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Book reviews / Automatica 39 (2003) 1661 – 1666

mathematics and draw the correct interpretations, this seems to contradict the purpose of a text. The reader who is interested in traditional xed-interval smoothing algorithms would be better o consulting Chapter 10 of Kailath, Sayed, and Hassibi (2000), which is perhaps the de nitive modern text for the eld and which costs only slightly more thanthe book under review. Having stated the above, there are two positive aspects of the book that should be pointed out. First, the book includes nice annotated bibliographies at the end of each chapter and at the conclusion of the book, and Dr. Weinert does a reasonably good job of placing most works on the topic in their proper context. Second, the book should be of value to those interested primarily in two-sided boundary-value problems, for this appears to be the rst monograph that covers smoothing for these types of systems, and comple- mentary models seem to be a natural tool for such systems. Infact, had the title and preface re ected this focus (as opposed to suggesting a thorough general treatment of xed-interval smoothing), then this review would have beenconsiderably more positive.

Phillip Ainsleigh Naval Undersea Warfare Center; Building 1320; Room 366; 1176 Howell Street Newport; RI 02841; USA E-mail address:


Ainsleigh, P. L., Kehtarnavaz, N., & Streit, R. L. (2002). Hidden Gauss–Markov models for signal classi cation. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 50(6), 1355–1367. Desai, U. B., Weinert, H. L., & Yusypchuk, G. j. (1983). Discrete-time complementary models and smoothing algorithms: The correlated noise case. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 28(4),


Digalakis, V., Rohlicek, J. R., & Ostendorf, M. (1993). ML estimation of a stochastic linear system with the EM algorithm and its application to speech recognition. IEEE Transactions on Speech andAudio Processing, 1(4), 431–442. Kailath, T., Sayed, A. H., & Hassibi, B. (2000). Linear estimation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Shumway, R. H., & Sto er, D. S. (1982). Anapproach to time series smoothing and forecasting using the EM algorithm. Journal of Time Series Analysis, 3(4), 253–264. Weinert, H. L., & Desai, U. B. (1981). On complementary models and xed-interval smoothing. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 26(4), 863–867.

About the reviewer Phillip Ainsleigh received the B.S.E.E. and M.S.E.E. degrees from the University of South Florida in 1988, and the Ph.D. degree from Texas A& M University in 2001, all in electrical engineering. From 1988 to 1996, he worked at the Naval Research Laboratory’s Underwater Sound Reference Detachment in Orlando, FL, where he investigated methods for modeling acoustical signals in water- lled tanks. Since 1996, he has been with the Naval Undersea Warfare Center in Newport, RI, where he has investigated adaptive equalization techniques for underwater acoustic communications and stochastic modeling methods for undersea signal classi cation.


Mechatronic control of distributed noise and vibration:

A Lyapunov approach Christopher D. Rahn; Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 2001, Inc., ISBN: 3–540 – 41859 –8

This book presents recent advances on vibration and noise control using Lyapunov theory for distributed parameter systems, i.e. systems described by partial dif- ferential equations. Control problems for such systems are accurately formulated instate space form inananalogous way to those for lumped parameter systems (those de- scribed by ordinary di erential equations) by introducing an appropriate in nite-dimensional space and suitable op- erators. The book nicely illustrates that the control design based on in nite-dimensional models o ers a more e ective and practical alternative to the control approach based on nite-dimensional models (see e.g. Junkins & Kim, 1993; Meirovitch, 1990), which has the well-known drawbacks of mode truncation and possible spillover e ects. The text strives for balance in presenting some funda- mental ideas and recent research results on the control of distributed noise and vibration. It presents the precise methodology for distributed parameter system modeling and control design, and through case studies, it illustrates how these ideas are synthesized to resolve the modeling,

control design, and implementation issues. The important feature of this text is the balance between theoretical and practical issues. Moreover, signi cant new material from the author’s recent research has been integrated into the main chapters. The book commences in Chapter 1 with a short in- troduction, providing a comprehensive literature review and brie y outlining the scope. Chapter 2 applies the extended Hamilton’s principle to examples of second- order (boundary-controlled string and cable, domain- controlled string and acoustic duct) and fourth-order (boundary-controlled cantilevered beam, exible link robot arm, and parametrically controlled beam) distributed param- eter systems. The extended Hamilton’s principle is given by the variational statement

t 2

( k p + w ) dt = 0;



where k ; p , and w are the kinetic energy, potential energy and work, respectively, and is the variational operator. For simple continuous systems, this principle

o ers anadvantage over most other approaches, inthat

the boundary conditions are obtained, along with the partial di erential equations, automatically from the re- sulting transversality conditions. The book proceeds by

Book reviews / Automatica 39 (2003) 1661 – 1666


demonstrating that the system equations obtained via the extended Hamilton’s principle can be expressed in second-order abstract form

+ C 0 w˙ + A 0 w = B 0 f;



where w(x; t) includes the distributed eld variable and dy- namic boundary variables, A 0 ; B 0 ; C 0 are the sti ness, in- put, and damping/gyroscopic operators, respectively, and f(x; t) is a vector function of inputs. Here w(x; t) is anele- ment of an appropriately de ned Hilbert space H with inner product (·; ·). For systems under consideration, A 0 is of- tensymmetric, i.e. (w 1 ; A 0 w 2 )=( A 0 w 1 ; w 2 ); w 1 ; w 2 H, and positive semide nite, i.e. (w; A 0 w) ¿ 0, w H . It is demonstrated that exact modal analysis can be carried out for undamped systems (C 0 w˙ =0) and nite order simulation model can be developed using the modal expansion

w(x; t) =



W k (x) k (t);

where W k (x) and k (t) are the kth orthogonal eigenfunc- tion and modal coordinate, and n is the discretizationorder. For cases involving damping, gyroscopic e ects, or spa- tially varying parameters, anapproximate simulationmodel is obtained via Galerkin’s method, which is preferred over other discretizationmethods due to its computational e - ciency and accuracy. To write second-order system (1) as a rst-order (state) form, the book de nes the state space Z as a Hilbert space in which the inner product is the energy inner product

z 1 ; z 2 = ( A 0 w 1 ; A 0 w 2 )+(w˙ 1 ; w˙ 2 );

such that z; z = k + p . Now system (1) canbe written as a rst-order system insemigroup form with z Z as

z˙ = A z + B f:

Several examples are cast inthis rst-order abstract form and used later in model-based control development. Chapter 3 provides the mathematical machinery used ex- tensively in the later chapters to develop Lyapunov-based controllers for the in nite-dimensional systems considered in the book. The de nitions of boundedness, strong sta- bility, strong asymptotic stability, and strong exponential stability are given. Inequalities that are used to bound Lyapunov functionals and their time derivatives are intro- duced. The chapter proceeds with the fundamental question of existence and uniqueness of a semigroup solution for the abstract evolutionequations z˙ = A z; z Z , where Z is anappropriate Hilbert space and A is the state matrix operator. It is shownthat if the operator A is maximally dissipative and densely de ned in Z thenthere exists a unique weak solution z(t) = T (t)z 0 ; z 0 Z and T (t) is the contraction semigroup generated by A . Furthermore, if z 0 D ( A ), thenthe solutionis a strong solution. Fi- nally, Lyapunov’s direct method and LaSalle’s invariance principle are extended to in nite-dimensional systems.


Chapter 4 is devoted to the development of passive con- trollers for distributed vibration and noise. The boundary damped string and cantilevered beam are used to demon- strate the e ects of damping. Strong exponential stability of both systems is proved by considering a Lyapunov func- tional candidate in the form of the system energy plus an appropriate crossing term, i.e. V (t) = k (t)+ p (t) + C(t), and applying the mathematical tools introduced in the pre- vious chapter. The e ects of distributed, pointwise, and parametric damping are explored. Free boundary problems such as the gantry crane and exible link robot examples are studied. Both examples are shownto be asymptotically stabilized using proportional-derivative (PD) type bound- ary control laws. The e ectiveness of the proposed con- trollers is demonstrated experimentally through mechatronic implementation. Chapter 5 introduces active, model-based controllers for second- and fourth-order systems. Exact model knowledge (EMK) boundary controllers are developed for the acoustic duct model and the cantilevered beam model. Strong ex- ponential stability is proved for both models via Lyapunov techniques. EMK controllers are introduced that compensate for the e ects of actuator dynamics, geometric and material nonlinearities, and nonuniform parameter distributions. An EMK rigid body translation and vibration controller is de- rived for an axially moving material system. Acoustic noise and axially moving beam vibration isolators are designed using a domain control technique involving actuators inside the system boundaries. Finally, a modal controller is de- veloped for conservative exible systems using distributed sensing. It is demonstrated that the observer-based feedback exponentially stabilizes the controlled modes and avoids spillover instabilities. The EMK control laws developed above require exact knowledge of system parameters. In Chapter 6, adaptive controllers are developed to compensate for parametric un- certainties. The basic idea followed here is to estimate the uncertain system parameters on-line via a gradient estima- tionlaw and use the estimated parameters inthe control input computation. Adaptive versions of the EMK control laws are derived for the acoustic duct, nonlinear string, nonuniform cable, and cantilevered beam models as well as noise and vibration isolators. Experimental implementation demonstrates that the EMK and adaptive controllers pro- vide improved performance over passive and classical PID controllers. Inshort, the book is writtenas a theoretical and practical tool for anyone involved in mechatronics control of noise and vibration. The author stated the goal at the beginning of the book as “to present recent advances in the application of Lyapunov’s method for distributed parameter systems to the control of vibration and noise.” It appears this goal has been achieved. The book makes anexcellent text for graduate stu- dents and advanced undergraduate students in engineering and applied mathematics. It is also strongly recommended as a helpful guide for anyone who desires to learn and


Book reviews / Automatica 39 (2003) 1661 – 1666

apply many of the current state of the art results in distributed noise and vibration control. The book also serves as an ex- cellent complement to more mathematically oriented texts on in nite-dimensional systems (e.g. Luo, Guo, & Morgul, 1999; Curtain& Zwart, 1995).

Mahmut Reyhanoglu Department of Physical Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University; 600 S. Clyde Morris Blvd. Daytona Beach; FL 32114; USA E-mail address:



in nite-dimensional linear systems theory. New York: Springer. Junkins, J. L., & Kim, Y. (1993). Introduction to dynamics and control of exible structures. Washington, DC: AIAA Education Series.











Luo, Z.-H., Guo, B.-Z., & Morgul, O. (1999). Stability andstabilization of in nite dimensional systems with applications. London:

Springer. Meirovitch, L. (1990). Dynamics andcontrol of structures. New York:


About the reviewer Mahmut Reyhanoglu received the Ph.D. degree in aerospace engineering from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1992. He is currently an Associate Professor of Engineering Physics at Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida. His major research in- terests are in the areas of nonlinear dynamics, controls, and robotics, with particular emphasis onapplicationto mechanical and aerospace systems. Dr. Reyhanoglu is an Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control. He served onIEEE Control Systems Society Conference Editorial Board as an Associate Editor from 1996 to 2001 and on AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technical Committee as a member from 1999 to 2002. He also served as International Program Committee member for several conferences, including the 1998 IFAC Conference on Nonlinear Control System Design (NOLCOS98) and the 2001 IEEE Conference on Decision and Control.

doi: 10.1016/S0005-1098(03)00415-6