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Sanatana Dharma is the original name of what is now popularly called

Hinduism or Hindu Dharma. The terms Hindu and Hinduism are said to be a
more recent development, while the more accurate term is Sanatana Dharma. It
is a code of ethics, a way of living through which one may achieve moksha
(enlightenment, liberation). It is the world's most ancient culture and the socio,
spiritual, and religious tradition of almost one billion of the earth's inhabitants.
Sanatana Dharma represents much more than just a religion; rather, it provides
its followers with an entire worldview, way of life and with a coherent and
rational view of reality.

Definition

Sanatana Dharma is by its very essence a term that is devoid of sectarian


leanings or ideological divisions. This is evident by the very term itself. The two
words, "Sanatana Dharma", come from the ancient Sanskrit language.
"Sanatana" is a Sanskrit word that denotes that which which is Anadi
(beginningless), Anantha (endless) and does not cease to be, that which is
eternal and everlasting. With its rich connotations, Dharma is not translatable to
any other language. Dharma is from dhri, meaning to hold together, to sustain.
Its approximate meaning is "Natural Law," or those principles of reality which
are inherent in the very nature and design of the universe. Thus the term
Sanatana Dharma can be roughly translated to mean "the natural, ancient and
eternal way."

When translated to English, Sanatana refer to Eternal, Perennial, Never


Beginning nor Ending, Abiding, Universal, Ever-present, Unceasing, Natural,
and Enduring while Dharma refers to Harmony, The Way, Righteousness,
Compassion, Natural Law, Truth, Teachings, Tradition, Philosophy, Order,
Universal, Flow, Religion, Wisdom, Divine Conformity, Cosmic Norm,
Blueprint, Inherent Nature, Law of Being, and Duty.

Sanatana Dharma do not denote to a creed like Christianity or Islam, but


represents a code of conduct and a value system that has spiritual freedom as its
core. Any pathway or spiritual vision that accepts the spiritual freedom of others
may be considered part of Sanatana Dharma.
Sanatana Dharma

First and foremost, Sanatana Dharma is anadi (without beginning) and also a-
paurusheya (without a human founder). It is defined by the quest for cosmic
truth, just as the quest for physical truth defines science. Its earliest record is the
Rigveda, which is the record of ancient sages who by whatever means tried to
learn the truth about the universe, in relations to Man's place in relation to the
cosmos. They saw nature — including all living and non-living things — as part
of the same cosmic equation, and as pervaded by a higher consciousness. This
search has no historical beginning; nor does it have a historical founder. This is
not to say that the Rigveda always existed as a literary work. It means that we
cannot point to a particular time or person in history and say: "Before this man
spoke, what is in the Rigveda did not exist."

The Nature of Sanatana Dharma

By its nature, Sanatana Dharma is…

 God-centered rather than prophet-centered.

 Experience based rather than belief based.

 Beyond any historical date of founding.

 The process of growth, which comes from the seed.

 Inherent in, and inclusive of all.

 In the world, while above the world.

 Both immanent and transcendent.

 The whole and the parts.

 Loving of all and excluding of none.


Basic Principles

Sanatana Dharma recognizes that the greater portion of human religious


aspiration has always been unknown, undefined, and outside of any
institutionalized belief.

The universal flow of Dharma, regardless of what name you call it, whether
Dharma or some other name, has eternally existed. It has been before any of the
great teachers were born. It is not better than, or alternative to, but is inclusive
of all. Dharma is that out of which our earth and humanity itself emerged.
Dharma not only is, but always was, and always will be. To live in alignment
with, and to know the true nature of that Sanatana Dharma is one of the ways of
describing the higher goal of life.

Sanatana Dharma thereby gives reverence to individual spiritual experience


over any formal religious doctrine. Wherever the Universal Truth is manifest,
there is Sanatana Dharma — whether it is in a field of religion, art or science, or
in the life of a person or community. Wherever the Universal Truth is not
recognized, or is scaled down and limited to a particular group, book or person,
even if done so in the name of God, there Sanatana Dharma ceases to function,
whatever the activity is called.

Sanatana Dharma comprises of spiritual laws which govern the human


existence. Sanatana Dharma is to human life what natural laws are to the
physical phenomena. Just as the phenomena of gravitation existed before it was
discovered, the spiritual laws of life are eternal laws which existed before they
were discovered by the ancient rishis (sages) for the present age during the
Vedic period. Sanatana Dharma declares that something cannot come out of
nothing and, therefore, the universe itself is the manifestation of the Divine
being.

Since Sanatana Dharma is referring to those ways of being which are in concert
with the Absolute, and are therefore axiomatic laws, this term is not referring to
something which is open to alteration. Just as the laws of gravity, mathematics
or logic are not open to sectarian debate or relative opinion (gravity, for
example, is an inherent law of nature regardless of whether one believes in the
law of gravity or not), similarly the subtle laws of God transcend all partisan
concerns.
The world is made up of three tendencies called gunas: sattvic, rajasic, and
tamasic. Sattvic tendencies are those that are pure, clean, good, wholesome,
calming, and peaceful. Rajasic tendencies are those that are active, moving,
indecisive, and forceful. Tamasic tendencies are those that are inert, lazy, dull,
and dark. If it were not for these three tendencies, we would not exist.
Everything is a mixture of them. Even a saint, who is primarily sattvic, has
some level of rajas and tamas in him/her, however small.

Sanatan Dharma makes use of yoga as the means to attain moksha (God-
realization). Yoga has been poorly translated to mean "union". It does mean
"union", but that is a poor definition because it encompasses so much more.
Yoga is the union with Brahman (Absolute God). Yoga is also the means to
achieving union with Brahman. Therefore, the word yoga is not merely a
statement of union, but it encompasses the actual experience of liberation.

When did Sanatan Dharma begin?


Sanatana Dharama (Hinduism) is eternal (beyond the time).

but we can say that Sanatana Dharma is 155.52 Trillion Years (50 years of
Brahma) old.

The current date

Currently, 50 years of Brahma have elapsed. The last Kalpa at the end of 50th year is
called Padma Kalpa. We are currently in the first 'day' of the 51st year.

This Brahma's day, Kalpa, is named as Shveta-Varaha Kalpa. Within this Day, six
Manvantaras have already elapsed and this is the seventh Manvantara, named as –
Vaivasvatha Manvantara (or Sraddhadeva Manvantara). Within the Vaivasvatha
Manvantara, 27 Mahayugas

(4 Yugas together is a Mahayuga), and the Krita,

Treta and Dwapara Yugas of the 28th Mahayuga have elapsed. This Kaliyuga is in the
28th Mahayuga. This Kaliyuga began in the year 3102 BCE in the proleptic Julian
Calendar.

Since 50 years of Brahma have already elapsed, this is the second Parardha, also
called as Dvithiya Parardha.

The time elapsed since the current Brahma has taken over the task of creation can be
calculated as

432000 × 10 × 1000 × 2 = 8.64 billion years (2 Kalpa (day and night) )


8.64 × 10^9× 30 × 12 = 3.1104 Trillion Years (1 year of Brahma)
3.1104 × 10^12× 50 = 155.52 Trillion Years (50 years of Brahma)

(6 × 71 × 4320000 ) + 7 × 1.728 × 10^6 = 1852416000 years elapsed in first six


Manvataras, and Sandhi Kalas in the current Kalpa

27 × 4320000 = 116640000 years elapsed in first 27 Mahayugas of the current


Manvantara

1.728 × 10^6 + 1.296 × 10^6 + 864000 = 3888000 years elapsed in current


Mahayuga

3102 + 2016 = 5118 years elapsed in current Kaliyuga.

So the total time elapsed since current Brahma is

155520000000000 + 1852416000 + 116640000 + 3888000 + 5115 =


155,521,972,949,117 years (one hundred fifty-five trillion, five hundred twenty-one
billion, nine hundred seventy-two million, nine hundred forty-nine thousand, one
hundred seventeen years) as of 2016 AD

The current Kali Yuga began at midnight 17 February / 18 February in 3102 BCE.

As per the information above about Yuga periods, only 5,117 years are passed out of
432,000 years of current Kali Yuga, and hence another 426,883 years are left to
complete this 28th Kali Yuga of Vaivaswatha Manvantara.

What is Kalpa, Manavantara & Chaturyugi?

1 Day of God Brahma = 1 Kalpa

1 Kalpa = 14 Manavantara

1 Manavantara = 71 Cycle of Four Yuga (Chaturyugi)

1 Cycle of Four Yuga (Chaturyugi) = 43,20,000 Human YearsAmong the Pitṛs


(forefather)

Among the Pitu (Forefather or Ancestor)

1. 1 human fortnight (15 days) = 1 day (light) or night of the Pitṛs.


2. 1 human month (30 days) = 1 day (light) and night of the Pitṛs.
3. 30 days of the Pitṛs = 1 month of the Pitṛs = (30 × 30 = 900 human days).
4. 12 months of the Pitṛs = 1 year of the Pitṛs = (12 months of Pitṛs × 900
human days = 10800 human days).
5. The lifespan of the Pitṛs is 100 years of the Pitṛs (= 36,000 Pitṛ days =
1,080,000 human days = 3000 human years)
6. 1 day of the Devas = 1 human year
7. 1 month of the Devas = 30 days of the Devas
8. 1 year of the Devas (1 divine year) = 12 months of the Devas
Among the Devas

The life span of any Hindu Deva’s spans nearly (or more than) 4.5 million years.
Statistically, we can also look it as:

 12000 Deva Years = Life Span of Devas = 1 Mahā-Yuga.


The Vishnu Purana Time measurement section of the Vishnu Purana Book I Chapter
III explains the above as follows:

 2 Ayanas (6-month periods, see above) = 1 human year or 1 day of the


devas
 4,000 + 400 + 400 = 4,800 divine years (= 1,728,000 human years) = 1
Satya Yuga
 3,000 + 300 + 300 = 3,600 divine years (= 1,296,000 human years) = 1
Tretā Yuga
 2,000 + 200 + 200 = 2,400 divine years (= 864,000 human years) = 1
Dvāpara Yuga
 1,000 + 100 + 100 = 1,200 divine years (= 432,000 human years) = 1 Kali
Yuga
 12,000 divine year = 4 Yugas (= 4,320,000 human years) = 1 Mahā-Yuga
(also is equaled to 12000 Daiva (divine) Yuga)
 [2*12,000 = 24,000 divine year = 12000 revolutions of sun around its
dual]
For Brahma

 1000 Mahā-Yugas = 1 Kalpa = 1 day (day only) of Brahma


(2 Kalpas constitute a day and night of Brahma, 8.64 billion human years)

 30 days of Brahma = 1 month of Brahma (259.2 billion human years)


 12 months of Brahma = 1 year of Brahma (3.1104 trillion human years)
 50 years of Brahma = 1 Parārdha
 2 parardhas = 100 years of Brahma = 1 Para = 1 Mahā-Kalpa (the lifespan
of Brahma)(311.04 trillion human years)
One day of Brahma is divided into 1000 parts called charaṇas. The charaṇas are
divided as follows:

The Four Yugas

4 charaṇas (1,728,000 solar years ):- Satya Yuga

3 charaṇas (1,296,000 solar years):- Treta Yuga

2 charaṇas (864,000 solar years):- Dwapara Yuga

1 charaṇas (432,000 solar years):- Kali Yuga

The cycle repeats itself, so altogether there are 1,000 cycles of Mahā-Yuga in one day
of Brahma.
 One cycle of the above four Yugas is one Mahā-Yuga (4.32 million
human years)
 as is confirmed by the Gītā Śloka 8.17 (statement) "sahasra-yuga-
paryantam ahar yad brahmaṇo viduḥ rātriṁ yuga-sahasrāntāṁ te 'ho-rātra-
vido janāḥ", meaning, a day of brahma is of 1000 Mahā-Yuga. Thus a day of
Brahma, Kalpa, is of duration: 4.32 billion solar years. Two Kalpas
constitute a day and night (Adhi Sandhi) of Brahma.
 A Manvantara consists of 71 Mahā-Yuga (306,720,000 solar years). Each
Manvantara is ruled by a Manu.
 After each Manvantara follows one Samadhi Kāla of the same duration as
a Kṛta Yuga (1,728,000 = 4 Charaṇas). (It is said that during a Samadhi
Kāla, the entire earth is submerged in water.)
 A Kala consists of a period of 4.32 Billion solar years followed by 14
Manvataras andSamadhi Kalas.
 A day of Brahma equals
(14 times 71 Mahā-Yuga) + (15 × 4 Charaṇas)

= 994 Mahā-Yuga + (15 * 4800)

= 994 Mahā-Yuga + (72,000 years)[deva years] / 6 = 12,000[deva years] viz. one


maha yuga.

= 994 Mahā-Yuga + 6 Mahā-Yuga

= 1,000 Mahā-Yuga

The Surya Siddhanta definition of timescales

The Surya Siddhanta [Chapter 14 Mānādhyāyah (ममानमाध्यमायय)], documents a


comprehensive model of nine divisions of time called māna (ममान) which span from
very small time units (Prāņa [पमाण] - 4 seconds) to very large time scales (Para [पर] -
311.04 Trillion solar years)

The Surya Siddhanta is the most ancient literature after the Vedas, in India and
the World. It is written about the Astronomical Science and Mathematics. It is based
on the calculations of the Kalpa and the Manavantara Math.

It's year of writing is given in the book itself, which is 1,97,29,492nd year, at the end
of the Satya Yuga or Krita Yuga.

Details

In India before BCE 7500, total 18 original theoreticians were frequently mentioned
in the field of theoretical astronomy knion as SIDDHNTA, but Varaha Mihira could
get tangible proofs of only five, which he mentioned in his Panch-Siddhantika ('Of
Five Theories'), among which the Surya Siddhanta is the only theory which was
complete in itself and therefore highly regardes by Varaha Mihira as the accurate
among all theories about heavens
The present Surya Siddhanta book is considered a direct descendant of the text
available to Varahamihira (A.D. 497 - A.D. 589)

Varahamihira composed pancha-siddhantika in the 6th century A.D, five


stronomical canal.

1. Paulisa Siddhant (Pulisa)


2. Romaka Siddhant (Romak)
3. Vashishtha Siddhant (Latadev)
4. Surya Siddhant (Varahamihira)
5. Paitamaha Siddhant (Latadev)
The present version of Surya Siddhanta is modified by Bhaskaracharya during the
Middle Age. It is based on Vedanga Jyotish, which date back to the BCE 3000.

The Surya Siddhanta is the name of the multiple tretises (Siddhanta) in Sanatan
Dharma's Astronomy.

Surya Siddhanta is sole book which can be said to constitute of the bedrock of India's
traditional astronomical/astrological mathematics.

Earlier, in the late 4th Century or early 5th Century, the anonymous Sanatan
Dharm's Bharatiy Author of an astronomical handbook.

Surya Siddhanta is 2 Million years old book and it is first on astronomy in Sanatan
Dharma. Surya Siddhanta is the first among the traditional doctrines.

According to Surya Siddhant Kaliyuga is started on mid night of 18th February, BCE
3102, 00:00 A.M.
So, Kali Yuga has been completed 5518 years in A.D. 2016.

The cycle of four yuga will be start again after complete Kali Yuga which is called
Mahayuga.

Why Hindu religion is called Sanatan Dharma?


Please give your answer using proven facts and
not merely on some epic reference?

Sanatan means 'Eternal', and Dharma means 'duty/order'. The two


words, "Sanatana Dharma", come from the ancient Sanskrit language.
"Sanatana" is a Sanskrit word that denotes that which which
isAnadi (beginningless), Anantha(endless) and does not cease to be,
that which is eternal and everlasting. With its rich
connotations, Dharma is not translatable to any other
language. Dharma is from dhri, meaning to hold together, to sustain.
Its approximate meaning is "Natural Law," or those principles of reality
which are inherent in the very nature and design of the universe.

Hindu word is non-native. As far I know, the Vedas/gita do not have the
word Hindu.

However, Sanatan Dharma term was mentioned and explained in depth


in Vedic literature (Rig Veda) (4-138) and was used during the Hindu
revivalismmovement in order to avoid having to use the term "Hindu"
which is of non-native (Persian) origin.

What it means?

 Sanatana Dharma recognizes that the greater portion of human


religious aspiration has always been unknown, undefined, and
outside of any institutionalized belief.
 The universal flow of Dharma, regardless of what name you
call it, whether Dharma or some other name, has eternally
existed. It has been before any of the great teachers were born. It
is not better than, or alternative to, but is inclusive of all. Dharma
is that out of which our earth and humanity itself emerged.
Dharma not only is, but always was, and always will be. To live in
alignment with, and to know the true nature of that Sanatana
Dharma is one of the ways of describing the higher goal of life.
 Sanatana Dharma thereby gives reverence to individual
spiritual experience over any formal religious doctrine. Wherever
the Universal Truth is manifest, there is Sanatana Dharma —
whether it is in a field of religion, art or science, or in the life of a
person or community. Wherever the Universal Truth is not
recognized, or is scaled down and limited to a particular group,
book or person, even if done so in the name of God, there
Sanatana Dharma ceases to function, whatever the activity is
called.
 Sanatana Dharma comprises of spiritual laws which govern the
human existence. Sanatana Dharma is to human life what
natural laws are to the physical phenomena. Just as the
phenomena of gravitation existed before it was discovered, the
spiritual laws of life are eternal laws which existed before they
were discovered by the ancient rishis (sages) for the present age
during the Vedic period. Sanatana Dharma declares that
something cannot come out of nothing and, therefore, the
universe itself is the manifestation of the Divine being.
 Since Sanatana Dharma is referring to those ways of being
which are in concert with the Absolute, and are therefore
axiomatic laws, this term is not referring to something which is
open to alteration. Just as the laws of gravity, mathematics or
logic are not open to sectarian debate or relative opinion (gravity,
for example, is an inherent law of nature regardless of whether
one believes in the law of gravity or not), similarly the subtle laws
of God transcend all partisan concerns.
 The world is made up of three tendencies called gunas: sattvic,
rajasic, and tamasic. Sattvic tendencies are those that are pure,
clean, good, wholesome, calming, and peaceful. Rajasic
tendencies are those that are active, moving, indecisive, and
forceful. Tamasic tendencies are those that are inert, lazy, dull,
and dark. If it were not for these three tendencies, we would not
exist. Everything is a mixture of them. Even a saint, who is
primarily sattvic, has some level of rajas and tamas in him/her,
however small.
 Sanatan Dharma makes use of yoga as the means to
attain moksha(God-realization). Yoga has been poorly
translated to mean "union". It does mean "union", but that is a
poor definition because it encompasses so much more. Yoga is
the union with Brahman (Absolute God). Yoga is also the
means to achieving union with Brahman. Therefore, the word
yoga is not merely a statement of union, but it encompasses the
actual experience of liberation.
In short, in the true spirit, Hindu religion was the name given by the
Persians as a combined religion of people in Hind(present India). Any
religion practised in Hind/Hindustan, would be 'Hindu religion', and
every person who stayed in Hind, was called a Hindu. While, this is not
the case with Sanatan Dharma.

What is the difference between religion and


dharma?

RELIGION & DHARMA-There is a great difference between a religion and a dharma.


A religion is something that is founded by someone. A religion is where a large group
of people share a common symbol, a common religious text, a common GOD and a
common founder. A religion is something that consists of a group of followers who
earlier followed a different faith but now are following a certain faith that they now
believe in. A religion is one which was founded by a religious movement. A religion
has a date of origin. A religion is a set of belief systems.

Dharma on the other hand is more of a way of living or a way of life followed since
antiquity, i.e., since the start of civilization. Dharma was a kind of education or
knowledge imparted to a person to lead a life in a certain way. Dharma is also
sometimes considered as a complete and continuous education. Dharma is based on
the principle of truth. Dharma is based on various stages that a man passes through
in his lifetime, i.e., birth, childhood, youth, old age and death. Dharma is the truth or
Dharma is the righteousness. If Karma is the righteous action, Dharma is the
righteous decision. Dharma is not preached. Dharma is learnt, followed and
practiced. Dharma is the role you play.

The Dharma that was practiced in the ancient times has a multitude of difference
than what is practiced at the present time. Now Dharma has become a synonym with
the religion. A religion is not a Dharma.

Now, we will understand Dharma with two standpoints. Every man plays two roles, a
social role and a private or a personal role. Socially, a man is recognised by the job or
the kind of work he does, he may be playing a role of a professor, an engineer, a
doctor, a politician, a soldier, a police, etc. Personally a man is playing the role of a
son, brother, friend, father, husband, grandfather, etc.

For a student, learning is the dharma of the student. Mother is a villain and father is
an enemy if they don’t educate their children. Just as a crane looks odd in the midst
of swans, a fool looks odd in the midst of wise men. So it is the dharma of the parents
to impart knowledge of the worldly affairs to their children. Even if the parents are
not able to send their children to school, it is the dharma of the parents to impart
knowledge that makes their children worthy adults.

For a doctor, the duties of a doctor and the Hippocratic Oath that a doctor takes
become the dharma of a doctor. Similarly, the oath that a politician, a lawyer, a
policeman, a soldier, etc. takes, becomes the dharma of that particular person.

For a man who accepts a job, weather as a CEO or as an executive, the job description
becomes his Dharma. Promise is the dharma of a man who has promised. Oath is the
dharma of a man who has sworn. Above all, honesty is the highest Dharma.

Sometimes, the role is self-chosen and sometimes the role is a result due to the
karmas of the previous life.

Anything that is anti-social, anything that involves cheating and other deceiving
aspects, etc., anything that involves the killing of innocent people (terrorism),
anything that gets a person off the spiritual track, any ignorant and selfish act that
brings grief upon others is called Adharma. This is just a brief, but not a full
description of Adharma. Any soul due to ignorance or with knowledge that is
involved in Adharma falls to the lowest of lower levels.