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MAINTENANCE AND

SAFETY ENGINEERING
B.Tech./ MECHANICAL/IV/VIII SEM

Mr.A.BHOJAN

Achariya College of Engineering Technology


(Approved by AICTE and affiliated to Pondicherry University)
An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution
Achariyapuram, Villianur, Puducherry – 605 110.
www.acet.edu.in

(For internal circulation only)


MET82 MAINTENANCE AND SAFETY ENGINEERING (3 0 0 3)
Unit – I
Objectives of maintenance - types of maintenance – Breakdown, preventive and
predictive maintenance - Repair cycle - Repair Complexity, Lubrication and
Lubricants. Maintenance of Mechanical transmission systems and process
plants.(12hours)
Unit – II
Predictive Maintenance - vibration and noise as maintenance tool - wear debris
analysis -Condition monitoring concepts applied to industries - Total Productive
Maintenance (TPM) -Economics of Maintenance- Computer aided maintenance.
(12 hours)
Unit – III
Reliability: Definition, concept of reliability based design, failure rate, MTTF, MTBF,
failure pattern, system reliability: Series, Parallel and Mixed configurations -
Availability and Maintainability concepts- Applications.(12 hours)
Unit – IV
Safety and productivity - causes of accidents in industries – accident reporting and
investigation -measuring safety performance - Safety organizations and functions -
Factories act and rules.(12 hours)
Unit – V
Safety Codes and Standards - General Safety considerations in Material Handling
equipments -Machine Shop machineries-pressure vessels and pressurized pipelines –
welding equipments –operation and inspection of extinguishers – prevention and
spread of fire – emergency exit facilities. (12 hours)
Text Books :
1.P.Gopalakrishnan - Maintenance and Spare parts Management, Prentice Hall of
India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1990.
2.L.S.Srinath - Reliability Engineering, Affiliated East West press, 2003
3. Rolland P.Blake - Industrial Safety, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1973.
Reference Books :
1. R.C. Mishra and K. Pathak, Maintenance Engineering and Management, Prentice
Hall of India
Pvt. Ltd., New
Delhi, 2002.
2. H.P. Garg, Industrial Maintenance, S Chand & Co Ltd., New Delhi, 1990.
3. E. Balagurusamy, Reliability Engineering, Prentice Hall of India P Ltd., New Delhi,
2003.
CHAPTER NO TITLE PAGE NO
UNIT-1
1.1 MAINTENANCE 2
1.2 MAIINTENANCE 2
OBJECTIVES
1.2.1 MAINTENANCE TERMS 3
1.2.1.1 MAINTENANCE 3
1.2.1.2 MAINTENANCE 3
ENGINEERING
1.2.1.3 MAINTENANCE CONCEPT 3
1.2.1.4 MAINTENANCE PLAN 3
1.2.1.5 MAINTENANCE PERSON 3
1.2.2 MAINTENANCE FUNCTION 3
1.3 TYPES OF MAINTENANCE 2
1.3.1 CORRECTIVE 4
MAINTENANCE
1.3.2 PREVENTIVE 4
MAINTENANCE
1.3.3 PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE 4
1.3.4 ZERO HOUR MAINTENANCE 4
1.3.5 PERIODIC MAINTENANCE 5
1.4 BREAKDOWN 5
MAINTENANCE
1.5 PREVENTIVE 5
MAINTENANCE
1.6 PREDECTIVE 6
MAINTENANCE
1.7 REPAIR CYCLE 7

1.8 LUBRICANTS 7
1.9 LUBRICATIONS 8
1.9.1 THICK FLIM LUBRICATIONS 8
1.9.2 THIN FLIM LUBRICATIONS 8
1.9.3 EXTERME PRESSURE 8
LUBRICATIONS
1.10 MAINTENANCE OF 9
MECHANICAL
TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
AND PROCESS PLANTS
1.10.1 GOOD MAINTENANCE 9
PRACTICE OF GEARS
1.10.2 MAINTENANCE PRACTICE 9
OF GUIDE WAYS
1.10.3 MAINTENANCE PRACTICE 10
OF BEARINGS
UNIT -2
2.1 PREDECTIVE 12
MAINTENANCE
2.2 VIBRATION AND NOISE AS 12
MAINTENANCE TOOL
2.3 WEAR DEBRIS ANALYSIS 14

2.4 CONDITION MONITORING 16


CONCEPTS APPLIED TO
INDUSTRIES
2.5 TOTAL PRODUCTIVE 17
MAINTENANCE
2.5.1 5S 18
2.5.2 JISHU HOZEN 19
2.5.3 KAIZEN 22
2.5.4 PLANNED MAINTENANCE 24
2.5.5 QUALITY MAINTENANCE 25
2.5.6 TRAINING 26
2.5.7 OFFICE TPM 27
2.5.8 SAFETY, HEALTH AND 30
ENVIRONMENT
2.6 ECONOMICS OF 30
MAINTENANCE
2.7 COMPUTER AIDED 31
MAINTENANCE
UNIT-3
3.1 RELIABILITY 34
3.2 INDICES OF RELIABILITY 34
3.3 FAILURE RATE 35
3.4 CALCULATING SYSTEM 37
RELIABILITY
3.5 AVAILABILITY AND 38
MAINTAINABILITY
CONCEPTS
3.5.1 CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT 40
IN MAINTAINABILITY
3.5.2 VALIDATION IN 40
MAINATAINABILITY
3.5.3 PRODUCTION IN 40
MAINATAINABILITY
3.5.4 OPERATION IN 40
MAINATAINABILITY
UNIT-4
4.1 SAFETY AND 43
PRODUCTIVITY
4.2 CAUSES OF ACCIDENT IN 43
INDUSTRIES
4.3 ACCIDENT REPORTING AND 43
INVESTIGATION
4.4 MEASURING SAFETY 45
PERFORMANCE
4.5 SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS 47
AND FUNCTIONS
4.6 FACTORIES ACT AND 47
RULES
UNIT-5
5.1 SAFETY CODES AND 53
STANDARDS

5.2 GENERAL SAFETY 56


CONSIDERATIONS IN
MATERIAL HANDLING
EQUIPMENTS
5.3 MACHINE SHOP 58
MACHINERIES
5.4 PRESSURE VESSEL AND 60
PRESSURIZED PIPELINE
5.5 WELDING EQUIPMENTS 63
5.6 PREVENTION AND SPREAD 64
OF FIRE
5.6.1 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM 65
GAS
5.6.2 EMPLOYEE TRAINING 66
5.6.3 FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 67

5.7 EMERGENCY EXIT 67


FACILITIES
Unit – I
Objectives of maintenance - types of maintenance – Breakdown, preventive and
predictive maintenance - Repair cycle - Repair Complexity, Lubrication and
Lubricants. Maintenance of Mechanical transmission systems and process plants.

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1.1 MAINTENANCE:
Maintenance is the routine and recurring process of keeping a particular machine
or asset in its normal operating conditions So that it can deliver the expected
performance or service without any loss or damage.
(Or)
It is an integral part of an organization in its entirety and therefore maintenance
objectives should be established within the framework of the whole so that overall
organizational or corporate objectives and needs are adequately met.

1.2 Maintenance Objectives:


Maintain the capability of the company's assets to perform their designed
function thereby increasing shareholder value by maximizing the company's
return on assets.

 Maximizing production or operational throughput

 Identify and implement cost reductions

 Provide accurate equipment maintenance records

 Collect necessary maintenance cost information

 Optimize maintenance resources

 Labor, materials, contract

 Optimize capital equipment life

 Minimize energy usage

 Responsibility for Environmental, Safety, and Health compliance.

Even though maintenance engineering and maintenance have the same end objective
or goal (i.e., mission-ready equipment/item at minimum cost), the environments
under which they operate differ significantly. More specifically, maintenance
engineering is an analytical function as well as it is deliberate and methodical. In
contrast, maintenance is a function that must be performed under normally adverse
circumstances and stress, and its main objective is to rapidly restore the equipment to
its operational readiness state using available resources. Nonetheless, the contributing
objectives of maintenance engineering include: improve maintenance operations,
reduce the amount and frequency of maintenance, reduce the effect of complexity,
reduce the maintenance.

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skills required, reduce the amount of supply support, establish optimum
frequency

1.2.1MAINTENANCE TERMS

1.2.1.1Maintenance: All actions appropriate for retaining an item/part/equipment in,


or restoring it to, a given condition.

1.2.1.2Maintenance engineering: The activity of equipment/item maintenance that


develops concepts, criteria, and technical requirements in conceptional and
acquisition phases to be used and maintained in a current status during the operating
phase to assure effective maintenance support of equipment

1.2.1.3Maintenance concept: A statement of the overall concept of the item/product


specification or policy that controls the type of maintenance action to be employed for
the item under consideration

1.2.1.4Maintenance plan: A document that outlines the management and technical


procedure to be employed to maintain an item; usually describes facilities, tools,
schedules, and resources

1.2.1.5Maintenance person: An individual who conducts preventive maintenance and


responds to a user’s service call to a repair facility, and performs corrective
maintenance on an item. Also called custom engineer, service person, technician, field
engineer, mechanic, repair person, etc.

1.2.2MAINTENANCE FUNCTIONS

 Develop maintenance policies, procedures and standards for company-


wide incorporation

 Design practicable and implementable schedules of all maintenance work


and spell out maintenance work specification or master sheets

 Ensure the availability of production plant and equipment to carry out


planned/preventive maintenance

 Ensure scheduled inspection and lubrications of machinery

 Carry out calibration as per the calibration plan

 Maintain and carry out repair of buildings, utilities and allied equipment.

 Standardize equipment for replacement and purchase.

 Periodic inspection of all assets to know conditions leading to stoppage of


production.

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 Carry out repairs and rectify or overhaul production equipment to ensure
good operational status and availability

 Carry out frequent analysis of pertinent documents so that corrective


actions can be taken

 Initiate procurement actions necessary for maintenance work

 Develop and provide proper management information system to the


management particular attention to be paid for the top management

 Upgrade management skills of supervisory and executive codes

1.3Types of Maintenance:

Traditionally, 5 types of maintenance have been distinguished, which are


differentiated by the nature of the tasks that they include:

1.3.1Corrective maintenance: The set of tasks is destined to correct the defects to


be found in the different equipment and that are communicated to the maintenance
department by users of the same equipment.

1.3.2Preventive Maintenance: Its mission is to maintain a level of certain service on


equipment, programming the interventions of their vulnerabilities in the most
opportune time. It is used to be a systematic character, that is, the equipment is
inspected even if it has not given any symptoms of having a problem.

1.3.3Predictive Maintenance: It pursues constantly know and report the status


and operational capacity of the installations by knowing the values of certain
variables, which represent such state and operational ability. To apply this
maintenance, it is necessary to identify physical variables (temperature, vibration,
power consumption, etc.). Which variation is indicative of problems that may be
appearing on the equipment. This maintenance it is the most technical, since it
requires advanced technical resources, and at times of strong mathematical, physical
and / or technical knowledge.

1.3.4Zero Hours Maintenance (Overhaul): The set of tasks whose goal is to review
the equipment at scheduled intervals before appearing any failure, either when the
reliability of the equipment has decreased considerably so it is risky to make
forecasts of production capacity . This review is based on leaving the equipment to
zero hours of operation, that is, as if the equipment were new. These reviews will
replace or repair all items subject to wear. The aim is to ensure, with high
probability, a good working time fixed in advance.

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1.3.5 Periodic maintenance (Time Based Maintenance TBM): the basic
maintenance of equipment made by the users of it. It consists of a series of
elementary tasks (data collections, visual inspections, cleaning, lubrication,
retightening screws,…) for which no extensive training is necessary, but
perhaps only a brief training. This type of maintenance is the based on TPM
(Total Productive Maintenance).

1.4 Breakdown Maintenance:

 Breakdown maintenance involves the repair or replacement of equipment and


components after they have failed. This kind of management strategy can be
contrasted with preventive and, which are designed to avoid equipment failures.

 The breakdown maintenance approach is typically employed when failures are


unlikely to result in workplace injuries or excessive downtime, though the costs
associated with emergency repairs are often prohibitive.

 A policy of breakdown maintenance is sometimes instituted when a facility or


business has scheduled to close or cease operations, especially if there are no
plans to continue using the equipment afterward. breakdown maintenance is a
reactive policy. This approach avoids the costs associated with inspections and
preemptive repairs by simply allowing components to fail and then addressing
the issue after the fact.

 The term "run-to-failure" is also used to describe this approach to maintenance,


since that is what equipment is allowed to do. Equipment will typically be
lubricated and receive other minor attention under this kind of maintenance
policy, though that is usually the extent of any ongoing maintenance
operations.

 There are a number of costs that can be associated with a breakdown


maintenance policy. Since any component can fail at any time under this
approach, a maintenance staff must be ready to do many different types of
repairs.

 This can involve maintaining a stock of replacement parts for every piece of
equipment onsite, or else paying for rush shipping on new components as the
old ones fail. There are typically also costs associated with downtime, so this
approach to maintenance is not well-suited to any business operation that
would suffer large monetary losses from the sudden failure of any given piece of
equipment.

 A policy of breakdown maintenance is sometimes instituted when a facility or


business has been scheduled to close. This is often a calculated risk, since the
decision assumes that the equipment will continue running long enough for the
facility to be closed down.

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 If there are plans to scrap the equipment at the end of the period, costly
preventive maintenance can be seen as unnecessary.

1.5 Preventive Maintenance

 Preventive maintenance can be defined as follows: Actions performed on a time-


or machine-run-based schedule that detect, preclude, or mitigate degradation of
a component or system with the aim of sustaining or extending its useful life
through controlling degradation to an acceptable level.
 While preventive maintenance is not the optimum maintenance program, it
does have several advantages over that of a purely reactive program.
 By performing the preventive maintenance as the equipment designer
envisioned, we will extend the life of the equipment closer to design. This
translates into dollar savings. Preventive maintenance (lubrication, filter
change, etc.) will generally run the equipment more efficiently resulting in dollar
savings. While we will not prevent equipment catastrophic failures, we will
decrease the number of failures. Minimizing failures translate into maintenance
and capital cost saving. Preventive maintenance (PM) is an important
component of a maintenance activity.
 Within a maintenance organization it usually accounts for a major proportion of
the total maintenance effort.
 PM may be described as the care and servicing by individuals involved with
maintenance to keep equipment/facilities in satisfactory operational state by
providing for systematic inspection, detection, and correction of incipient
failures either prior to their occurrence or prior to their development into major
failure.
 Some of the main objectives of PM are to: enhance capital equipment productive
life, reduce critical equipment breakdowns, allow better planning and
scheduling of needed maintenance work, minimize production losses due to
equipment failures, and promote health and safety of maintenance personnel.

There are seven elements of Preventive Maintenance


1.Inspection:Periodically inspecting materials/items to determine their service ability
by comparing their physical, electrical, mechanical, etc., characteristics(as applicable)
to expected standards
2.Servicing:Cleaning, lubricating, charging, preservation, etc., of items/materials
periodically to prevent the occurrence of incipient failures
3.Calibration:Periodically determining the value of characteristics of an item by
comparison to a standard; it consists of the comparison of two instruments, one of
which is certified standard with known accuracy, to detect and adjust any discrepancy
in the accuracy of the material/parameter being compared to the established standard
value
4.Testing:Periodically testing or checking out to determine service ability and detect
electrical/mechanical-related degradation

5.Alignment:Making changes to an item’s specified variable elements for the purpose of


achieving optimum performance

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6.Adjustment:Periodically adjusting specified variable elements of material for the
purpose of achieving the optimum system performance
7.Installation:Periodic replacement of limited-life items or the items experiencing time
cycle or wear degradation, to maintain the specified system tolerance

1.6 Predictive Maintenance

 Predictive maintenance can be defined as follows: Measurements that detect


the onset of system degradation (lower functional state), thereby allowing
causal stressors to be eliminated or controlled prior to any significant
deterioration in the component physical state.
 Results indicate current and future functional capability. Basically,
predictive maintenance differs from preventive maintenance by basing
maintenance need on the actual condition of the machine rather than on
some preset schedule. You will recall that preventive maintenance is time-
based. Activities such as changing lubricant are based on time, like calendar
time or equipment run time. For example, most people change the oil in
their vehicles every 3,000 to 5,000 miles traveled. This is effectively basing
the oil change needs on equipment

Advantages

• Increased component operational life/availability.

• Allows for preemptive corrective actions.

• Decrease in equipment or process downtime.

• Decrease in costs for parts and labor.

• Better product quality.

• Improved worker and environmental safety.

• Improved worker morale.

• Energy savings.

• Estimated 8% to 12% cost savings over preventive maintenance program.

Disadvantages

• Increased investment in diagnostic equipment.

• Increased investment in staff training.

• Savings potential not readily seen by management.

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1.7 Repair Cycle

repair overhaul involves of mechanical, plumbing or electrical device should it


become out of order or broken (known as repair, unscheduled, or casualty
maintenance). It also includes performing routine actions which keep the device in
working order (known as scheduled maintenance or prevent trouble from arising
(preventive maintenance). MRO may be defined as, "All actions which have the
objective of retaining or restoring an item in or to a state in which it can perform its
required function. The actions include the combination of all technical and
corresponding administrative, managerial, and supervision actions.

1.8 Lubricants

Any materials used to reduce friction wearing surface with high coefficient of
friction by establishing low-viscous film are called lubricants. Lubricants are
available in solid and gaseous forms.

1.9 lubrications

Mechanism of Lubrication: The phenomenon of lubrication can be explained with


the help of the following mechanism; (a) Thick-Film lubrication (Fluid-Film or
hydrodynamic lubrication) (b) Thin Film lubrication (Boundary lubrication) and (c)
Extreme Pressure lubrication

1.9.1 Thick-Film lubrication:

 In this, moving/sliding surfaces are separated from each other by a thick


film of fluid (at least 1000 A° thick), so that direct surface to surface contact
and welding of welding of junctions rarely occurs.
 The lubricant film covers/fills the irregularities of moving/sliding surfaces
and forms a thick layer between them, so that there is no direct contact
between the material surfaces.
 This consequently reduces friction. The lubricant chosen should have the
minimum viscosity (to reduce the internal resistance between the particles
of the lubricant) under working conditions and at the same time, it should
remain in place and separate the surfaces.
 Hydrocarbon oils (mineral oils which are lower molecular weight
hydrocarbons with about 12 to 50 carbon atoms) are considered to be
satisfactory lubricants for thick-film lubrication. In order to maintain the
viscosity of the oil in all seasons of year, ordinary hydrocarbon lubricants
are blended with selected long chain polymers.

1.9.2 Thin Film lubrication:

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 This type of lubrication is preferred where a continuous film of lubricant
cannot persist. In such cases, the clearance space between the
moving/sliding surfaces is lubricated by such a material which can get
adsorbed on both the metallic surfaces by either physical or chemical forces.
 This adsorbed film helps to keep the metal surfaces away from each other at
least up to the height of the peaks present on the surface. Vegetable and
animal oils and their soaps can be used in this type of lubrication because
they can get either physically adsorbed or chemically react in to the metal
surface to form a thin film of metallic soap which can act as lubricant.
 Although these oils have good oiliness, they suffer from the disadvantage
that they will break down at high temperatures. On the other hand, mineral
oils are thermally stable and the addition of vegetable/animal oils to mineral
oils, their oiliness can also

1.9.3Extreme Pressure lubrication:

 When the moving/sliding surfaces are under very high pressure and speed,
a high local temperature is attained under such conditions, liquid lubricants
fail to stick and may decompose and even vaporize.
 To meet these extreme pressure conditions, special additives are added to
minerals oils. These are called extreme pressure additives.
 These additives form more durable films (capable of withstanding very high
loads and high temperatures) on metal surfaces. Important additives are
organic compounds having active radicals or groups such as chlorine (as in
chlorinated esters), sulphur (as in sulphurized oils) or phosphorus (as in
tricresyl phosphate). These compounds react with metallic surfaces, at
existing high temperatures, to form metallic chlorides, sulphides or
phosphides.

1.10 MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS AND


PROCESS PLANTS

1.10.1Good maintenance practice of gears:

It is essential and desirable to have gears with lengthy and satisfactory life
period. in order to achieve this, it will be better to schedule an effective
maintenance programs. If oil leakage is sensed, the unit should be shut down. This
cause to traced and corrective action to be initiated and also the oil level to be
checked. It is necessary to shut down for a period of more than a week and the
unit should run at least 10 minutes each week when it is idle. This may help to
keep gears and bearings coated with and prevent rusting due to condensation of
moisture. It is the usual experience with a set of gears in a gear unit. Assuming
proper design, manufacture, application and operation that will be initial running
period during which if the gears are properly lubricated and not over loaded the
combined action of rolling and sliding of the teeth may smooth and high polish
under continued proper conditions of operation , gear teeth will the show little or
no sign of wear.

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Satisfactory performance of gears/gear drive mainly depend on

 proper design and manufacture of drive


 selection of proper type and size
 proper installation
 proper use of service
 proper maintenance of unit in it entire life

1.10.2 maintenance practice of guide ways:

The guide ways are a part of machine tools which are used to offer
smooth sliding motion between the mating surface and to withstand heavy load
during machining operation. Proper design and manufacture of guide ways helps
to maintain/achieve very good geometric dimensioning and tolerancing of the job
being produced. To have better and satisfactory performance of slide ways bearing

 possess adequate load bearing capacity


 maintain alignment of guided parts
 offer minimum friction particularly at low speeds
 possess high stiffness

The shape of the guide ways is designed based on:

 load to be carried by it and direction in which to carry.


 Position of transmission element
 Characteristic of wear
 Ease of chip disposal

Since the sliding surface moves and cover only a portion of total length of the guide
ways, it is natural that wear characteristic may no be same over the length. And also
wear occurs on the sliding surface and guide ways may be due to any of the following
reason

So the maintenance of guide ways involves periodical inspection of guiding surface


and proper measuring of developing wear pattern based on these observation repairing
activity should be performed. If the level of wear exceeds the permitted limit.

1.10.3 maintenance practice of bearings:

Bearings are mechanical elements, which help to have frictionless shaft


rotation. The two basic categories of bearings are plain bearings and rolling bearings.
plain bearings are designed to support which rotates oscillate or reciprocates .even
though it looks simple and least expensive of mechanical components, it will available
in wide range. The problems could be avoided by proper selection, proper handling
and maintenance. The life of a rolling contact bearing is defined as the total number of
revolutions before flanking occurs.

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Unit – II
Predictive Maintenance - vibration and noise as maintenance tool - wear debris
analysis -Condition monitoring concepts applied to industries - Total Productive
Maintenance (TPM)-Economics of Maintenance- Computer aided maintenance.

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2.1Predictive Maintenance:
This is a method in which the service life of important part is predicted based on
inspection or diagnosis, in order to use the parts to the limit of their service life.
Compared to periodic maintenance, predictive maintenance is condition based
maintenance. Predictive maintenance programs measure equipment on a regular
basis, track the measurements over time, and take corrective action when
measurements are about to go outside the equipment operating limits. Repairing
equipment as-needed requires fewer man-hours and parts than preventive
maintenance. However, tracking the measurements requires new tools, training, and
software to collect and analyze the data and predict repair cycles. It manages trend
values, by measuring and analyzing data about deterioration and employs a
surveillance system, designed to monitor conditions through an
on-line system.

2.2 vibration and noise as maintenance tool

Vibration
Hand-arm vibration is vibration transmitted from work processes into workers’ hands
and arms. It can be caused by operating hand-held power tools, such as road
breakers, and hand-guided equipment, such as powered lawnmowers, or by holding
materials being processed by machines, such as pedestal grinders.

Levels of Vibration risk:


High risk - above the Exposure Limit Value (ELV)
Employees who regularly operate:
Hammer action tools for more than about one hour per day; or
Some rotary and other action tools for more than about four hours per day.
Medium risk - above the Daily Exposure Action Value (EAV)
Employees who regularly operate:
Hammer action tools for more than about 15 minutes per day; or
Some rotary and other action tools for more than about one hour per day.
Employees in this group are likely to be exposed above the exposure action value set
out in the Regulations

Workstation design – Vibration


Management should assist in improving the design of workstations to minimise loads
on employees’ hands, wrists, and arms caused by poor posture;
Devices such as jigs and suspension systems should be considered in order to
reduce the need to grip heavy tools tightly

Clothing - Vibration
All employees shall be provided with protective clothing when necessary to keep
them warm and dry. This will encourage good blood circulation which should help

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protect them from developing vibration white finger; Gloves can be used to keep hands
warm, but should not be relied upon to provide protection from vibration. Note that
clothing will fall within the definition of PPE and as such falls within the scope of the
Instructions for Personal Protective Equipment Use and Storage.

Health Effects and Surveillance


Estate Development Service must provide health surveillance for all employees who,
despite action to control the risk, are likely to be regularly exposed above the exposure
levels or are considered to be at risk for any other reason.
When hand held vibratory power tools, equipment and plant are used, without
suitable controls, there is a possibility of employees using these tools and equipment
on a regular basis of contracting “hand-arm vibration syndrome” (HAVS) commonly
known as Vibration White Finger (VWF). When this equipment is used the risk
assessment should detail what controls are in place to reduce the risk of injury.
Frequent users of this equipment should be monitored or undertake regular health
checks

Controlling Construction Noise


Controlling construction noise can pose special problems for contractors. Unlike
general industry, construction activities are not always stationary and in one location.
Construction activities often take place outside where they can be affected by weather,
wind tunnels, topography, atmosphere and landscaping. Construction noise makers,
e.g., heavy earth moving equipment, can move from location to location and is likely to
vary considerably in its intensity throughout a work day
High noise levels on construction worksites can be lowered by using commonly
accepted engineering and administrative controls. This booklet is filled with tips other
contractors and have used to lower the noise levels on construction worksites.
Normally, earplugs and other types of personal protective equipment (PPE) are used to
control a worker’s exposure to noisy equipment and work areas. However, as a rule,
engineering and administrative controls should always be the preferred method of
reducing noise levels on worksites. Only, when these controls are proven unfeasible,
earplugs as a permanent solution should be considered.
Engineering Controls
Engineering controls modify the equipment or the work area to make it quieter.
Examples of engineering controls are: substituting existing equipment with quieter
equipment; retro-fitting existing equipment with damping materials, mufflers, or
enclosures; erecting barriers; and maintenance.
Administrative Controls
These are management decisions on work activities, work rotation and work load to
reduce workers’ exposure to high noise levels. Typical management decisions that
reduce worker exposures to noise are: moving workers away from the noise source;
restricting access to areas; rotating workers performing noisy tasks; and shutting
down noisy equipment when not needed.
Personal Protective Equipment

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Earplugs are the typical PPE given to workers to reduce their exposure to noise.
Earplugs are the control of last resort and should only be provided when other means
of noise controls are infeasible. As a general rule, workers should be using earplugs
whenever they are exposed to noise levels of 85 dB (A) or when they have to shout in
order to communicate.
Noise
Any signal that does not convey useful information, it can cause stress or aggravation
and loud noise can be damaging to the ear resulting in either temporary or permanent
hearing loss. Ideally, daily exposure levels to noise should not exceed 80dB and peak
sound pressure should not exceed 135dB. Where they do, adequate hearing protection
must be made available to employees upon their request. Where 85dB is
exceeded(daily), and 137dB (peak), mandatory hearing protection measures must be
introduced.
Workstation design – Noise
Silencers shall be used wherever possible on equipment; Noisy work shall be restricted
to one area wherever possible
Clothing-Noise
Noise at work can cause hearing loss which can be either temporary or permanent,
depending on the person, the level of noise and the duration of work. If employees are
subjected to long durations or high frequency noise on a regular basis then they
should have hearing tests on a regular basis
Review of Routine Tasks Undertaken and Determination of Exposure Levels
Once the nature of the workplace, the tasks and tools or equipment to be used are
known, Estate Development Service will prepare and maintain records to assist
management and employees identify risks and their necessary control measures. In
this context and in addition to risk assessments and method statements, records will
include schedules containing the following information:
Noise:
Areas or workplaces designated as Hearing Protection Zones
Type of ear protection devices and level of protection/sound reduction
afforded
Sound levels generated by hand tools, equipment and the like to assist in
calculating daily or weekly personal exposure limits

2.3 wear debris analysis


Wear generates debris. The debris comes in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. Wear
debris turns motor oil black. You can see it on your hands if you shake hands with
your garage mechanic. The black in usedoil is like a pigment — it is nanometer-size
colloidal metal particles (and carbon) suspended in the oil.
If you take an oil filter apart, you will find other types of wear debris. Some are shiny
metal particles

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visible to the naked eye and in the millimeter size category. If you are in the surface
mining business, you will find even larger metal particles in the gravel produced by
rock crushers. This is metal that is gouged from the metal jaws in the crusher. In a
factory grinding room, dust swept up from the floor and examined in a scanning
electron microscope will show perfect micron-size metal spheres from rapidly
solidifying drops of molten metal generated by the grinding wheel. Examples of these
unique debris particles will be found later in this chapter.
Wear debris represents loss of geometric accuracy of moving contacting parts. It can
also foul orifices and close spaced parts. Although the total material lost as wear
debris in a machine is minute compared to the volume and weight of the moving parts,
it can signal failure of gears or bearings, and expensive repairs or warranty payments

Wear Debris Analysis


The basic principle of operation is simple. A representative sample of oil is tested
through the following cycle.
1. Obtain an oil sample from a machine.
2. In the laboratory take a measured amount of the fluid and deposit into a clean
beaker. The sample is then diluted with a solvent
3. Draw the sample through a membrane filter or use a magnetic separation
technique such as the rotary particle depositor to separate the solids from the fluid.
4. The amount of ferrous wear is quantified by means of a debris analyser such as the
PQ2000 manufactured by Swansea Tribology Centre.
5. Visually analyse the debris at 100x magnification under a reflected light microscope
quantifying the following parameters
Type of particle (relating to the mechanism of removal)
o Average particles size
o Maximum particle size
o Contamination index
These parameters are then trended in a custom designed software package and the
diagnostician awards the unit a Health Status. The health status is a single parameter
which gives the unit a level of threat. (Health status is a parameter between 1 -5 with
1 being a healthy machine and 5 being a
machine which is imminently threatened with failure.)
6. Repeat the procedure at a decided time interval.

Wear debris analysis is a relatively simple procedure not requiring a high skills level to
perform. Even so the results give a direct indication as to the level of threat and
damage within industrial drives absent from some of the more sophisticated
techniques

Visual and Microscopic Examination of the Debris Samples


Visual and microscopic examination of the sample is as important a source of
information as the regular testing of the debris samples.

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Prior to filtering the sample, examination of the sample visually within the sample
bottle gives useful information. Water present within the oil sample can clearly be seen
either in the form of emulsification or as a distinct water layer. The general cleanliness
level of the oil may also be determined.
Once filtered the debris should be visually examined prior to microscopic examination.
The presence of water within the lubricant can be detected from the filter paper. This
is seen in the form of light circular areas on the filter paper. Water also sometimes
oxidizes the ferrous material, and the presence of rust indicates the ingress of water.
Water effects the viscosity of the lubricant, considerably reducing the effect of the
lubricant, increasing wear rates and should be avoided. Frequently gearboxes become
contaminated with mineral particles such as silica, coal and shale. These produce fine
abrasive wear particles normally only observed under the microscope. The
unchecked presence of mineral particles specifically quartzite with it's high hardness
should be avoided. The mineral particles in suspension act as a grinding medium and
produces excessive bearing wear which leads to loss of gear and shaft location which
further accelerates the wearing process.

2.4Condition monitoring concepts applied to industries


As a starting point for any discussion on condition monitoring it is useful to define
what is meant by the term, and to describe how it relates to other techniques used in
the operation and maintenance of machines, such as alarm and shut down systems or
methods for failure and problem investigation.
Well-performed maintenance implies seeing as few corrective maintenance actions as
possible while performing as little preventive maintenance as possible. This might
seem as a utopia, but during the past decades strategies and concepts have evolved
for support. One of these is condition based maintenance. In condition based
maintenance, critical item characteristics are monitored (through, for example,
vibration or temperature monitoring) in order to gain early
indications of an incipient failure. Research, though, has shown that condition based
maintenance has not been implemented on a wide basis. Therefore, the purpose of this
research is to investigate how a condition based maintenance approach can be
implemented in an industrial setting, and to develop a method that can assist
companies in their implementation efforts. Further, the research has been divided in
three research questions. The first focuses on condition based maintenance as an
approach; seeking constituents
essential to take into consideration when implementing the approach. The second
focuses on the decision-making process prior an implementation can commence.
Finally, the third focuses on the implementation of the condition based maintenance
approach in a company

By using a systems approach and a case study process, how condition based
maintenance can be implemented as a routine has been investigated. The result is an
implementation method in which four suggested phases are presented. The method
starts with a feasibility test. It then continues with an analysis phase, an
implementation phase, and an assessment phase. These steps are taken in order, for
example, to invest in the proper condition based maintenance

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approach and to implement it gradually. The conclusions can be summarized as
follows: implementing condition based maintenance consists of many general enabling
factors, including management support, education and training, good communication,
and motivation etc.
2.5 Total Productive Maintenance
TPM is a maintenance program which involves a newly defined concept
maintaining plants and equipments. The goal of TPM program is to significantly
increases the production, at the same time increasing employee morale and job
satisfaction. TPM philosophically resembles TQM in many aspect such as

Requirements of commitment by top level management


Requirement of empowering employees to initiate corrective action
Accepting long range plan on any on go in process.
The five S principles used for implementations of TPM.
SEIRI – Sort out
SEITON –Organize
SEISO – Shine workplace
SEIKETSU – Standardization
SHITSUKE – Self discipline
various pillars of TPM
5,S Principle
jishu hozen(JH)
Kaizen
planned maintenance
Quality maintenance.
training
office TPM
Safety, health and environment
Implementation of TPM:

Fig 2.1 implement of total productive maintenance

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The main objectives of TPM are
To achieve zero defects
Achieve zero accidents and zero break downs in all functional areas of
an organization
To create different team of people to have active participation.
To aim at minimization of defects and
To inculcate autonomous policy.

Fig 2.2 pillars of total productive maintenance

2.5.1Pillar 1 - 5s :

TPM starts with 5S. Problems cannot be clearly seen when the work place is
unorganized. Cleaning and organizing the workplace helps the team to uncover
problems. Making problems visible is the first step of improvement

Table 2.1 concept of 5s

English Equivalent 'S'


Japanese Term
Translation term

Seiri Organisation Sort

Seiton Tidiness Systematise

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Seiso Cleaning Sweep

Seiketsu Standardisation Standardise

Shitsuke Discipline Self - Discipline

SEIRI - Sort out :

This means sorting and organizing the items as critical, important, frequently used
items, useless, or items that are not need as of now. Unwanted items can be salvaged.
Critical items should be kept for use nearby and items that are not be used in near
future, should be stored in some place. For this step, the worth of the item should be
decided based on utility and not cost. As a result of this step, the search time is
reduced.

SEITON - Organize :

The concept here is that "Each items has a place, and only one place". The items
should be placed back after usage at the same place. To identify items easily, name
plates and colored tags has to be used. Vertical racks can be used for this purpose,
and heavy items occupy the bottom position in the racks.

SEISO - Shine the workplace :

This involves cleaning the work place free of burrs, grease, oil, waste, scrap etc. No
loosely hanging wires or oil leakage from machines.

SEIKETSU - Standardization :

Employees has to discuss together and decide on standards for keeping the work place
/ Machines / pathways neat and clean. This standards are implemented for whole
organization and are tested / Inspected randomly.

SHITSUKE - Self discipline :

Considering 5S as a way of life and bring about self-discipline among the employees of
the organization. This includes wearing badges, following work procedures,
punctuality, dedication to the organization etc

2.5.2 PILLAR 2 - JISHU HOZEN ( Autonomous maintenance ) :

This pillar is geared towards developing operators to be able to take care of small
maintenance tasks, thus freeing up the skilled maintenance people to spend time on
more value added activity and technical repairs. The operators are responsible for
upkeep of their equipment to prevent it from deteriorating.

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Policy :

1. Uninterrupted operation of equipments.


2. Flexible operators to operate and maintain other equipments.
3. Eliminating the defects at source through active employee participation.
4. Stepwise implementation of JH activities.

JISHU HOZEN Targets:

1. Prevent the occurrence of 1A / 1B because of JH.


2. Reduce oil consumption by 50%
3. Reduce process time by 50%
4. Increase use of JH by 50%

Steps in JISHU HOZEN :

1. Preparation of employees.
2. Initial cleanup of machines.
3. Take counter measures
4. Fix tentative JH standards
5. General inspection
6. Autonomous inspection
7. Standardization and
8. Autonomous management.

Each of the above mentioned steps is discussed in detail below.

1. Train the Employees : Educate the employees about TPM, Its advantages, JH
advantages and Steps in JH. Educate the employees about abnormalities in
equipments.
2. Initial cleanup of machines :
o Supervisor and technician should discuss and set a date for
implementing step1
o Arrange all items needed for cleaning
o On the arranged date, employees should clean the equipment completely
with the help of maintenance department.
o Dust, stains, oils and grease has to be removed.
o Following are the things that has to be taken care while cleaning. They
are Oil leakage, loose wires, unfastened nits and bolts and worn out
parts.

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o After clean up problems are categorized and suitably tagged. White tags
is place where problems can be solved by operators. Pink tag is placed
where the aid of maintenance department is needed.
o Contents of tag is transferred to a register.
o Make note of area which were inaccessible.
o Finally close the open parts of the machine and run the machine.
3. Counter Measures :
o Inaccessible regions had to be reached easily. E.g. If there are many
screw to open a fly wheel door, hinge door can be used. Instead of
opening a door for inspecting the machine, acrylic sheets can be used.
o To prevent work out of machine parts necessary action must be taken.
o Machine parts should be modified to prevent accumulation of dirt and
dust.
4. Tentative Standard :
o JH schedule has to be made and followed strictly.
o Schedule should be made regarding cleaning, inspection and lubrication
and it also should include details like when, what and how.
5. General Inspection :
o The employees are trained in disciplines like Pneumatics, electrical,
hydraulics, lubricant and coolant, drives, bolts, nuts and Safety.
o This is necessary to improve the technical skills of employees and to use
inspection manuals correctly.
o After acquiring this new knowledge the employees should share this with
others.
o By acquiring this new technical knowledge, the operators are now well
aware of machine parts.
6. Autonomous Inspection :
o New methods of cleaning and lubricating are used.
o Each employee prepares his own autonomous chart / schedule in
consultation with supervisor.
o Parts which have never given any problem or part which don't need any
inspection are removed from list permanently based on experience.
o Including good quality machine parts. This avoid defects due to poor JH.
o Inspection that is made in preventive maintenance is included in JH.
o The frequency of cleanup and inspection is reduced based on experience.
7. Standardization :
o Upto the previous stem only the machinery / equipment was the
concentration. However in this step the surroundings of machinery are
organized. Necessary items should be organized, such that there is no
searching and searching time is reduced.

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o Work environment is modified such that there is no difficulty in getting
any item.
o Everybody should follow the work instructions strictly.
o Necessary spares for equipments is planned and procured.
8. Autonomous Management :
o OEE and OPE and other TPM targets must be achieved by continuous
improve through Kaizen.
o PDCA ( Plan, Do, Check and Act ) cycle must be implemented for Kaizen.

2.5.3 PILLAR 3 - KAIZEN :

"Kai" means change, and "Zen" means good ( for the better ). Basically kaizen is for
small improvements, but carried out on a continual basis and involve all people in the
organization. Kaizen is opposite to big spectacular innovations. Kaizen requires no or
little investment. The principle behind is that "a very large number of small
improvements are move effective in an organizational environment than a few
improvements of large value. This pillar is aimed at reducing losses in the workplace
that affect our efficiencies. By using a detailed and thorough procedure we eliminate
losses in a systematic method using various Kaizen tools. These activities are not
limited to production areas and can be implemented in administrative areas as well.

Kaizen Policy :

1. Practice concepts of zero losses in every sphere of activity.


2. relentless pursuit to achieve cost reduction targets in all resources
3. Relentless pursuit to improve over all plant equipment effectiveness.
4. Extensive use of PM analysis as a tool for eliminating losses.
5. Focus of easy handling of operators.

Kaizen Target :

Achieve and sustain zero loses with respect to minor stops, measurement and
adjustments, defects and unavoidable downtimes. It also aims to achieve 30%
manufacturing cost reduction.

Tools used in Kaizen :

1. PM analysis
2. Why - Why analysis
3. Summary of losses
4. Kaizen register
5. Kaizen summary sheet.

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The objective of TPM is maximization of equipment effectiveness. TPM aims at
maximization of machine utilization and not merely machine availability maximization.
As one of the pillars of TPM activities, Kaizen pursues efficient equipment, operator
and material and energy utilization, that is extremes of productivity and aims at
achieving substantial effects. Kaizen activities try to thoroughly eliminate 16 major
losses.

Major losses in a organisation:

Loss Category

1. Failure losses - Breakdown


loss
2. Setup / adjustment losses
3. Cutting blade loss
4. Start up loss
Losses that impede equipment efficiency
5. Minor stoppage / Idling loss.
6. Speed loss - operating at low
speeds.
7. Defect / rework loss
8. Scheduled downtime loss

9. Management loss
10.Operating motion loss
11.Line organization loss Loses that impede human work efficiency
12.Logistic loss
13.Measurement and adjustment
loss

14.Energy loss
Loses that impede effective use of production
15.Die, jig and tool breakage loss resources
16.Yield loss.

Classification of losses :

Aspect Sporadic Loss Chronic Loss

Causes for this failure can This loss cannot be easily


Causation be easily traced. Cause- identified and solved. Even if
effect relationship is simple various counter measures
to trace. are applied

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This type of losses are
Remedy Easy to establish a remedial caused because of hidden
measure defects in machine,
equipment and methods.
A single cause is rare - a
Impact / Loss
A single loss can be costly combination of causes trends
to be a rule
Frequency of The frequency of occurrence The frequency of loss is
occurrence is low and occasional. more.

Specialists in process
engineering, quality
Usually the line personnel assurance and maintenance
Corrective action in the production can attend people are required.
to this problem.

2.5.4 PILLAR 4 - PLANNED MAINTENANCE :

It is aimed to have trouble free machines and equipments producing defect free
products for total customer satisfaction. This breaks maintenance down into 4
"families" or groups which was defined earlier.

1. Preventive Maintenance
2. Breakdown Maintenance
3. Corrective Maintenance
4. Maintenance Prevention

With Planned Maintenance we evolve our efforts from a reactive to a proactive method
and use trained maintenance staff to help train the operators to better maintain their
equipment.

Policy :

1. Achieve and sustain availability of machines


2. Optimum maintenance cost.
3. Reduces spares inventory.
4. Improve reliability and maintainability of machines.

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Target :

1. Zero equipment failure and break down.


2. Improve reliability and maintainability by 50 %
3. Reduce maintenance cost by 20 %
4. Ensure availability of spares all the time.

Six steps in Planned maintenance :

1. Equipment evaluation and recoding present status.


2. Restore deterioration and improve weakness.
3. Building up information management system.
4. Prepare time based information system, select equipment, parts and members
and map out plan.
5. Prepare predictive maintenance system by introducing equipment diagnostic
techniques and
6. Evaluation of planned maintenance.

2.5.5PILLAR 5 - QUALITY MAINTENANCE :

It is aimed towards customer delight through highest quality through defect free
manufacturing. Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner,
much like Focused Improvement. We gain understanding of what parts of the
equipment affect product quality and begin to eliminate current quality concerns, then
move to potential quality concerns. Transition is from reactive to proactive (Quality
Control to Quality Assurance).

QM activities is to set equipment conditions that preclude quality defects, based on


the basic concept of maintaining perfect equipment to maintain perfect quality of
products. The condition are checked and measure in time series to very that measure
values are within standard values to prevent defects. The transition of measured
values is watched to predict possibilities of defects occurring and to take counter
measures before hand.

Policy :

1. Defect free conditions and control of equipments.


2. QM activities to support quality assurance.
3. Focus of prevention of defects at source
4. Focus on poka-yoke. ( fool proof system )
5. In-line detection and segregation of defects.
6. Effective implementation of operator quality assurance.

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Target :

1. Achieve and sustain customer complaints at zero


2. Reduce in-process defects by 50 %
3. Reduce cost of quality by 50 %.

Data requirements :

Quality defects are classified as customer end defects and in house defects. For
customer-end data, we have to get data on

1. Customer end line rejection


2. Field complaints.

In-house, data include data related to products and data related to process

Data related to product :

1. Product wise defects


2. Severity of the defect and its contribution - major/minor
3. Location of the defect with reference to the layout
4. Magnitude and frequency of its occurrence at each stage of measurement
5. Occurrence trend in beginning and the end of each
production/process/changes. (Like pattern change, ladle/furnace lining etc.)
6. Occurrence trend with respect to restoration of
breakdown/modifications/periodical replacement of quality components.

Data related to processes:

1. The operating condition for individual sub-process related to men, method,


material and machine.
2. The standard settings/conditions of the sub-process
3. The actual record of the settings/conditions during the defect occurrence.

2.5.6PILLAR 6 - TRAINING :

It is aimed to have multi-skilled revitalized employees whose morale is high and who
has eager to come to work and perform all required functions effectively and
independently. Education is given to operators to upgrade their skill. It is not
sufficient know only "Know-How" by they should also learn "Know-why". By experience
they gain, "Know-How" to overcome a problem what to be done. This they do without
knowing the root cause of the problem and why they are doing so. Hence it become
necessary to train them on knowing "Know-why". The employees should be trained to
achieve the four phases of skill. The goal is to create a factory full of experts. The
different phase of skills are

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Policy :

1. Focus on improvement of knowledge, skills and techniques.


2. Creating a training environment for self learning based on felt needs.
3. Training curriculum / tools /assessment etc conductive to employee
revitalization
4. Training to remove employee fatigue and make work enjoyable.

Target :

1. Achieve and sustain downtime due to want men at zero on critical machines.
2. Achieve and sustain zero losses due to lack of knowledge / skills / techniques
3. Aim for 100 % participation in suggestion scheme.

Steps in Educating and training activities :

1. Setting policies and priorities and checking present status of education and
training.
2. Establish of training system for operation and maintenance skill up gradation.
3. Training the employees for upgrading the operation and maintenance skills.
4. Preparation of training calendar.
5. Kick-off of the system for training.
6. Evaluation of activities and study of future approach.

2.5.7PILLAR 7 - OFFICE TPM :

Office TPM should be started after activating four other pillars of TPM (JH, KK, QM,
PM). Office TPM must be followed to improve productivity, efficiency in the
administrative functions and identify and eliminate losses. This includes analyzing
processes and procedures towards increased office automation. Office TPM addresses
twelve major losses. They are

1. Processing loss
2. Cost loss including in areas such as procurement, accounts, marketing,
sales leading to high inventories
3. Communication loss
4. Idle loss
5. Set-up loss
6. Accuracy loss
7. Office equipment breakdown
8. Communication channel breakdown, telephone and fax lines

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9. Time spent on retrieval of information
10.Non availability of correct on line stock status
11.Customer complaints due to logistics
12.Expenses on emergency dispatches/purchases

How to start office TPM ?

A senior person from one of the support functions e.g. Head of Finance, MIS, Purchase
etc should be heading the sub-committee. Members representing all support functions
and people from Production & Quality should be included in sub committee. TPM co-
ordinate plans and guides the sub committee.

1. Providing awareness about office TPM to all support departments


2. Helping them to identify P, Q, C, D, S, M in each function in relation to plant
performance
3. Identify the scope for improvement in each function
4. Collect relevant data
5. Help them to solve problems in their circles
6. Make up an activity board where progress is monitored on both sides - results
and actions along with Kaizens.
7. Fan out to cover all employees and circles in all functions.

Kobetsu Kaizen topics for Office TPM :

 Inventory reduction
 Lead time reduction of critical processes
 Motion & space losses
 Retrieval time reduction.
 Equalizing the work load
 Improving the office efficiency by eliminating the time loss on retrieval of
information, by achieving zero breakdown of office equipment like telephone
and fax lines.

Office TPM and its Benefits :

1. Involvement of all people in support functions for focusing on better plant


performance
2. Better utilized work area
3. Reduce repetitive work
4. Reduced inventory levels in all parts of the supply chain
5. Reduced administrative costs
6. Reduced inventory carrying cost

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7. Reduction in number of files
8. Reduction of overhead costs (to include cost of non-production/non capital
equipment)
9. Productivity of people in support functions
10.Reduction in breakdown of office equipment
11.Reduction of customer complaints due to logistics
12.Reduction in expenses due to emergency dispatches/purchases
13.Reduced manpower
14.Clean and pleasant work environment.

P Q C D S M in Office TPM :

P - Production output lost due to want of material, Manpower productivity, Production


output lost due to want of tools.

Q - Mistakes in preparation of cheques, bills, invoices, payroll, Customer


returns/warranty attributable to BOPs, Rejection/rework in BOP's/job work, Office
area rework.

C - Buying cost/unit produced, Cost of logistics - inbound/outbound, Cost of carrying


inventory, Cost of communication, Demurrage costs.

D - Logistics losses (Delay in loading/unloading)

 Delay in delivery due to any of the support functions


 Delay in payments to suppliers
 Delay in information

S - Safety in material handling/stores/logistics, Safety of soft and hard data.

M - Number of kaizens in office areas.

How office TPM supports plant TPM :

Office TPM supports the plant, initially in doing Jishu Hozen of the machines (after
getting training of Jishu Hozen), as in Jishu Hozen at the

1. Initial stages machines are more and manpower is less, so the help of
commercial departments can be taken, for this
2. Office TPM can eliminate the lodes on line for no material and logistics.

Extension of office TPM to suppliers and distributors :

This is essential, but only after we have done as much as possible internally. With
suppliers it will lead to on-time delivery, improved 'in-coming' quality and cost

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reduction. With distributors it will lead to accurate demand generation, improved
secondary distribution and reduction in damages during storage and handling. In any
case we will have to teach them based on our experience and practice and highlight
gaps in the system which affect both sides. In case of some of the larger companies,
they have started to support clusters of suppliers.

2.5.8PILLAR 8 - SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT :

Target :

1. Zero accident,
2. Zero health damage
3. Zero fires.

In this area focus is on to create a safe workplace and a surrounding area that is not
damaged by our process or procedures. This pillar will play an active role in each of
the other pillars on a regular basis.

A committee is constituted for this pillar which comprises representative of officers as


well as workers. The committee is headed by Senior vice President ( Technical ).
Utmost importance to Safety is given in the plant. Manager (Safety) is looking after
functions related to safety. To create awareness among employees various
competitions like safety slogans, Quiz, Drama, Posters, etc. related to safety can be
organized at regular intervals.

2.6 Economics Of Maintenance

Concept of preventive Maintenance is presently accepted in most of the industries in


order to achieve their planned production. Both production and maintenance have the
same objective - to produce a quality product at maximum efficiency and minimum
cost.
Theoretically maintenance should aim at keeping the machines and other facilities in
a condition that allows them to be used without any interruption and at their
maximum profit making capacity. Such a situation can be assured in practice only if
machines are replaced frequently or if a stand-by machine is maintained which can be
put into operation as and when the original unit is stopped for checks, repairs and
component replacements.
But, no industrial unit can possibly afford to throw away its capital resources by
replacing
machines frequently, nor can a company block its money in equipment that will be
only partially utilised by having stand-bys.
An organisation has, under such circumstances, to accept a certain loss in productive
capacity of its investments to enable maintenance, to examine the various equipment,
repair if not in order, and put them back in a condition as required by the users.

Analysis of Maintenance Cost

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Downtime of an equipment costs money to the company, which is made up of
maintenance labour spent, materials and spares consumed, and supervision
exercised. Loss of revenue due to downtime because of maintenance, however,
provides a saving to the organisation through maintenance engineering and
management extension of the useful life of plant and facilities and through
maintaining them at the optimum standards of operation. This saving consists of
reduction in wastage and scrapping of materials, higher level of employee morale and
their safety, minimisation of process time and postponement of the necessity of
investment for capital replacement. Management of maintenance has, therefore, to
concern itself with the balancing of costs against
gains so as to evolve the most suitable policies and determine the maintenance effort
required, which as said earlier, is a function of cost and it can vary from Industry to
Industry. In establishing a systematic maintenance system, the following stages are
normally gone through.

0 stage - Only break-down maintenance


1st stage - Breakdown maintenance + certain amount of cleaning and lubrication
2nd stage - Breakdown maintenance + planned lubrication and inspection
3rd stage - In addition to degree 2, preventive replacement of spares (renewal) is
carried out
4th stage - In addition to degree 3, there are periodic maintenance schedules including
overhauls
5th stage - In addition to degree 4, predictive maintenance techniques are adopted.
From above it is assumed that as the degree of maintenance effort increases the
number of breakdown decreases, while on the other hand maintenance cost increases.
Hence, there must be some compromise in order to achieve the optimum maintenance
effort.

2.7 computer aided Maintenance

Computer-aided maintenance that utilize software to organize planning, scheduling


and support of maintenance and repair. A common application of such systems is the
maintenance of computers, either hardware or software, themselves. It can also apply
to the maintenance of other complex systems that require periodic maintenance, such
as reminding operators that preventive maintenance is due or even predicting when
such maintenance should be performed based on recorded past experience
Significant advances in computer hardware and software development have affected
most areas of business and industry, and the area of maintenance planning and
management is no exception. The use of computerized maintenance management
systems, which are commonly referred to as CMMS, is no longer a luxury or frivolous
business overhead; in many cases, it is requirement. Enterprises that want to attain
ISO, QS certification will discover that application of CMMS is a fundamental
requirement to successfully obtain and maintain such certifications. A variety of
software packages are available, and many have been around for a number of years.
Today, CMMS are used for all aspects of maintenance planning, management and
control. CMMS must be flexible and adaptable, because every firm is considered
unique. A general guide has been developed, which can easily be applied to specific
situations to assist in justifying the computer for Maintenance System Evaluation
(MSE). MSE has always required the manipulation of large amounts of data and
development of more cost-effective processing storage and database systems has

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brought the use of computers to the fore in this area. Since, the relationships are
complex between factors affecting maintenance activities and their interactions; a
computer-aided model is developed with main purpose of determining the evaluation
factors and their pointers. This model will approximate the complex relations for
practical purposes.. It will also perform instant corrective actions required according
to the degree of deviation and its effect on the production continuation and with the
minimum shutdowns possible

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Unit – III
Reliability: Definition, concept of reliability based design, failure rate, MTTF,
MTBF, failure pattern, system reliability: Series, Parallel and Mixed configurations
- Availability and Maintainability concepts- Applications.

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3.1 Reliability:
 The term “reliability” in engineering refers to the probability that a product, a
system or a particular component will perform without failure under the
specified condition and for a specific period of time. Thus, it is also known as
the “probability of survival”.
 To quantify reliability, a testis usually conducted to obtain a set of “time-to-
failure” sample data; say {ti, i=1, N). The sample can then be fitted to a
probability density function, f (t), or to a probability cumulative function, F
(t).The “reliability function” is defined as: R(t) = 1- F(t). Hence the behavior of
R(t) is conjugate to that of F(t), the cumulative probability of failure in time.
However, failure of an engineering product, or system, may stem from such
random factors as material defects, loss of precision, accidental overload
,environmental corrosion, etc. The effects on failure of the these random factors
are only implicit in the collected data {ti, i=1,N); and it is difficult to ascertain
which factor is predominantand when it is predominant, from using F(t).

3.2Indices of Reliability
Reliability can be specified by two parameters namely:
1. Mean time between failures (MTBF)
MTBF is the critical characteristic for repairable system and is the mean or average
time between two successive failures of the system. MTBF can be obtained by running
an item or equipment for a predetermined length of time under specified conditions
and calculating the average length of time between failures.
If for example, an item fails six times in an operating period of 60,000 hrs, MTBF
is 10, 000 hrs. However, if the identical items operating under similar conditions are
studied, MTBF
is given by:
MTBF = (Total operating hours of all items)/Total number of failures that occur
For example if 20 identical items operate for 5, 000 hrs during which 40 failures occur
and are
rectified,
MTBF =40
5000× 20
= 2, 500 hrs
MTBF can also be expressed as the inverse of failure rate, λ as follows:
MTBF =1/λ
The exponential distribution, the most basic and widely used reliability prediction
formula, models machines with the constant failure rate, or the flat section of the
bathtub curve. Most industrial machines spend most of their lives in the constant
failure rate, so it is widely applicable. Below is the basic equation for estimating the
reliability of a machine that follows the exponential distribution.

where the failure rate is constant as a function of time:

Where:
R(t) = Reliability estimate for a period of time, cycles, miles, etc. (t).
e = Base of the natural logarithms (2.718281828)
λ = Failure rate (1/MTBF)

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If for example, we assume a constant failure rate of 0.1 for a prime mover and running
for six years
without a failure, the projected reliability is 55 percent, which is calculated as follows:
R(6) = 2.718281828-(0.1* 6)
R(6) = 0.5488 = ~ 55%
In other words, after six years, about 45% of the population of similar prime mover
operating in similar application can be expected to fail. It is worth reiterating at this
point that these calculations project the probability for a population. Any given
individual from the population could fail on the first day of operation while another
individual could last 30 years. That is the nature of probabilistic reliability projections.

If for example, we assume a constant failure rate of 0.1 for a prime mover and running
for six years without a failure, the projected reliability is 55 percent, which is
calculated as follows:
R(6) = 2.718281828-(0.1* 6)
R(6) = 0.5488 = ~ 55%
In other words, after six years, about 45% of the population of similar prime mover
operating in similar application can be expected to fail. It is worth reiterating at this
point that these calculations project the probability for a population. Any given
individual from the population could fail on the first day of operation while another
individual could last 30 years. That is the nature of probabilistic reliability projections.

2. Mean time to failure (MTTF)


This is used for components or items that are not repairable such as filament lamps,
fuses, resistors, capacitors, etc. The value of MTTF can be calculated from life test
results, which can be obtained by stressing a large number of components under
known conditions for a period and noting the number of failures.

MTTF = (Length of test time) / (Number of failures).


Another method which though is more accurate but costly is run to failure specified
number of components under specified conditions.

3.3Failure Rate
 Failure is any event that adversely affects system criteria. For example, the
criteria could include output in a sold-out condition, or maintenance cost or
capital resources in a constrained budget cycle, environmental excursions or
safety, etc.

 Failure rate is the time rate of change of the probability of failure. Since the
latter is a function of time, failure rate is also a function of time. However, in
terms of failure rate, one can obtain physical information as to which factor is
controlling the failure behavior and/or when it is controlling the failure
behavior.

 The failure rate is a basic component of many more complex reliability


calculations. Depending upon the mechanical/electrical design, operating
context, environment and/or maintenance effectiveness, a machine’s failure
rate as a function of time may decline, remain constant, increase linearly or
increase geometrically

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Fig 3.1 Profile of Equipment Failure (Bath Tub Curve)

Failures do not generally occur at a uniform rate, but follow a distribution in time
commonly described as a "bathtub curve." The life of a device can be divided into three
regions:
(i) Infant Mortality Period: This period is that of ‘running in’, where the failure rate
progressively improves.
 The failure rate is generally high but short before decreasing due to design or
manufacturing errors, defective parts, defects in materials, misuse,
misapplication, out of manufacturing tolerance. Failure at this period can be
avoided by subjecting the product to specified period of simulated tests, in hope

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that most early failures are weeded out, vigorous tests during commissioning,
design improvement, stricter material selection, tightened quality control, and
the use of redundancy, which is built into the product to provide a fail-safe
feature.
(ii) Useful Life Period: At this period, failure rate is at its lowest and remains
constant for products that do not contain fatal defects or that have survived the
infancy period.
 This constant-rate mode is generally due to random events from without, rather
than by inherent factors from within. Such events are beyond the control
during the periods of design, prototype development, manufacturing, etc. but
may be result through either accident or poor operation or maintenance.
 Failures may be reduced by following good operating and maintenance
procedures. The constant rate period is often used to formulate the pricing,
Guarantee and servicing policies of the product; the latter is of particular
importance in commerce. Product with a constant failure rate has the unique
attribute that its probability of failure is independent of the products past
service life; this aspect aids the ease of
 mathematical modelling in repair frequency, spare-part inventory, maintenance
schedule, etc.
(iii) Wear Out Period: The period occurs toward the tail end of the product useful life
and is associated with increasing failure rate. The failure is because of old age of the
equipment material fatigue, corrosion, contact wear, insulation failure, and so on.
Products with rapidly12increasing failure rates require corrective measures such as
regularity of inspection, maintenance, replacement, etc. The central concern in the
wear-out period is the ability to predict the probable service life with a suitable model,
so that a prudent schedule for preventive maintenance can be formulated .Generally,
the infant mortality mode is a quality control issue, while the wear-out mode is a
maintenance issue. The random failure or constant rate mode, on the other hand, is
widely used as the basis for product reliability considerations

3.4Calculating System Reliability


System reliability depends on the reliabilities of the various components in the system.
Therefore, to calculate the reliability of a system, the system should be divided into
subsystems. A system may be connected in series or parallel.

Systems in Series
In the series system, the ability to employ subsystem B depends upon the operating
state of subsystem A. If subsystem A is not operating, the system is down regardless of
the condition of subsystem
To calculate the system reliability for a system is series, there is the need to multiply
the estimated reliability of subsystem A at time (t) by the estimated reliability of
subsystem B at time (t). The basic equation for calculating the system reliability of a
simple series system is:

Where:
Rs(t) – System reliability for given time (t)
R1-n(t) – Subsystem or sub-function reliability for given time (t)
So, for a simple system with three subsystems, or sub-functions, each having an
estimated reliability of 0.90 (90%) at time (t),

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the system reliability is calculated as 0.90 X 0.90 X 0.90 = 0.729, or about73%.

Fig 3.2 reliability in series


Systems in Parallel
Design engineers at times incorporate redundancy into critical machines. Reliability
engineers call these parallel systems and may be designed as active parallel systems
or standby parallel systems. The block diagram for a simple two component parallel
system is shown To calculate the reliability of an active parallel system, where both
machines are running, use the following simple equation:

Fig 3.3 reliability in parallel

Where:
Rs(t) – System reliability for given time (t)
R1-n(t) – Subsystem or sub-function reliability for given time (t)

The simple parallel system in our example with two components in parallel, each
having a reliability of 0.90, has a total system reliability of 1 – (0.1 X 0.1) = 0.99.
Therefore, the system reliability was significantly improved.

3.5Availability and Maintainability concepts


Availability Ratio is the portion of the total time a machine should function to that the
machine actually functions.
If the total is T hours and the machine is actually in working condition for U hours
while it is down
for D hours, then T = U + D
Availability Ratio, AR =u/U+ D

Unavailability Ratio, UR = D /U+ D

The total time, T does not include planned operational shutdowns due to production
schedules or routine preventive maintenance.

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Maintenance Managers/Engineers usually employ availability Ratio for planning
purposes. The reliability of a system gives the probability a certain job can be done
without system breakdown ,however, the manager needs to know how much time the
system would be available over a planning period.

The maintainability, which is a factor of the time required and resources needed to
restore equipment in case of failure, in conjunction with reliability determine the
availability of a machine. If the average repair time is T , the availability of the
machine, AV in terms of MTBF is

AV= MTBF/ MTBF +T

Maintainability: The probability that a failed item/equipment will be restored to


acceptable working condition.

Maintainability engineering: An application of scientific knowledge and skill s to


develop equipment/item that is inherently able to be maintained

Maintainability model: A quantified representation of a test/process to perform an


analysis of results that determine useful relationships between a group of
maintainability parameters.

Downtime: The total time in which the item/equipment is not in a satisfactory


operable condition.

Serviceability: The degree of ease/difficulty with which an item/equipment can be


restored to its satisfactory operable state.

Maintainability function: A plot of the probability of repair within a time given on the
y-axis, against maintenance time on the x-axis and is useful to predict the probability
that repair will be completed in a specified time.

An efficient and effective design can only be achieved by seriously considering


maintainability issues that arise during the system life cycle. This means a
maintainability program must incorporate a dialogue between the manufacturer and
user throughout the system life cycle. This dialogue concerns the user’s maintenance
needs and other requirements for the system and the manufacturer’s response to
these needs and requirements.
The life cycle of a system can be divided into the following four phases:
• Phase I: Concept development
• Phase II: Validation
• Phase III: Production
• Phase IV: Operation
Specific maintainability functions concerning each of these phases are discussed
below.

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3.5.1CONCEPTDEVELOPMENT
In Phase I, high risk areas are identified and system operation needs are translated
into a set of operational requirements. The primary maintainability concern during
this phase is the determination of system effectiveness needs and criteria, in addition
to establishment of the maintenance and logistic support policies and boundaries
required to satisfy mission objectives by using operational and mission profiles.
Items such as the following must be accomplished prior to developing system
maintainability requirements:
• Details of mission, system operating modes, and so on
• Evaluation of system utilization rates and mission time factors
• Details of the global logistic support objectives and concepts
• Evaluation of the system life cycle duration
3.5.2 VALIDATION
During Phase II, operational requirements developed and formulated in the previous
phase are refined further with respect to system design requirements. The prime
objective of validation is to ensure that full-scale development does not begin until
factors such as costs, performance and support objectives, and schedules have been
effectively prepared and evaluated.
In this phase, maintainability management specifically deals with tasks such as
those listed below:
• Preparing maintainability program and demonstration plans as per contractual
requirements
• Determining reliability, maintainability, and system effectiveness-related
requirements
• Preparing maintainability policies and procedures for validation and follow on full-
scale engineering effort
• Coordinating and monitoring the entire organization’s maintainability effort
• Performing maintainability predictions and allocations
• Participating in trade-off analyses
• Providing assistance to maintenance engineering in the performance of maintenance-
related analyses
• Preparing plans for data collection and analysis
• Establishing maintainability incentives and penalties
• Participating in design reviews with respect to maintainability
• Developing maintainability design-related guidelines for use by design
engineers with the aid of maintenance engineering analyses
3.5.3 PRODUCTION
In Phase III, the system is manufactured, tested, and delivered, and, in some cases,
installed per the technical data package resulting from Phases I and II. Although the
maintainability engineering design efforts will largely be completed by this time, the
maintainability-related tasks such as those listed below are performed during this
phase.
• Monitoring the entire production process
• Examining production test trends with respect to adverse effects on items
such as maintainability, maintenance concepts, and provisioning plans
• Examining change proposals with respect to their impact on maintainability
• Assuring the proper correction of discrepancies that can adversely impact
maintainability
• Taking part in establishment of controls for process variations, errors, etc.,

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that can undermine system maintainability
3.5.4 OPERATION
In Phase IV, the system is used, logistically supported, and modified as appropriate.
During the operation phase maintenance, overhaul, training, supply, and material
readiness requirements and characteristics of the system become clear. Although
there are no particular maintainability requirements at this time, the phase is
probably the most crucial because the actual cost-effectiveness and logistic support of
the system are demonstrated. In addition, maintainability-related data can be
obtained from the real life experience for future use.

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Unit – IV
Safety and productivity - causes of accidents in industries – accident reporting and
investigation -measuring safety performance - Safety organizations and functions -
Factories act and rules

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4.1Safety and productivity

 Safety is the state of being "safe" the condition of being protected against
physical, social, spiritual, financial, political, emotional, occupational,
psychological, educational or other types or consequences of failure,
damage, error, accidents, harm or any other event which could be considered
non-desirable.
 Safety can also be defined to be the control of recognized hazards to achieve an
acceptable level of risk. This can take the form of being protected from the event
or from exposure to something that causes health or economical losses. It can
include protection of people or of possessions.

4.2 causes of accident in industries


A work accident, workplace accident, occupational accident, or accident at work is a
"discrete occurrence in the course of work" leading to physical or mental occupational
injury
Why accident happened? Accident happened because of:
1. Poor leadership from the top
2. Inadequate supervision
3. Insufficient attention to the design of safety into the system or careless attitude
on EMS.
4. An unsystematic approach to the identification, analysis and elimination of
hazards.
5. Poor training facilities and employee motivation

Fig 4.1 types of accident

4.3 Accident Reporting And Investigation

This memo amends and supplements the existing instructions on the reporting of
accidents and dangerous occurrences both for internal purposes and to comply with
the Reporting on Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (NI)
1997. (RIDDOR)

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2. Accident Report Form AR/DEL should be used to report accidents occasioned by
DEL staff or public whilst on DEL premises. Major injuries and dangerous occurrences
should be reported to the Health and Safety Executive on NI2508.

3. Where necessary BI95 (Application for Declaration that an Accident was an


Industrial Accident) should be completed for DEL staff in addition to AR/DEL (the
BI95 form will be sent automatically to the member of staff by Personnel Staff
Relations on receipt of AR/DEL)

ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION

4 There are many legal and economic reasons for investigating accidents. The results
of any investigation should however be used to help prevent a recurrence by indicating
modification to procedures, premises, training or supervision.

5. All accidents should be investigated. Study of incidents producing minor injuries or


near misses can often reveal a major hazard. The depth of investigation will depend
upon the degree of injury or damage but should primarily depend upon the basic
hazard. Action to eliminate the hazard can only be taken when it has been determined
following investigation.

6. The manager or officer in charge should investigate any accident. These officers will
be referred to in this memo as IO.

The IO should visit the scene of the accident as soon as possible. Where the accident
has occurred on DEL premises, the IO should question witnesses, carry out physical
tests as necessary and clarify technical queries within his/her competence. When
problems arise outside the IO’s competence he/she should seek advice from a
technical officer with the necessary expertise to deal with the matter.

7. It should be made clear to any witness(es) at the commencement of the enquiry that
the object is to prevent a recurrence of the accident and not to apportion blame. There
is no legal power to compel a witness to answer questions. All witnesses are entitled, if
they wish, to be accompanied by anyone of their choice when being questioned. If,
during the course of the investigation, any breach of statutory requirements, DEL
safety instructions or staff rules is identified remedial action should be taken
immediately.

8. When all enquiries have been completed, the IO should consider what local
instructions (if any) are necessary to prevent recurrence of the accident

ACCIDENT RECORDING

9. A record of an accident must be made in the accident book, BI510. Persons who are
covered by the Social Security Act 1975 may use the BI510 to give notice to their
employer of an accident resulting in injury. Persons who are not covered by that Act
have similar rights under DEL procedures in being able to enter the details of injuries

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sustained while on courses etc. Future claims can be related to the original entry in
the accident book. Scrutiny of accident records by the safety Adviser may reveal
trends, which indicate a need for preventive action to be taken.

4.4measuring safety performance

Accident consequence analysis: An analysis of the expected effects of an accident,


independent of frequency and probability
Check-list analysis: A method for identifying hazards by comparison with experience
in the form of a list of failure modes and hazardous situations
Competent authority: A Minister, government department or other public authority
with the power to issue regulations, orders or other instructions having the force of
law.
Emergency plan: A formal written plan which, on the basis of identified potential
accidents at the installation together with their consequences, describes how
such accidents and their consequences should be handled either on site or off
site.
Emergency services: External bodies which are available to handle major accidents
and their consequences both on site and off site, e.g. fire authorities, police,
health services.
Event tree analysis: A method for illustrating the intermediate and final outcomes
which may arise after the occurrence of a selected initial event. Failure mode and
effects analysis: A process of hazard identification where all known
failure modes of components or features of a system are considered in turn and
undesired outcomes are noted.
Fault tree analysis: A method for representing the logical combinations of various
system states which lead to a particular outcome (top event).
Hazard: A physical situation with a potential for human injury, damage to property,
damage to the environment or some combination of these.
Hazard analysis: The identification of undesired events that lead to the
materialisation of the hazard, the analysis of the mechanisms by which those
undesired events could occur and usually the estimation of the extent, magnitude
and relative likelihood of any harmful effects.
Hazard assessment: An evaluation of the results of a hazard analysis including
Judgments’ as to their acceptability and, as a guide, comparison with relevant
codes, standards, laws and policies.
Hazard and operability study (HAZOP). A study carried out by application of guide
words to identify all deviations from design intent having undesirable effects on
safety or operability, with the aim of identifying potential hazards.
Hazardous substance: A substance which by virtue of its chemical, physical or
toxicological properties constitutes a hazard.
Hot work: An activity involving a source of ignition such as welding, brazing or
spark-producing operations.
Major accident: An unexpected, sudden occurrence including, in particular, a major
emission, fire or explosion, resulting from abnormal developments in the course
of an industrial activity, leading to a serious danger to workers, the public or the
environment, whether immediate or delayed, inside or outside the installation

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and involving one or more hazardous substances.
Major hazard installation: An industrial installation which stores, processes or
produces hazardous substances in such a form and such a quantity that they
possess the potential to cause a major accident. The term is also used for an
installation which has on its premises, either permanently or temporarily, a
quantity of hazardous substance which exceeds the amount prescribed in
national or state major hazard legislation.
Operational safety concept: Strategy for process control, incorporating a hierarchy
of monitoring and controlling process parameters and of protective action to be
taken.
Rapid ranking method: A means of classifying the hazards of separate elements of
plant within an industrial complex, to enable areas for priority attention to be
quickly established.
Risk: The likelihood of an undesired event with specified consequences occurring
within a specified period or in specified circumstances. It may be expressed either as a
frequency (the number of specified events in unit time) or as a probability (the
probability of a specified event following a prior event),depending on the
circumstances.
Risk management: The whole of actions taken to achieve, maintain or improve the
safety of an installation and its operation.
Safety audit: A methodical in-depth examination of all or part of a total operating
system with relevance to safety.
Safety report: The written presentation of the technical, management and operational
information covering the hazards of a major hazard installation and their control
in support of a justification for the safety of the installation.
Safety team: A group which may be established by the works management for
specific safety purposes, e.g. inspections or emergency planning. The team
should include workers, their representatives where appropriate, and other
persons with expertise relevant to the tasks.
Threshold quantity: That quantity of a listed hazardous substance present or liable
to be present in an installation which, if exceeded, results in the classification of
the installation as a major hazard installation.
Workers: All employed persons.
Works management: Employers and persons at works level having the responsibility
and the authority delegated by the employer for taking decisions relevant to the
safety of major hazard installations. When appropriate, the definition also
includes persons at corporate level having such authority

safety Protection against Health Hazard


1. Substituting a less toxic substance for the hazardous chemical ( through
isolating the process, providing protecting clothing, handling and warning
devices, and providing safety education).
2. Ensuring that firms using radiation in their manufacturing process insists
that their employees wear badges which indicate the amount of radiation they
have been exposed to;
3. Controlling noise in factories, segregating noisy equipment, dampening
vibration, redesign noisy equipments, etc. The employee may be asked to wear
ear- covering or ear – plugs;
4. Devoting adequate attention to lighting, temperature and atmospheric
conditions ( through controlling dust, fumes, and gases, providing protective

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devices, clothing, goggles and shields)
Therefore, today the organization renders the following health services:
¾ Pre-hiring medical check up for all employees.
¾ Periodic medical check up of all employees and regular medical check up of
executives to detect early signs of tension, ulcers, diabetes and the like.
¾ First – aid treatment following an accident. Training in first aid is
compulsory for everyone.
¾ Treatment of minor complaints, such as cold, cough, fever and headaches.
¾ Rehabilitation and job placement of seriously injured workers who have
been cured but suffer from some disability.
¾ Control of occupational health hazards.
¾ Provision of healthy sanitary facilities, such as supply of potable water,
disposal of waste and effluents, good house keeping etc..
¾ Special examination of eyes, teeth and ears, when needed.
¾ Facilities for local hospital, clinics, as well as specialists.
¾ Special care of employees working in painting, welding and foundry
sections where the risk of their health is greater.
¾ Maternity and child care welfare, including family planning.
¾ Adequate ventilation, good lighting, tree plantation and good residential
Quarters

4.5Safety organizations and functions


The functions of safety department are as under:-
Monitoring implementation of all directives issued by Rly Board & HQs in matters
pertaining to safety.
Ensuring super checks of functioning of operational & maintenance machinery on the
division.
Super check of coaching & goods trains, conduct night inspections, joint inspections
with officers of civil, engineering, S& T, electrical & Mechanical departments.
Implementation of safety circular & safety drives on the division.
Co-ordination of improvement in crew & guard booking lobbies, running rooms for
running staff.
To coordinate disaster management functions, relief, & restoration etc.
Assisting authorities in conducting inquires in serious accidents.
Counseling & monitoring of staff involved in maintenance & operations

4.6 Factories act and rules


Section 1. Short title, extent and commencement. -
(1) This Act may be called the Factories Act, 1948.
(2) It extends to the whole of India
(3) It shall come into force on the 1st day of April, 1949.
Section 2. Interpretation.-
In this Act, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,-
(a) "Adult" means a person who has completed his eighteenth year of
age;
(b) "Adolescent" means a person, who has completed his fifteenth year
of age but has not completed his eighteenth year; (bb) "calendar year" means the
period of twelve months beginning with

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the first day of January in any year;
(c) "Child" means a person who has not completed his fifteenth year of
India. The Factories Act Page 1 of 78
(ca) "competent person", in relation to any provision of this Act, means a person or an
institution recognized as such by the Chief Inspector for the purposes of carrying out
tests, examinations and inspections required to be done in a factory under the
provisions of this Act having regard to-
(i) the qualifications and experience of the person and facilities available at his
disposal, or
(ii) the qualifications and experience of the persons employed in such institution and
facilities available therein, with regard to the conduct of such tests, examinations and
inspections, and more than one person or institution can be recognized as a
competent person in relation to a factory;
(d) "young person" means a person, who is either a child or an adolescent;
(e) "day" means a period of twenty-four hours beginning at midnight; (f) "week" means
a period of seven days beginning at midnight on Saturday night or such other night as
may be approved in writing for a particular area by the Chief Inspector of Factories; (g)
"power" means electrical energy, or any other form of energy, which is mechanically
transmitted and is not generated, by human or animal agency;
(h) "prime-mover" means any engine, motor or other appliance, which generates or
otherwise provides power;
(i) "transmission machinery" means any shift, wheel, drum, pulley, system of pulleys,
coupling, clutch, driving belt or other appliance or device by which the motion of a
prime-mover is transmitted to or received by any machinery or appliance;
(j) "machinery" includes prime-movers, transmission machinery and all other
appliances, whereby power is generated, transformed, transmitted
or applied;
manufacturing process" means any process for- (i) making, altering, repairing,
ornamenting, finishing, packing, oiling, washing, cleaning, breaking up, demolishing
or otherwise treating or adopting any article or substance with a view to its use,
sale, transport, delivery or disposal; or
(ii) pumping oil, water, sewage, or any other substance; or
(iii) generating, transforming or transmitting power; or
India. The Factories Act Page 2 of 78
THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948
Objectives of the legislation:
An Act to Consolidate and Amend the Law Regulating Labour in Factories.
1.Applicability of the Factories Act, 1948:
The Act is applicable to the premises wherein: -
(i) 10 or more workers are employed with use of power
(ii) 20 or more workers are employed without the use of power
(iii) Less than 10 workers, if activity is notified by the State Government.
Engaged in manufacturing activities.

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• Factories act 1948, is a central act, enforced by the state governments making the
relevant rules to extend scope and objectives of the Act.
• Karnataka State has formulated its rules as envisaged under the Act, and they are
called "The Karnataka Factories Rules, 1969".
• The Act is applicable to all the factories including state, and Central Government.
• Onus is on the part of the factory management to comply with the provisions
of the Act and Rules made there under.
GUIDELINES TO THE MANAGEMENT FOR COMPLIANCE:
To establish a factory under the purview of the Act, the factory management shall:
1. Obtain prior permission for construction of the factory building;
2. Obtain licence before commencement of manufacturing activity;
3. Comply with applicable provisions of law, which are in vogue;
APPROVAL OF PLANS OF THE FACTORY
Approval shall be obtained for a new building proposed to be constructed or an
existing building to be
taken in to use as a factory for which, plans of the said building shall be submitted to
the concerned
area inspector of the department l with the following documents:-
1. Form 1A (Certificate of Stability issued by qualified structural engineer) (in
duplicate)
2. Flow chart of the manufacturing process (in Triplicate)3. Land or Site Possession
Certificate
4. Certificate from Controller of Explosives (wherever explosive substances are stored
or used) (
in duplicate )
5. Treasury Receipted Challan for having paid the prescribed fee of Rs.500/- for
Factories
proposed to employ less than 500 workers and Rs.1000/- for workers beyond 500.
6. Questionnaire Form duly filled and signed( in duplicate )
7. Clearance certificate from the Pollution Control Board. (in duplicate )
8. Application in Form No.1 ( in duplicate )

REGISTRATION AND LICENCING OF FACTORY


Application for registration and grant of licence is required to be made before 15 days
of starting an
manufacturing activity in the factory to the concerned area inspector with the
following documents:
1. Registration application in Form No.2 duly filled with all particulars and signed by
the occupier
and the manager. (In Triplicate)
2. List of directors / Partners with the memorandum of article of association /
partnership deed (in
Duplicate)
3. Prescribed Fee paid as per Table A & B of the Fee Chart and treasury receipted
challan for having paid required registration fee.
4. Health and Safety policy of the proposed factory drawn and duly signed by the
Occupier in case of factories engaged in the hazardous processes as stipulated in

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the First Schedule of the Act. Application made with the above said documents will be
scrutinised by visiting the factory and the licence will be granted after due verification
within 30 days.
Once the application is made for registration to the department and if no order is
communicated to the
applicant within three months, the registration applied for in the said application shall
be deemed to be granted. Existing factories fulfilling the applicability clause mentioned
above, shall submit application for plan
approval and registration along with the above listed documents at once. Working a
factory without duly registering and without holding a valid license attracts the penal
provisions envisaged under the Factories act

All correspondence to with regards to registration of and grant of licence shall be made
either to the concerned area Inspectors or to the Chief Inspector of Factories and
Boilers whose addresses are available in this website.
Any further clarifications or assistance required in these matters, one may contact the
concerned officers at their respective offices after 3.00 P.M on all the working days.

EXEMPTION PROVISIONS UNDER THE ACT


The Factories Act envisages exemption provisions, which can be availed by the
management
1. EXCEPTIONAL PRESSURE OF WORK- EXEMPTION TO WORK ON OVERTIME :
Application shall be made by the occupier on a plain paper affixing Rs.2/ court fee
stamp narrating the reasons for working over time with supporting documents,
mentioning the period of such exemption required with number of personnel to be
deployed on overtime work with their willingness to work;
Application shall be made in duplicate to be submitted to the area inspector addressed
to Chief
Inspector of Factories;
Application shall be made at least 15 days prior to the engagement of workers on
overtime work;
Exemption will be granted after scrutiny and perusal of the documents.
Exemption will be granted for a quarter at a time starting with January, April, July
and October.
The exemption granted restrict the overtime hours to 75 hours in a quarter per
quarter in addition to
other conditions mentioned in the exemption order.
Please note that the Act prohibits granting of overtime exemption in respect of women
workers.
2.EXEMPTION FOR MAINTAINING REGISTERS IN PRESCRIBED FORMS:
Act stipulates provisions for granting exemption to maintain registers in prescribed
forms provided all the required information's are available in the format which the
management desires to maintain. Such
application with a court fee stamp of Rs.2/- may be made to the Chief Inspector of
Factories, along with the intended format with reasons thereof.
3.OTHER SPECIFIC EXEMPTIONS ENVISAGED UNDER THE ACT
Applications can be made to the Chief Inspector of Factories, for availing specific
exemptions under the relevant provisions of the Act giving reasons with supporting
documents, affixing Rs.2/- court fee stamp.

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4. EXEMPTION FOR EMPLOYING WOMEN WORKERS UPTO 10PM IN CERTAIN
FACTORIES
Government has exempted 15 categories of factories to facilitate women workers to
work upto 10. p.m. with the following conditions;
• Written consent shall be obtained from the willing workmen;
• No overtime shall be extracted from the women workers;
• Every women worker shall have uninterrupted rest of at least 9 hours between
cessation of work of period of work after 7p.m in a day and beginning of a fresh period
of work on the following day;
LIST OF EXEMPTED FACTORIES:
1. Ready made garment – clothes industries;
2. Leather goods industries ( foot wear, fancy leather articles, leather garments etc.,)
3. Fruit canning and processing industries;
4. Electronics, telecommunication, informatics, computers ( hardware and soft ware)
allied
industries;
5. Agarbathi, perfumery industries;
6. Horological industries, watch assembly, component manufacturing, jewel
manufacturing etc.,
7. Precision instruments, electrical, electromechanical, electronic manufacturing
industries;
8. Lamps, lamp filament and lamp component industries;
9. Food processing industries, instant foods etc.,
10.Units manufacturing domestic appliances, sports goods, toys etc.,
11.Cosmetics, drugs ( formulation) manufacturing units;
12.Biscuit and confectionery units;
13.Cotton, woolen, hosiery industries;
14.Jarada industries;
15.Cotton ginning and pressing factories;

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Unit – V
Safety Codes and Standards - General Safety considerations in Material Handling
equipments -Machine Shop machineries-pressure vessels and pressurized pipelines
– welding equipments –operation and inspection of extinguishers – prevention and
spread of fire – emergency exit facilities.

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5.1 Safety Codes and Standards

ASME offers the public and private sectors a comprehensive portfolio of codes and
standards offerings, which govern elevators and escalators. The Society develops and
maintains eight major codes addressing safety in design, construction, installation,
operation, inspection, testing, maintenance, alteration, and repair of elevators,
dumbwaiters, escalators, moving walks, material lifts, and dumbwaiters with
automatic transfer devices, wheelchair lifts, or inclined-stairway chair lifts. Thus,
ASME extends its broad perspective on safety across a full range of industry products
and applications.

ASME continues to set the pace in the elevator-and-escalator industry. Its A17
Elevator and Escalator Committee has successfully released a series of bi-national
codes in concert with the Canadian Standards Association. One of these new bi-
national codes, A17.7-2007/CSA B44.7-07, serves as a model for the parallel
existence of a prescriptive technical code and a performance-based standard, covering
the same equipment within a regulated industrial sector. This combination introduces
flexibility to an industry that is sometimes best served by clearly defined rules
(prescriptive) and other times needs performance targets that can be met by a wide
range of solutions, encouraging competition in the industry. ASME is pleased to add
this progressive approach to its own proven methodologies as yet another contribution
to fostering international trade and technology transfer. ASME's codes and standards
offerings in elevators and escalators are detailed in the following pages. These include
codes and standards in both print and digital formats, along with companion training
courses and videos. We strive to provide the codes-of-choice for your company…and
your country.
ASME plays an active role in protecting the public through the development of Safety
Codes and Standards, which are managed by the Board on Safety Codes and
Standards (BSCS). The BSCS is responsible for the management of all ASME activities
related to codes, standards, and accreditation and certification programs directly
applicable to safety codes, safety standards, and related accreditation and certification
activities. The BSCS oversees the following:
 A13 Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems
 A17 Elevators and Escalators
 A18 Platform Lifts and Stairway Chairlifts
 A90 Safety Standards for Man lifts
 A120 Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Building Maintenance
 B20 Safety Standards for Conveyors and Related Equipment
 B30 Safety Standards Committee for Cableways, Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Hooks,
Jacks, and Slings
 BTH Standards Committee, Design of Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices

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 CSDAFB Controls and Safety Devices for Automatically Fired Boilers
 Portable Automotive Lifting Devices Committee
 Rail Transit Vehicle Standards Committee
 P30 Planning for the Use of Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Hooks, Jacks, and Slings

IS 3646 : 1922 Part 1 Code of practice for interior illumination General


Requirements and recommendations for welding
interiors

IS 3646 : 1968 Part 3 Code of practice for interior illumination – Calculation


of coefficients of utilization by the BZ method.

IS 3786 : 1983 Methods for computation of frequency and severity


rates for industrial injuries and classification of
industrial accidents.

IS 5182 : Part 1 to 21 Methods for measurement of Air Pollution

IS 8095 : 1976 Specification for Accident Prevention Tags

IS 8990 : 1978 Code of practice for maintenance and care of


industrial safety clothing.

IS 9457 : 1980 Safety colours and safety signs

IS 11972 : 1987 Code of practice for safety precautions to be taken


when entering a sewerage system.

IS 14489 : 1998 Code of practice on occupational safety and health


audit.

IS 14624 : 1998 Safety of laser products :

Part 2 Safety of optical fiber communication system

IS 15296 : 2003 Industrial Automation systems – Safety of Integrated


Manufacturing Systems –Basic Requirements

IS 15551 : 2003 Quality Management Systems – Guidelines for Process


Improvements in Health Service Organisations

IS 18001 : 2000 Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems


– Specification with Guidance for use

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SP 53 : 1992 Hand operated hand tools – Safety code for the use,
care and protection

IS/ISO/IEC : GUIDE51 Guidelines for the inclusion of safety aspects in


Standards 1990

IS 659 : 1964 Safety Code for air conditioning (revised)

IS 818 : 1968 Code of practice for Safety and Health Requirements


in electric and gas welding and cutting operations.

IS 1991 : 1988 Part 4 Safety requirements for the use, care and protection of
abrasive grinding wheels: Safety guards.

IS 2825 : 1969 Code of unfired pressure vessels

IS 3233 : 1965 Glossary of terms for safety and relief valves and their
parts

IS 3483 : 1965 Code of practice for noise reduction in industrial


buildings

IS 5903 : 1970 Recommendations for safety devices for gas cylinders.

IS 6044 : 2000 Part 1 Code of Practice for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage
Installations – Part 1 : Commercial and Industrial
Cylinder Installations

IS 7155 : Part 1 to 8 Code of recommended practice for conveyor safety

IS 7194 : 1994 Assessment of Noise Exposure during work for hearing


conservation purpose

IS 8089 : 1976 Code of safe practice for layout of outside facilities in


an industrial plant

IS 8091 : 1976 Code of safe practice for industrial plant layout

IS 8216 : 1976 Guide for inspect ion of lift wire ropes

IS 8235 : 1976 Guide for safety procedures in hand operated hand


tools

IS 8324 : 1988 Code of practice for safe use and maintenance on non-
calibrated round steel link lifting chains and chin

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slings

IS 8433 : 1984 Code of safe practice for visual inspection of dissolved


acetylene gas cylinders

IS 9020 : 2002 Power Threshers – Safety Requirements

IS 9474 : 1980 Specification for principles of mechanical guarding of


machinery

IS 10553 : 1983 Part 1 Requirements for chlorination equipment : General


guidelines for chlorination plants including handling,
storage and safety of chlorine cylinders and drums

IS 10224 : 1982 Ergonomic principles in the design of work systems

IS 11006 : 1984 Specification for flash back arrestor (flame arrestor)

IS 11016 : 1984 General safety requirements for machine tools and


their operation.

IS 11461 : 1985 Code of practice for compressor safety

IS 12735 : 1994 Wire rope slings – safety criteria and inspection


procedures for use

IS 13367 : 1992 Part 1 Safe use of cranes – code of practice - General

IS 13583 : 1993 Part 1 Cranes – Training of drivers : General

IS 14817 : 2004 Part 2 Mechanical Vibration – Evaluation of machine


vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts –
large land – based steam turbine generator sets in
excess of 50 MW

IS 14817 : 2004 Part 4 Mechanical Vibration – Evaluation of machine


vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts –
Gas Turbines driven sets excluding aircraft
derivatives.

5.2 General Safety considerations in Material Handling equipments

Safety risks can be caused by both physical dangers and health hazards.
Physical hazards include, for example, heavy objects falling, panels breaking and
electrical hazards. Health hazards are often less obvious and include, for example, the

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long term harm to the lungs and other organs caused by exposure to crystalline silica
and mould,

fungus and mildew that can grow on building materials after they get wet. Most people
have little or no intuitive sense for what situation spose health hazards. Some of these
hazards may be immediate and some may have a delayed effect. In addition,
hazardous health effects can occur from a single exposure or as a result of long-term
exposure.

Thus, this part of safety awareness depends heavily on education. Warning labels and
MSDSs are the primary initial sources of health hazard information

Forklift Safety

Board products and ceiling tile will first be moved by a forklift or similar device. It is
absolutely essential that the equipment be rated capable of handling the loads. The
forks should always be long enough to extend completely through the width of the
load. Forks should also be extended far enough apart to support the load so that it will
not break or fall. Gypsum panels are brittle compared to other building products, such
as lumber. If not properly supported, individual panels or a whole lift can break
.SHEETROCK Brand Gypsum Panels, SHEETROCK Brand HUMITEK Gypsum Panels,
and GRAND PRIX Brand Veneer Plaster Base:– Fork spacing between supports should
be one-half the length of the panels or base being handled so that a maximum of 1220
mm extends beyond the supports on either end.

FIBEROCK Brand Gypsum Panels:

– Fork spacing should be similar to the above except that a maximum of only 915 mm
should extend beyond the supports on either end. Fork carriage spread in the range of
1170 to 2130 mm (46 to 84) is suitable for handling most common lengths of board
and panels. Sometimes gypsum board manufacturers offer to band lifts of board at
each end. This will aid in preventing deflection of the board when it is picked up with a
forklift but it is not a substitute for proper for spacing. Banding will not prevent board
from breaking if the forks are not spaced far enough apart.

Other key items of forklift safety include:

– Always follow the forklift manufacturer’s operating and maintenance instructions,


especially concerning the load limits of the forklift.

– Always wear the safety belt when operating a forklift;

– Never move the forklift with the load elevated more than a few inches above the floor
or ground surface;

– Never stand below or near a raised load;

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– Observe all traffic rules in the loading or warehouse area;

– Never disable equipment back-up alarms or other safety devices;

– In heavy traffic areas, use a spotter to regulate forklift, pedestrian and other traffic.

Stacking Board

Gypsum Association literature states unequivocally that board should be stacked flat
because stacking boards vertically against a wall poses a safety hazard. See “Handling
Gypsum Board,” Gypsum Association “Stacks of gypsum board are very heavy and can
become unstable if proper stacking and handling procedures are not followed. Workers
must always be extremely careful when stacking or working in an area

where gypsum board is stacked. long by 12.7 mm (one-half-inch) thick gypsum board
can weigh over 36 kg (80 pounds); this means a stack of only 28 boards weighs

over a ton.” “Gypsum board should always be stored flat. Placing it vertically on edge
for an extended period may damage the edges and can also cause the board to warp.
Additionally, board stacked on edge can easily become unstable and accidentally fall
over. Stacking gypsum board flat will lower the potential for a safety hazard.”

Storage Conditions

Protecting wallboard and other products from rain, snow, sunlight and wind is
important. Not only can the weather damage the board by soaking it, but exposure to
weather can do other harm not immediately obvious. For example, moisture could
affect the bond of the face paper to the gypsum core in a way that later creates
problems in application and finishing. Also, ultraviolet (UV) exposure from sunlight
will ruin the ability of plaster base panels (blue board) to act as a substrate for some
veneer plasters.

Eye Protection
Eye protection should be worn at all times, not just when using power equipment.
Some products, such as plasters containing lime, pose the risk of a chemical burn of
the eye which could result in the loss of sight. However, even without a chemical burn,
the mere physical impact of a trowel full of plaster dropped on the eye can cause
severe injury or blindness. Eye protection (safety glasses or goggles) also protects the
eyes from dust

5.3 Machine Shop machineries

1. Be sure that all machines have effective and properly working guards and
covers, and that they are always in place when machines are operating.

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2. Replace guards immediately after any repairs.
3. Do not attempt to oil, clean, adjust, or repair any machine while it is running.
Stop the machine and lock the power switch in the "OFF" position.
4. Do not operate any machine unless authorized to do so by the instructor or
under the instructor's supervision.
5. Do not set up or operate machinery when an instructor is not in the shop.
6. Even after the power is off, do not leave the machine until it has stopped
running. Someone else may not notice that it is still in motion and be injured.
Do not leave a machine until it has come to a complete stop.
7. Do not try to stop the machine with your hands or body.
8. Check tools before use to assure they are safe to use.
9. Always see that work and cutting tools on any machine are clamped securely
before starting to work.
10.All set-screws should be of the flush or recessed type. If they are not, move with
caution when near them. Projecting set-screws are very dangerous because they
may catch on sleeves or clothing.
11.Only one person should operate the machine or switches.
12.Do not lean against the machine (s).
13.Concentrate on the work and do not talk unnecessarily while operating the
machine.
14.Do not talk to others when they are operating a machine. A distraction may
lead to an injury.
15.Do not walk behind people operating a machine; you may bump them by
accident or startle them and cause an accident.
16.Always remove gloves before turning on or operating any machine. If material is
rough or sharp and gloves must be worn, place or handle material with the
machine turned off.
17.Do not leave tools or work on the table of a machine even if the machine is not
running. Tools or work may fall off and cause toe or foot injury.
18.Use a brush to remove short, discontinuous types of chips--not hands, fingers,
or rags.
19.Use a pair of pliers to remove chips, especially the long, stringy type.
20.Never handle chips with your hands or fingers. Chips are extremely sharp and
can easily cause cuts.
21.Never use compressed air to clean any machine.
22.Never use compressed air to clean your clothes or yourself.
23.If using compressed air to clean a part, point the air hose down and away from
yourself and other persons.
24.Never wear gloves or use rags to clean the work piece or any part of a machine
that is running. Rotating tools or parts can grab gloves and rags and pull you
into the machine.
25.Stop the machine tool to make speed and feed changes that require the shifting
of a gear lever.
26.Always use correct speeds and feeds. A broken tool becomes a hazard and can
cause great personal injury.
27.Make sure the machine is OFF before making any adjustments or repairs.

Steps to using advanced machine shop equipment:

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1. After studying the SOPs, the users will then have to take the BUSTs (Basic Use &
Safety Test).

2. These tests are then graded by the Shop Manager.

3. A hands-on skills assessment is done where the users must show competency in
use of that machine and that they understand the basics of safe operation.

4. A log is kept on the progress of the user’s experience. This is based on hours or
number repetitions a user does specific operations. These logs are the last page of the
BUST documents (see list below)

5. Below 4 hours (and/or below 8 repetitions of specific tasks), the users must be
supervised during set-up and during certain operations. Log kept on last page of BUST
document.

6. After logging 4 hours (and/or above 8 repetitions of specific tasks), the users are
allowed to perform those specific tasks (only) without direct supervision. Log kept on
last page of BUST document.

7. In either case, the Shop Manager must be informed of what tasks and/or operations
the user wants to perform.

8. Users are to ALWAYS ask, and get assistance with, any new or unusual work to be
done in the machines.

9. Regardless of user experience, the amount of time before they can use the machine
without supervision is still at the discretion of the Shop Manager.

10. Advanced users are NOT allowed to perform tasks during evening hours that they
have not been trained to do.

11. Any unsafe or improper use of machine, not listening to or following instructions,
or lack of judgment will result in a warning and possibly loss of shop use privileges.

5.4 pressure vessel and pressurized pipeline

Introduction
If pressure equipment fails in use, it can seriously injure or kill people nearby and
cause serious damage to property. This leaflet describes what employers need to do to
minimize the risks when working with systems or equipment which contain a liquid or
gas under pressure. It will also be useful to employees and their safety
representatives. As an employer or self-employed person, you have a duty to provide a
safe workplace and safe work equipment. Designers, manufacturers, suppliers,
installers, users and owners also have duties. The leaflet does not cover gas cylinders
(now called transportable pressure receptacles or transportable pressure vessels), or
tanks and tank containers. The main regulations covering pressure equipment and
pressure systems are the Pressure Equipment Regulations 1999 and the Pressure
Systems Safety Regulations 2000. Employers have a further duty to consult any safety

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or employee representatives on health and safety matters. Where none are appointed,
employers should consult the workforce direct.

Examples of pressure systems and equipment are:


■ boilers and steam heating systems;
■ pressurized process plant and piping;
■ compressed air systems (fixed and portable);
■ pressure cookers, autoclaves and retorts;
■ heat exchangers and refrigeration plant;
■ valves, steam traps and filters;
■ pipework and hoses; and
■ pressure gauges and level indicators.

Principal causes of incidents are:


■ poor equipment and/or system design;
■ poor maintenance of equipment;
■ an unsafe system of work;
■ operator error, poor training/supervision;
■ poor installation; and
■ inadequate repairs or modifications.

The main hazards are:


■ impact from the blast of an explosion or release of compressed liquid or gas;
■ impact from parts of equipment that fail or any flying debris;
■ contact with released liquid or gas, such as steam; and
■ fire resulting from the escape of flammable liquids or gases.

Reduce the risk of failure


The level of risk from the failure of pressure systems and equipment depends on a
number of factors including:
■ the pressure in the system;
■ the type of liquid or gas and its properties;
■ the suitability of the equipment and pipework that contains it;
■ the age and condition of the equipment;
■ the complexity and control of its operation;
■ the prevailing conditions (eg a process carried out at high temperature); and
■ the skills and knowledge of the people who design, manufacture, install,
maintain, test and operate the pressure equipment and systems.
To reduce the risks you need to know (and act on) some basic precautions, some of
which are contained in the Pressure Systems Safety Regulations 2000 and the
Pressure Equipment Regulations 1999.

Provide safe and suitable equipment


■ When installing new equipment, ensure that it is suitable for its intended
purpose and that it is installed correctly. This requirement can normally be met by
using the appropriate design, construction and installation standards and/or codes of
practice. Since 2002, most pressure equipment placed on the market has had to meet
the requirements of the Pressure Equipment Regulations 1999. For pressure

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equipment not covered by the Pressure Equipment Regulations 1999, the more general
requirements of the Pressure Systems Safety Regulations 2000 apply.
■ The pressure system should be designed and manufactured from suitable
materials. You should make sure that the vessel, pipes and valves have been
made of suitable materials for the liquids or gases they will contain.
■ Ensure the system can be operated safely – without having to climb or struggle
through gaps in pipework or structures, for example.
■ Be careful when repairing or modifying a pressure system. Following a major
repair and/or modification, you may need to have the whole system
re-examined before allowing the system to come back into use.

Know the operating conditions


■ Know what liquid or gas is being contained, stored or processed, for example
is it toxic/flammable?
■ Know the process conditions, such as the pressures and temperatures.
■ Know the safe operating limits of the system and any equipment directly linked
to it or affected by it.
■ Ensure there is a set of operating instructions for all the equipment and for the
control of the whole system including emergencies.
■ Ensure that appropriate employees have access to these instructions, and are
properly trained in the operation and use of the equipment or system (see the
section on training below)

Make provision for appropriate training


Everybody operating, installing, maintaining, repairing, inspecting and testing
pressure equipment should have the necessary skills and knowledge to carry
out their job safely – so you need to provide suitable training. This includes all
new employees, who should have initial training and be supervised closely.
Additional training or retraining may be required if:
■ the job changes;
■ the equipment or operation changes; or
■ skills have not been used for a while.

Have the equipment examined


Under the Pressure Systems Safety Regulations 2000, a written scheme of
examination is required for most pressure systems. Exempted systems are listed in
the Regulations. Generally speaking, only very small systems are exempted.
■ The written scheme should be drawn up (or certified as suitable) by a
competent person. It is the duty of the user of an installed system and the
owner of a mobile system to ensure that the scheme has been drawn up. You
must not allow your pressure system to be operated (or hired out) until you
have a written scheme of examination and ensured that the system has been
examined. Health and Safety
The written scheme of examination must cover all protective devices. It must
also include every pressure vessel and those parts of pipelines and pipework
which, if they fail, may give rise to danger.

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■ The written scheme must specify the nature and frequency of examinations,
and include any special measures that may be needed to prepare a system for
a safe examination.
■ The pressure system must be examined in accordance with the written scheme
by a competent person.
■ For fired (heated) pressure systems, such as steam boilers, the written scheme
should include an examination of the system when it is cold and stripped down
and when it is running under normal conditions.

The key steps are:


■ Decide what items of equipment and parts of the plant should be included in
the scheme. This must include all protective devices. It must also include
pressure vessels, and parts of pipework, which if they failed could give rise to
danger.
■ The scheme must be drawn up (or certified as suitable) by a competent
person. It must specify whether the examination is in-service or
out-of-service and how often the system is to be examined.
■ The system must be examined by a competent person in accordance with that
scheme.
Remember, an examination undertaken in accordance with a written scheme of
examination is like an MOT for your car. It is a statutory examination that is
designed to ensure that your pressure system is ‘roadworthy’. It is not a substitute
for regular and routine maintenance.

5.5 welding equipments


Welding Safety Standards address the full spectrum of safety considerations
within the welding industry, covering everything from generally applicable
guidelines to requirements specific to a single piece of equipment used for a
single welding procedure. With the potential health effects of welding, and
given the large amounts of energy necessarily involved in welding, welding
safety standards are vital in their role of protecting the safety of those
involved, as well as safeguarding property and assuring the reliability of
welding designs and consistency of manufacturing output. Approaching
safety from several angles, welding safety standards include safety-focused
aspects built into the welding equipment itself, requirements for adequate
personal protective clothing, air quality concerns and procedures, and so
forth. Together, adherence to welding safety standards and knowledgeable
operators transform an activity filled with danger into a carefully controlled
exercise in safety.
Airborne Hazards Safety Standards address the dangers posed by fumes,
gases, vapors, and particles released into the air during welding processes.
Looking at procedures for measuring emission rates, sampling airborne
particles in a welder’s breathing zone, collecting fumes for analysis,
minimum requirements for airflow rates, and so forth, airborne hazards
safety standards cover safety procedures starting from the emission of
hazardous materials all the way through to their removal .

Arc Welding Safety Standards address the various aspects of arc welding and
the safety considerations that accompany them, such as cutting noise. In
addition to arc welding safety standards published by national standards

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bodies and the American Welding Society (AWS), a 13-part series has been
published by the International Electro technical Commission (IEC), with
each part looking closely at a single component of arc welding, setting forth
requirements for both performance and safety, highlighting the ever-present
attention to safety necessary in arc welding

Welding Equipment Safety Standards address the proper design,


manufacture, installation, and use of the varied and complicated equipment
used for welding. Given the nature of welding, the obvious potential for
danger requires safety considerations to be an integral part of the design
process and manufacturing of the equipment involved. Welding equipment
safety is therefore the first line of defense, and standardization helps assure
cohesion between the equipment that welders use and everything
surrounding it.

Personal Protection Standards frequently come into play when welding due
to the inherent dangers associated with welding. While welding equipment
can be made safer, certain dangers are best protected against with the use
of personal protection equipment such as eye and face protection.
Sometimes, personal protection standards for use in welding applications
add on to standards used in industries with lower safety requirements, while
others are developed specifically for welding when the dangers involved are
unique to welding .

Welding Safety Standards address everything from nuanced specifics


relevant to only a small subsection of the welding industry to generally
applicable considerations that promote safety in a variety of practical
welding engineering situations. Detailing safety promoting features such as
consistent wordless precautionary labels and welding symbols or fire
precautions, general welding safety standards play an important role in
providing a strong foundation for a thorough welding safety program.

The American Welding Society (AWS) publishes a great many standards


concerned with welding safety, as well as instructional pamphlets, all
intending to promote the reliability and safety of welding, and address the
effects of welding on health .

5.6 prevention and spread of fire

Fire Prevention
Fire prevention requires segregating the three elements of the fire triangle. In practice,
a method to achieve that goal is to post—and enforce—no-smoking signs around
flammable liquids and gases and have fire watches on all work involving torch-
applied materials of a minimum of two hours after the last torch is turned off.

Flammable and Combustible Liquids

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Proper storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids will help prevent
fires from occurring; only approved, closed containers for storage of flammable or
combustible liquids may be used under OSHA rules. Such containers include safety
cans or containers approved by the U.S. Department of Transportation. A safety can is
a container that has a self- closing lid, internal-pressure relief and flame arrestor with
a capacity of not more than 5 gallons. Inexpensive, plastic cans without those features
previously mentioned, such as those typically bought at hardware stores or gas
stations, are not approved for use in roofing operations. However, manufacturers do
sell plastic containers that meet the OSHA requirements for safety cans.

Flammable liquids that are extremely viscous, or difficult to pour, like single- ply
adhesive, can be left in their original shipping containers. Similarly, OSHA allows the
use of original containers of flammable liquids that are in quantities of one gallon or
less.

Static electricity may be generated when transferring liquids, gases or solids through
pipes or hoses. It is important to dissipate this electric charge when handling
flammable and combustible materials. When transferring flammable or combustible
liquids from one container to another, the two containers must be “bonded” together.
The bonding process involves attaching a wire with alligator clips on each end to both
containers. The clips must penetrate
the container coating and touch metal. You may need to score the paint with the
alligator clips. To dissipate static, the container receiving the liquid must be in contact
with the ground and not insulated from contact with the ground. For example, plastic
or composite pickup truck bed liners prevent the flow of static electricity to ground
because the liner does not conduct electricity. The receptacle container must have a
clear path to ground, by direct contact or use of a grounding strap or wire, to
effectively eliminate static.

Service or fueling areas at job sites must have a 20BC-rated fire extinguisher within
75 feet of each pump.

Safety cabinets allow for greater quantities of flammable and combustible liquids to be
stored safely inside buildings. Up to 60 gallons of a flammable liquid or as much as
120 gallons of a combustible liquid may be stored indoors in a safety cabinet. Each
cabinet must be labeled “Flammable— Keep Fire Away.” Up to three cabinets may be
stored in one room. Without a safety cabinet, only 25 gallons of either flammable or
combustible liquids are allowed to be stored inside a building.
5.6.1Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Liquefied petroleum gas (LP gas) is used widely in the roofing industry to heat kettles
and torches. Because LP gas is a compressed gas, fairly large quantities can be stored
in relatively small containers. As a point of reference, LP gas expands at a ratio of 270-
to-1. This means that one liquid drop of LP gas would expand to a gas state 270 times
greater in volume.

LP gas collects in low-lying areas because its vapor density is heavier than air.
Employees should be warned that if they suspect a leak in a cylinder, they must not

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use fire to attempt to find the hole. Instead, they are to use soapy water and look for
bubbles.

Employees should not attempt to extinguish fires involving LP gas. If an LP gas fire
breaks out, employees should evacuate the area immediately and call the fire
department. Fighting an LP gas fire requires specialized training that only the fire
department can provide. Employee attempts to extinguish the fire could create larger
hazards.

Torch-applied Roofing Materials


Torch-applied roofing materials pose a serious fire hazard to roofing contractors and
building owners. Sometimes the hazards are obvious―such as torching to a
combustible deck or near flammable liquids, while other concerns are less
obvious―such as torching around drains or penetrations where flames can be drawn
into a building.

Roofing contractors must instruct employees that they must:


Never torch directly to combustible decks or materials
Never torch to areas that cannot be seen fully
Not use torches near vents or air intakes
Never use a torch to heat a propane tank that begins to frost on the outside
Have appropriate fire extinguishers within easy reach at all times

Whenever working with torch-applied roofing materials, fire-watchinspections must be


conducted for at least two hours after the work has been completed and the last torch
has been turned off.

More information on torch safety can be found in NRCA/MRCA Certified


Roofing Torch Applicator Program at NRCA’s Web site, www.nrca.net.

Fire Alarm Devices


OSHA requires an alarm system be established by an employer to alert workers on the
job site and local fire departments of fire emergencies. Job- site telephones and
employee entrances must have alarm codes and reporting instructions at employee
entrances.

A roofing contractor’s emergency action plan for the job site must include:

Emergency escape procedures


Equipment operation procedures prior to evacuation
Procedures to account for all employees
Rescue and medical duties for those employees responsible for such duties
Preferred means of reporting emergencies
Names and titles of employees with duties under the plan

5.6.2Employee Training

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OSHA requires that all employees be trained to use fire extinguishers. Training is
required upon employment and at least annually thereafter. It is recommended the
training session cover how to determine when a fire is too big to handle; what type of
extinguisher to use; and the PASS system ofearly-stage firefighting. It also is
recommended that live fire training be conducted periodically (this level of training is
not needed each year). Live training exposes employees to the pressure released from a
fire extinguisher when the handle is squeezed and provides hands-on practice
extinguishing a fire. Some local fire departments and most fire extinguisher suppliers
offer this type of training.
All company fire-prevention training sessions should be documented. If an outside
organization conducts the training, it would be a good idea to obtain training
certificates for the attendees.

5.6.3Fire Extinguishers
In buildings, all fire extinguishers will be mounted on a wall and properly marked.

All vehicles will carry at least one ABC-rated extinguisher.

When at a job site, all employees will know the location of each fire extinguisher.

Before using an extinguisher, all employees will be trained and familiar with the PASS
method of firefighting.

Each fire extinguisher will be inspected monthly to make sure it is in its designated
location and has not been tampered with or actuated.

Each fire extinguisher will be clearly visible with nothing obstructing or obscuring it
from view.

All fire extinguishers will be examined at least yearly and/or recharged or repaired to
ensure operability and safety. A tag must be attached to show the maintenance or
recharge date and the signature or initials of the person performing the service.

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5.7 emergency exit facilities

An emergency exit in a structure is a special exit for emergencies such as a fire: the
combined use of regular and special exits allows for faster evacuation, while it also
provides an alternative if the route to the regular exit is blocked by fire, etc.
It is usually a strategically located outward opening door with a crash bar on it and
with exit signs leading to it. The name is a reference to when they are frequently used,
however a fire exit can also be a main doorway in or out. A fire escape is a special kind
of emergency exit, mounted to the outside of a building.

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TWO MARKS

UNIT -1

1. Define maintenance.
2. What are the objectives of the maintenance?
3. Define the term Preventive Maintenance.
4. Define predictive maintenance.
5. What are the functions of maintenance?
6. What is zero hour maintenance?
7. What are the seven elements of preventive maintenance?
8. What is meant by repair cycle?
9. What are the advantages of predictive maintenance?
10. Define lubrications.
11. What are the different types of lubrications?
12. Define thick film lubrications.
13. Define thin film lubrications.

UNIT -2

1. Define the level of vibration risk.


2. What is meant wear debris analysis?
3. What is meant by total productive maintenance?
4. What are the 5 s principle in TPM?
5. What are the main objectives of TPM?
6. What are the main pillars of TPM?
7. Define autonomous maintenance.
8. Define kaizen.
9. What is meant by planned maintenance?
10. What is meant by high level risk?
11. Define visual and microscopic analysis of wear debris analysis.
12. Define seiri.
13. Define seiton.
14. Define seiton.

UNIT -3

1. Define reliability.
2. How the reliability is classified?
3. Define mean time between failure.
4. What is meant by mean time to failure?
5. Define failure rate.
6. What is meant by infant mortality period?
7. What is meant by wear out period?
8. What is meant by availability ratio?
9. Define Maintainability.
10. What are the different types of system reliability?
11. Define downtime.
12. Define serviceability.

UNIT -4

1. Define safety.
2. List out the reason for the cause of accidents.
3. What is meant by accident consequence analysis?
4. What is meant by emergency plan?
5. What is meant by hot work?
6. What is meant by accident?
7. List the different types of accident.
8. Define safety audit.
9. What is the function of safety organization?
10. Define threshold quantity.

UNIT -5

1. What are the steps to avoid advance machine equipment?


2. What is the example of pressure equipment?
3. List out the principle cause of accidents in pressure equipment.
4. What is meant by fire prevention?
5. What is meant by emergency exit?
6. What is meant by ASME?
7. List out some of the ASME codes.
8. List out the some of the Indian standard codes.
ELEVEN MARKS

UNIT -1

1) Explain the objective of maintenance.


2) Briefly explain the types of maintenance.
3) Explain break down maintenance.
4) Explain preventive maintenance.
5) Explain the types of lubrications.
6) How to maintenance the mechanical transmission system and process plants?
7) How to maintain the practice of guide ways?

UNIT -2

1) Briefly explain the vibrations.


2) Explain the controlling of the noise.
3) Explain the wear debris analysis.
4) Explain the total productive maintenance.
5) What are the 5 pillars of TPM? explain
6) Explain the jishu hozen.
7) Explain kaizen.
8) Explain quality maintenance.
9) Explain office TPM.
10) Explain computer aided maintenance in detail.

UNIT -3

1) Explain the indices of reliability.


2) Explain the failure rate.
3) Explain in system in series and system in parallel.
4) Explain the availability and maintainability concept.
5) Explain the four concept of maintainability.

UNIT -4

1) Explain the accident investigation.


2) Explain safety measure performance.
3) Explain the safety protection against health hazard.
4) Explain the fact act and rules.
5) Explain the factories act 1948.

UNIT -5

1) Explain safety codes and standard.


2) Briefly explain list of safety standard codes in India.
3) Explain general safety consideration in material handling equipment.
4) Explain machine shop machineries.
5) Explain maintenance in pressure vessel and pressurized pipeline.
6) Explain welding handling equipment.