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Reading Comprehension

What Is Reading Comprehension?

Reading comprehension is the understanding of what a particular


text means
and the ideas the author is attempting to convey, both textual and
sub textual. In order
to read any text, your brain must process not only the literal words of the piece,
but also their
relationship with one another, the context behind the words, how subtle
language and
vocabulary usage can impact emotion and meaning behind the text, and how
the text comes
together as a larger, coherent whole.

Why Reading Comprehension Is Important?

Reading comprehension is essential for many significant aspects of daily


life, such as:
a Reading, understanding, and analysing literature in your English classes
a Reading and understanding texts from your other class subjects, such
as history, math, or
science

' Doing well on boththe written and math sections. Understanding and
engaging with
current events presented in written fonn, such as news reports
Properly understanding and responding to any and all other workplace
correspondence,
such as essays, reports, memos, and analyses

Simply taking pleasure in written work on your own leisure time

skimming and scanning a key Reading comprehension skill


a'
1' Skimming and scanning are very rapid reading methods in
1
which you glance at a passage
to find specific information. These reading methods make it easier for you
to grasp large
amounts of material, especially when you're prwiewing. Th"y
are also or"ful*h.r, you don,t
need to know every yotq. skimming and_sc;ning *.lrpr"ialiy
valuable when there is only
one item of information that you ,reed to find fronia particular
pur.ug..

2' Skimming is used to quickly gather the most important information


or .gist,. It,s not
essential to understand each word when you are skimming.
Run your eyes over the text,
important information. Use skimming to quickly get up to speed
'?tilg on a current business
slluauon.

3. Examples of Skimming:

!I!" Newspaper- to quickly get the general news of the day


lMagazines - quickly discover which articles you would like to read in more detail
to
nBusiness and rravel Brochures to quickly get informed
-
Comprehension - A graphic stimulus

The lnteract Club of SMK Taman Ehsan

President

(Anna Chan)

,{ssistant Secretary

(Arucia Balan)

Committee Members

Based on the chart above, which of the following statements is true?

A Anna Chan takes orders from the committee ,erberr.


B Razlan and Anucia manage all money matters.

C Siti gets her instructions froni Anna Chan.

D Anucia listens only to Siti's instructions.

I saw a young man giving up his seat


2 The phrase once in a blue moon means

A often C rarely

B never D sometimes

Cheah Chee Moon, a +g-year-old Thai is on a mission to rnaKe people auJare oFglobal
uarming by cycling all the uJay From Bangr<oK to gingaRore. He cycles about looKm a
day and stays at ternples or churches at night before continuing the next morning.
He started his journey frorn ChiangRoi, about Boo Km from BanKoK.

3 From the text above, we know that Cheah Chee Moon

A wishes to raise people's awareness of global warming


{: B plans to cycle without stopping anywhere

C is on a mission to talk to people

D cycles about 800km a day


(/ /!^re#v@ N//.,C{vvt?&,/ ?
:rv{J.
:$ lrctao u built t4?ith lwtdr but a homo u buib uztlr tharuks.i
)IvI/.rttl,t/v\n^ v/t'/v^t' \v^vwl,r'.€./.r,/,/w,/\^_^7^yra^_z{

4 which of the following statements best explains the saying above?

A Making a home is easily done.

B We must thank those who build houses.

C People must work very hard to build a house.

t
D A feeling of gratitude is essential for a good home.

In Small_ Ways
Wanted People who will make a difference

Qualifications Be educated enough to appreciate mankind

Job To serve humanity

To make life better for people in need

We are looking for people who can help to reolise our vision. We intend to find out the wishes of
disadvantoged children below ten and make their dreams come true: Their happiness will be our
reward. Come, join us!
5 The advertisement above is for those who

A are badly in need for a job

B are looking for a good pay

C have a lot of money to share

D wish to add joy to children in need

PUTRA INSTITUTE
Calling all school leavers!

Recruitment in progress for January intake

Register before December 31"t to enjoy early bird discounts

Call now to speak to out counsellors 03-5633 1897

6 Based on the advertisement, who will be given discounts?

A AII school leavers.

B Anyone who calls the counsellors.

C Those who sign up for the January intake.

D Those who register by the end of the year.

Questions 2 and 3 are based on the memo.

INTER-OFFICE MEMO

To: Cik Azlina Anim

Secretary

From: John Chia

Managing Director

Date: 5 October 2010


Message:
I have been called to attend an urgent n-reeting at the PJ Hilton. l will only be back in the office after
4.00 p.m. Please cancel all my appointments betrveen 2.00 p.m. 4.00 p.m. and reschedrjle them for
-
tornorrorv.

I have left a ferv documents on my table. Please fax thern immediately.

Which of the following tasks should not be done by Felina?

A Rescheduling appointments

B Cancelling appointments

C Attending a meeting

Faxing documents

("i
I Which of the following statements is true?

A John repods to Azlina.

B Azlina works at the PJ Hilton.

C The message is written by Azlina.

D Azlina takes instructions from John.

i The practice of just downloading information from the Irrtd""t ir ffion[ th" i6t rdil"s i"
i e" deterioration of research qualrty among university students. Higher Education
Department director general Datuk Dr. Radin Umar said today.

He said there was a tendency among qniversity students to limit their research by simply
L_,; 'cutting and pasting'articles from the Internet.

Dr. Radin said.that such a culture should be stopped as it did not reflect the core values of
academie life and was tantamount to plagiarism. He reminded university students to
produce originalwork.

Adaptedfrom

The Star z4 March 2oog

ln the article above, university students are advised to

A research more articles on the lnternet

B refrain from surfing the lnternet

C avoid copying from the lnternet '

D produce more'research papers


'' ,: :

Success does not consist in never making blunders, ]rut in nevel making the same oue a secoud
tirne.

Josh Billing .(

10 The message in the quotation is

A we must apologise when we make mistakes

B we must learn from our mistakes

_*G=:= :{re-+Hr:r$4ea'm-to=make=mista{€s:--

D we must never make mistakes

t:

aa a ! a a a a a a a a a a a a a a I a a a a a a t a a
aa
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
o o
a
a
a
a
Eab bo Your a
a
a a
a a

i
aO
l-lc-art's
oa !ataotaeoa.itaaoaoaoa
Contcnt :
aoao a

{*:

11 The sign means that those who are at the buffet

A can eat as much as they want

B should eat only what they pay for

c must eat up allthe food that has been cooked

D should eat only food that is good for their heart


SMK Seri Bayu Canteen

Price List
Food Drinks
Nasi lemak RM1.50 drink
canned RM1.30

Fried noodles RM1.00 Mineral water RM1.o0

Sandwich RMO.8O packet drink RM1.0O

Bun RMO.50

2ffi towing-staternenls:isff atse?:


A The cheapest item costs RM1.00.
B Fried noodles cost more than sandwiches.
{: C The most expensive item is nasi lemak.
D Canned drinks cost more than packet drinks.

More than 300 people, including students from schools in the surrounding area,
gathered at the Forest Research lnstitute of Malaysia (FRIM) in Kepong to celebrate World
Forestry Day. The event kicked off with the 8km Forest is Fun run which was flagged off by
FRIM direclor general, Datuk Dr. Abdul Latif Mahmod. G

Othqr fun activities lined up for the day included the Scavenger Hunt, Tree Climbing
Demonstration, Green Cyclethon and Kiddie Fun Art.

Adapted from

The Star 23 March 2009


fi

13 The first activity of the day was

A Forest is Fun run

B Scavenger Hunt

C Green Cyclethon

D Kiddie Fun Art


Gosling may have met failure at first but he did not stop trying. That is not fr;Uie
for many of us. Many of us fear failure. It keeps us from *r*t ;; ;h-d;;ilt";
us that y:_ur.^1o good at all. some of us limit our goals to only what we feel *
, '15
accomplish. Othqrs try sonaethiog,once and if it doeq noi work, give,up- . '., ; : ,:."un
5 , :,:',,'This is 'deqimelrt bgc4use,-,+ccotdio-g, to manytr,topt,sc-i-gq!stqr,'.crqatorq, t
'.,... ' . t
entrepreneurs and psychologists, failure is nothing to fear- Not only is it inevitable, . '.:-,. l.
,
I
.t
. .,
t,: 1,
''. ,. 't'$
,'.20 , i

ta
::
li
:ti

:.j
1,
t1
-:4

.i,ttt
;

[naft tr j:..';r,:j 't;)i 1;1! jrl:.,;:j

1 why does the writer say that the success of Java,the computer rangaage, ,,was not attair
, overnight"?

2 vr'hy did the telephone and cablecompanies decide not to


buy Java?

tttnparagraph 3 mean?

4 what was Gosling's reaction when he met with initial setbaci<s?

5 Briefly explain how scientists, creators and other experts perceive


failure.

6 Give two examples from the field of science in which fear of failure can obstruct re

(a)

, (bJ
l.

. . :..,) :1:r jj:--:. - .1 -r:: ; i ,

7,,Y!at,i9.thi..writCr]iadvicetbpq.pie,whoi,,'i"'u*itdiitirtz

:'

cdmpatible .s 7 indispensable .o
keeps I mundane
.,-'_ :,
@
limit ' ' €q .,
I unanticippted .s
detrimental "e 10 paralysing "e
.rjd\
$.ff 'Ihe pest con&imel@Ers:
I was speaking, etc.

A I Whatis
.
/thepast
I continuous?

,-: Foruing the past eonrinuous


Write the corred past
contint
ntinuous ^t .r
ra.^ of
tn,o form
the verbs in brackets.
1 Th;6 +;;^ _
1 ,

IHp: lastweek t(retax)


2
fl#:,flff"5;iM;ffi'kffi
3 Asmah (do)
4 lcouldn,t
in-the Cameron

the cooking vi,hen


Highlands.

What (you do) a tie.


evening? at
o I recognized
six o'clock last
the thief be
7 I De Dotinam-^ ^r^- cause he (carry)
{ speed limit
li:"!1ffi,""" ".00"i"n "n?l illT;'.L * a;a.","r mycarradio.
8 (ouESTtoM whv didn't Suzy come tr
ner mother?
f see r,e yesterday? (She
B
I When do we ttre tast continuous:
I usepast .f1when
1se
I continuous
I verbs?
.,Illi]_"::l:,il;,ffi
we want to
, when *";;;;:i"""ir":l"rl:T"gre
fc
of apastaction;
or
;,J;::,:,"1'o"staction;or
_ ras hot o,urr
short or sudden.
I we can use a past
at a certain il;.
confirrrr^,,- verb rto describe
continuous r;^-L
an action which
is nof

we
use the
continuous

t'

,i:'j
a",-
Notice that the 'sudden' actions saw, startedare NoT in the past continuous..ln a
story like this, the general rule is:
" for past descriptioas, use the past continuous.
o for past actions, use the simple past
ht it talks about 4 Notice also that we can put words like not, just, oftec between the two words
of a past continuous verb:

We can also put adverbs ending-ly in this position:


rcus on the
f,,l, (See also Unit 9.5.)

Understanding when to use the past condnuous


.ln this story there are six past continuous verbs. Find them, and say why the writer has
chosen to use this tense.
ghlands.
Maria got out of her chair slowly and quietly. Her: heart was thumping against her chesi.
outside.
Was someone hiding in the house?
). She was reaching for the handle of the bathroom door when she heard the cough again.
- a tie. She stopped dead in her tracks. She was not even breathing. Then she heard a wh-impir.
ock last A
whimper? She opened the bathroom door. There in the c6rner of the bathroom was
the
wettest child she had ever seen.
car radio.
'What's your name?'she asked.
'Bobby.'
'day? 'How did you get in here?'
(She
'l was playing outside. Then it rained. I was wet. I was feeling cold, so I climbed
in
through the window,'he said, pointing to the bathroom window.

,5;
hich is not

we We saw in Unit 6.7 that some verbs usually do not take the present continuous. It
qse the is the same with the past continuous. see unit 6.zc for a list of these verbs.
:e as a past
ruing'
Past continuous orsinple past?

the sim.ple past or the past continuous for


?l*t?
it is safer to choose the simpte past!)
the verbs in thtis story. (lf you are not sure,

It was 11.30, and it was business as usual in the bank. I (t walt) in a long
queue to get some money from my savings account. Behind the counter, clerks (2 fili)
in forms and staring at computer screens. sometimes one of them (s get)
up and (4 go) into the back office to discuss something with the
manager.l(5know)they(6work)-hard,butitall(7seem)
There was a suddep crash. The door (B fly) _ open and tour men (9 rush)
in. The security guard (10 try)___Jo pick up his gun, but it was too
late. -
61
C. Put the verbs into the correctfonn Future Gontinuous Tense (progressive).
e.g: Anisgj!!-hgggiry to London tomonow morning.

1. At midnight we (sleeP)

3. At nine I (watch) the news.


4. Tonight we (cram up) our English test.
5. They (dance) allnight.
6. He (not/ play) all afternoon.

7. I (not / work) . -for


all daY.

8. (eat I you) at six?

r'.
I
9. (drive / she)-- to London?
10. (fight / they) again?

EXERGISE 2
Complete the following sentences by using the conect form of do (do, don't does,
doesn't).
T My mot'lrer tikes
-chocola-G,
but she - -,-- - --lKeblsc[itS- -

2. What the children wear at your school?


3. Lynn's father watches badminton on TV, but he watch judo.
4. \A/here the Masons buy theirfruit?
5. the cat likes to sleep on the sofa?
.{t
r love cheese.
6. Dogs love bones, but they
7. Where Sam and Ben hide their CDs?
8. We eatpizza, but we- eat hamburgers.
9. Mrs Miller read magazines?
10. the boys play cricket outside?
EXERCISE 3
Complete the following sentences by using the conect form of lmve (have, has,
had).
1.
-
Jack _ fun at the party last Satuday.
2. l'm sorry, but I to go noW.
3. you ever been to Canada?
4. Dave passed his drMng test.
5. Can we the bill, please?
6. The match already started when we anived.

8. Doyou a brother?
( 9. never
My boss tlme.
10. Doris ,
-' been waiting for Pam for 20 minutes now.

fr

--i

.-I
.1
.i
w.T Ahe present ccntinuou
:
I arn speakipg, He is speaking,
etc.
A I When do we I Talking about an activity
NOW:
I usepresent
I continuous
I verbs?

'Talking
aboutplaus forthe future:

B I lhepresent
I continuous and
I the simple means now, at this moment.
She is in her chr now.
I present

is not lmportant.

Simplepresentorpresentcontinuous
,'?' W
?l:::;;::#{;i:;W::frffi on we tatkins about an action
nov{? dr a ptan

I Nextyearwefintrooi
2 .f-gokl
Those men (trylare
r"'e/--
trvinta)
torobthebankl
"
s u s u y tt;;; iffii,:i,'.";Jil';: n) .",",, *
f i

, --
_ in
a'r p ro d u
r

''
n cts
rpoh, but "this week he (wr
, g.::lli*"t"hr?,;;;,;i;:
Hl,j,,lg_l . , ,._;"-,,.nH:ic"
,, - ,' ."_n ,<r.
ciyunus (paints/is
Daint.
^. _.
6 why (do vou stanoiar,lng)
e you
his house
srandins) every year before Hari Raya.
on taotei e"i jii,rn
lnl at once!
C Sometimes we
I
I cann61 use the
I ntt"rt
I continuous

t-
i.

58
Follow the rules in B and C to choose the correcttense.
.EXE'eel$€ 2
1 Low Fing (doesn't likeiisn't Iiking) fast food.
2 I (think/am thinking) Rafidah (takes/is taking) her son
to Paris next month.
3 .Please tell me where we (go/are going) I I (don't understand/ am
f' not understanding) this map
:;_
g:-:-::

5 These cushions (cosVare costing) RM 200 each.


6 (Do you knodare you knowing) " why snakes (bite/are biting) ?

'
Fonning the e Remember that present continuous verbs have TWo words: am/is/are * -ing.
preseEt c Be careful in spelling the -ing paft.
continuous

' 2,tE:Hl*,#T., need a doubre retter, rike wheh *, uo:+d. (see unit 6.2c)
If the verb ends in e, drop the e: for example, hopebecomes hoping-
S If the verb ends in y, don't change it to i. Keep the y and add -ing.
-
n Negatives and questions: look at the examples in Exercises I and 2. see also
Unit 6.13.
:riiaps she G Don't mix up this tense with the simple present! Many people
make the
mistake of using mixed-up 'half and half'verbs:

ou/? or a Plan

r products.
{- .ek
he

4.
,u
Foming Elresent continuous verbs
Hari Raya.
down at Write the correct present continuous form of the verbs in brackets.

1 Salehuddin (go) io Labuan next month. 6 The students (not listen).


most com
2 Right nowwe (try)to phone Maznah. 7 I (not go) out tonight.
3 I (expect) a letter from Hafaz. 8 Che Yah (not live) here any more.
4 lt's OK, my boss (pay)forthis meal. I Where (you stay)? At the Hitton.
let, 5 Hurry up. Your friends (wait) for you. 10 What(Krishnan do) now?
D;
:ate; Revisiou
tmeans
'Write the correct (simple or continuous) present tense verbs.

Anwar What (1 those workmen do) ?


sivam Thev (2 dis) -.- a hole. I (3 think) they (4 want)- to
lay a drain across the road.

new hole and (7 cause)- a new traffic jam! Look, nowthey (g block)
the road with a huge digger. -
sivam stopcomplaining.Thedigger(9 start) toputbacktheearth.
Anwar l(10 believe) they(11 tay) tetephonecabbsnextwgek.

59
&.trS '{'erkimg about t}ae
&lfure
A I lhe ftrture with
I wilt and sholt ,::?5::tr,ffi:'flfTl tunr"r, but it doesnot
have a speciar ,ruture

;lifi #iF"::H.ff#::",,,1il::Ltf;*t#:*#**:,H:tr
;T""ffi::t;ffi?:1,":3;f: rerer to the rurure is
to use wirr. (wilr
li:: :":1,":.1"*inls
After
see unit z.s)
wilr we must ;r"E;;*;"
:

iJro ,o.*,

After I and we, we can li-sa chqlr ,-^.^^. ;' '


carefur: this use i,
careful: ,"rl.T:l-o*^,rj:id of wirr. The meaning is the same.
o ,utf,".of+tfrionlfi

.......;:::t:t,.-1.::.:,:4:t:ai;.:r::.r;,
.7::,,ii;,yt,.r/!,!?,ryl:,.:.,
tn tngtish, we use the rt
llormat
ort form ,ff i, Ucf, shall and wiII:
WeU reet near the food stil,lls at
il
For the negative and question
forms, ,". Urit* 6.13 and,6.14.
i
*,",n, n"F, cholse a uerb from
lo:
olr.l thebox and u;
lJse informal Engtish -se itwith wilt/shall, (you must use
each

Kumar Where 1 +^.


Sivam walking near Tanah
:"1': So Rata. I think
Meena it 2
,Cindy ff:,[:.*d might o" r"t w"-i_ I_lt,ongE;.rine
day.

oon't woiil%iE-
Sivam mv coat' I f:"1"9 cold in tniJ mounLin air.
*"
Kumar westartward;'
Sivam
Meena
Cindy
ffif"ffi;nen
il#.'";"* -:Iflffiy,1";,H[?ideo
'The 'future
aa, *,i1 I,", i.continuous'
'"(will be +
roo
(. B I Usiugother
If you look again
at E
.i4g)
I modals to talk
I about the
ea* to t,rk
are some more
;;i:[Jj ilr,::,:*'ffJhat
"il;iexamples: and sivam use miEht
n use aII the modals
Msela
I tuturc in this way. Here,
The simple
present

80
C I The futune n"ith Instead of wiII, we can use am (are,
is, etc.) goiag to + basie verb
I geing ta which are not very far in the future. for actions
rl 'future tense'. In
ofthese are based
ve freely betweeri:

yilt. (WiIE can

(-'
:

l.
i.t_
I.i rhepresent ro talk about ptraas
continuous workilg, is driviug, for the future, we often,use the present
r:..

i',the same. B continuous (arn


i
w" u"" trri, i"rr" J.rry t"r
iuture things which are cars
fully planned or arrang"a'
"t..1. w" oo
noiu""-i
if
(for exampre, tomorrow's weather io ,uil. about something uncertain
or the resuri.f a football match).
Here are some examples:

Fresent confinuous or usilfl


Carefully planned or not? Choose
will or the present continuous.

] ]^F?".*: (win) a gotd


We (take)
medal in the nexr Otympics.
2 a party of schoorchirdren to the
? Iou (crash)
museum tomorrow.
your car if you go on driving
1 9:r" peopte say that the wortO '-- = so fast.
5 The government (introduce) '-
lenOj-'
F"* tax system "oon.
next year.
9 Y"vOgyou(pass)
7 Next July,
._ ailyourexams,whoknows?
-' '
8 I (see)
oauo (wort<) ..- li'tn'"lo""r supermarket for a few weeks.
_
9 lf you get lost, I expect!,gtaEniOnr
someOJOV Ou|'pl'
"
Oo Vori"rnt me io give i,"ia
messagez
l0 We(stay) Vor.
inroryoioia'i;w;ays,thenwe(go)_toL.A.
e'fufure This tense is not-very common.
we sometimes use it Iike the present continuous
to describe carefully organized plans:
be+

we sometimei use the simpre present


tense Q work, he drives, etc.) to exprain
the detaits of timetable,
-a;ourn"y;il;,
FXER9|SE I
A. choose the correct forms of to be and form sentences in Fresent
Conti nuous Tense (Progressive).

e.g: Sitiis dqinq her laundry.

1. John and Mandy . cleaning the kitchen.


2- I reading a book at the mornent.
3. lt_raining.
4. We singing a newsong.
5. The children _ watching TV.
6. My pets sleeping now.
{,- 7. Aunt Helen feeding the ducks
8. Ourfriends _ packing their rucksacks.
9. He _ buying a magazine.
10. They - doing their homework.

B. Put the velbs into the conect form Past Continuous Tense (progreesive).
e.g: I was plavinq footballyesterday when the lightning struck the cows
at the field.
1, When I phoned my friends, they (play) monopoly.
2. Yesterdayat six I (prepare)
3. The kids (play) in the garden when it suddenly began to rain.
f
4. l(practice) the guitarwhen he came home.
5. We (not / cycle) all day.

pool.
7. I tried to tell them the truth but they (not/ listen)
8. What (you / do) _ yesterday?
9. Most of the time we (sit) in the paft.
10. I (listen) to the radio while my sister (watch) TV.

--
11.Whgn I arrived, they (play)
{ _ cards.
12.We (study) ' , English yesterday at 4:00 pm.
ESSAY (OPTNTON)

What is opinion essay?

An opinion essay is a formal piece of writing. It requires your opinion on a topic, which must
be stated clearly, giving various viewpoints on the topic supported by reasons and/or
examples. You should also include the opposing viewpoint in another paragraph.

How to write an opinion essay?

The basic five-paragraph essay structure, which you have probably used many times by this
point, works extremely well for an opinion essay.

,=-:-An:ryinion==essa:rexistsjo+rov.e+our=rlaai.r++ci$+*FwJhe$is-S,his€-l+suld$e=@-
in your opening paragraph. Don't leave the reader to guess what your position is on the
issue - make a clear stand!

Next, develop your argument in the body of your essay. Each paragraph should contain a
single, clear idea that supports your point of view. You can use examples and ilhistration,
cause-and-effect reasoning, comparison/contrast or other methods of development to support
your argument.

. Research: Any statements you make that would cause a reader to say, "'Wait, how do you
know that's true?" need to be backed up with documentation from outside sources ("I saw
something on TV about itone timb" would not be considered adequate documentation).

Paragraph One - The introduction. Here you state the main idea of your entire essay
the point you are trying to make or prove. This paragraph should include your thesis
statement plus three reasons why you believe this statement to be true.

Paragraphs Two, Three and Four. These are the body of your essay. Remember back
in Paragraph One, you gave three reasons for your opinion? Three reasons, three body
( paragraphs. Each of the body paragraphs should take one of your reasons and explain it in
more detail, citing sources wheie necessary.

Paragraph f ive - The conclusion. Forrner Newfoundland prernier Joey Smallwood


once said about giving speeches: "First I tell them what I'm going to tell them, then I tell
them, then I tellthem what I told them." That's how you write an essay. In the conclusion,
tell them what you told them. Sum up your argument by restating your thesis statement and
reminding the reader what your three reasons were.
TOPICS F'OR OPINION ESSAYS

1. People attend college or university for many difi[erent reasons (for example, new
. experiences, career preparation, and increased knowledge). Why do you think people
attend college or university? Use specific reasons and examples to support your
' EUlsWer.

2. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents are the best teachers.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

--:*-"-*
people live? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

{
4" How do movies or television influence people's behaviour? lfse reasons and specific

s. il::',"i1'::ffiffi the ronowing statement? rerevision has destroyed


communication among friends and family. Use specjfic reasons and examples to
support your opinion.

(,
l*ro**oroN TRANSFER sET f
A. Read the following book review and complete the tabre that follows.

The book, 'The Life of Mahatma Gandhi' is written by Louis Fischer and has been hailed as the
best biography of Gandhi. lt narrates the life of Gandhi who led the fight for lndia's independence
from British rule and the many issues that led to his assassination by a Hindu fanatic a few
months after freedom was won.

The biography shows Gandhi as a great human being a leader who was genle,
-
conscientious and honest. He stood for righteousness. Gandhi gave up all his desire! and
sacrificed his life for the sake of the country. He went through many fasts, demonstrated against
colonial powers in a peaceful manner and went to jail so that his country could be free,

Reading the book, reminds me of what Enstein said of Gandhi. 'Generations to come will
scarce believe that such a person ever walked in flash and blood upon this earth.'

t lt is a real pleasure to read about Gandhi. This book is very relevant in today's world of
, corruotjglr qn{_g_leg4, [t iq_a must-read for thosq interested in reading biqglAphjes, .__ t

i .Bpyigryq_O.by Karen-Gr:ant ,,

Questions 1-{0
(_,
Using the information from the book review, write short answers in the spaces provideid.

Title: 1

Author: 2

Type of book: 3

Gandhi's life: He fought agains the 4


He was killed by a 5
Qualities of Gandhi: 6
l_,

Gandhisacrifice his life so that nis count'ry coutO Ue A

Einstein said that people will not believe that someone like Gandhi ever lived on 9

Reviewer's opinion of the book:


10
B. Read the following information and answer the questions that follow.

Introduction
Many famous writers worked in different fields before venturing into writing, and had numerous
unsuccessful attempts before the made it in the world.

Robert Ludlum

Robert Ludlum started his life as an actor. As a teenager, he left home to take part in a play by
the age of sixteen, landed his first Broadway role. Over the next two decades, Ludlum appeared
in some 200 television roles and in the late sixties, he turned his creative energies to writing
books. His first novel 'The Scarlatti lnheritance' was an immediate hit. He followed it up with a
new blockbuster every year thereafter. Ludlum wrote over two dozen books, mainly dealing with
strong tightly-plotted action-packed thrillers that were received well internationally, He and his
actress wife, Mary had successfultheatrical careers too.

Henning Mankell

Henning Mankell was taught to read and write by his father who was a judge and his
grandmother. At sixteen, he left school to join the merchant navy and returned to work as a
stagehand and wrote plays. He has been an actor, theatre director and manager. His first novel
f: 'The Stone Blaster' was published in 1972 when he was twenty-four. He writes crime novels and
children's books. Mankell is married to Eva Bergman, and they both live off and on in various
destinations throughout the world.

Read more about the colourful lives of famous writer. You will be truly inspired.

Questions {-6 .:
Based on the information given, complete the table below.

Cateqories Robert Ludlum Henninq Mankell

1 2
At age 16

Ii Differences Name of first book 3 4

Name of wife 5 o

Questions 7-10

Complete the sentences below based on the information given.

7 At first Ludlum worked as an

I Ludlum wrote books that were received well.by fans

I Mankelltook on many roles in life as an actor, director and

10 Besides crime novels; Mankell also wrote


C. Read the following infoimation and answer the questions that follow.

Handy Helpers
To prepare for any eventuality in the home, here are some muslhaves to keep near.

Esco-3-ply Masks DISPOSABLE GLOVES

These masks can be used


C to protect your nose and
mouth when you are
Disposable gloves are helpful for sorting out
plastics from paper and removing Tood residue
cleanlng dusty or dirty areas stuck in your sink. You can even use them to
in your house. Use them to keep hands from getting strained when you dye
avoid catching the SARS your hair.
and HlNl bug.
(Price: RM4.20 [100 pieces]
Price: RM2.40 [3 pieces]

tll
Seven-Day Pill Organiser

Sterile Plastic Z]PPY KID'S HAND


Plasters SANIT]SER
These water- Children may not like to
resistant wash their hands but
plasters have with the help of Goofy
a highly and this zesty smelling
absorbent non- hand sanitiser, they can
stick pad to still keep their hands
Each compartment of this handy protect your clean and germ-free.
pill organizer holds up to 10 wounds. They This sanitiser has an
tablets and helps you keep track are medicated orange fragrance.
of your medication for the entire to healthe
wounds faster. Price: RM2.70 for 50ml
week. Also comes in white.
Price: RM1.40
Price: RM6.90
[10 pieces]
Questions 1-5

Using the information given, write the name of the most appropriate handy helper in the boxes
below.

Name of Handv Hel


Alice's children always dirty
their hands while playing.

Aznil's mother often forgets to


take her medicenes.

Sara cleans her house but is


allergic to dust.

Mary Pin wants to colour her


hair.

Andy had a fall and has cuts


on his knees,
C,

Questions 6-10
Complete the sentences below using the information given.

6 The disposable gloves are useful for anyone having to do

7 We should use the 3 ply masks to avoid

8 Using the pill organiser helps to keep track of our medication for

9 The'plasters help wounds to healfaster as they are

10 Zippy Kid's Hand Sanitiser will have an orange

t_
IN FOR MATION TRAI.,JS FE R

A. Read the information given below and then answer the questions that follow.

National Art Gallery Mini Malaysia


The National Ad Gallery is housed in a The traditional houses at Mini Malaysia represent the
colonial-style building run by the National architectural styles of all the states of Malaysia. They
Heritage Trust. lt was formerly know as the display various works of ad and craft from each state.
Majestlc Hotel. The art gallery exhibits a wide Attractions include weekly cultural shows and
range of paintings by local and foreign artists. traditional games.

Kenyir Dam Batu Caves

Malaysia's largest rock-filled hydro-electric dam A popular tourist attraction, particularly during the
has a water catchment arca of 260 000 Hindu festival of Thaipusam which falls in late
hectares. The area around the dam is ideal for January each year. The Hindu shrine is located in the
jungle trekking and nature walks. The lake is a Main Cave, 272 steps up. At the foothills is a smaller
popular fishino spot" cave with interesrino artwnrk nf l-.linrlrr larranr.lo nn itc
wails.

Kuala Gula Sanctuary Kek Lok Si


irt
Bird lovers' paradise! Over 100 species of birds The largest and one of the most beautiful Buddhist
come to this area, particularly between the temples in South-East Asia. fhe temple has a seven-
months of August and December. We can also tier pagoda, the Ban Po Thar which rises 30 metres
see beautiful butterflies and insects. This place high. Work on this temple began in 1990 and took
is managed by the Department of Wildlife and more than two decades to complete.
National Parks.

Questions 1-5
For each of the descriptions below, name the place of interest that the following people should visit.

No. Description Place of lnterest


1 Kevin is an architect visiting Malaysia.
He is interested in designs of buildings.
2 John is interested in observing a feitivat celenrateO in
Malaysia.
I
3 Siti is planning to see some works of art@
artists.
4 Zaki is taking some friends for a weekenO tisfring trip

5 Mohan is doing research on birds.

Questions 6-10
Based on the information given, give short answers to the following questions.

6 ln which part of Batu caves are the Hindu legends displayed?

7 How high is the seven{ier pagoda, the Ban po Thar?

8 What was the NationalArt Gallery fornierly known as?


At Mini Malaysia, tourists can take part in

10 The Kuala Gula Sanctuary is under the care of

B Read the brochure below and then complete the tasks given.

w_ffiffiffiffiffiffiYffiffi
WATERFALLS HILLY REGIONS

There are many spectacular waterfalls here. Among The hilly regions of Tasik Kenyir are a world of
years old. Outdoor activities like jungle trekking are
Saok - 1S-minute boat'ride from Pengkalan Gawi. highly recommended. One of the most popular trals
Cascading waters over its rocky terraces and is Mount Gagau. Trekkers are advised to engage a
boulders and a flat sandy area at ground level, jungle guide.
(, making it perfect picnic spot for a whole family.
Among the other peaks in Kenyir ,r" tn" Bongsu,
Tembat - Unlike Saok and Lasir, Tembat Waterfall Tembat and Gajah Terom. At present there are no
is actually cornposed of five rapids with first flowing facilities on the other peaks except for Mount
cascades. With a large camping area, it is a popular Gagau where base camps and hiking trails have
destination for campers. been set up.

LAKES AND RIVERS

Tasik Kenyir is known as an angler's haven


where fishing i5 concerned. Hundreds of
species of fish like the Kelisa, Kelah, Toman
and Lampan, just to name a few, are found in CAVES
abundanee. Good fishing spots are at Cacing
The Tok Bidan cave which is now under water is the
and Leban. Please be informed that a fishin!
permit is required from the Wildlife Department.
site where archeologists and historians have
uncovered artifacts such as kitchen utensils, axes
{-' and tools dating back to the Neolithic era.
L
lnside the Taat and Bewah caves, extraordinary
stalactotes and stalagmites await the explorer. lt ii
Questions 1-7 advisable to bring torchlight when you go exploring.

Complete the table below for a quick and easy


reference to Tasik Kenyir by choosing one
activity and the location in the place of interest.

Places of lnterest Activity Location


Waterfalls 1 2
Hilly Regions 3 4
Caves 5 6
Lakes and Rivers Fishing 7
Questions 8-10
The following for:eign tourists would like to visit some of the places described in the brochure of Tasik
Kenyir' However, there are certain things they must do or take with them before they can visit these
locations.

Based only on information given in the text, write down the thing each of them needs in the boxes provided.

I Mr Osaho from Japan would like to go fishing.

Ms Richards from Canada loves history and


enjoys exploring.

10 Mr Oakly from New Zealand enjoys mountain


. = - =.=-glirl9iu=Ugwgr=tp:s JLelrsry=
adventu rous and prefers organ ised activities.

LJ
I.ET'S CHAT FIRST
Discuss the following questions with a partner or in a small
group.
{'-' o
a
o
o
1. Do you enjoy reading? Why? br
6

a
2. What may happen to us.if we don,t read enough? s
o
o
N
@

LHT'S READ
Read the following passage.
Coqiontion
It can be observed that the standard of Engrish
among coilege
a::-.;: .
and university students has deter-iaraied greail"y.- wiire
,:...:::..:
l;:,., : ..
., .
many students. are able to communicate flue"no;' i;";;;;
Li.:l: i . .

fr::i;rr .:, grammaticaily inaccurate and these ranguage


p;.7:;:,,., weaknesses
can be clearly seen particularly in tneiiwiittr;;
€:!::',:.:;: a:- :

of English proficiency among college stuients


ffi;;;;
: attributed to their rack of reading. There are severar ;,;;
,1
ir::,
,"""oni
why many students do not read English materials ano
l:.1i1::,,. ilrere
?re some se_r:igus implications from this issue.
or:l,uqg, ts in Maray-sia are not exposed to Engrish reading
materiars at
are frequenfly exposed to are ualicarryi;#;;;-;;*;
3"r?l?rnf-nj,II,;1,,1:y
?,&E',,',,,,.tt!11.
.. ti .?*n r.nolher tonsue. roi er-ampdl; ; ;h,.;;"-;;;;;'[]";:r:';jff[
-;"
to' find lnnurnerehlE sto
!ji;., :., ;''' 1;: irf11: T ::1 |je
einrvh^^r.o
r.vb o o k s, aa-i^^
c om c s, n
"*r
ip r pt r; ;';Jg; ;:'ffi #;
*'.; ..,rrrOU,,nU
.r\?i!:1,T|::1:11i1s=yl:.::1"..1,. ,n the chjnei"'r"ngu,g" i,"G;;;,;,-q;li;"1
i::'.;;; :: m be r, 6;f'r De bers d1 c* rcite e'ha bit
lu::T:^:.jTlly.T"T 1ot
; n ;*o iig,
th bt=
*::.li-e.t.. ialllr reading Engrish materiars. H.n"a,-.trii;;.;;;i.*
'"r, * ,,1#iJiX"l';
, .'weak. ag'!,,,snrmateriaLsl ,nitni. ii'a *nv ;;; -,;;;# ;;,d;;'ffi,:i:;l:
"iri;#; il;,,:; ffi;,:""l;i:
materiars, and-this ref i"rron
is a rey ieason-*n,
;::1.t
;if+,f.ryfdlyr-_students' limited range of English vocabulary generalty makes their
''' ilo.cifficutt
fgadinO diffielrlt srrv
and lima-nano,,mina
,.*2...'::t.::!:.';'--.:lvi::"::st1time-consurming.
ttrrrE-uLrrrlullIIll9. tJMn
Given
^i.,^- an ^tz---- -a.
^- EEEetrfteElve,
eirerneff";, ;h;;;;;rj';;th*;;;;
they WOi.tld fathef fgad
*1i;:::;:i;9:e:i],.*. tfl?,..:. in ther-r own language because they can'rr;-Jr.irri";#il;-;
':.?^l_Sf:1ig.m13h falter. A student wno ii weat ir
,"
r.gliii;;;;;;;;ff;rffi;;
j?
},i,*i:!;:5irji:T storyb.ook. Even
Trglish i1* i""il ;;;;;;;;;;:-:
iTij?il*:y*y*i$;;;ffi ;;;;#;;;#1J;i,';3[:,JX,:Hffi?Jff :?,:
,:1;ii+.a-;*g down. co nsequentty, many perceive rbading engrirh *"t;;;l;;.";ffi;;
time-consuming and dull. Besides, there are other forms of entertainment which-
a.re [::

m-o-re inr,ers-slit g:ls-r--!treq jelrp:-t!q.trill!!.!s "P?:?I?|t-I=t-!"gE=1gt:.1-11-9-l{?::::::L :


oUln", waicning' online viibos, ptaylng Toffi-$ute'r garne5 oi tuatahl-nO-=:- r
'bnutting -*
;tts ire'deemed more fun - and enjoyable than reading English materials. I

r
i

4 However,"litfle do they know that their f?"1 oi reading elgtisn_mlte,rials.hr:.u


30 F
lbt .of re*ereubsio*s. The first effect of the lack of reading English materials il
among siudents is that they might possess limited vocabulary and weak English
plofici- VllJne.ir,.tf*ru* in the language could affect them in..many ways in their
:

i.:.,

, , ,,futui€.,ryey.wiii-rrav6'limited rnowllOgl or information as English is widely used in fl1


televisions ishows, radios programmes and 35
,1,qa, "o;-;r.ffiO*ipeis,'rggrzines] F
,'j .;n,the@iiat.:tiaoreover, their-English cannot
f.e
ilnrovfd a1d will remain
'gtag*a*t. Studying may be tougher for them especially_when go for tertiary $a
ir,,
11"Y.
eduiation neca'use tne medium of instruction at most tertiary institutions' beltlo,:?l f,
or overseas, is English. Thus, they need to pult up theig socks to master English +
are stillloung
theyarg
when tney they wlll
that Iney
stlll young so InaI Ilut face
will not difficulties or
UltiDti uililuujUE-
lauE these as they Purouv 40
lrrsy pursue ]" ii_j,

Another implication of students' lack of reading English materials is that they may ,i
i;tii-*"i:Ai',&r*et*s when they aie applying,.ror..jobs or ervqlwneh"thev are
wsr.tino.ln.ine.corporate'world as English:js'uS'ed':d*!bh$vel14'in 'c-6mp-titerg, the
E,
F*l

li ini"rnJt, Oocuments and so'on. They may find their work demanding inO impossible 45 i
.'' to complete due to their weak proficiency. They cannot cope with their work and fl
compete with other colleagues whose English proficiency is head and shoulders ?,
1 ,rri thrirr. Consequently, thbir supeiiors fiaywdfh:''or'adnraitiEh'thCm.,foi'''their Fi
:l
t! iorAte-wbrld='wili,'ih6 harsh reality wake,them F,;.

il'
ti, up,.makjng,.the5-r-r,rerii".'thrt th"ir English is rygalt,and'th€re is a stiong urg'ency 50 fti
to,i*prb*d their -English,'By then, it may be''tbb.1 tdr:tnem an! many will'start F1,

recatiing:the days *h"n they turned a deaf ear,to their English teachers or parents' i"

advice to read more English books andrregret that they- Oii ,"i prrsue'reading I

.ln,:c6nClusjd,ri,'th€re is'a lack of read,in$,:paitigufaily':in,English, among students; 55 F1

n""rr"; tf,"y ur" not exposed to reading Lt , VoJng 3Oe, tf ey arg welf in English and
{o'thE'lack of Englis! reading, the-ir proficiencv
i,'

,tne:'fr timifud:vocabulary. Owingmay face many O'i*igulties anJ challenges when


$.i

in:the,lbnguage,is weak, and they H


pUrsuing,iheir tertiary education or working in the corporate world later' Like it or
not, tn"Jr.tave to start reading English rnateriali:and leave 1o'3lones unturned in 60
finding waYS,and means to e,nioy jtso-that their'English can. be improved.
EruftXEH VSUft V*CABULAftY
a) Provide the meaning of the following words as used
in the context.of the passage.

Affi ;ttrE€tr:erzru;==;r=;-.s=.or:.-n**#38"n=.=-.==
:,, :. .a:'. :
: | :::a:a,:,.

*ffi*.*K Y* il ft UI**ER$TAru*EruG
KEEP IT COruCTSE
Write a summary with not more than B0 words on the effect€
of students' weak ranguage proficiency.

FT/q TALK FUR THE R


,.a
;:'...i
::,,::.;::=i
iri

DiScus'S, thrd
.following questions. :share
yoUirahsw€rs:with tne-class- - - Thbn
"'Yr: er:!4:e

1. How does reading benefit us?


,, :

2 How cah we enCourag,e m6re people to read?


gongsess'iv"

;;fOniO'fnnS
fu
Fossecsive For thre possessive fomras in nouns, we added 's or'. (See lJnit 3.4.) F"or pcssesstr r.mi0trIrr
5-
of srox
ad3ectives ad;ectives we use:

Fossessive If we use a possessive instead of naming a person, however, we say:


pronouns

d
t,iL Diffenences Note the differences in the forms of possessive adiectives arid pronouns:
between
possessive
a$ectives and
pronouns

But we do not change the form for his.

Write his, her or their under each picture

@
rf\
B
,m
'l
_smile 2 smile 3 _ smile

l\
-

6_(mylmine) car!,
'Stopl'she shouted. 'That's '
itisn't,'theylaughed.'lt's7_(our/ours).'
'No, i
_ (their/theirs), she wondered. lt had 9 _
How could it be 8 (her/hers) liceno:
plates.ltwas10-(her/hers)car.Themenhadstolenit.

42
FOUNDATTON ENGLTSH IENL 100)

STEP.BY.STEP GUIDE TO ASSIGNMENT WRITING


When you're undertaking tertiary study there are often a lot of assignments and writing to do,

which can be discouraging at first. The most important thing to remember is to start - and
start early. If you give yourself enough time to plan, do your research, write and revise your

assignment you won't have to rush to meet your deadline. Once you've started, you'll also
have something down on paper or on screen that you can improve on.

Using the steps below will help your assignments to become do-able, interesting and even

_- enjoyablc-

Step L: PIan

t Planning your assignment will help you get focused and keep you on track.
. Check how much your assignment is worth and what percentage of the final mark it is.

This will help you decide how much time to spend on it.
. Check the marking schedule to see what your tutor will be looking for when they mark
your work and how the marks will be assigned. This will help you know what to focus on.
If there is no marking schedule check the assignment question to see if the information is
there.
. Think about what you need to do to complete your assignment (for example, what
research, lvriting drafts, reference checking, reviewing and editing, etc.). Break these up
into a list of tasks to do.
. Give each task a deadline, working backwards from your assignment due date.
{l
Step 2: Analyse the question
Before you can answer a question, you need to know what it mearrs. Read it slowly and
carefrrlly, and try to understand what's expected of you. Ask yourself:
. What's the question about? What's the topic?
. What does the question mean?
. What do I have to do?
. Look for words that tell you what to do (instructional words). For example, analyse,
compare, contrast, etc.
. Check the meaning of the words used.
. Look for topic words, which tell you what you have to write about.
. Look for restricting words; which limit the topic and make it more specific.
,OU*'OTION ENGLISH ENL 100)

Tip: When you find something about the assignment on a course page or in a forum save a
you will
copy of it. If you save all the information you gather about the assignment in one file
have all the information in one place when you start writing.

Step 3: Draft an outline


Drafting an outline will give you a structure to follow when it comes to writing your
structure, but you
assignment. The ffie of assignment you are doing will give you a broad
you understand how
should also check the question and marking schedule, as they will help
the lecturer expects the topic to be structured, what must be included, and
which sections are

:=-+potrb=the=mosLg]arht===-
you have
From there you can create your outline, using headings and gaps for the information
to fillin.
{
Step 4: Find information
Before you start writing, you need to research your topic and find relevant and reliable
information. you will frnd some in your course materials and recommended readings, but
you can also try:
o ]our local public library.
. talking to experts.
. online sources.
Once you have found information, the next step will be to evaluate it to ensure it is right for

your assignment.

Step 5: Write
{ Onie you've found the information you need it's time to bring it altogether and write your
assignment.

Write your first draft


. Use your outline and fill in the gaps, writing your main points for each section'
. Write freely, getting as much down as you can without worrying about the wording
berng 100%right.
. you may find it easiest to start with the conclusion so that you kreow which direction

your writing is heading, or the background


. The introduction is often the hardest to write, so leave that till last.

. Don't spend too much time trying to make this draft perfect as it will change!
,or*roTloN ENGLTSH IENL 100)

Fine tune
. Revise your first draft, and check that it makes sense and includes everything it needs
to.
. Fine tune the wording, and make sure your writing flows well.
. Make sure you keep different copies of your drafts as you may want to go back to
them.
. Leave the writing for a day, read it, and fine tune again.
. Compile your bibliogaphy or reference list.

Step 6: Edit and proofread


---- -
ffient,trd;ffilffiploG@dhd-5"1*
before you do take a break. Even a short break helps you to get some distance from your

i-' work so that you can check your assignment with a fresh eye.
Look at the big picture
. Have you answered the question you were set? Check your assignment against the
marking schedule as well as the question.
. Is the structure correct?
. Have you included all relevant parts? For example, the title page, introduction,
conclusion, reference list?
. Is the content logically arranged?
. Does your assignment read well, with each section flowing smoothly on to the next? A
good way to check this is to read it aloud.
. Have you used your own words and acknowledged all your sources?'
(-- . Is your assignment well presented?

Check the details


. Have you used academic English (if required)?
. Check the grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Don't just use a spell checker (it won't
pick everything up).
. Check your referencing - have you acknowledged all work that isn't your own? Is your
APA referencin g correct?
. Are your pages numbered?
. Have you included your name, student ID, the assignment details and the date on each
page?

Tip: If possible, ask a friend or family member to proofread your assignment, as it can be
dfficult to see mistakes in your own work.
FOUNDATION ENGLISH IENL 100)

TYPES OF'ASSIGNMENTS

1. Essays
An essay is a piece of writing on a specific subject, topic or issue. Essays are made up of the
following:
. tntroduction - Essays always begin with an introduction, which says what you will be talking about,
how you will talk about it, and what you will show in the essay (your thesis).
. Body - Where you discuss your main points. This means introducing your point, explaining it, and
giving supporting evidence about your point and how it relates to your thesis.
. Gonclusion - This is where you restate your introduction - the subject, the main points, and the
thesis.

2. Reports
Reports generally involve presenting your investigation and analysis of information or an
{'- i issue, recommending actions and making proposals. There are many different types,
including:
. Business reports, which provide information that someone needs to help them make

decisions.
. Scientific and research reports, rvhich provide information on something that was done,
such.as some research. Their purpose is to describe, analyse and evaluates what was
leamed.
When writing a report, always keep the reader in mind. You want them to agtee with your
report and/or act upon it. They need to:

. be clear, concise and easy to understand


[: . be correct (both the contents and the English must be correct)
. have a clear recognisable structure or format, so that they are easy to understand
. be believable.

Structuring a report
All reports have a similar structure, but some details may diffler. How they differ usually
depends on:

. The type of report (for example, whether it's a research report, laboratory report, business
report or investigative report).
. How formal the report has to be.
. The length of the report.
FOUNDATION ENGLISH NL 1OO

Depending on the type of report, the structtre can inolude:


. A title page.
. Executive swnmary.
. Contents.
. An intoduction.
. Terms of reference.
. Procedure.
.Irnolngs.
. Conclusions.
, Recommendations.
. Refere,nees/Biblio graphy.
. Appendices.

C:
FOUNDATION ENGLISH IENL 100

Computer systems computer systems

Assignment 1 'Topic: scanners

Abstract

i
Abstract
Tnfrndrrclion 1

How scanners work 2


2.0
Types ofscanners 2
3.0
3.1 Drum scanners 2
t_ 5 -,/. Flatbed scanners 2

4.0 Scanner specifications 3

4.1 Resolution 3

4.2 Bit-depth 4

5.0 Future developments 5

6.0 Conclusion 5

7.0 Reference list 5

Appendices 6
Appendix 1 Image Sensor Scanner I
Appendix 2 Frequently Used References I

The purpose ofthis report is to survey the current state ofscaruler technology and to briefly discuss predicted
advancements in the field.
[* joumal articles, magazine articles and internet sites on the topic of
By examining a range of recently published
riaroem this report describes the main tlpes of scanners in common use today and examines their perfonnance
in relation to four criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. The report then considers the
effect of further technological advances in these f,our areas, as well as the deployment of new sensor technology
on the future development of scanners.

2. How scanners work

ffithatusesatightSourcetoelectronicallyconvertanimageintobinarydata(0sand1s).
Tt t, blr*y data ihen be used to store the scanned image on a computer. A scalraer recreates an image by
"*
using smail electronic components referred to as the scanner's 'eyes' (Scanner tips 2OO0). Th1 tfne of 'eyes' used
in today's scanners are charge-coupled devices (CCD) and photom-ultiplier tubes (PMTI These electronic eyes
*"uru.L the amount of lighirefleCted from individual points on the page and tanslate it to digital signals that
correspond to the brightness ofeach point (Englander 2000)'

3. Types ofscanners

There are five main types of s6anners in common use today: drum scanners, flatbed scanners, sheet-fed
scallners, slide scanners, and hand held scanners.
FOUNDATION ENGLISH IENL 100)

3.1 Drum scanners

Drum scanners were widely used in the past, however they are much less commonly used today due to advances
in scanner technolory. As a result of their expense, these machines are primarily used by professionals in
industry, where they are considered important due to the high-end qualrty image they produce and because they
use PMT technology which is more sophisticated than charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and contact image
sensor's (CISs). Drum scanners are difficult to operate and technicians operate these scanners by placing the
item to be scanned on a glass cylinder rotating at high speeds around the sensor (Sullivan 1996).

3.2 Flatbed scanners

The most popular scanners for general use are flatbed scanners. This type ofscanner is highly versatile because
it is able to scan flat objects as well as small three dimensional objects. Flat-bed scilIners operate by placing the
item to be scanned on a glass window while scanning heads move underneath it. A transparency adapter is used
to scan transparent originals sleb ss,,s!!4es_gl x1ays, and an automatic document feeder is available for scanning
--*l arge-rumdrs=o r+oeulnentsffi ffi ;

4. Scanner specifications
-
The perfornance of a scanner can be examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dlnamic
range and software.

4.l Resolution

4.2 Bit depth

Bit depth refers to the amount of informationthata scaffler records for each pixel when converling an image to
digital form. Scanners differ in the amount of data they record for each pixel within an image. The simplest
kinds ofscanners only record datarelated to black and white details and have a bit depth of I (Anderson 1999).
The minimum bit depttr required for scanning photographs and documents is 24-bits, while slides, negatives or
transparencies need a scanner with at least 30-bits.

F.-' ffiffir
This report has identified five types of scanners currently available. Some are primarily used for professional
purposes such as the drum scanner; others are used more broadly in the workplace and home such as flatbed
scanners and to a lesser extent sheet fed scanner. Scanners for specialized purposes have also been identified
digital cameras, printers, and photocopiers. This can be expected to continue with other fonns of technology in
conjunction with further improvements to image quality, speed, price, size and weight.

ffiffiffiffi
Anderson, D. The PC Guide. [htp www.pctechguide. com/
: 1 8 scanneis.htm].

Blafirer, D., Fleishman, G. Roth, G. (1998) Real world scanning and halftones 2nd edition, Peachpit Press, USA.

ADDITIONAL
1. The FONT for type wdtten is usually Times New Roman and 12 fonts. (will change
according to the lecturer). PARAGRAPH is usually 1.5 @ 2 SPACING. Alignment for
each paragraph is ruSTIFY.
111012018
iStudy for Successl
iStudy for Success!
Online learning tutorials for essential
college skills.

Oral Presentations

Purpose
The purpose of this ruroriar is to
introdur",::r:i::::riv-".r yiif
;il il; activitidb-as';'il# j!: basics of preparins and deriverins
an orar
51ffi[3H[];Yl? li,l,'ffiXi'*"n when you are raced with the task
or prdparins

Goals and
Objectives"
Upon completion of
this tutorial, you will be
able to:
I

. Differentiate
between'
different types of
oral
presentiations
. Use logicalsteos
to prepare your
preseniation
. Deterrnilie the
best method of
delivery
. Utilize behaviors
that hel,o you '
enhahce your
credibility as a
presentbr
. Makd dbcisions
about
incorporating
t
humor in your
presentation
. Employ,
techniques to
improve the
environment in
which you will be
presenting
. Develop a
technique to
help eontr"ol
nervousness

.'
use your vorce and gestures
prepare and to m.aintain' ...ry.
use ,islriur:o-r'"#"ctively
interest
vv, in !
,,, the presentation
,
t.
:

Activities
tt, about making oralpresentations,
X""r1or[:Sffiffi: and comprete the activities as you prepare
and practice
ti
\.

+p://tutorials.istudy.
psu.eduioraiprese:nta.tions/oralpresentationsjrint.html

1t20
/ 111012018 iStudy for Successl

Both types of presentations can be used to start a discussion by providing information on a given topic followed
.iyf ime-Iorg[ertiens-,-answe,Ls,-and-dr'scussion

Steps in Preparing a Presentation


Planning Your Presentation
Preparing a presentation can be an
ovenvhelming experience if you allow it
to be one. The strategies and steps
below are provided to help you break
down what you might view as a large
job into smaller, mciie manageable
tasks.

Step 1: Analyze your audience


The first step in preparing a
presentation is to learn more about the

t' audience to whom you'll be speaking.


It's a good idea to obtain some
information on the backgrounds, values,
and interests of your audience so that
you understand what the audience
members might expect from your
presentation.

Step 2: Select a topic


Next, if possible select a topic that is of
interest to the audience and to you. lt will be much easier to deliver a presentation that the audience finds
relevant, and more enjoyable to research a topic that is of interest to you.

Step 3: Define the objective of the presentation


Once you have selected a topic, write.the objective of the presentation in a single concise statement. The
objective needs to specify exactly what you want your audience to learn from yiur presentation. Base the
objective and the level of the content on the amount of time you have for the
fresehtation and the background
http://tutorials.istudy.psu.edu/oralpresentations/oralpresentationsjrint.html 3nO
' 1l1ol2o19 - istudy for Success!
you might want to use a combination of meihods. To help you decide, read the advantages and disadvantages
of the four delivery methods described below.

Speaking from Memory

A distinct advantage of speaking from memory is your ability to speak to the audience without relying on notes or
a script. This allows you the flexibility to move away from the podium and to maintain eye contact with the
audience. However, speaking from memory has disadvantages, too. Presentations from memory often sound
rehearsed and the possibility exists that you'll forget an important point, present information that's inaccurate, or
completely lose your train of thought. lf you decide to deliver your presentation from memory have notes handy
to jog your memory just in case!

Speaking from Notes

Many people like to speak from notes. Typically these notes are either on cards or paper in outline form and
contain key ideas and information. lf you are using an electronic presentation tool, you may be able to include
your notes in the presentation itself. The benefit of delivering a presentation from notes is that you sound natural
rather than rehearsed and you can still maintain relatively good eye contact with the audience. The down side is
that you might not express your key ideas and thoughts as well as you may have liked had you planned your
exact words in advance.

Speaking from Text

hftp://tutorials.istudy.psu.edu/oralpresentations/oralpresentationsjrint.html
/ illot2o1e iStudy for Successl

audience may dismiss what you have to say as either unimportant or untrue. The guidelines that follow are
provided to help you learn how to become a more believable speaker.

Be accurate and exact with quotes, names, dates, and facts.

lf youwant people to believe you, you have to earn their trust. That means getting the facts straight. Research
the information you're going to present to make sure it's accurate and make sure you report it coirectly. Practice
pronouncing names conectly, and state dates, facts, and quotes accurately. Copy information that you think you
might state incorrectly and read it from your notes if necessary.

Provide support for your ideas.


It's not enough just to make a statement, you need to back it up by providing factual information, quoting an
expert, or speaking from experience. The point is, it's not enough to state your ideas, you need to be able to
explain why you have those ideas.

r":t
\J
Dress in a professional manner.

{.* "i

lf you want to be taken seriously, then dress accordingly. Being the worst dressed person in the room just won,t
do' You don't need to.have the most expensive clothes or the most current wardrobe, but do look well groomed.
Like it or not, research has determined that people are influenced by the appearance of the speaker.

Use visualaids that look professional.

Visual aids can enhance your presentation if they are well designed and look professional. Be cedain to use the
visual aids when you practice your presentation.

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7120
111012018 iStudy for Success!

Controlling Your Nervousness


Most people are a little nervous when they speak in public. ln fact, a little nervous energy can enhance a
performance or presentation. lt is important to control this nervous energy, however, so that it remains a positive
motivating force rather than a debilitating one.

. lf you are well prepared you will


be less nervious. Practice your
oral presentation in advance and
keep rehearsing it untilyou're
satisfied. Then, when the time
comes to deliver the presentation,
you'll be confident in your ability
to do well.

. Prior to the presentation dedicate


time to focus and clear your head
- -ef-otherthoug,lats,Rtnthrough--
the presentation in your head one
final time and remind yourself of
{i how well prepared you ,r*.

' Greet the people with whom you'll


be speaking. This helps you
create a rapport with the
audience from the beginning and
helps you recognize that the audience "isn't out to get you" they want you to deliver a good
presentation. -
. Take deep breaths and consciously relax your body from head to toe t<i reduce some of the physical
symptoms of being nervous.

. Make eye contact with members of the audience before you begin your presentation. lf you've already
established a rapport with them by greeting them, this will reestablish in your mind that the audience
wants you to succeed.

Delivering the Presentation


li
How you say things may often appear to be more important than what you say. Have you listened to charismatic
speakers who gain and maintain the attention of the audience? Have you also encountered speakers who
quickly put an audience to sleep? Experienced presenters learn to communicate effectively by using voice,
gestures, and visual aids while trying to establishing a comfortable environment for the audience.

Voice
using your voice effectively can have a great impact on your delivery. The best
speaking voice is conversational, natural, and enthusiastic. Use the following
guidelines to develop an effective speaking voice:

' Alter the pitch (high and low) of your voice to prevent yourself from sounding
monotone. Don t alter the pitch too much, however, because this may make you
sound unnatural.

' pPeak loudlY enough to be heard by everyone in the room, [ut


interest and emphasize key points.
vq_ry th_e vqlume of youl'voice to maintain

' Stress certain words as anotheiway to add emphasis. Typically when you stress a word, the pitch and the
volume increase.
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111012018 istudy for Success!

Establishing a Gomfortable Environment


While you won't always have control over the environment when you do a presentation, there may be ways you
can modify the environment so that it is both comfortable for you and the audience members. Th6 guidelihei
that follow are intended to help you become aware of environmental factors that can affect the deliiery of your
presentation.

. Make sure the lighting is adequate.

. Locate the temperature controls and regulate the temperature if necessary. lf it is too warm or too cold,
audience members will focus on their discomfort rather than on your presentation.

. Conduct a test of any audiovisual equipment to ensure it's in working order. Have a backup plan in place
just in case whatever can go wrong, will go wrong at the worst possible time.
-
. Clean off any white boards or chalk boards that might distract the audience.
.
. Make adjustments to the setup of the room to ensure everyone in the audience will be able to see you.
Make sure that everyone can see the visuals you plan to use.

lf possible, practice your talk in the setting where you are scheduled to speak. This will not only help you
determine what other factors you might have to overcome, but also make you feel more comfortable.'lf
{- practicing in the room isn't possible, try to visit it prior to your presentation so you know what to expect.

lVhen possible, greet members of the audience as they come into the room. Not only will this make them
feelwelcome and at ease, but it may also help reduce your nervousness.

Try to eliminate barriers between you and the audience. These kinds of barriers include lecterns, tables, or
audiovisual equipment. Physical barriers communicate that you're trying to maintain your distance from
the audience.

References

Content
For additional information on oral presentations, please consult the following references:

' paugh, L.S. (1997). How to write term papers and reports. (2nd ed). Lincolnwood, lL: NTC/Contemporary
Publishing Company.
{.

' ElI", L. (19S4). Hgw tg prepare and use effective visualaids (lnfoLine Archive No. 25g4,t0). Washington,
DC: American Society for Training and Development, lnfoline.

' Fowler, H.R., &,Aaron, J.E. (1998). The tittle brown handbook(7th ed). New york: Addison-Wesley
Educational Publishers lnc.

' !'!a1nilt91, C- (1997). .Qgy.muyicating for results: A guide for busrness and professionats. (Sth ed.). New
York: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

' Heinich, R', MoJenda, M., Russell, J.D.,.Smaldino, S.E. (1996). lnstructionat media and technologies for
learning (sth ed.). Upper Saddle Rivet NJ: prentice-Hali, lnc.'

' 9!?IPg, C. (Eds). (1997)l How to create a good learning environmenf (Rev. ed.) (lnfoline Archive No.
258506). Washington, DC: American Society for Training and Development, lnfoline.

' Wircenski, J. L..and Sullivan, R. L. (1986). Make every presentation a winner (lnfoline Archive No.
258606). Washington, DC: American Society for Trairiirig and Development, lrifoline.

lmage Credits
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11120
Expressing PurDose

Purpose with to, in order to and so as to

Use fa, so as to, and irt orderla to express pulpose in the affirmative (positive) form.
Examples:
He is looking for aparttime job to save some pocket money.
She wakes up early in order to be on time to work.
They visited him so as to offer their condolences for the death of his wife.

Use so as not to and fua order not to express purpose in the negative form.
Examoles:
t-l They woke up early in order not tobe late.
She exercises regularly so as not to getfat.
He helped the new policewomarLso as not to fail in her first mission.

Purpose with so that


You can also express pulpose with sa that.Inthis case you generally need to use a modal.
Examples:
He turned ao*r, the music so thathe wouldn't disturb the neighbours.
He got a visa so that he can travel to the USA.
He decided to stay in England for a while so that he could practice his English.

i;\*- Purpose tvrthfor


Purpose can be also expressed by usingfor. For may be followed by either a noun or a verb
+ ing.

Examples:
I stopped thercfor a chat.

This mop isfor cleaning the floor.


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Choose the correct expression ofpurpose.

1. Concentrate onyour exercise make any mistakes.


2. You have to wake up be on time.
3. You have to register participate in the forum.
4. She left work early be at home when he arrives.
5. Ships carry life boats the crew can escape when the ship sinks.
6. I will go to university continue my studies.
7. He exercises regularly be overweight.
8. you can produce a good essay, you need to edit your writing before you
hand it in.
(} g. She works hard she can eaflla living.
10. These men risk their liv.es we may live more safely.
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VERB

What is verb?
Verbs are action verbs. They describe specific physical actions. lf you can create a
motion with your body or use a tool to complete an action, the word you use to
describe it.

Verb Examples

The physical verb examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy
identification.
tAisrL
,"t
.

. Let's run to the corner and back.


. I hear the train coming.
. Gall me when you're finished with class.

WHAT IS "BE VERBS''?


A verb shows action or a state of being.

I p
home. Home is my place to rest. I like the smell of my house. I feet totally relaxed.
Home refreshes me. At home, I p!
ready for a new day.

"Be" verbs indicate a state of being.

Verbs must match subjects.

l3!!!adoctor.
r*.i .' He !g sleepy.
. We are here.

Negative sentences need 'not'after the verb.

. Iam not a doctor.


. He is not sleepy.
. We are not theie.

The verb comes first in interrogative sentences.

. Amladoctor?
. ls he sleepy?
. Are we there?
"Are not" (is not) can be shortened to "aren't" (isn't).

. He isn't sleepy
. We aren't there.

Remember the variations of "be" verbs:

Present Negative
lam ilam not -_*_-.,..-i
are not (aren't) lAre you?
L

You are
'You I

He is :He is not (isn't) its trez


She is isfre is not (isn't) ls she?
Tt-rs-
We are iWe are not (aren't) we?
f:+
tt You are ,You are not (aren't) you?
They are iThey are not (aren't) they?

Negative lnterrogative
lwas lwas not
You were You were not (weren't) Were you?
He was He was not (wasn't) was he?
;She was
,
She was not (wasn't) was she?
,lt was It was not (wasn't) Wasn't it?
We were not (weren't) were we?
lYou were You were not (weren't) re you?
iThey were They were not (weren't)

t! EXERCISES

Chose the correct form of the verb to be - am/is/are.

1. lt cold today.

2.' tl**--at home now.

3. They l-:- Korean.

4. There a pen on the desk.

5. My name Nikita.

6. We from Ukraine.
7. That

9. Clara and Steve f-- married.

10. She f an English teacher.


-

Re-arrange the words below to construct the correct sentences.

12. We from Venezuela. are

t_-.--
13. is My I'm and student. Anton name a

14. is book. This my

l
t__ I
,

15.a today. day lt's nice

*' .. . ''.. -,'* **..' *'**)


16. brother's is Her Paul. name

L- I

17. engineer. John is an

t____
18. is name Johansson. My husband's
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'1 oltic i
}{OUNS
NOlutrt = (l-taming, vuerdl

-the name of a person, place, thing or idea.


Examples of nouns: Daniel, London, table, dog, teacher, pen, city, happine_ss, hope
Example sentences: Steve lives in Sydney. Mary uses pen and paper to write letters.

com m6l
) t':ou$JS'
PtoPtr
2. Plural
3. Countable
4. Uncountable

SINGULAR
- Only 1 thing
" - E.g : 1. The boy had a basebaNl in his hand.
2.My honse prefers to wear an English saddle.
3. That cat never seems to tire of jumping in and out of the box.

PLURAL

-E s
- a noun indicates more than 1

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3. Those cats never seem to tire of chasing one another in and out of
ihose boxes.

COUNTABLE
II - Anythlng that can be counted, whether singular - a dog, a house, a friend, etc. or
plural- a
few books, lots of oranges, etc. is a countable noun.
- E.g: 1. There are at least twenty ltalian restaurants in Little ltaly.
2. Megan took a lot of photographs when she went to the Grand
Canyon.
3. Your book is on the kitchen table.

UNCOUNTABLE
- Anything that cannot be counted is an uncountable noun. Even though uncountable
nouns are not individual objects, they are always singular and one must always use
singular verbs in conjunction with uncountable nouns.
- E.g: 1. There is no more water in the pond.
2. Please help yourself to some cheese.
3, l need tg find information about Puliizer Prize winners.
4. You seem to have a high level of intelligence.
trxtrRql,str-S

E.g,cups-cup

1. [osGS ---+ j

2. boys ---, i
t-
3. families ---+ i

4. potatoes
-j_--.
i
5. wlVcS --+ i
6. photos --+ i
7. children --+ i

8. sandwiches --+ I
r
9. fish--+l:
10. feet+Ll

What is the correct plural of the word?

These (perso[[-
I-
are protesting against the president.
The.(wom?n) fl-_ . -:; over there want to meet the manager.
The,(woman) manaacr
,
My (child) l- --- .i hate eating pasta.
t....-
-
I arn ill. My (foot) 1".- j hurt.
i-
Muslims kilt (sheep) l- - -- - I in a religious celebration.
Iclean my (tooth) L.-- rthree times a day,
i-
The (stude!!) l-.- -iare doing the exercise right now.
;-i
The (fish) l-. - - i I borrohf is in tha frirlrra

12,
13. (rralre, L-_"_-' are expensve
14. Some (policeman) l--*-_j Came to arrest him.
15. where is my (tuggage)
ln the car!
fr z
F

1.

2.
?

4.
5.
6.
7. phone - [

L nurse r
10. etf - i---
11. phenomenon - [T
12. criterion -f
13. tl
viltase
14. tov-[T
(:J^ 1

i'icr*e:

Actiotrr Vei'[*s

Afi e-effen yerf: fs s urererf.frcf'sfrenls tclhof sCIJme€ne orsomefftfng fs dofng.

Exornp/es: i'4,ory sieeps on the ccuch-


-lasonls besf friend lhinks of o plan-

--:-="(63-and)zis-t+tethe+wEdinaer-----

Circle the ection verb in ecch sentence below.

'1. Sol listens to his fcvodte song.

.2- Croighits the boseball over the fence.

3, The little Pig grunts.

4. The roof ol the house leoks-

5. The hunter seorches for o deer.

6. Dr. Gold exomines his Paiienl.

7. The bluebird in the tree singsteoutifully.

8" The footbollteom doshes out of the lockerroom-

9. Poulreods lhe Advenfures of Tom Sowyer.

I0. Mrs- Groy buys o roll of poperiowels of the store.

'li. Judysolves the mYsiery

12. Horold fincls o Purple croyon.

SuperTeacher Worksheets - hltp:/Arwwsuperleoqherworlaheets.fom


" "t;''

'+-fs.

Fill'ineabh blarik with 'a','an'or 'the' where necessary. lf no ar,tie-le is required, put a dash (-).

e.g. My brother is _ honest boy.


My brother is an honest boy.

1. Melanie wore _ beautiful red dress for _ party yesterday.

sun rises in _ east and sets in _ west.

Jacinta lives in _ Singapore. She works as actress


there.

Samson is most handsome of all his-brothers.

I visited Philippines last year. This year, I plan to go to


Egypt and _ USA.

6. Mother bought cheese cake from famous bakery. _ cake was very delicious.

7. players will continue football match when sky is clear.

8. This is first time that Robbie has tasted _ dragon fruits.

9. My nephew walks to school every day. For his coming birthday, I am going to get him
bigVcle so that he can cycle to school.
j -
10. They gave us useful information on which courses we should take.

11. -
Mount Kinabalu is _ highest mountain in _ South East Asia.

12. They play basketball at _ basketball court.

13, The orphans had enjoyable time visiting _ National Mudeum.

14. YeSf6rday'morning,- I saw monkey climbing up _ tree. e


c
E
o
Suddenly, it slipped and fell onto _ ground. so
o
b
15. "You are to be blamed for blunder. I can't believe such
6
t6
honourable person like you would do such _ thing;, Anabelle e
s
said.
N
o
1..:... , -t- r,

Some of the articles in


them. .these sentences are either missing or ut?==Yloll{Y.=l-{qllijy-ano=co,reer-...--

Decause a snake was


really

Howe,yer,
... , 'a.:,
/

ADVERB - (Describes a verb)

-describes/modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb. lt tells how, where, when,


how often or to what extent. Many adverbs end in -LY
Examples: slowly, quietly, very, always, never, too, well, tomorrow, here
Example sentences: I am usually busy. Yesterday, I ate my lunch quickly.

Adverbs

1. James is careful. He drives

2. The girl is slow. She walks.


3. Her English is perfect. She speaks English

--4---€-urrcacheffi
5. My neighbour is a loud speaker. He speaks
\- .r 6. He is a bad writer. He writes
7. Jane is a nice guitar player. He plays the guitar

8. He is a good painter. He paints


9. She is a quiet girl. She does her job
10. This exercise is easy. You can do it

PREPOSITION - (Shows retationship)

-shows the, relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word. They can indicate
time, place, or relationship.
. Examples: at, on, in, from, with, near, between, about, under
Example sentences: I left my keys on the table for you.

/ . Preposition
\ \..,
1. If you want to go bus, you have to go _ the bus stop.
2. You look the time table.
3. Then you wait _- your bus.
4. When the bus arrives, you get the bus.
5. You buy a ticket the driver or show your ticket the
driver.
CONJUNCTION - (Joining word)

- joins trvo words, ideas, phrases or clauses together in a sentence and shows how they are
connected.
Examples: and, or, but, because, so, yet, unless, since, if.
Example sentences: I was hot and exhausted but I still linished the marathon.

Coniunction
1. Canyon
I visit the Grand I go to Aizona. (once, whenever, wherever)
2. This is the place we stayed last time we visited. (where, when, how)
3.-youwinfirstp1ace,youwi1lreceiveaprtze.(wherever,if,un1ess)
4--Jollvon't$'assthe-test-------Joustrdy-{rv-henif,-untess)
5. I could not get a seat, I came early. (as, though, when)

ft 6. We are leaving Wednesday or not it rains. (if, whether, though)

7.PayattentiontoyourwoIk-youwillnotmakemistakes.(sothat,.unless,
or)
8. The musicians delivered a rousing performance _ they had rehearsed often.
(though, as, once)

9. She's honest everyone trusts her. (if, so, when)


10. Write this down you forget. (or, when, lest)

ARTICLE - (Defining word)

-is used before a noun. These are divided into definite (the) and indefinite (a, an). Articles
help define nouns.
..,.. Examples: 4an,the
'-.! Example sentences: I need a dictionary. The dictionary needs to be in English.

Article
1. I love living in this glty.
2. Generally speaking, boys are physically stronger than girls.
3. Bill enjoys reading mystery novels.
4. Do you remember - girl that we saw last night?
5.DidyougototheThairestaurarfi?P2:No,Iwentto-p1acewhereyouand
I normally go.
:

t'
,i'--i
!.

TOPIG 2
How do you do? (formal)

Nice to see you.


,
Nice to see you again.

Say Goodbye

Good bye.

Bye./ See you.

See you fater.

- - - :'- - -S€€'Y@€'ae€+r- ----' --:r-=:_'- r-".- - --'-' - =.- "-=---: -

See you tomorrow.

See you next week.

Good night.

Health

How are you?

How are you today?

Fine, thank you/thanks.

Not too bad.

Very well.

I'm okay / all right.


Not too well, actually.

What's wrong with you?

What's the rnatter with you?

Are you all right?

!'m tired

I'm exhausted

I've got a cold.


Word List

Greetins People

Hello. / Hi.

Good morning. (before 12 o'clock)

Good afternoon. (after L2 o'clock)

Good evening

lntroducing People

wFefilffirnffi.?-
Who are you?

My name is...

lam...
My friends call me ...

You can callme...

Haven't we met (before)?

Yes, lthink we have.

No, I don't think we have.

Ithink we've already met.

I don't think we've met (before).

( ; lnts ts ...

Meet...

Have you met ...?

Yes, I have.

No, I haven't.

Yes, lthink I have.

No, I don't think I have.

Hello,... (name)

Nice to meet you. (informal)

Pleased to meet you.


Fj,i''

ffii

EJ
Tm6qn nr g ffi eserva€r&rns Ecy TeEep,Ea@$?e

lA like to make a dinner


re Gaod alternoon. ...Chez Max..Fred
speaking. reservation, please.

E )

G 1. Fred, the head waiter, answered


the telephone at Chez Max.
He greeted the caller...
3. He offered to assist
4. The caller wished to make a
dinner reservation. Fred got
the caller. out the reservation notepad.

b The fourteenth of February. And fot what time, madam?


\
G ,ph-/ ./
E

ft 5. He asked her for the date 6. ...and wrote down the detailS 7. He found out the time of
Fred asked the caller for
her name. She spelt it out
of the reservation..., as she spoke. the reservation. for him.

3 For how many, Ms Reid?


Id like a table ln non-smoking, Just a minute, Ms Beid, l'm very sorry Ms Reid, but therc
by the window. I'll seeit we have a table. are no tables left in non.smoking.
For four,

5.'

: 9. Fred asked Ms Reid for 12. He apologized because the


the number of people in 10. The caller had a special 11. Fred checked the floor non-smoking section was

I her party. request - a window table. chart. booked out thatnight.

I
:
Yes, all righl
So thatb a window lable for
lour, at eight-thirty, on the
loutteenth ol February.

# ' .:i,
Addrgsging -
.AirC'5ts,": .,,..

,:..-..::...-
Whmaner posqibleusl:
-

STN l MADAM
nrn i nins /Ms lUfin,
: .: . ,:_. +namel
i
-t
I

13. He offered her an 15. Fred read back to Ms Reid all


altemative, and asked
whmyou spuk to grcsts. -:

I
':
for her agreement.
14. Ms Reid accepted
the offer.
the details he had written on
the reservation notepad.

E 1L
HJ
Thenk you for ca!ling...
...We'll see you on the faurteenth,
Goodbye, Ms Reid.

Ei
5
IB

HI
t

for a contact
16. He asked Ms Reid
number and wrote it down on 17. Before ending the conversatiory
tr the notepad. Fred thanked the caller... 18. ...and said goodbye.
I
I

il
speaking
+#.''R\ -atse-ErtTtFIE Sb Speakilrg

r
I
' r#d aPorrE
Jan Lll
fftrEs

ffi At eight g'clock


Written: 1 L.1.2001,'

r
I Spoken:
At eight lanuarg first
Thefirst

ffi
of lanuary
At a quarter past eight
Written: 3L Dec 31./12 12.31,2001
\Lcil At eighlfifteen
Spok9l December thirty-ftrst
The thirtyfirst of Dece1nber

@-
7nir-\
At half past eight
Wrilterr: -'14 Feb 14/2 2,14;2AV.

ki
Spokeru February fourteenth 19. Finally Fred copied all the
At a quarter to eight
information on the notepad
At seamforty-fioe into the restaurant reservation
record.

VERBS NOIJNS " make a reseroation = the caller


accept agreement makes a reservation.
address altemative o take a reserttation = the waiter
ansl 'er caller takes a reservation
apologize contact number . Afloor chartis a plan showing
ask [for] date all the tables and parts of the
assist details restaurant,
care for , floor ehart . details = small items of
[something] head waiter information
check information ) Arcseraation recoril is a book
coPy notepad that contains all the details of
end number reseryations,
find [out] party 't abooking=areservation
get out record booked out I fully booked = the
Isomething] request . restaurant is full and can't take
greet reservation ' any more reservations
identify section . a special request = the caller
make title asksJor something more, e.g. a
[a reservation] window window table, or a birthday
offer waiter cake etc.
res6rve . identifA yourself = say who
spell OTHERS you are
take booked out '. aParty=agroup
[a reservation] instead olferedher an altetnatioe =
write non-smoking gave her another choice or
smoking possibility
special
NB: Some women prefer to use
the title MS, instead of MRS
orMISS.

15
E3 UruET t Exercnses

EX L. Choase a word frorn the box to ntatch each picture below.

notepad floor chart caller d.ate window table


E reservation record waiter non-smoking sign

fr
MWMY
il $ohw2W

r waiter

tr
:

I
I Fred asked the caller for the details of the reservation. What inforrnation did Fred ask
for?

I data of raaervation

I
r
ti

I Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B.


AB
I 1. assist.............................I e a. give your name
2. reserve......................... t b. no more seats /tables
I 3. a group........................ t c. say sorry

4. a request...................... t d. say yes to an offer


I 5. tully booked................I e, help
6. apologp2e..................... I f. book
I 7. accept........................... t g. a party
8. identify yourself..........[ h. something a person asks for
I
i
4" 'r'(rite out some -ways of sggtjJg the time shortrn on the cnocks hetrow.
t

ql
;
I

ffi
i seven fifteen
or
B a quarter past seven
I

H 5. Write down a spoken form of these dates.


I
l
I
April5 23May 12th Dec 2.6.2000 31./12

H the fifth of April


I

u- 5. Match the terms on the left nvith the statements on the right.
1. Identifying yourself
I lcl a. "a round table near the door,,

tr 2. Greeting
3. Aspecial request
tI
I]
b. "I'm
c.
afraid we're fully booked tonight.,,

'Jerury speaking."

i I
4. Apologizing
5. Spelling out something
I]
tI
d.
e.
"Good afternoory sir."

"Can I help you, madam?,,

:
6. Making a reservation I] f. "I'll check the floor chart for you.,,
7. Assisting a caller I] g. "That's H-U-D-S-O-N."

I
I
8. Offering to do something
for someone
t1 h. "I'd like to book a table for d.inner, please.,,

7. What is the head waiter saying to the callers below? Fill in the speech bubbles
I
1. J. 4.

h Could I have a
wlndow tahle ptease?

F'
I

I
t

I
i
I
r- 8. Discuss the following questions with your hainer or partner.
I 1. I4/hy do some woulen prefer to use the title MS insiead of MISS or MRS?
r
i 2. Iifhy did Fred ask the caller for a contact number?

3. Iafhy does Fred write down details on a notepad while he talks to the
caller?

t7
'!,

Hf

E}

EJ fficeeewumg artd Semtnrmg Gucsts

ffi Good evening. Welcome to Chez Max.


Do you have a reservation, sit?
Yeg
thafs

Yes.The name's
E Nicols.

B:
2. He checked the Reservation 3. Fred showed Mr Nicols and
1. Fred greeted the people at the reception desk Record and confirmed the details
and asked if they had a reservation. his party to table 14, which
with the guest. was reserved for them.
E

Will this be all right,


Mr Nicols? Allow me,
Excuse me, madam.
Yes, this is
thank you.

{
\ q)
t4,\\,

{. :
l* 4. He asked if they'were
satisfied with the table.
5. Fred pulled out the chair
of the lady guest dosest
tohim...
5. ...and slowly pushed the chair
back into position as the guest
Standing to the right of
the guest, Fred picked up
was seating herself. the napkin...

Excuse me, madam. Youl waiter will be with you


shortly. I hope you have a
good dinner.

)
(

10. Hd told the guests that


8. ...folded it into a 9. ...and placed it on the awaiter would attend
triangular shape... guest's lap. to them soon.
H]
Fr r

for two in smoking, ptease.


A, table les, w,e have a teble tor yau. medam.
We dan't have a reservation-

E$

11. He then retumed to the 12. The nexf guests to arrive did not 13. He checked ihe floor chart and
reservation desk. have a reservation- found a table for them.

Would you mlnd wailing a few minutes?


get the table ready for you now.
We'll
Oh yes, thank you.

' 3fff*,*;" ffi"fu


eyecontact.
n-$-{ !&
. Donotfocus
o-nly onone
gUestwhen
speq$pg,to
a group;
14. Fred offered to keep their coats 15. He asked them to wait while the
in the cloakroom. table was being prepared.

VERBS NOUNS . iletails = small items of


allow arln information
arrive chair . seating hercelf = ths action of
attend cloakroom sitting down
check coat . two paces = two steps [about 1
focus desk metre]
fold details . ahead = in front of
get (something direction . satisfieil zoith = pleased with
ready) , eye-contact . a table fotfour = a table which
greet floor chart can seat four people
make [eye t"P a table qffoai = th"." are four
contact withl napkin people at the table
pick [up] palm , cloaktoom = a place where
place party coatb, hats, umbrellas, parcels
point position etc. can be left for a time.
PrePare shape o stand to the ight of someone =
pull [out] ' stand on the right hand side of
push [in] OTHERS that person
receive ahead . make eye contact with someone
return clearly = to look directly into the eyes
seat closest ot someone
show extended . foc-us only on one guest = look
smile reserved only at one person
wait satisfied o tiangular = in the shape A
welcome shortly ofatriangle ' / \
MrTlg smoking and non-smoking
. sections ofa restaurant are
usually referred to as,smoking,
or 'non-smoking!.

_19
EJ UruflT 2 - E:Eererses
ffi n. What is the'waiter doing in the out
pictures below? \
pulling pickingup showing
Choose an action rvord from thb
seating folding welcoming
box to fill in the blanks.
E

tr
E

ffi
t
T 4. He is _-- the plate, 5' He is the napkin. 6. He is .- the guests.

t solve the word puzzle wittr.tlre help of the--clues below. Choose from the
Be carefuI! You only need eight of the fifteen words.
words on the right.

'1.
I 1.
2.
You sit on this.

A shape with three sides. 2.


party
direction
number
fingers
3. A distance of about half a metre, or one step. 3. time
T lap
(, 4. Small items of information.

r
4. napkin
table
5. The inside surface of your hand.
chair
6. Agroup ofpeople. 6.
?ace
palm
T 7. A piece of cloth or pqper used while eating. 7.
tiangle
date
8. A mother often holds hbr baby on this while sitting. 8.
leg
details
:
3' Choose words from the Key vocabulary list that can replace the
underlined words
in the sentences.
: 1. He missed the bus because there were too many peopl e infront of him. 1. Eg.ahead 1

t 2. The customers were very plensedwith the good service in that restaurant.

3. He is easy to understand because he speaks slowly and carefuily.


t_--1
t_l
4'
:
The waiter took their drinks ordei afezu minutes after they sat down.
t_l
5. He smiled and looked directly at the pretty girl in tl.re room.
[']
6. The old lady asked the man,zuho uas next to her, to help her with
I her bag. I_l
i*

4,'\&ltat is the uraiter saSrjxl* to tlne guests im, ti'ue B,ictu'res


beio"w?
Fut tlte co,rrect pictr,lre rnT,nxnber a"lex{r to tl-re rwaiter's statentents.

Yes.This is fine,

_rl
a. "Could you follow me, please."

b. "Your waiter will be wiih you shortly."

c. "Allow me."
d. "Is this all right for you?"

5. Complete the dialogue below between the waiter and the guests.
lTwo ladies mter the restaurant. They come to the teception desk.]

Guest Good evening. A table for two, please.

Guest: No, we don't.

Guest Non-smoking, please.

I4/aiter: [Tell them that a table is aaailable. Ask them politely to zuait a fau mirurtes.] ...................

Guest: Yes, that's fine. We'll wait over there.

Guest Otu yes. Thank you.

Waiter: l'L0 minutes later: TelI them the table is rendy and you will take them to it.l ............
;

I 5. Role-play the above dialogue with your padner. Don't forget to exchange roles.

',1
-,8
,r, 7. Discuss the questions belo$, with your trainet or partner.

1. Why is it important to make eye contact when you speak to someone?


-a:
i1
2.1Vhy do most restaurants have separate smoking and non-smoking areas?

2L