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Module - 6

Scheduling Techniques for Construction


Project

Dr. Hermawan
Construction Management (120405)

Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)


Outline

• Project life cycle


• Introduction
• The planning process
• Activities
• The CPM

Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)


Project Life Cycle
Scheduling

Project Engineering Use


Need formulation
Planning
and design
Construction
management
Disposal
process process process
process process process

User Project Project Project Facility Facility


Requirements Feasibility Engineering Field engineering use and demolition
And scope And design And construction management Or conversion

Awareness Project Project Full Project Project Fulfillment


of need Concept Scope description Completion and Of need
formulation definition Acceptance
For use

(Source: Abduh, 2017)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
Introduction
• The critical path method (CPM) is a planning and control technique
that provides an accurate, timely, and easily understood picture of
the project.
• Its purpose it to allocate resources over time in an optimal manner
and in a way that allows effective reallocation and schedule control,
after the project starts.
• In the 1950s  1. the program evaluation and review technique
(PERT) (by Willard Frazar, came out of the Navy’s need in managing
the Polaris Missile Program); 2. the critical path method (CPM) by
Du Pont and Rand Remington Univac.

Source: Schexnayder and Mayo, 2003


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
The Planning Process
• Assumptions based of facts
• Alternative courses of action
• Select the course of action

Source: Schexnayder and Mayo, 2003


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
Activities
• Activities descriptions should be concise and unambiguous. The
description communicates the scope and location of the activity. A
verb should be used in the description of production-type activities.

Source: Schexnayder and Mayo, 2003


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
The Critical Path Method - Arrow Diagram

Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)


Network Logic, Dependencies Among Activities - (1)

In the arrow diagram an activity is graphically represented by arrow. The length


of the arrow has generally no significance but may, if required, be drawn to
represent a time scale. Circle or nodes, which are referred to as events are
attached to each end of the arrow. They signify the start and the finish of the
activity but have no time durations themselves.

Starting Finishing
event Form Bridge event
Piers
(Activity name)
1 2
3 weeks
(Activity duration)
A typical representation of an activity in the arrow diagram

(Source: Uher, 1996)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
Network Logic, Dependencies Among Activities – (2)

Start event of A Finish event of A Start event of C Finish event of C

Activity A Activity B Activity C


1 2 3 4

Start event of B Finish event of B


A chain of activities in the arrow diagram

(Source: Uher, 1996)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
Dummy Activities - (1)
In a more complex program, care is required in modeling dependencies
between preceeding and succeeding activities. Assume that the
succeeding activities C&D depend on both the preceeding activities A&B
(C&D cannot start until both the activities A&B have been completed).

A C
1 1

B D
2 2

An inaccurate representation of dependencies in the arrow diagram

(Source: Uher, 1996)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
Dummy Activities - (2)

Dummy activities are required in the arrow diagram to maintain the logic
of the network. A “dummy” is an activity of zero duration and no resource
utilization. It is simply a link (drawn as a broken line) between specific
preceeding and following activities.

A C
1 3 5

B D
2 4 6

The use of a dummy activity to maintain the logic of the arrow diagram

(Source: Uher, 1996)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
Dummy Activities - (3)
Dummy activities serve another purpose: they aid in numbering of
activities by their correct event numbers. This illustrated in below which
shows two parallel activities A&B. They originate from the same start
node and end in the same finish node. While logically correct, the
activities A&B identified by the same event numbers 1-2.

A C
1 2 3

B
An incorrect numbering of the activities A & B in the arrow diagram

(Source: Uher, 1996)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
Dummy Activities - (4)

The overcome the problem a dummy activity is inserted ahead of either


activities A or B. This provides an additional node which will be assigned
a new number. Thus each activity can be identified by a unique pair of
event numbers.

A C
1 3 4

The use of a dummy activity to correctly identify the activities A & B

(Source: Uher, 1996)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
Exc.
Activity Time Duration Depends On
in days
A 3 Starting Activity
B 5 Starting Activity
C 2 Starting Activity
D 5 A
E 4 A&B
F 7 A, B & C
G 8 D
H 2 E
I 3 F
J 7 G&E
K 5 H
L 7 I&H
(Source: Uher, 1996)
Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
Exc. Activity Time Duration Depends On
in days
A 4 Starting Activity
B 2 Starting Activity
C 3 Starting Activity
D 2 A
E 1 B&D
F 4 C
G 4 D
H 3 F
I 5 G
J 3 E&H
K 6 E&H
L 9 I&J
M 5 K

(Source: Uher, 1996)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
The Critical Path – (1)
The arrow diagram is an event oriented network. The mathematical
procedure for calculating start and finish times of activities and the time
duration of the entire project involves determining start and finish
events of each activity in the network.

The start events are two types:


a. The earliest start events and
b. The latest start events.

The finish events are also of two types:


a. The earliest finish events, and
b. The latest finish events.

(Source: Uher, 1996)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
The Critical Path – (2)
It means that each activity has two possible start and two possible finish
event dates:
a. The earliest possible start date
b. The latest possible start date
c. The earliest possible finish date
d. The latest possible finish date

The mathematical procedure has been developed to calculate event


times. The algorism calculates event time by making two passes the
network:
a. The forward pass, and
b. The backward pass

(Source: Uher, 1996)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
The Critical Path – (3)
The earliest event dates are computed during the forward pass by
working through the network from beginning to the end. The algorism
calculates are earliest start event dates (ESD) for each activity and by
applying the following formula, it then derives the earliest finish event
dates (EFD) for each activity.

EFDI = ESDI + DurationI

The start event date of the first project activity must be known. For the
reason of simplicity, it is assumed to be zero, however computer
generated CPM programs define the start date of the project to be week 1,
day 1, hour 1.

(Source: Uher, 1996)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
The Critical Path – (4)
The EFD of the preceeding activity I becomes ESD of the succeeding
activity J. The EFD of the activity J is calculated by adding the time
duration to its ESD. The process is repeated until the EFD of the last
activity in the network is calculated. The last EFD gives the total time
duration of the project.

Where two or more preceeding activities I1, I2, … In meet in the same
finish node, wich becomes the start node of the following activity J, the
ESD of the activity J is equal to the maximum value of the EFD of the
preceeding I activities. This equation is:

ESDj = MAX (EFDI)

(Source: Uher, 1996)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
The Critical Path – (5)

The latest event dates are calculated for each activity by working from
the end of the network to the beginning. This is referred to as the
backward pass. Because the EFD of the last activity determines the time
duration of the project, it must be equal of the latest finish event date
(LFD) of the last activity. When the time duration of the last activity is
deducted from the LFD, its latest start event date (LSD) is determined.

LSDI = LSDI - DurationI

(Source: Uher, 1996)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
The Critical Path – (6)
The LSD of the following activity J then becomes the LFD of the
preceeding activity I and so on.

Where two or more following activities J1, J2, … Jn originate from the finish
node of the preceeding activity I, the LFD of the activity I will be equal to
the minimum value of the LSD of the following J activities. The equation
is:

LFDI = MIN (LSDJ)

(Source: Uher, 1996)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
The Critical Path – (7)
Critical activities are those activities which have the ESDs equal to the
LSDs and EFDs equal to the LFDs. A path connecting such critical
activities is the critical path.

The critical path is the longest path (in terms of time) through the
network. None of the activities on the critical path can be delayed
without delaying the scheduled finish date of the whole project.

(Source: Uher, 1996)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
Free and Total Floats - (1)
Non-critical activities in the network are characteristised by the
availability of the varying amount of “SPARE TIME” of FLOAT. It means
that such activities can commence between the dates given by their
earliest and latest start dates. The delay in non-critical activities will not
extend the completion date of the project provided the amount of the
delay does not exceed the available float.

For each activity in the network it is possible to calculate four float


values:
a. Free float
b. Total float
c. Interfering float
d. Independent float

(Source: Uher, 1996)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
Free and Total Floats – (2)
Free float is the amount of time by which an activity in the network may
be delayed without delaying the earliest start date of the following
activity.

Free FloatI (FFI) = MIN (ESDJ – (ESDI + DURATIONI))

(Source: Uher, 1996)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
Free and Total Floats – (2)
Total float is the amount of time by which an activity in the network may
be delayed without delaying the latest start date of the following activity
or the scheduled finish date of the whole project.

Total FloatI (TFI) = MIN (LSDJ – (ESDI + DURATIONI))

FF (Activity name) TF
1 2
(Activity duration)

The convention for recording free and total floats on the arrow diagram

(Source: Uher, 1996)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
The Critical Path Method -
Precendence Diagram Method

Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)


The Critical Path Method – Precedence Diagram

• The precedence diagram offers a number of advantage over the arrow


diagaram.
• The main feature of the the precedence diagram method is that an
activity is represented by an identifiable symbol, for example a circle,
a square, a hexagon or any other convenient shape. The name of the
activity is commonly written inside such a symbol.

EXCAVATE SITE Activity Name


05 Activity ID Number

10 Activity Duration

(Source: Uher, 1996)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
Cont. Precedence Diagram
• Relationship among activities are expressed by connecting lines or
links forming a network. If two activities A & C are related that one
must be completed before the other can begin, the boxes are linked. If
two activities A & B are independent of each other, each will appear in
the network as a separate box without a connecting linkage between
them.
• The main feature of the the precedence diagram method is that an
activity is represented by an identifiable symbol, for example a circle,
a square, a hexagon or any other convenient shape. The name of the
activity is commonly written inside such a symbol.

A C

B D

Linking of activities in the precedence network

(Source: Uher, 1996)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
Cont. Precedence Diagram
• When an activity is related to two other activities which, at the same
are related to each other, a redundancy link in the network is
generated. This link is unnecessary and should be removed.

A C

A redundant link in the precedence network

(Source: Uher, 1996)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
Cont. Precedence Diagram
• Where the are more than one start and one finish activities, it is a
common practice to link then to single dummy START and FINISH
activities.

A E

START B E FINISH

C F

The use of dummy activities in the precedence network

(Source: Uher, 1996)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
Exc.
Activity Time Duration Depends On
in days
A 3 Starting Activity
B 5 Starting Activity
C 2 Starting Activity
D 5 A
E 4 A&B
F 7 A, B & C
G 8 D
H 2 E
I 3 F
J 7 G&E
K 5 H
L 7 I&H
(Source: Uher, 1996)
Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
Diagram Free Float

B F I

E H K

A D G J

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)


Diagram Total Float 

L L

B F I

E H K

A D G J

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)


Cont. Precedence Diagram
• While the arrow diagram is event oriented, the precedence diagram is
activity oriented.
• Despite this difference, the time duration of the entire project is the
same as for the arrow diagram. The critical activities will have the
same earliest and latest start dates, and earliest anda latest finish
date.

1 ESD – EFD 3
FF TF
5 4 LSD – LFD 2 6

EXCAVATE SITE Activity Name


05 Activity ID Number

10 Activity Duration
The convention for recording start and finish dates, and free and total floats on
the precedence diagram
(Source: Uher, 1996)
Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
Floats
• The definitions of free and total floats are the same for both the arrow
and precedence diagrams.
• Free float is the amount of time by which an activity in the network
may be delayed without delaying the earliest start date of the
following activity.

Free FloatI (FFI) = MIN (ESDJ –EFDI)


• Total float is the amount of time by which an activity in the network
may be delayed without delaying the latest start date of the following
activity or the finish date of the whole project.

Total FloatI (FFI) = MIN (LSDJ –EFDI)


ESDJ = earliest start date of the succeeding activity J.
EFDJ = earliest finish date of the preceding activity I.
LSDJ = latest start date of the succeeding activity J.
(Source: Uher, 1996)
Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)
Exc. Activity Time Duration Depends On
in days
A 4 Starting Activity
B 2 Starting Activity
C 3 Starting Activity
D 2 A
E 1 B&D
F 4 C
G 4 D
H 3 F
I 5 G
J 3 E&H
K 6 E&H
L 9 I&J
M 5 K

(Source: Uher, 1996)


Dr. Hermawan – CM (120405)