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You are on page 1of 95

AND EXERCISES

Tolerencing

Composite Position Tolerancing

of feature patterns as well as orientation of

features.

¾ Positional symbol entered once and is

applicable to both segments .

¾ Upper one called Pattern Locating

Tolerance Zone Framework (PLTZF).

¾ Lower one called Feature relating

tolerance zone framework (FRTZF).

Tolerencing

Composite tolerencing

Tolerencing

Pattern Locating Tolerance

Zone Framework

¾ PLTZF is located from specified

datums by basic dimension.

¾ It specifies larger positional tolerance.

¾ Datums are specified in desired order.

Tolerencing

Feature Relating Tolerance

Zone Framework

¾ It related to feature orientation

control.

¾ It govern the small positional

tolerance than upper segment.

¾ The specified datums in lower control

govern the orientation of FRTZF

related to the PLTZF.

Tolerencing

Feature Relating Tolerance

Zone Framework

¾ one or more of the datums specified

in the upper segment of the frame

are repeated and in the same order

to govern the orientation of FRTZF

Tolerencing

Primary datum Repeated in Lower

segment

Tolerencing

Primary datum Repeated in Lower

segment

Tolerencing

Primary datum Repeated in

Lower segment

Tolerencing

Primary datum Repeated in Lower

segment

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 11

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 12

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 13

Tolerencing

PLTZF:- pattern locating tolerance zone

frame work.

Where composite controls are used

Upper segment is referred to as the pattern

locating control.

The PLTZF located from specified datums

by basic dimensions.

It specifies larger positional tolerance for

the location of the pattern of feature.

Tolerencing

FRTZF:-feature related tolerance zone

frame work.

The lower segment is referred to as

the feature relating control.

It controls the smaller positional

tolerance for each feature with in the

pattern (feature to feature relation

ship).

Tolerencing

TWO SINGLE SEGMENT FEATURE

CONTROL FRAME

Tolerencing

PLTZF

Tolerencing

FRTZF

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 19

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 20

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 21

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 22

Tolerencing

COMPOSITE POSITIONAL

TOLERANCE

Tolerencing

PLTZF

Tolerencing

FRTZF

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 26

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 27

Tolerencing

TWO SINGLE SEGMENT

FEATURE CONTROLE FRAME

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 29

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 30

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 31

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 32

Tolerencing

RADIAL HOLE PATTERN

In fig (5-24) shows an example of a radial hole pattern

where the plane of the PLTZF is located from a datum

face by a basic dimension .

Where datum reference are not specified in the lower

segment of a composite feature control frame ,the

FRTZF is free to be located and oriented (shift and /or

tilt) as governed by the tolerance zones of the PLTZF.

With datum plane A referenced in the lower segment of

the composite feature control frame.

The tolerance zones of the FRTZF (as a group ) are

parallel to datum plane A and may be displaced as

governed by the tolerance zones of the PLTZF.

Tolerencing

COMPOSITE POSITIONAL TOLERANCING

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 35

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 36

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 37

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 38

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and

Tolerencing 39

Geometric Dimensioning and 40

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 41

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 42

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 43

Tolerencing

Single-segment feature control frames

In fig (5.26) two single segment feature control frames.

These are used where it is desired to specify a need for a

coaxiality relationship between the FRTZF and the PLTZF.

A secondary datum reference is shown in the lower feature

control frame.

In fig (5.26,c)shows that the tolerances zone of the FRTZF

are parallel to datum plane A and concentric about datum

axis B.

Portions of the smaller tolerances zones located outside

the larger tolerances zones are not usable, since the actual

feature axes must reside with in the boundaries of both

zones.

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 45

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 46

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 47

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 48

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 49

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 50

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 51

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 52

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 53

Tolerencing

Coaxiality

Coaxiality is that condition where the

axes of two or more surfaces of

revolution are coincident. The amount

of permissible variation from coaxiality

may be expressed by a positional

tolerance or a runout tolerance.

Selection of the proper control

depends on the nature of the

functional requirements of the design.

Geometric Dimensioning and 54

Tolerencing

Holes of Different Sizes

whereholes are of

different specified sizes

and the same

requirements apply to

all holes. a single

feature control

symbol,supplemented

by a notation such as

TWO COAXIAL HOLES is

used.

Tolerencing

Profile tolerance

A profile is the outline of an object in a given plane (two

dimensional figure). Profiles are formed by projecting a

three dimensional figure onto a plane or by taking cross

section,through the figure. The elements of a profile are

straight lines, arcs, and other curved lines. If the

drawing specifies individual tolerances for the elements

or points of a profile, these elements or points must be

individually verified. Such a procedure may be

impracticable in certain cases, particularly where

accuracy of the entire profile, rather than elements of a

profile, is a design requirement. With profile tolerancing,

the true profile may be defined by basic radii, basic

angular dimension, basic coordinate dimensions, basic

size dimensions, undimensioned drawings, or formulas.

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 57

Tolerencing

• Where a profile

tolerance applies

all around the

profile of a part, the

symbol used to

designate "all

around" is placed

on the leader from

the feature control

frame.

Tolerencing

• If some segments of

the profile are

controlled by a profile

tolerance and other

segments by

individually toleranced

dimensions, the

extent of the profile

tolerance must be

indicated.

Geometric Dimensioning and 59

Tolerencing

PROFILE OF A SURFACE

The tolerance zone produced by a

surface is three dimensional.

It is extended along the length and

width or (circumference) of the

considered feature or feature of size.

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 61

Tolerencing

PROFILE OF A LINE

The tolerance zone produced by a

profile of a line is a two dimensional.

It is extending along the length of the

considered feature.

The tapered wing of an aircraft is an

example for this.

Tolerencing

PROFILE TOLERANCE

The tolerance value is represented by the

two equally or unequally boundaries

disposed about the true profile or entirely

disposed to the true profile.

It may be apply normal (perpendicular) to

the true profile.

The boundaries of the tolerance must follow

the geometric tolerance of the true profile.

Tolerencing

The actual surface or line element

must be within the specific tolerance

and all the variations from the true

profile must be blend.

Tolerencing

APPLICATIONS OF DATUMS

In every case, profile of a surface

tolerance requires reference to

datum's in order to provide proper

orientation, location or both of the

profile.

It may be used under some

circumstances but it would not be

used when the only requirement is the

profile shape taken cross section by

cross section.

Geometric Dimensioning and 65

Tolerencing

COMBINED CONTROLS

It may be controlled with other type of

geometric tolerance.

The fig shows a surface which has a profile

tolerance refined by a parallelism tolerance.

The surface must only be within the profile

tolerance but each straight line element of

the surface must also be parallel to the

datum within the tolerance.

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 67

Tolerencing

PROFILE OF A SURFACE OF

REVOLUTION

Figure 6- I 7 illustrates a surface that

has a profile tolerance refined by a

runout tolerance.

The entire surface must be within the

profile tolerance and the circular

elements must be within the specified

run out tolerance.

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 69

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 70

Tolerencing

PROFILE OF A LINE AND SIZE

CONTROL

The fig shows the profile of a line tolerance

where size is controlled by a separate

tolerance.

The line elements of the surface along the

profile must lie within the profile tolerance

zone and within a size limiting zone.

The profile tolerance zone may fall beyond

the boundary of the size limiting zone.

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 72

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 73

Tolerencing

The portion of the profile tolerance is

not usable because the line elements

of the surface must not violate the

size limiting zone.

Tolerencing

BOUNDARY PRINCIPLE USED WITH PROFILE

CONTROLS

Tolerencing

BOUNDARY PRINCIPLE USED WITH PROFILE

CONTROLS

Tolerencing

COMPOSITE PROFILE TOLERANCING OF A

FEATURE

Tolerencing

COMPOSITE PROFILE TOLERANCING OF A

FEATURE

Tolerencing

SPECIFYING PARALLELISM FOR AN AXIS

Tolerencing

SPECIFYING PARALLELISM FOR AN AXIS

Tolerencing

MULTIPLE PATTERNS OF FEATURES

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 82

Tolerencing

SINGLE PATTERN

located relative to common datum features

not subject to size tolerances or to common

datum feature of size specified on an RFS

basis , they are considered to be a single

pattern.

Single setup or gage required.

Tolerencing

MULTIPLE PATTERNS OF FEATURES,

SEPARATE REQUIREMENTS

Tolerencing

SEPARATE PATTERN

frame, the patterns are to be treated as a

single pattern.

Where it is desired to permit the patterns to

be treated as separate patterns a notation

such as SEP REQT is placed beneath each

control frame

Tolerencing

This allows the datum features of size to

establish a separate datum reference frame

for each pattern of features, as a group

These datum reference frames may shift

independently of each other, resulting in an

independently relationship between the

patterns

Tolerencing

SPECIFYING DIFFERENT PROFILE

TOLERANCES ON

SEGMENT OF A PROFILE

Tolerencing

• SPECIFYING PERPENDICULARITY FOR AN AXIS

SHOWING ACCEPTANCE

BOUNDARY

• FORMULAS FOR POSITIONAL TOLERANCING

a. Provision for Out-Of-Squareness when projected

tolerance zone is not used

b. Coaxial features

Tolerencing

Specifying Perpendicularity for an axis

showing acceptance boundary

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 90

Tolerencing

PROVISION FOR OUT -OF-SQUARENESS WHEN

PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS NOT USED

When the projected tolerance zone system is not used, it is

required to select a positional tolerance and clearance hole

combination that compensates for the allowable out - of -

squareness of the part that contains the fixed fastener. The

following formula is applicable:

H=F+T1+T2(I+2P/D)

where

T1 = positional tolerance diameter of clearance of hole

T2 = positional tolerance diameter of tapped or tight fitting

holes

D = the minimum depth of engagement of threaded or tight

fitting member

P = maximum projection of fastener

Tolerencing

EXAMPLE: Given that the fasteners have the maximum diameter

of 6.35 (F), the positional tolerance of the clearance hole is

0.2 (T1), the positional tolerance of the tapped hole is 0.4 (T

2), the maximum thickness of the plate with the clear-ance

hole is 12.0 (P), and the minimum thickness of the plate

with the tapped hole is 8.0 (D), find the required clearance

hole size (H).

H = F + T1 + T2 ( 1 + 2P/D)

= 6.35 + 0.2 + 0.4( 1 + (2*12/8) )

= 6.35 + 0.2 + 0.4 (1 + 3)

= 6.35 + 0.2 + 0.4 (4)

= 6.35 + 0.2 + 1.6

= 8.15

Tolerencing

COAXIAL FEATURES

The formula previously given for the floating fastener case also

applies to mating parts having two coaxial features where one of

these features is a datum for the other. See Fig. B-3. Where it is

desired to divide the available tolerance unequally between the

parts, the following formula is useful:

H1 + H2 = F1 + F2 + T1 + T2

T1 and T 2:

H1 + H2 = F1 + F2 + TI + T2

T1 + T2 = (H1 + H2) -(F1 + F2)

= (20 + 10) -(19.95 + 9.95)

= 0.1 total available tolerance

Geometric Dimensioning and 93

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 94

Tolerencing

Geometric Dimensioning and 95

Tolerencing

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