityRatio istheportionof the totaltime a machine should functionto that
themachine actuallyfunctions.
Ifthe totalis Thours and themachineis actually in working condition for U
hourswhileit is down
forD hours, then T=U
+DAvailabilityRatio,AR=u/U+ D

UnavailabilityRatio,UR=D /U+ D

The total time,T doesnot include planned operationalshutdownsdue to


productionschedulesorroutine preventivemaintenance.

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MaintenanceManagers/Engineersusuallyemploy availabilityRatio
forplanningpurposes.Thereliability of a systemgives theprobabilityacertainjob can
bedonewithoutsystem breakdown,however, the managerneeds to knowhow muchtime
thesystemwouldbe availableover a planningperiod.

The maintainability, whichis afactor ofthetime required and resourcesneeded torestore


equipment in caseof failure, inconjunctionwith reliabilitydeterminetheavailabilityof a
machine.If the average repairtime isT ,the availability ofthemachine, AV
intermsofMTBFis

AV=MTBF/MTBF +T

Maintainability:Theprobabilitythat a faileditem/equipmentwill berestoredtoacceptable


working condition.

Maintainabilityengineering:Anapplicationofscientific knowledgeand skill s todevelop


equipment/item thatis inherentlyable to bemaintained

Maintainabilitymodel:Aquantifiedrepresentationofatest/processtoperformananalysisofre
sultsthatdetermineusefulrelationshipsbetween agroupofmaintainabilityparameters.

Downtime:The total timein which the item/equipment is not in asatisfactoryoperable


condition.

Serviceability:The degreeof ease/difficultywith which


anitem/equipmentcanberestoredto itssatisfactory operable state.

Maintainabilityfunction:A plotof the probabilityofrepair withinatimegiven onthe


y-axis, againstmaintenancetimeon thex-axis andis usefulto
predicttheprobabilitythatrepair will becompleted ina specifiedtime.

An efficient andeffective design can onlybe achievedbyseriously


consideringmaintainabilityissuesthat ariseduring thesystem lifecycle. This
meansamaintainabilityprogrammust incorporate a dialogue between the
manufactureranduser throughout thesystem life cycle. Thisdialogueconcerns
theuser’s maintenanceneeds andother requirements forthe systemand the
manufacturer’s response tothese needs andrequirements.
The life cycleof a systemcan be dividedinto thefollowing four phases:
• Phase I:Concept development
• Phase II:Validation
• Phase III:Production
• Phase IV:Operation
Specificmaintainabilityfunctions concerningeach of thesephases arediscussedbelow.

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3.5.1CONCEPTDEVELOPMENT
In Phase I, highrisk areas areidentified and system operation needsare
translatedintoa set ofoperationalrequirements. Theprimary
maintainabilityconcernduringthis phase isthe determinationof systemeffectiveness
needsandcriteria, in additiontoestablishment of the maintenance andlogistic
supportpoliciesandboundariesrequiredto satisfymission objectivesby usingoperational
andmissionprofiles.
Itemssuch as the following must beaccomplished
priortodevelopingsystemmaintainabilityrequirements:
• Detailsof mission,systemoperating modes,and soon
• Evaluationofsystemutilizationratesand mission time factors
• Details oftheglobal logistic supportobjectivesand concepts
• Evaluationofthe system life cycleduration
3.5.2 VALIDATION
DuringPhase II, operationalrequirementsdevelopedandformulated in the
previousphase are refinedfurther withrespectto system designrequirements.The
primeobjective ofvalidation is toensurethat full-scale developmentdoesnot
beginuntilfactorssuch as costs,performanceand supportobjectives,andscheduleshave
beeneffectively preparedand evaluated.
Inthis phase, maintainabilitymanagementspecificallydeals withtaskssuch
asthoselisted below:
• Preparingmaintainability program anddemonstrationplans asper
contractualrequirements
• Determiningreliability,maintainability, andsystem effectiveness-
relatedrequirements
• Preparingmaintainabilitypoliciesandproceduresforvalidationandfollowonfull-scale
engineering effort
• Coordinatingandmonitoring the entireorganization’s maintainability effort
• Performingmaintainability predictions andallocations
• Participatingin trade-offanalyses
• Providingassistance tomaintenance engineering inthe performanceofmaintenance-
related analyses
• Preparingplans for datacollection and analysis
• Establishingmaintainabilityincentives andpenalties
• Participatingin design reviews with respect to maintainability
• Developingmaintainability design-related guidelines foruse
bydesignengineerswith the aidofmaintenanceengineeringanalyses
3.5.3 PRODUCTION
In Phase III,the systemismanufactured,tested, anddelivered,and, in
somecases,installedper thetechnical datapackageresulting fromPhases I andII.
Althoughthemaintainabilityengineering designeffortswill largely becompleted by this
time, themaintainability-related tasks suchas those listed beloware
performedduringthisphase.
• Monitoringthe entireproductionprocess
• Examiningproductiontesttrends with respect to adverse effects on
itemssuch asmaintainability,maintenance concepts, and provisioningplans
• Examiningchangeproposalswith respect totheir impact onmaintainability
• Assuringtheproper correctionofdiscrepancies that can
adverselyimpactmaintainability

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• Taking part inestablishment ofcontrolsfor process variations, errors,etc.,

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thatcan undermine systemmaintainability
3.5.4 OPERATION
In Phase IV,the systemis used,logistically supported, andmodified
asappropriate.Duringthe operation phasemaintenance, overhaul, training,
supply,andmaterialreadinessrequirementsandcharacteristicsofthesystembecomeclear.A
lthoughthere arenoparticularmaintainability requirements atthis time,the
phaseisprobablythemost crucialbecausetheactualcost-
effectivenessandlogisticsupportofthe system aredemonstrated.In
addition,maintainability-relateddatacan beobtained from thereal life
experienceforfuture use.

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Unit – IV
Safety and productivity -causesof accidentsin industries –accident reporting
andinvestigation -measuring safetyperformance - Safetyorganizations and
functions -Factoriesact and rules

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4.1Safetyandproductivity

 Safetyisthestate
ofbeing"safe"theconditionofbeingprotectedagainstphysical,social,spiritual,financi
al,political,emotional,occupational,psychological,educationalorothertypes
orconsequencesoffailure,damage,
error,accidents,harmoranyothereventwhichcouldbeconsiderednon-desirable.
 Safetycanalsobedefinedtobethecontrolofrecognizedhazardstoachieveanacceptable
level of risk.This cantaketheform ofbeing protected fromthe
eventorfromexposuretosomethingthatcauseshealthoreconomicallosses.Itcanincl
udeprotectionof peopleorof possessions.

4.2 causesofaccidentinindustries
Aworkaccident,workplaceaccident,
occupationalaccident,oraccidentatworkisa"discreteoccurrenceinthecourseofwork"leadin
gtophysicalormentaloccupationalinjury
Why accidenthappened?Accidenthappenedbecause of:
1. Poor leadership fromthe top
2. Inadequate supervision
3. Insufficient attentiontothe designof safety intothe systemor carelessattitudeon
EMS.
4. An unsystematicapproach to the identification, analysisandelimination
ofhazards.
5. Poor training facilities andemployee motivation

Fig4.1 typesof accident

4.3 AccidentReportingAndInvestigation

This memoamends andsupplements theexisting instructionsonthe reporting


ofaccidentsanddangerousoccurrencesbothforinternalpurposesandtocomplywiththeRepo
rtingonInjuries,Diseasesand Dangerous OccurrencesRegulations(NI)1997. (RIDDOR)

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2. AccidentReportFormAR/DELshouldbeusedtoreportaccidentsoccasionedbyDELstaff
orpublic whilst on DEL premises.Major injuries and dangerousoccurrencesshould
bereported to the Health andSafety Executiveon NI2508.

3. WherenecessaryBI95(ApplicationforDeclarationthatanAccidentwasanIndustrialAcci
dent)shouldbecompletedforDELstaffinadditiontoAR/DEL(theBI95formwillbesentautoma
ticallytothememberofstaffbyPersonnelStaffRelationsonreceipt ofAR/DEL)

ACCIDENTINVESTIGATION

4Therearemanylegalandeconomicreasonsforinvestigatingaccidents.Theresultsof any
investigationshould howeverbe used to helpprevent arecurrence by
indicatingmodificationtoprocedures, premises,trainingor supervision.

5. Allaccidents shouldbeinvestigated.Study ofincidentsproducingminor


injuriesornearmissescanoftenrevealamajorhazard.Thedepthofinvestigationwilldependup
onthedegreeofinjuryordamagebutshouldprimarilydependuponthebasichazard.Actiontoel
iminate thehazard canonlybe takenwhenithas beendeterminedfollowing investigation.

6. Themanager orofficer inchargeshould investigateanyaccident.Theseofficers willbe


referred toin this memo as IO.

TheIOshouldvisitthesceneoftheaccidentassoonaspossible.Wheretheaccidenthasoccurred
onDELpremises,theIOshouldquestionwitnesses,carryoutphysicaltestsasnecessaryandcl
arifytechnicalquerieswithinhis/hercompetence.WhenproblemsariseoutsidetheIO’scomp
etencehe/sheshouldseekadvicefromatechnicalofficer withthe necessary expertiseto deal
with thematter.

7. Itshould bemade clear to anywitness(es) at thecommencement of theenquiry


thattheobject isto prevent arecurrence oftheaccidentand notto
apportionblame.Thereisno legal power tocompela witnesstoanswerquestions. All
witnessesare entitled,
iftheywish,tobeaccompaniedbyanyoneoftheirchoicewhenbeingquestioned.If,duringtheco
urseoftheinvestigation,anybreachofstatutoryrequirements,DELsafetyinstructionsorstaff
rulesisidentifiedremedialactionshouldbetakenimmediately.

8. Whenallenquirieshavebeencompleted,theIOshouldconsiderwhatlocalinstructions(ifa
ny) arenecessary topreventrecurrence of the accident

ACCIDENTRECORDING

9. Arecord of anaccident mustbemadein the accident book, BI510.Persons who


arecovered by theSocialSecurityAct 1975 mayuse theBI510to givenoticeto
theiremployer ofan accidentresulting ininjury.Persons who arenot covered by
thatActhave similar rights underDEL proceduresin being able to
enterthedetailsofinjuries

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sustainedwhileon coursesetc. Future claims canbe related totheoriginal entry inthe
accidentbook. Scrutinyofaccident recordsby the safety Advisermay revealtrends,which
indicatea need for preventiveaction to be taken.

4.4measuringsafetyperformance

Accidentconsequenceanalysis:Ananalysisoftheexpectedeffectsofanaccident,independe
ntoffrequencyandprobability
Check-listanalysis:Amethodforidentifyinghazardsbycomparisonwithexperienceinthe
formof a list offailuremodes andhazardoussituations
Competentauthority:AMinister,governmentdepartmentorotherpublicauthoritywiththe
powertoissueregulations,ordersorotherinstructionshavingtheforceoflaw.
Emergencyplan:A formal written planwhich, on the basis ofidentified
potentialaccidents at theinstallation together withtheirconsequences,
describeshowsuch accidentsand their consequences shouldbehandledeither on
siteor offsite.
Emergencyservices: Externalbodies whichareavailable to handle major accidentsand
their consequences bothonsite andoffsite, e.g. fire authorities,police,
health services.
Event treeanalysis: Amethod for illustratingthe intermediate
andfinaloutcomeswhichmayariseaftertheoccurrenceofaselectedinitialevent.Failuremode
andeffects analysis: Aprocessofhazard identificationwhere allknown
failuremodes of componentsorfeatures of asystem are consideredin
turnandundesiredoutcomesare noted.
Fault treeanalysis: A method for representing the logical combinationsof
varioussystem states whichlead to a particularoutcome (topevent).
Hazard: A physicalsituation witha potentialfor humaninjury,damage to
property,damage to theenvironmentor some combinationof these.
Hazard analysis: The identification of undesired events that lead to
thematerialisation of thehazard,the analysis ofthemechanisms
bywhichthoseundesiredevents could occurandusuallytheestimation of the
extent,magnitude
and relative likelihoodofanyharmfuleffects.
Hazard assessment: Anevaluationof the results of a hazard
analysisincludingJudgments’as totheiracceptabilityand,as aguide,
comparisonwith relevantcodes,standards,lawsandpolicies.
Hazard andoperability study (HAZOP). A study carriedout byapplicationof
guidewordsto identify alldeviations fromdesignintent havingundesirable
effectsonsafety oroperability, with theaim ofidentifying potentialhazards.
Hazardoussubstance:A substance which byvirtue of its chemical,
physicalortoxicologicalpropertiesconstitutes a hazard.
Hot work: Anactivity involvinga source of ignition such aswelding, brazing
orspark-producing operations.
Major accident: Anunexpected, suddenoccurrenceincluding, in particular,
amajoremission,fireor explosion, resulting fromabnormaldevelopmentsin the course
of anindustrial activity,leading toa serious danger to workers, thepublic or
theenvironment,whetherimmediate ordelayed,inside oroutside the installation

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