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Correlation between Surface Tension on Aqueous Solution of 5-Fluorouracil

with Heterocyclic Compound at Various Temperatures

Ubagaramary D1, Enoch VMV2, Mullainathan S3, Abishek S4, kumar VP4 and Jagan K4*
1
Department of Chemistry, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur-635109, Tamil Nadu, India
2
Nanotoxicology Research Lab, Karunya Institute of Technology & Sciences, Coimbatore-641114, Tamil Nadu, India
3
Department of Physics, Thiru. Vi. Ka. Government Arts and Science College, Thiruvarur, Tamil Nadu, India
4*,
Department of Biotechnology, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur-635109, Tamil Nadu, India

*
Corresponding author: Jagan K, Department of Biotechnology, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur-635109,
Tamil Nadu, India, Tel: 04344 261 002; E-mail: jegankannan312@gmail.com

Received: January 10, 2018; Accepted: January 15, 2018; Published: January 20, 2018

Abstract
The speed of sound (U), density (ρ) and viscosity (η) of aqueous solution of 5-Fluorouracil with tetrahydrofuran (THF) are
measured at various mole fractions at various temperatures at 295.15 K and 300.15 K. From the experimental data, the adiabatic
compressibility (β), free volume (VF), internal pressure (πi) and acoustic impedance (Z) are established. The observed results are
examined in terms of structural changes around the ion and effect of the solvent.

Keywords: Ultrasonic spectroscopy; 5-Fluorouracil; Tetra hydro furan (THF); Surface tension

Introduction
Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is a color-less, low-viscous, water-miscible heterocyclic ether. It is a versatile solvent in industrial
process involving the acid-catalyzed dehydration of butan-1, 4-diol. It is more basic than diethyl ether and forms stronger
complexes with Li+, Mg2+ and boranes. THF is a popular solvent for hydroboration reactions and for organometallic
compounds such as organ lithium and Grignard reagent [1-3]. The present investigation is on the compositions involving of
5-Fluorouracil.

Fluorouracil (5-FU), sold under the brand name Adrucil among others, is a medication used to treat cancer. By injection into
a vein it is used for colon cancer, esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer and cervical cancer.
AS a cream it is used for actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.

When used by injection most people develop side effects, Common side effects include inflammation of the mouth, loss of
appetite, low blood cell counts, hair loss and inflammation of the skin. When used as a cream, irritation at the site of

Citation: Ubagaramary D, Enoch VMV, Mullainathan S, et al. Correlation between Surface Tension on Aqueous Solution of 5-
Fluorouracil with Heterocyclic Compound at Various Temperatures. Anal Chem Ind J. 2018;18(1):128
© 2018 Trade Science Inc.
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application may occur. Use of either form in pregnancy may harm the baby. Fluorouracil is in the antimetabolite and
pyrimidine analog families of medications.

Fluorouracil has been given systemically for anal, breast, colorectal, esophageal, stomach, pancreatic and skin cancers
(especially head and neck cancers. It has also been given topically (on the skin) for actinic keratosis, skin cancers and
Bowen's disease and as eye drops for treatment of ocular surface squamous neoplastic.

It is contraindicated in patients that are severely debilitated or in patients with bone marrow suppression due to either
radiotherapy or chemotherapy. It is likewise contraindicated in pregnant or breastfeeding women. It should also be avoided in
patients that do not have malignant illnesses such as Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea, Mucositis, Headache, Myelosuppression,
Alopecia (hairloss), Photosensitivity, Hand-foot syndrome, Macula popular eruption, Itch, Cardiotoxicity Persistent hiccups
Mood disorders (irritability, anxiety, depression) Uncommon (0.1–1% frequency) Oesophagitis, GIulcerationandbleeding,
Proctitis, Naildisorders, Veinpigmentation, Confusion, Cerebellar syndrome, Encephalopathy, Visual changes, Photophobia,
Lacrimation, Fever without signs of infection.

Diarrhea is severe and may be dose-limiting and is exacerbated by co-treatment with calcium folinate. Neutropenia tends to
peak about 9-14 days after beginning treatment. Cardio toxicity is a fairly common side effect, but usually this cardio toxicity
is just angina or symptoms associated with coronary artery spasm, but in about 0.55% of those receiving the drug will
develop life-threatening cardiotoxicity. Life-threatening cardio toxicity includes: arrhythmias, ventricular tachycardia and
cardiac arrest, secondary to trans mural is chaemia.

5-FU injection and topical application, even in small doses, cause both acute central nervous system (CNS) damage and
progressively worsening delayed degeneration of the CNS in mice. This latter effect is caused by 5-FU-induced damage to
the oligo dendrocytes that produce the insulating myelin sheaths.

The United States package insert warns that acute cerebellar syndrome has been observed following injection of fluorouracil
and may persist after cessation of treatment. Symptoms include ataxia, nystagmus and dysmetria.

There is very little difference between the minimum effective dose and maximum tolerated dose of 5-FU and the drug
exhibits marked individual pharmacokinetic variability. Therefore, an identical dose of 5-FU may result in a therapeutic
response with acceptable toxicity in some patients and unacceptable and possibly life-threatening toxicity in others. Both
overdosing and under dosing are of concern with 5-FU, although several studies have shown that the majority of colorectal
cancer patients treated with 5-FU are under dosed based on today's dosing standard, body surface area. The limitations of
BSA-based dosing prevent oncologists from being able to accurately titer the dosage of 5-FU for the majority of individual
patients, which results in sub-optimal treatment efficacy or excessive toxicity.

It’s should be avoided in patients receiving drugs known to modulate dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase. It may also increase
the INR and prothrombin times in patients on warfarin. Fluorouracil's efficacy is decreased when used alongside allopurinol,

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which can be used to decrease fluorouracil induced stomatitis through use of allopurinol mouthwash. The structure of 5-FU
and THF are given by:

This paper was discussed about the densities, speeds of sound and viscosities of THF with 5-Fluorouracil in water system of
ternary mixtures over the entire composition range at T=(303.15–313.15) K. The values of the pure components generally
have been decided with the available literature data. From the experimental data, various physicochemical parameters, of the
components at infinite dilution have been analyzed [4,5]. The results are studied in terms of the molecular interactions
through the dipole-induce-dipole interactions between the components of the mixtures, resulting in the formation of electron
donor-acceptor complexes.

Materials and Methods


Density measurement
All the binary liquid mixtures were prepared by weighing suitable amount of pure liquids on an electric balance by means of
stoppered bottle. The uncertainty of electronic balance was ± 0.01 mg but the accuracy of the mole fraction was ± 1 × 10-4. An
electronically operated constant temperature bath was used to circulate water through the double walled measuring cell made
up of steel containing the experimental solution at the desired temperature, the accuracy in the temperature measurement is
0.01 K.

The density of the pure liquids and their mixtures and electrolytic solution were measured using a 5 ml corning specific gravity
bottle by relative measurement method. The volume of specific gravity bottle was ascertained by weighing it with doubled
distilled water at the experimental temperatures. By using the following relation, the density of the unknown mixture at any
temperature can be determined.
ρs=(Ws/Ww × ρw) (1)
Where, ρw is the density of water, Ws and Ww are the weight of unknown solution and water respectively. The densities of
pure liquids thus obtained are found to be in good agreement with the standard values.

Viscosity measurement
An Ostwald’s viscometer (10 ml) was used for the determination of viscosity for the pure liquid, liquid mixtures and
electrolytes by relative method. The viscometer was filled with conductivity water and then immersed in the water bath, which
was kept at the experimental temperature. The time of flow of water was noted after the liquid inside the viscometer attained
temperature. The water was replaced by the mixture whose viscosity is to be determined. The time of flow of the mixture was

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measured with digital stop clock having accuracy after the liquid inside the viscometer attained the temperature of the bath. By
knowing the flow time of the reference liquid and liquid mixture, the viscosity of the mixture can be determined using the
relation,

(2)

Where η_s and ρ_s are viscosity and density of the solution respectively.〖 η〗_w and ρ_w are the corresponding values for
water. The time of flow was measured with an accuracy of the density and viscosity measurements were carried out in a well-
stirred water bath whose temperature can be controlled [6,7]. All measurements were made at a constant temperature with an
accuracy of since viscosity is highly temperature sensitive.

Ultrasonic velocity measurement


Ultrasonic velocity measurements were working an ultrasonic interferometer (Model M 84, inform by M/S Mittal Enterprises,
New Delhi), at T=303.15–313.15 K with the accuracy of ± 0.1 ms−1. The measuring cell of interferometer is a specially
designed double-walled vessel with provision for temperature constancy. An electronically operated digital constant
temperature bath (Model SSI-03 Spl, supplied by M/S Mittal Enterprises, New Delhi), operating in the temperature range of
−10°C to 85°C with an accuracy of ± 0.1°C has been used to circulate water through the outer jacket of the double-walled
measuring cell containing the experimental liquid.

Results and Discussion


The density, speed of sound and viscosity for pure liquid mixtures of various mole fractions of 5-FU are presented in TABLE
1. Molar volumes and excess calculated values of isentropic compressibility, free volume, internal pressure, free length and
relaxation time are presented in TABLE 2, 3. These are graphically represented by FIG. 1. Respectively. Molar volume data
are influenced by (i) break up of hydrogen bonds and loss of dipolar association, owing to differences in size and shape of
unlike molecules and (ii) The possible intermolecular interactions like hydrogen bonding or donor-acceptor interactions
between unlike molecules [8-10]. The former effect leads to positive excess molar volumes, whereas the latter effect results
in negative values. The experimental results suggest that the negative values are dominant in the present investigation for all
binary mixtures over the entire composition range at T=(295.15 to 300.15) K.

TABLE 1. Measured values of density (ρ) of the pure liquids at 300.15 K.


Components Density (ρ) Kgm-3 References
Observed values Literature values
THF 870 877.1 Rathnam et al. (2013). [5]
5-Fluorocil 993 1001.4 FU et al. (2006). [6]

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TABLE 2. Measured values of density (ρ), ultrasonic velocity (U), viscosity (η) and molar volume (Vm) for 5-
Fluorouracil+THF+water at 295.15 K and 300.15 K.
Mole fraction Density (ρ) Viscosity (η) Ultrasonic velocity (U) Molar volume (Vm) m3
(X2) Kgm-3 × 103 Nsm-2 ms-1

System: 5-Fluorouracil+THF+water at 295.15 K


0.1033 936.4 0.7142 943.2 0.0828
0.1136 916.1 0.7465 965.2 0.0853
0.1263 898.9 0.7592 975.2 0.0877
0.1420 879.7 0.7674 983.2 0.0907
0.1623 868.6 0.7698 991.2 0.0932
System: 5-Fluorouracil+THF+water at 300.15 K
0.1033 936.0 0.7139 950.2 0.0829
0.1136 914.9 0.7455 954.3 0.0854
0.1263 900.3 0.7503 962.6 0.0876
0.1420 882.1 0.7794 971.8 0.0905
0.1623 868.8 0.7860 993.6 0.0932

TABLE 3. Calculated values of excess free volume, internal pressure, adiabatic compressibility, acoustical impedance
and relaxation time of 5-Fluorouracil+THF+water at 295.15 K and 300.15 K.
Mole Excess Excess Excess Excess Excess relaxation
fraction free volume internal adiabatic free length time
E 5
(X2) (VF ) ×10 pressure compressibility (LFE) ×1010 m (τE) ×10-5 S

m3 mol-1 (πiE) ×1010 (βE) ×108 Pa-1


Nm-2

System: 5-Fluorouracil+THF+water at 295.15 K


0.1033 0.1547 -0.1238 1.5706 -0.4177 0.1116
0.1136 0.1704 -0.1362 1.7304 -0.4594 0.1227
0.1263 0.1893 -0.1515 1.9224 -0.5103 0.1363
0.1420 0.2127 -0.1706 2.1616 -0.5741 0.1534
0.1623 0.2428 -0.1952 2.4703 -0.6560 0.1752
System: 5-Fluorouracil+THF+water at 300.15 K
0.1033 0.1140 -0.3602 5.0480 -0.4190 0.1184
0.1136 0.1253 -0.3964 5.5520 -0.4608 0.1302
0.1263 0.1391 -0.4406 6.1682 -0.5120 0.1446
0.1420 0.1564 -0.4958 6.9384 -0.5759 0.1627

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0.1623 0.1786 -0.5667 7.9286 -0.6581 0.1859

The excess volume has positive value for system of 5-FU+THF+water at T=(303.15 to 313.15) K over the whole
composition range and at all experimental temperatures. The positive values of VE values indicated that the absence of
specific interactions such as hydrogen bond interaction between the mixing components, dipole-dipole or dipole-dipole
induced interaction leading to electron donor-donor complexes. There was a more ability for hydrogen bond interaction (O-
H…) between 5-FU and THF with water. Furthermore, there was chance of electron donor-donor interactions between the
electron donating atom of 5-FU and THF and water. In such electron donor-acceptor interactions, 5-FU acts as an electron
donor and THF act as electron acceptor [11-13]. In the present study, interactions between 5-FU and THF may be attributed
to dipole-induced-dipole interactions between the components of the mixtures resulting the formation of electron donor-
acceptor complexes [14]. When oxygen atom of the Tetra hydro furan with 5-FU in water was transferred the charges in the
bond away from the ring to oxygen (mesmeric effect>inductive effect) leaving a positive charge in the ring. However, it was
also donor in a donor-acceptor action [15-19]. As result of these two opposite effects, there might be a net transfer of negative
charge from the ring to the oxygen atom as well as an enhancement of the acceptor character of the THF. Therefore, the
interaction between THF with 5-FU in water must be increased when Oxygen and hydroxyl atom was attached to the ring.

VE data in the TABLE 3. for the ternary systems of Tetra hydro furan with 5-FU in water showed more positive VE values
for the later than the former. Hydroxyl group in 5-FU ring is (negative inductive effect) electron withdrawing and tries to
attract the oxygen of the THF ring and hence, the electron density of the THF ring decreases. As a result, the THF becomes
relatively electron donor towards electron seeking proton of any group [20,21]. The experimental results in the present
investigation supported this contention.

The more positive VE data for the ternary system of Tetra hydro furan with 5-FU in water may be due to less dipole moment
and dielectric constant. THF is supposed to be a relatively complex molecule and its non-ideality arises due to rotation of
oxygen group freely along the C–N axis where it gives more flexibility to the interaction with 5-FU in water.

The increase in VE values with increasing temperature may be due to factors (i) de clustering of components at higher
temperature, (ii) weakening of dipole-dipole interactions due to decreases in polarizabilities and (iii) increase in kinetic
energy at higher temperature [22].

The excess isentropic compressibility data were given in TABLE 3. and graphically presented in FIG. 1. An examination of
data in the TABLE 3. Suggests that the excess isentropic compressibility data for these systems are positive over the entire
composition range at T=295.15 K and 300.15 K. The observed values of can be qualitatively explained by considering the
factors (i) disruption of associated structures/molecular order in the pure liquids, (ii) the formation of strong bonds by dipole-
induced-dipole interaction between unlike molecules and (iii) free volume changes from mixing of components of different
sizes. The first factor contributes positive values, whereas the remaining two factors led to negative values [23]. The resultant

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positive values for this system indicates the non-dominance of net combination of factors (ii) and (iii) and this system is more
compressible.

Mole fraction vs Mole fraction vs


Excess Free Volume Excess Adiabatic
0.3 compressibility
0.25
Excess Free Volume

Excess Adiabatic compressibility


0.2 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
0.15 -0.2
0.1
0.05 -0.4
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
-0.6
Mole fraction Mole fraction

Mole fraction vs 0.2 Mole fraction vs


Excess Internal Pressure

Excess Internal Excess Free Length


Excess Free Length

Pressure 0.15

10
0.1

5
0.05
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
0
Mole fraction 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Mole fraction

Mole
0.2
FractionVs Excess
Relaxation time
0.15
Excess Relaxation time

0.1

0.05

0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Mole Fraction

FIG. 1. Plots of excess volume of free volume, adiabatic compressibility, internal pressure, free volume and relaxation time

for various mole fractions of 5-FU+THF+water at 295.15 K and 300.15 K.

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The sign and magnitude of viscosity depend on the combined effect of the factors such as molecular size, shape and
intermolecular forces [24]. The positive data for Tetra hydro furan with 5-FU in water system suggests that the viscosity of
the mixture is higher than that of the pure components and hence the fluidity of the mixture is low. This indicates the
presence of specific interaction such as electron donor-acceptor interactions between unlike molecules. The viscosity
deviation values are found to be similar to the molar volumes for this system. This suggests that the molar volumes of each
component in the mixture are less than their respective molar volume in the pure state, i.e., there is a contraction in volume
on the mixtures on mixing, which may be attributed to the dipole-induced-dipole interactions leading to electron donor-
acceptor complexes. However, as the temperature increases and becomes more negative, there are enhanced solute-solvent
type interactions between component molecules in THF with 5-FU in water.

Cohesive data are given in TABLE 4. and graphically presented in FIG. 2. The Cohesive values are found to be increased
over the entire composition range at T=295.15 K and 300.15 K Tetra hydro furan with 5-FU in water system. The observed
values of can be qualitatively explained by considering the cohesive forces between THF molecules down in to a water liquid
are shared with all neighboring molecules of 5-FU. Those one of the surface have no neighboring atoms above and exhibit
stronger attractive forces up on their nearest neighbor on the surface. This enhancement of the intermolecular attractive at the
surface of Tetra hydro furan with 5-FU in water system is shown in FIG. 3.

Molefraction vs Molefraction vs Auer


Cohesive forces
Auer Bach relation surface

Bach relation surface


650000 tension
tension
Cohesive forces

640000
1160
630000
620000 1140
610000 1120
600000 1100
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Molefraction Mole fraction

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Molefraction vs Modified
relation relation surface
tension
120000

Modified relation relation surface


118000
116000
114000
tension
112000
110000
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Molefraction

FIG. 2. Plots of cohesive force, surface tension of Auer Bach relation and surface tension of modified relation, for various

mole fractions of 5-FU+THF+water at 295.15 K and 300.15 K.

FIG. 3. Intermolecular attractive at the surface of Tetra hydro furan with 5-FU in water system.

The surface tension data were given in TABLE 4. and graphically presented in FIG. 2. The surface tension are found to be
increased over the entire composition range at T=295.15 K and 300.15 K, THF with 5-FU in water system by using
Auerbauch relation and modified relations. The observed values of can be explained the surface tension of Tetra hydro furan
with 5-FU in water system increases significantly with temperature at T=295.15 K and 300.15 K. The surface tension arises
from the polar nature of Tetra hydro furan with 5-FU in water system. Molecule liquid state experience strong intermolecular
attractive forces [25]. When those forces are between like molecules, they are referred to as cohesive forces. The molecules
of a water droplet are held together by cohesive force and the especially strong cohesive forces at the surface of THF with 5-
FU in water system. When the attractive forces are between unlike molecules, that molecules are said to be adhesive forces.
The adhesive forces between water molecules with THF and walls of the 5-FU are stronger than cohesive force leads to
contribute capillary actions. These attractive forces between 5-FU with THF in water system can be viewed residual
electrostatic forces and van der Waal’s forces.

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TABLE 4. Calculated values of cohesive forces, Auerbach relation (σauer) modified relation (σmod) of 5-
Fluorouracil+THF+water at 295.15 K and 300.15 K.

Mole fraction X2 Cohesive forces Auer Bach relation (σ) Modified


10 6 kJ mol-1 Auer m N/m relation
(σ)Mod m N/m
System: 5-Fluorouracil+THF+water at 295.15 K
0.1033 610715.90 1108.2 111988.6
0.1136 612254.70 1111.0 112266.2
0.1263 616102.84 1113.9 112555.8
0.1420 620849.39 1121.0 113280.0
0.1623 627159.78 1128.7 114053.5
System: 5-Fluorouracil+THF+water at 300.15 K
0.1033 636731.42 1130.8 116150.9
0.1136 637518.34 1134.3 116508.0
0.1263 637930.02 1140.6 117154.7
0.1420 638276.95 1143.4 117443.6
0.1623 638940.85 1146.7 117780.8

List of Symbols
KT: Temperature dependent constant;
M: Molality;
ρ: Density;
η: Viscosity;
U: Ultrasonic velocity;
Vm: Molar volume;
βE: Excess adiabatic compressibility;
VFE: Excess free volume;
LFE: Excess free length;
πiE: Excess internal pressure;
σAuer: Surface tension of Auer bauch Relation;
σMod: Surface tension of Modified Relation;
5-FU: 5-Fluorouracil.

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Conclusion
This paper reports the densities, speeds of sound and viscosities of THF with 5-FU in water system of ternary
mixtures over the entire composition range at T=295.15 K and 300.15 K. The values of the pure components
generally agree with the available literature data. From the experimental data, various physicochemical parameters,
of the components at infinite dilution have been calculated. The results are analyzed in terms of the molecular
interactions through the dipole-induce-dipole interactions between the components of the mixtures, resulting in the
formation of electron donor-acceptor complexes. 5-FU having higher molecular mass (long hydrophobic tail)
diffuses less to the interface of THF in water and are tightly adsorbed at the interface causing a cohesive force act on
the surface, thereby increasing the surface tension of Tetra hydro furan with 5-FU in water system. There is strong
molecular interaction between adjacent molecules causing strong surface film face at higher concentration of THF
with 5-FU in water system.

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