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59

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Vol. XXXIV No. 10 October 2016


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MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 7


 

This column is aimed at Class XI students so that they can prepare for competitive exams such as JEE Main/Advanced, etc. and
be also in command of what is being covered in their school as part of NCERT syllabus. The problems here are a happy blend
of the straight and the twisted, the simple and the difficult and the easy and the challenging.
*ALOK KUMAR, B.Tech, IIT Kanpur

DEFINITION Slope intercept form : y = mx + c


The straight line is a curve such that every point on the x y
line segment joining any two points on it lies on it. Intercept form : + = 1
a b
SLOPE (GRADIENT) OF A LINE Two p oi nt for m : E q u at i o n o f t h e l i n e
The slope of a line is generally denoted by m. Thus, through the points A (x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) is
m = tanθ y −y
  ( y − y1) = 2 1 (x − x1)
x2 − x1

 In the determinant form it is given as
 
     x y 1
  
x1 y1 1 = 0
 
Slope of line parallel to x-axis is m = tan0° = 0 x2 y2 1
Slope of line parallel to y-axis is m = tan90° = ∞ Nor ma l or Per pen- 
Slope of the line equally inclined with the axes is dicular form : xcosα +
1 or –1. ysinα = p, where p is the 
Slope of the line through the points A(x1, y1) and perpendicular distance of  
y −y the line from the origin  

B(x2, y2) is 2 1 (taken in the same order).  
x2 − x1 and α be the angle made

a by the perpendicular.
Slope of the line ax + by + c = 0, b ≠ 0 is − .
b
Slope of two parallel lines are equal. Symmetrical or Parametric or Distance form of
a line : 
If m1 and m2 be the slopes of two perpendicular
x − x1 y − y1  
lines, then m1m2 = –1. = =r,    
cos θ sin θ
EQUATION OF STRAIGHT LINE IN DIFFERENT
FORMS where r is the distance 
 
between the point 
Slope form : y = mx
Point slope form : y – y1 = m(x – x1) P(x, y) and A(x1, y1).


* Alok Kumar is a winner of INDIAN NATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD (INMO-91).


He trains IIT and Olympiad aspirants.
8 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16
Remarks Solving these equations, we get
t &RVBUJPOPGx-axis is 
⎛ b c −b c c a −c a ⎞
y = 0. (x ′, y ′) = ⎜ 1 2 2 1 , 1 2 2 1 ⎟
t &RVBUJPO PG B MJOF ⎝ a1b2 − a2b1 a1b2 − a2b1 ⎠
parallel to x-axis (or  ⎛ b1 b2 c1 c2 ⎞
perpendicular to 


⎜ c1 c2 a a2 ⎟
y-axis) at a distance of =⎜ , 1 ⎟
‘b’ from it is y = b.
 ⎜ a1 a2 a1 a2 ⎟
⎜ ⎟
t &RVBUJPOPG y-axis is  ⎝ b1 b2 b1 b2 ⎠
x = 0. GENERAL EQUATION OF LINES THROUGH THE
t &RVBUJPO PG B MJOF INTERSECTION OF TWO GIVEN LINES

parallel to y-axis (or If equation of two lines P : a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and
perpendicular to  
 Q : a2x + b2y + c2 = 0, then the equation of the line
x-axis) at a distance passing through the intersection of these lines is

of ‘a’ from it is x = a P + λQ = 0 or a1x + b1y + c1+ λ(a2x + b2y + c2) = 0.
EQUATION OF PARALLEL AND PERPENDICULAR ANGLE BETWEEN TWO NON-PARALLEL LINES
LINES TO A GIVEN LINE
When equations are in slope intercept form
Equation of a line which is parallel to ax + by + c = 0 Let θ be the angle between 
  
 
is ax + by + λ = 0 the lines y = m1x + c1 and
Equation of a line which is perpendicular to y = m2x + c 2    
 
ax + by + c = 0 is bx – ay + λ = 0
m1 − m2
θ = tan −1

where λ is an arbitrary constant. ∴  

1 + m1m2   
GENERAL EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE AND
When equations are in general form
ITS TRANSFORMATION IN STANDARD FORMS
The angle θ between the lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0
General equation of a line is ax + by + c = 0. It can be
and a 2x + b 2y + c 2 = 0 i s g ive n by
reduced in various standard forms given below.
a b −a b
a c a tan θ = 2 1 1 2 .
Slope intercept form: y = − x − , slope m = − a1a2 + b1b2
b b b
c C O N D I T I O N S F O R T WO L I N E S T O B E
and intercept on y-axis is, C = −
b COINCIDENT, PARALLEL, PERPENDICULAR
x y AND INTERSECTING
I nt e rc e pt for m : + = 1 , w h e re
−c / a −c / b Two lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and a2x + b2 y + c2 = 0
⎛ c⎞ ⎛ c⎞ are,
x- intercept is ⎜ − ⎟ and y-intercept is ⎜ − ⎟
⎝ a⎠ ⎝ b⎠ a b c
(a) Coincident, if 1 = 1 = 1
ax by c a2 b2 c2
Normal form : − − =
2 2 2 2
a +b a +b a + b2
2
(b) Parallel, if
a1 b1 c1
= ≠
a b a2 b2 c2
where cos α = − , sin α = − and
2
+ 2 2 2 a b
c a b a + b (c) Intersecting, if 1 ≠ 1
p= a2 b2
a + b2
2
(d) Perpendicular, if a1a2 + b1b2 = 0
POINT OF INTERSECTION OF TWO LINES EQUATION OF STRAIGHT LINES THROUGH A
Let a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 be two GIVEN POINT MAKING A GIVEN ANGLE WITH
non-parallel lines. If (x′, y′) be the co-ordinates of their A GIVEN LINE
point of intersection, then a1x′ + b1y′ + c1 = 0 and Let P(x 1, y 1) be a given point and y = mx + c be
a2x′ + b2y′ + c2 = 0 the given line. Let α be the angle made by that

10 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


line whose equation is to be  
(ii) If a 1 a 2 + b 1 b 2 < 0 , t he n t he bis e c tor
determine with the given line 
 corresponding to “+” and “–” sign given the
y = mx + c are   acute and obtuse angle bisectors respectively.
m ± tan α 
Remarks
y − y1 = (x − x1)   t #JTFDUPSTBSFQFSQFOEJDVMBSUPFBDIPUIFS
1 ∓ m tan α
t *Ga1a2 + b2b2 > 0, then the origin lies in obtuse
A LINE EQUALLY INCLINED WITH TWO LINES
angle and if a1a2 + b1b2 < 0, then the origin
Let the two lines with slopes m1 and m2 be equally lies in acute angle.
inclined to a line with slope m
LENGTH OF PERPENDICULAR
m −m ⎛ m −m ⎞
then 1 = −⎜ 2
⎝ 1 + m2m ⎟⎠
Distance of a point from a line : The length p of
1 + m1m
the perpendicular from the point (x1, y1) to the line
BISECTORS OF THE ANGLES BETWEEN TWO | ax1 + by1 + c |
STRAIGHT LINES ax + by + c = 0 is given by p = .
a 2 + b2
Bisectors of the angles between the lines
Distance between two parallel lines : Let
a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2 = 0
the two parallel lines be ax + by + c1 = 0 and
(i) Containing the origin
ax + by + c2 = 0 then the distance between the lines
a1x + b1 y + c1 a2 x + b2 y + c2
= λ
is d = , where
a12 + b12 a22 + b22
(a2 + b2 )
(ii) Not containing the origin (i) λ = |c1 – c2|, if they are on the same side of
a1x + b1 y + c1 − (a2 x + b2 y + c2 ) origin.
=
a12 + b12 a22 + b22 (ii) λ = |c1| + |c2|, if the origin O lies between
them.
To find the acute and obtuse angle bisectors
Let θ be the angle between one of the lines and POSITION OF A POINT WITH RESPECT TO A
one of the bisectors given by LINE
a1x + b1 y + c1 a x + b2 y + c2 Let the given line be ax + by + c = 0 and observing
=± 2 . point is (x1, y1), then
a12 + b12 a22 + b22
If the same sign is found by putting x = x1, y = y1
Find tanθ. If |tanθ| < 1, then this bisector is the and x = 0, y = 0 in equation of line, then the point
bisector of acute angle and the other one is the (x1, y1) is situated on the side of the origin.
bisector of the obtuse angle. If the opposite sign is found by putting x = x1,
If |tanθ| > 1, then this bisector is the bisector of y = y1 and x = 0, y = 0 in equation of line then the
obtuse angle and other one is the bisector of the point (x1, y1) is situated on the opposite side of the
acute angle. origin.
Method to find acute angle bisector and obtuse
CONCURRENT LINES
angle bisector
Three or more lines are said to be concurrent lines if
(i) If a 1 a 2 + b 1 b 2 > 0 , t he n t he bis e c tor
they meet at a point.
corresponding to “+” sign gives the obtuse
Three lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0, a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 and
angle bisector and the bisector corresponding
a3x + b3y + c3 = 0 are concurrent if,
to “–” sign is the bisector of acute angle
between the lines. a1 b1 c1
 a2 b2 c2 = 0
  a3 b3 c3

  

The condition for the lines P = 0, Q = 0 and R = 0
to be concurrent is that three constants a, b, c (not
 all zero at the same time) can be obtained such that

   
 aP + bQ + cR = 0

12 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


SOME IMPORTANT RESULTS equation of the line bisecting the line segments AB and
Area of the triangle formed by the lines y = m1x + c1, CD is
(a) 2a′y − 2bx = ab − a′b′
1 (c1 − c2 )2
y = m2x + c2 and y = m3x + c3, is ∑ . (b) 2ay − 2b′x = ab − a′b′
2 m1 − m2 (c) 2ay − 2b′x = a′b − ab′
Area of the triangle made by the line ax + by + c = 0 (d) none of these
c2 3. If the middle points of the sides BC, CA and AB of
with the co-ordinate axes is .
2 | ab | the triangle ABC be (1, 3), (5, 7) and (–5, 7) respectively,
Area of the rhombus formed by the lines then the equation of the side AB is
(a) x – y – 2 = 0 (b) x – y + 12 = 0
2c 2 (c) x + y – 12 = 0 (d) none of these
ax ± by ± c = 0 is .
ab
4. The equation of the line perpendicular to the line
Area of the parallelogram formed by the lines x y
a1x + b1y + c1 = 0; a2x + b2y + c2 = 0, a1x + b1y + d1 = 0 − = 1 and passing through the point at which it
a b
(d − c )(d − c ) cuts x-axis, is
and a2x + b2y + d2 = 0 is 1 1 2 2 .
a1b2 − a2b1 x y a x y b
(a) + + =0 (b) + =
a b b b a a
The foot of the perpendicular ( h, k) from
x y x y a
(x 1 , y 1 ) to the line ax + by + c = 0 is given (c) + =0 (d) + =
b a b a b
h − x1 k − y1 −(ax1 + by1 + c)
by = = . Hence,
5. The equation of the line bisecting the line segment
a b a 2 + b2
the coordinates of the foot of perpendicular is joining the points (a, b) and (a′, b′) at right angle, is
⎛ b2 x − aby − ac a2 y − abx − bc ⎞ (a) 2(a − a′)x + 2(b − b′) y = a2 + b2 − a′2 − b′2
1 1 1 1
⎜ 2 2
, 2 2 ⎟. (b) (a − a′)x + (b − b′) y = a2 + b2 − a′2 − b′2
⎝ a +b a +b ⎠
(c) 2(a − a′)x + 2(b − b′) y = a′2 + b′2 − a2 − b2
pp
Area of parallelogram A = 1 2 , where p1 and p2 (d) none of these
sin θ
are the distances between parallel sides and θ is the 6. The equation of the lines which passes through
angle between two adjacent sides. the point (3, –2) and are inclined at 60° to the line
The equation of a line whose mid-point is (x1, y1) 3x + y = 1 are
x y (a) y + 2 = 0, 3x − y − 2 − 3 3 = 0
in between the axes is + =2.
x1 y1 (b) x − 2 = 0, 3x − y + 2 + 3 3 = 0
(c) 3x − y − 2 − 3 3 = 0 (d) none of these
The equation of a straight line which makes a triangle
x y 7. Equation of the line passing through (–1, 1) and
with the axes of centroid (x1, y1) is + = 1. perpendicular to the line 2x + 3y + 4 = 0 is
3x1 3 y1
(a) 2(y – 1) = 3(x + 1) (b) 3(y – 1) = –2(x + 1)
PROBLEMS (c) y – 1 = 2(x + 1) (d) 3(y – 1) = x + 1
Single Correct Answer Type 8. The intercept cut off from y-axis is twice that from
x-axis by the line and line is passes through (1, 2), then
1. A line L is perpendicular to the line 5x – y = 1 its equation is
and the area of the triangle formed by the line L and (a) 2x + y = 4 (b) 2x + y + 4 = 0
coordinate axes is 5. The equation of the line L is (c) 2x – y = 4 (d) 2x – y + 4 = 0
(a) x + 5y = 5 (b) x + 5 y = ±5 2 9. The equation of line whose mid point is (x1, y1) in
(c) x – 5y = 5 (d) x − 5 y = 5 2 between the axes, is
x y x y 1
2. If the coordinates of the points A, B, C and D be (a) + =2 (b) + =
x1 y1 x1 y1 2
(a, b), (a′, b′), (–a, b) and (a′, –b′) respectively, then the

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 13


x y 18. Equation of a line passing through the point of
(c) + =1 (d) none of these intersection of lines 2x – 3y + 4 = 0 and 3x + 4y – 5 = 0
x1 y1
and perpendicular to 6x – 7y + 3 = 0, then its equation
10. The equation of line passing through the point of is
intersection of the lines 4x – 3y – 1 = 0 and 5x – 2y – 3 = 0 (a) 119x + 102y + 125 = 0
and parallel to the line 2y – 3x + 2 = 0, is (b) 119x + 102y = 125
(a) x – 3y = 1 (b) 3x – 2y = 1 (c) 119x – 102y = 125
(c) 2x – 3y = 1 (d) 2x – y = 1 (d) none of these
11. Equation of the hour hand at 4 O’ clock is 19. The equation of the line bisecting perpendicularly
(a) x − 3 y = 0 (b) 3x − y = 0 the segment joining the points (–4, 6) and (8, 8) is
(c) x + 3 y = 0 (d) 3x + y = 0 (a) 6x + y – 19 = 0 (b) y = 7
(c) 6x + 2y – 19 = 0 (d) x + 2y – 7 = 0
12. Equation of a straight line on which length of
perpendicular from the origin is four units and the line 20. The opposite angular points of a square are (3, 4)
makes an angle of 120° with the x-axis, is and (1, –1). Then the co-ordinates of other two points are

(a) x 3 + y + 8 = 0 (b) x 3 − y = 8 ⎛1 9⎞ ⎛ 1 5⎞
(a) D ⎜ ,
⎝2 ⎟ , B ⎜− , ⎟
2⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠
(c) −x 3 + y = 8 (d) x − 3 y + 8 = 0
(b) D ⎛⎜ , ⎟⎞ , B ⎜⎛ , ⎞⎟
1 9 1 5
13. The equations of two lines through (0, a) which are ⎝2 2⎠ ⎝2 2⎠
at distance ‘a’ units from the point (2a, 2a) are
⎛9 1⎞ ⎛ 1 5⎞
(a) y – a = 0 and 4x – 3y – 3a = 0 (c) D ⎜ , ⎟ , B ⎜ − , ⎟
(b) y – a = 0 and 3x – 4y + 3a = 0 ⎝2 2⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠
(c) y – a = 0 and 4x – 3y + 3a = 0 (d) none of these
(d) none of these 21. Two consecutive sides of a parallelogram are
14. A line is such that its segment between the straight 4x + 5y = 0 and 7x + 2y = 0. If the equation to one
lines 5x – y – 4 = 0 and 3x + 4y – 4 = 0 is bisected at the diagonal is 11x + 7y = 9, then the equation of the other
point (1, 5), then its equation is diagonal is
(a) 83x – 35y + 92 = 0 (a) x + 2y = 0 (b) 2x + y = 0
(b) 35x – 83y + 92 = 0 (c) x – y = 0 (d) none of these
(c) 35x + 35y + 92 = 0 22. The equation of the lines on which the
(d) none of these
perpendiculars from the origin make 30° angle with
15. The equations of the lines through the point of 50
intersection of the lines x – y + 1 = 0 and 2x – 3y + 5 = 0 x-axis and which form a triangle of area with axes,
3
and whose distance from the point (3, 2) is 7/5 is are
(a) 3x – 4y – 6 = 0 and 4x + 3y + 1 = 0 (a) x + 3 y ± 10 = 0 (b) 3x + y ± 10 = 0
(b) 3x – 4y + 6 = 0 and 4x – 3y – 1 = 0 (c) x ± 3 y − 10 = 0 (d) none of these
(c) 3x – 4y + 6 = 0 and 4x – 3y + 1 = 0
23. The base BC of a triangle ABC is bisected at the
(d) none of these
point (p, q) and the equations to the sides AB and AC
16. The number of lines that are parallel to are respectively px + qy = 1 and qx + py = 1. Then the
2x + 6y + 7 = 0 and have an intercept of length 10 equation of the median through A is
between the co-ordinate axes is (a) (2 pq − 1)( px + qy − 1) = ( p2 + q2 − 1)(qx + py − 1)
(a) 1 (b) 2
(b) (p2 + q2 – 1)(px + qy – 1) = (2p – 1)(qx + py – 1)
(c) 4 (d) infinitely many
(c) ( pq − 1)( px + qy − 1) = ( p2 + q2 − 1)(qx + py − 1)
17. The point P(a, b) lies on the straight line
3x + 2y = 13 and the point Q(b, a) lies on the straight line (d) none of these
4x – y = 5, then the equation of line PQ is 24. A straight line moves so that the sum of the
(a) x – y = 5 (b) x + y = 5 reciprocals of its intercepts on two perpendicular lines
(c) x + y = –5 (d) x – y = –5 is constant, then the line passes through

14 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


(a) a fixed point (b) a variable point 32. To which of the following types the straight lines
(c) origin (d) none of these represented by 2x + 3y – 7 = 0 and 2x + 3y – 5 = 0
25. If u ≡ a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and v ≡ a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 belong?
a b c (a) parallel to each other
and 1 = 1 = 1 , then the curve u + kv = 0 is (b) perpendicular to each other
a2 b2 c2
(c) inclined at 45° to each other
(a) the same straight line u (d) coincident pair of straight lines
(b) different straight line
(c) it is not a straight line 33. The line passes through (1, 0) and (−2, 3) makes
(d) none of these an angle of ...... with x-axis.
(a) 60° (b) 120° (c) 150° (d) 135°
26. If a + b + c = 0 and p ≠ 0, the lines ax + (b + c)y = p,
bx + (c + a)y = p and cx + (a + b)y = p 34. Angle between x = 2 and x – 3y = 6 is
(a) do not intersect (b) intersect (a) ∞ (b) tan–1(3)
(c) are concurrent (d) none of these –1
(c) tan (1/3) (d) none of these
27. The equation of the straight line passing through 35. A straight line through origin bisect the line
the point (4, 3) and making intercepts on the passing through the given points (acosα, asinα) and
co-ordinate axes whose sum is – 1, is (acosβ, asinβ), then the lines are
x y x y (a) perpendicular
(a) − = 1 and + =1
2 3 −2 1 (b) parallel
x y x y (c) angle between them is π/4
(b) − = −1 and + = −1
2 3 −2 1 (d) none of these
x y x y 36. In ΔABC, P is any point inside a triangle such that
(c) − = 1 and + = 1
2 3 2 1 area of ΔBPC, ΔAPC, ΔAPB are equal. Line AP cut BC
x y x y at M, area of ΔPMC is 5 sq. units, then area of ΔABC is
(d) + = −1 and + = −1 (a) 20 sq. units (b) 25 sq. units
2 3 −2 1
(c) 30 sq. units (d) 10 sq. units
28. The line which is parallel to x-axis and crosses the
Multiple Correct Answer Type
curve y = x at an angle of 45° is equal to
(a) x = 1/4 (b) y = 1/4 37. Let u ≡ ax + by + a 3 b = 0 , v ≡ bx − ay + b 3 a = 0,
(c) y = 1/2 (d) y = 1 a, b ∈ R be two straight lines. The equation of the
bisectors of the angle formed by L1 ≡ (tanθ1)u – (tanθ2)v = 0
29. The line parallel to the x-axis and passing through π
the intersection of the lines ax + 2by + 3b = 0 and and L2 ≡ (tanθ1)u + (tanθ2)v = 0 for θ1, θ2 ∈ ⎜⎛ 0, ⎟⎞ is
⎝ 2⎠
bx – 2ay – 3a = 0, where (a, b) ≠ (0, 0) is (a) u = 0
(a) above the x-axis at a distance of 3/2 from it (b) (tanθ2)u + (tanθ1)v = 0
(b) above the x-axis at a distance of 2/3 from it (c) (tanθ2)u – (tanθ1)v = 0
(c) below the x-axis at a distance of 3/2 from it (d) v = 0
(d) below the x-axis at a distance of 2/3 from it
38. Equations ofbisectors of angles between
30. The equation to the line bisecting the join of (3, –4) x −3 y +5 x −3 y +5
and (5, 2) and having its intercepts on the x-axis and the intersecting lines = , = are
cos θ sin θ cos φ sin φ
y-axis in the ratio 2 : 1 is
x −3 y +5 x −3 y +5
(a) x + y – 3 = 0 (b) 2x – y = 9 = and = then
(c) x + 2y = 2 (d) 2x + y = 7 cos α sin α β γ

31. The line lx + my + n = 0 will be parallel to x-axis, θ+φ


(a) α = (b) β2 + γ2 = 1
if 2
(a) l = m = 0 (b) m = n = 0 −β β
(c) tan α = (d) tan α =
(c) l = n = 0 (d) l = 0 γ γ

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 15


39. If (3, 2), (–4, 1) and (–5, 8) are vertices of triangle α α
then (a) (a − b)sin , (a − b)cos
2 2
(a) orthocentre is (4, 1) α α
(b) orthocentre is (–4, 1) (b) (a + b)sin , (a + b)cos
2 2
(c) circumcentre is (–1, 5)
(c) (a – b)sinα, (a – b)cosα
(d) circumcentre is (3, 2)
(d) (a + b)sinα, (a + b)cosα
40. The point A divides the join of P (–5, 1) and
Q (3, 5) in the ratio k : 1. The values of k for which Matrix-Match Type
the area of ΔABC where B (1, 5), C (7, –2) is equal to
46. Match the following.
2 sq. units are
30 31 Column-I Column-II
(a) 7 (b) 4 (c) (d)
4 9 (A) The area bounded by the curve (p) 0
41. If the straight line 3x + 4y = 24 intersect the axes at max {|x|, |y|} = 1/2 (in sq. units)
A and B and the straight line 4x + 3y = 24 intersect the is
axes at C and D then points A, B, C, D lie on #
If the point (a, a) lies between (q) 1
(a) the circle (b) the parabola the lines |x + y| = 6, then [|a|]
(c) an ellipse (d) the hyperbola (where [⋅] denotes the greatest
42. If 6a2 – 3b2 – c2 + 7ab – ac + 4bc = 0 then the family integer function) is
of lines ax + by + c = 0, |a| + |b| ≠ 0 is concurrent at (C) Number of non-zero integral (r) 2
(a) (–2, –3) (b) (3, –1) values of b for which the origin
(c) (2, 3) (d) (–3, 1) and the point (1, 1) lies on
the same side of the straight
Comprehension Type
line a2 x + aby + 1 = 0 for all
Paragraph for Q. No. 43 to 45 a ∈ R ~ {0} is
ABCD is a parallelogram whose side lengths are a and
(s) –2
b (a ≠ b). The angular bisectors of interior angles are
drawn to intersect one another to form quadrilateral. Integer Answer Type
Let ‘α’ be one angle of parallelogram.
47. A point P(x, y) moves in such a way that
43. The area of the quadrilateral formed by the
angular bisectors is [x + y + 1] = [x] (where [⋅] denotes greatest integer
function) and x ∈ (0, 2). Then the area representing all
1 α 1
(a − b)2 sin α
(a) (a − b)2 sin (b) the possible positions of P equals
2 2 2
1 α 1 48. Given a point (2, 1). If the minimum perimeter of a
(c) (a − b)2 cos (d) (a − b)2 cos α triangle with one vertex at (2, 1), one on the x-axis, and
2 2 2
one on the line y = x, is k, then [k] is equal to (where [⋅]
44. If S is the area of the given parallelogram and Q
denotes the greatest integer function)
is the area of the quadrilateral formed by the angular
bisectors then ratio of the larger side to smaller side of 49. ABCD and PQRS are two variable rectangles, such
the parallelogram is that A, B, C and D lie on PQ, QR, RS and SP respectively
(S + Q) S + Q + 2QS and perimeter ‘x’ of ABCD is constant. If the maximum
(a) (b)
S S area of PQRS is 32, then x/4 =

S + Q + Q 2 + 2QS 2 50. The area of the triangular region in the first


(c) (d) S + Q + Q − 2QS quadrant, bounded above by the line 7x + 4y = 168 and
S S
7
45. The sides of the quadrilateral formed by the angular bounded below by the line 5x + 3y = 121 is , then the
bisectors where (a > b) K
sum of digits of K is

16 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


SOLUTIONS m − (− 3)
So, tan 60o = ±
1. (b) : A line perpendicular to the line 5x – y = 1 is 1 + m (− 3)
given by x + 5y – λ = 0 = L, (given)
On solving, we get m = 0 or 3
x y
In intercept form : + =1 Putting the values of m in (i), the required equation of
λ λ/5 lines are y + 2 = 0 and 3x − y = 2 + 3 3 .
1 ⎛λ⎞ 7. (a) : The gradient of line 2x + 3y + 4 = 0 is –2/3.
So, area of triangle = (λ) × ⎜ ⎟ = 5 ⇒ λ = ±5 2
2 ⎝5⎠ Now the equation of line passing through (–1, 1) and
Hence, the equation of required straight lines is 1 3
having slope m = − = is 2(y – 1) = 3(x + 1).
x + 5 y = ±5 2 −2 / 3 2
2. (b) : Mid point of 8. (a) : Let the intercepts be a and 2a, then the equation
(, ) (, ) x y
⎛ a + a ′ b + b′ ⎞  of line is + = 1 , but it also passes through (1, 2),
AB ≡ E ⎜ , ⎟ a 2a
⎝ 2 2 ⎠ therefore a = 2.
and mid point of
Hence the required equation is 2x + y = 4.
⎛ a ′ − a b − b′ ⎞ . (, –) (–, )
CD ≡ F ⎜ , ⎟ 9. (a) : Intersection point on x-axis is (2x1, 0) and on
⎝ 2 2 ⎠ y-axis is (0, 2y1). Thus equation of line passes through
Hence equation of line EF is x y
these points is + =2
⎛ b + b′ ⎞ b − b′ − b − b′ ⎛ a + a′ ⎞ x1 y1
y−⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ x− ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠ a′ − a − a − a′ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 10. (b) : The point of intersection of the lines
On simplification, we get 2ay – 2b′x = ab – a′b′ 4x – 3y – 1 = 0 and 5x – 2y – 3 = 0 is (1, 1). The
7−3  equation of line parallel to 2y – 3x + 2 = 0 is
3. (b) : Slope of DE = =1
5 −1 2y – 3x + k = 0. It also passes through (1, 1), therefore
⇒ Slope of AB = 1 (–5, 7)  k = 1. Hence the required equation is 2y – 3x + 1 = 0
(5, 7)
Hence equation of AB is or 3x – 2y = 1
y – 7 = (x + 5) 11. (c) : Since the hour, minute 

⇒ x – y + 12 = 0    and second hands always pass
(1, 3) 
4. (d) : The given line is bx – ay = ab ...(i) through origin because one
end of these hands is always at    
Obviously it cuts x-axis at (a, 0). The equation of line
perpendicular to (i) is ax + by = k, but it passes through origin. Now at 4 O’ clock, the 
(a, 0) ⇒ k = a2. hour hand makes 30° angle in
Hence required equation of line is ax + by = a2 fourth quadrant.
x y a So the equation of hour hand is
i.e. + = 1
b a b y = mx ⇒ y = − x ⇒ x + 3y = 0
3
−1 a′ − a
5. (a) : Slope (m) = = . 12. (a) : Slope = − 3
b′ − b b − b′
a′ − a ∴ Equation of line is y = − 3x + c ⇒ 3x + y = c
⎛ a + a ′ b + b′ ⎞ c
Mid point of the given points is ⎜ , ⎟ Now = | 4 | ⇒ c = ± 8 ⇒ x 3 + y = ± 8
⎝ 2 2 ⎠ 2
Therefore required equation of line is
13. (c) : Equation of any line through (0, a) is
⎛ b + b′ ⎞ a ′ − a ⎛ a + a′ ⎞
y−⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ x− ⎟
y – a = m(x – 0) or mx – y + a = 0 ... (i)
⎝ 2 ⎠ b − b′ ⎝ 2 ⎠ If the length of perpendicular from (2a, 2a) to the line
⇒ 2(b – b′)y + 2(a – a′)x – b2 + b′ 2 – a2 + a′2 = 0 m(2a) − 2a + a 4
(i) is ‘a’, then a = ± ⇒ m = 0, .
6. (a) : The equation of any straight line passing through m2 + 1 3
(3, –2) is y + 2 = m(x – 3) …(i) Hence the required equation of lines are
The slope of the given line is − 3. y – a = 0, 4x – 3y + 3a = 0

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 17


14. (a) : Any line through the middle point M(1, 5) of Now, equation of PQ is
the intercept AB may be taken as 3−2
y −2= (x − 3)
x −1 y − 5 2−3
= =r ...(i)
cos θ sin θ ⇒ y – 2 = –(x – 3) ⇒ x + y = 5
where ‘r’ is the distance of any point (x, y) on the line 18. (b) : The point of intersection of lines 2x – 3y + 4 = 0
(i) from the point M(1, 5). ⎛ −2 22 ⎞
and 3x + 4y – 5 = 0 is ⎜ , ⎟
Since the points A and B are equidistant from M and ⎝ 34 17 ⎠
on the opposite sides of it, therefore if the co-ordinates −7
The slope of required line =
of A are obtained by putting r = d in (i), then the 6
co-ordinates of B are given by putting r = –d. ∴ Equation of required line is
Now the point A(1 + dcosθ, 5 + dsinθ) lies on the line 22 −7 ⎛ 2⎞
5x – y – 4 = 0 and point B(1 – dcosθ, 5 – dsinθ) lies y− = ⎜⎝ x + ⎟⎠ ⇒ 119x + 102y = 125
17 6 34
on the line 3x + 4y – 4 = 0.
19. (a) : Equation of the line passing through (–4, 6)
Therefore, 5(1 + dcosθ) – (5 + dsinθ) – 4 = 0
and (8, 8) is
and 3(1 – dcosθ) + 4(5 – dsinθ) – 4 = 0
⎛8−6⎞ 2
cos θ sin θ y −6= ⎜ ⎟ (x + 4) ⇒ y − 6 = (x + 4)
Eliminating ‘d’, we get = . ⎝8+ 4⎠ 12
35 83
Hence the required equation of line is ⇒ 6y – 36 = x + 4 ⇒ 6y – x – 40 = 0 ... (i)
Now equation of any line perpendicular to (i) is
x −1 y − 5
= or 83x – 35y + 92 = 0 6x + y + λ = 0 ... (ii)
35 83 This line passes through the mid point of (–4, 6) and
15. (c) : Point of intersection is (2, 3). Therefore, the (8, 8) i.e., (2, 7)
equation of line passing through (2, 3) is ∴ 6×2+7+λ=0
y – 3 = m(x – 2) or mx – y – (2m – 3) = 0 ...(i) ⇒ 19 + λ = 0 ⇒ λ = –19
According to the condition, From (ii), the required equation of line is
3m − 2 − (2m − 3) 7 3 4 6x + y – 19 = 0
=± ⇒m= ,
1+ m 2 5 4 3 20. (c) : Obviously, slope of AC = 5/2.
Let m be the slope of a line  (1, –1)
Hence the equations are 45°
3x – 4y + 6 = 0 and 4x – 3y + 1 = 0. inclined at an angle of 45°
45°
to AC, then
16. (b) : T h e e q u at i on of a ny l i n e p a r a l l e l t o 5
2x + 6y + 7 = 0 is 2x + 6y + k = 0. m− 7 3
45°
2 45°
⎛ k ⎞ ⎛ k⎞ tan 45° = ± ⇒ m=− ,
This meets the axes at A ⎜ − , 0 ⎟ and B ⎜ 0, − ⎟ . 5 3 7 (3, 4) 
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 1+ m
6⎠ 2
#ZIZQPUIFTJT AB = 10 Let the slope of AB or DC be 3/7and that of AD or BC
be –7/3. Then equation of AB is 3x – 7y + 19 = 0.
k2 k2 10k 2
⇒ + = 10 ⇒ = 10 Also the equation of BC is 7x + 3y – 4 = 0.
4 36 36
On solving these equations, we get B ≡ ⎜⎛ − , ⎟⎞ .
1 5
⇒ 10k 2 = 3600 ⇒ k = ±6 10 ⎝ 2 2⎠
Hence there are two lines given by Now let the coordinates of the vertex D be (h, k). Since
the middle points of AC and BD are same, therefore
2x + 6 y ± 6 10 = 0
1⎛ 1⎞ 1 9
17. (b) : Point P(a, b) is on 3x + 2y = 13 ⎜⎝ h − ⎟⎠ = (3 + 1) ⇒ h =
2 2 2 2
⇒ 3a + 2b = 13 ...(i)
1⎛ 5⎞ 1 1
Point Q(b, a) is on 4x – y = 5 And, ⎜⎝ k + ⎟⎠ = (4 − 1) ⇒ k =
⇒ 4b – a = 5 ...(ii) 2 2 2 2
#ZTPMWJOH J
BOE JJ
XFHFU a = 3, b = 2 ⎛9 1⎞
Hence, D ≡ ⎜ , ⎟ .
P(a, b) ≡ (3, 2) and Q(b, a) ≡ (2, 3) ⎝2 2⎠

18 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


21. (c) : Since equation of   25. (a) : u ≡ a1x + b1y + c1 = 0, v ≡ a2x + b2y + c2 = 0
diagonal 11x + 7y = 9 does

    a b c


and 1 = 1 = 1 = c (say)


not pass through origin, so a2 b2 c2


 
it cannot be the equation a b c
of the diagonal OB. Thus ⇒ a2 = 1 , b2 = 1 , c2 = 1
 c c c
on solving the equation AC     
Given that u + kv = 0
with the equations OA and
⇒ a1x + b1y + c1 + k(a2x + b2y + c2) = 0
OC, we get
a b c
⎛5 4⎞ ⎛ −2 7 ⎞ ⇒ a1x + b1 y + c1 + k 1 x + k 1 y + k 1 = 0
A ⎜ , − ⎟ and C ⎜ , ⎟ c c c
⎝3 3⎠ ⎝ 3 3⎠
⎛1 1⎞ ⎛ k⎞ ⎛ k⎞ ⎛ k⎞
Therefore, the middle point M is ⎜ , ⎟ ⇒ a1x ⎜1 + ⎟ + b1 y ⎜1 + ⎟ + c1 ⎜1 + ⎟ = 0
⎝2 2⎠ ⎝ c⎠ ⎝ c⎠ ⎝ c⎠
Hence the equation of OB is y = x i.e., x – y = 0. ⇒ a 1x + b 1y + c 1 = 0
22. (b) : Let p be the length of the perpendicular ⇒ u=0
from the origin on the required line. Then its 26. (a) : #ZUIFIFMQPGHJWFODPOEJUJPOPGa + b + c = 0,
equation in normal form is xcos30° + ysin30° = p or p p p
the three lines reduce to x − y = or or ( p ≠ 0) .
3x + y = 2 p a b c
⎛ 2p ⎞ All these lines are parallel. Hence they do not intersect
This meets the coordinate axes at A ⎜
⎝ 3 ⎟⎠
, 0 and
in finite plane.
B(0, 2p) 27. (a) : Here a + b = –1.
1 ⎛ 2p ⎞ 2 p2 x y
∴ Area of ΔOAB = ⎜ ⎟ 2 p = Required line is − =1 ....(i)
2⎝ 3⎠ 3 a 1+ a
Since line (i) passes through (4, 3)
2 p2 50
#ZIZQPUIFTJT  =⇒ p = ±5 4 3
3 3 ∴ − = 1 ⇒ 4 + 4a − 3a = a + a2
a 1+ a
∴ The required equation of line is 3x + y = ±10
⇒ a2 = 4 ⇒ a = ± 2
23. (a) : The median passes through A, i.e., the x y x y
intersection of the given lines. Its equation is given by ∴ Required lines are − = 1 and + =1
2 3 −2 1
(px + qy – 1) + λ(qx + py – 1) = 0, where λ is some
real number. Also, since the median passes through the 28. (c) : Let the equation of line parallel to x-axis be
point (p, q), we have (p2 + q2 – 1) + λ(qp + pq – 1) = 0. y=λ ....(i)
p2 + q 2 − 1 Solving (i) with the cuve y = x ....(ii)
⇒ λ=− and the equation of median We get P(λ2, λ) which is the point of intersection at P
2 pq − 1
p2 + q 2 − 1 ⎛ dy ⎞ 1
through A is ( px + qy − 1) − (qx + py − 1) = 0 ∴ Slope of (ii) is m = ⎜ ⎟ =
2 pq − 1 ⎝ dx ⎠ at P 2λ
⇒ (2 pq − 1)( px + qy − 1) = ( p2 + q2 − 1)(qx + py − 1) ∵ (i) and (ii) intersect at 45°
⎛ m−0 ⎞
24. (a) : Take two perpendicular lines as the coordinate ∴ tan −1 ⎜ = ±45°
axes. If a, b be the intercepts made by the moving line ⎝ 1 + m ⋅ 0 ⎟⎠
on the coordinate axes, then the equation of the line is ⎛ 1 ⎞ 1
⇒ m = ⎜ ⎟ = ±1 ⇒ λ = ±
x y ⎝ 2λ ⎠ 2
+ =1 ....(i)
a b 1 −1
1 1 1 ∴ The equation of line is y = or y =
According to the question, + = (say) 2 2
k k a b k
i.e., + = 1 ....(ii) 29. (c) : The lines passing through the intersection of
a b the lines ax + 2by + 3b = 0 and bx – 2ay – 3a = 0 is
The result (ii) shows that the straight line (i) passes ax + 2by + 3b + λ(bx − 2ay − 3a) = 0
through a fixed point (k, k). ⇒ (a + bλ)x + (2b − 2aλ) y + 3b − 3λa = 0 ...(i)

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 19


Line (i) is parallel to x-axis, Slope of line AB is
−a a sin β − a sin α sin β − sin α
∴ a + bλ = 0 ⇒ λ = = = m1
b a cos β − a cos α cos β − cos α
Put the value of λ in (i), we get sin α + sin β
And slope of line OP is = m2
⎛ 2a2 ⎞ 3a2 cos α + cos β
y ⎜ 2b + ⎟ + 3b + =0
⎝ b ⎠ b sin2 β − sin2 α
Now, m1 × m2 = = −1
cos2 β − cos2 α
⎛ 2b + 2a
2 2⎞ ⎛ 3b + 3a 2 2⎞
⇒ y⎜ ⎟ = −⎜ ⎟ Hence the lines are perpendicular.
⎝ b ⎠ ⎝ b ⎠ 36. (c) : P is centroid of ΔABC
−3 ∴ Area of ΔABC = 6 × 5 = 30 sq. units
⇒ y=
2 37. (a, d) : Note that lines u = 0, v = 0 are perpendicular.
So, it is 3/2 units below x-axis. Make the co-ordinate axes coincide with u = 0, v = 0.
30. (c) : Given equation of line having its intercepts on Now the lines L1 ≡ 0, L2 ≡ 0 are equally inclined with
the x-axis and y-axis in the ratio 2 : 1 i.e., 2a and a uv axes.
x y ∴ u = 0, v = 0 are bisectors.
∴ + = 1 ⇒ x + 2 y = 2a ....(i)
2a a 38. (a, b, c) : Inclinations of two lines are θ and φ
According to question, θ+φ
∴ Inclination of angle bisector is
Line (i) also passes through midpoint of (3, –4) and 2
(5, 2) i.e., (4, –1). θ+φ γ −β
⇒ α= and tan α × = −1 ⇒ tan α =
∴ 4 + 2(–1) = 2a ⇒ a = 1 2 β γ
Hence the required equation of line is, x + 2y = 2 ∴ β = –sinα, γ = cosα ⇒ β + γ = 12 2

31. (d) : Parallel to x-axis ⇒ l must be zero. 39. (b, c) : (3, 2), (–4, 1), (–5, 8) form a right angled
32. (a) : Let L1 ≡ 2x + 3y – 7 = 0 and triangle at (–4, 1).
L2 ≡ 2x + 3y – 5 = 0 Orthocentre is (–4, 1), circumcentre is mid point of
Here slope of L1 = slope of L2 = –2/3 (3, 2) and (–5, 8) is (–1, 5)
Hence the lines are parallel. 40. (a, d) : Dividing point of P(–5, 1), Q(3, 5) in the
33. (c) : Gradient of the line which passes through ratio k : 1 is
(1, 0) and (−2, 3) is ⎛ 3k − 5 5k + 1 ⎞ , B (1, 5), C (7, –2)
⎝ k + 1 k + 1 ⎟⎠
A⎜ ,
3 −0 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞
m= =− ⇒ θ = tan −1 ⎜ − ⎟ = 150° Area of triangle ABC = 2
−2 − 1 3 ⎝ 3⎠ 31
On solving, k = 7,
⎛1⎞ 9
34. (b) : θ = 90° − tan −1 ⎜ ⎟
⎝3⎠ 41. (a, b, c, d) : Equation of the curve passing through
all four points A, B, C, D can be written as
⎡ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤
⇒ tan θ = cot ⎢ tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ = 3 ⇒ θ = tan–1(3) (3x + 4y – 24)(4x + 3y – 24) + λxy = 0
⎣ ⎝ 3 ⎠⎦ Now for different values of λ we will get different curves.
35. (a) : Mid point of (acosα, asinα) and (acosβ, asinβ) 42. (a, b) : (2a + 3b – c)(3a – b + c) = 0
⎛ a(cos α + cos β) a(sin α + sin β) ⎞ ⇒ –2a – 3b + c = 0 or 3a – b + c = 0
is ⎜ , ⎟⎠
⎝ 2 2 43. (b) : The quadrilateral formed by angular bisectors
 is a rectangle whose sides are
  α α
|(a − b)|sin , |(a − b)| cos
 2 2
S = absinα
 
1

 Q = (a − b)2 sin α
2

20 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 21
47. (2) : If x ∈ (0, 1)
S 2ab a S + Q ± Q 2 + 2QS Then –1 ≤ x + y < 0 2
44. (c) : = ⇒ =
Q (a − b)2 b S And if x ∈ [1, 2) 1
α 0≤x+y<1 1 2 3
45. (a) : N o t e t h a t s i d e s a r e (a − b)sin and
2 Required area –1 
α –1
(a − b)cos ⎛1 π⎞
2 = 4 ⎜ ⋅1 ⋅ 2 sin ⎟ +=1
⎝2 4⎠ +=0
46. A → q ; B → p, q, r ; C → r  +  = –1
= 2 sq. units
(A) ∵ max {| x |,| y |} = 1 / 2
48. (3) : Let, D = (2, –1) be  

⎧| x |= 1 / 2, if | y | < 1 / 2  = 1/2 the reflection of A in x-axis,
⎨ and let E = (1, 2) be the
⎩| y |= 1 / 2, if | x | < 1 / 2  
reflection in the line y = x.
Required area = 1 × 1   Then AB = BD and AC = CE,
 = –1/2 
= 1 sq. unit  = 1/2
so the perimeter of ABC is
(B) The line y = x cuts DB + BC + CE ≥ DE = 10
 = –1/2
the lines |x + y| = 6 
49. (4) : 2(a + b) = x (a constant)
i.e, x + y = ± 6

At x = ± 3, ⇒ (x, y) ≡ (–3, –3) and (3, 3)  
then –3 < a < 3 
∴ 0 ≤ |a| < 3  
⇒ [|a|] = 0, 1, 2

(C) Since (0, 0) and (1, 1) lie on the same side. 

So, a2 + ab + 1 > 0  
∵ Coefficient of a2 > 0 ∴ D < 0
Area of PQRS = (bsinθ + acosθ)(asinθ + bcosθ)
b2 – 4 < 0 or – 2 < b < 2
⇒ b = –1, 0, 1 a 2 + b2 (a + b)2 x 2 x2
= ab + sin 2θ ≤ = ∴ = 32 ⇒ x = 16
∴ Number of non-zero integral values of b are 2. 2 2 8 8
50. (1)
(b = –1 and b = 1) ””

   


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22 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


PERMUTATIONS & COMBINATIONS
This article is a collection of shortcut methods, important formulas and MCQs along with their detailed solutions which provides
an extra edge to the readers who are preparing for various competitive exams like JEE(Main & Advanced) and other PETs.

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF COUNTING n!


by nPr , where nPr is defined as .
Multiplication Principle (n − r )!
If an operation A can be performed in ‘m’ different The number of permutations of n different things
ways and a second operation B can be performed in taken all at a time (repetition not allowed) = n!.
‘n’ different ways and C is a work which is done only
The number of permutations of n different things,
when both A and B are done, then the number of ways
taken r at a time when each thing may be repeated
of doing the work C is m × n. This can be extended to
any number of times is nr.
any finite number of operations.
If there are n jobs J1, J2, ..., Jn such that job Ji can be Total number of arrangements of the n objects
performed independently in mi ways ; i = 1, 2, ...., n and taken all at a time when each thing may be repeated
there is work C which is done only when all the works any number of times is nn.
(J1, J2, ..., Jn) are done. Then the number of ways of doing The number of permutations of n things taken all
the work C is m1 × m2 × m3 ×........× mn. at a time where p are alike of one kind, q are alike
Addition Principle of second kind, r are alike of third kind and rest all
If an operation A can be performed in ‘m’ different ways n!
are different is .
and another operation B, which is independent of the p !q !r !
first operation, can be performed in ‘n’ ways and C is COMBINATIONS
a work which is done only when either A or B is done, Each of the different groups or selections which can
then the number of ways of doing the work C is (m + n),
be made by taking some or all of a number of distinct
this can be extended to any infinite number of mutually
objects or items, irrespective of their arrangements or
exclusive operations.
order in which they are placed, is called a combination.
PERMUTATIONS Combination means selection only and permutation
Each of the different arrangements which can be made means selection + arrangement.
by taking some or all of a number of distinct objects at Theorem : The number of combinations of n different
a time is called a permutation. Permutation of things things, taken r at a time (repetition not allowed) is
means arrangement of things. The word arrangement is
n!
used if order of things is taken into account. Thus if order denoted by nCr where nCr = , 0 ≤ r ≤ n.
of different things changes, then their arrangement also r !(n − r )!
changes. CONDITIONAL COMBINATION
Theorems Number of ways of choosing r things out of n given
The number of permutations of n different things, things if p particular things must be excluded is
(n – p)C .
taken r at a time (repetition not allowed) is denoted r

Sanjay Singh Mathematics Classes, Chandigarh, Ph : 9888228231, 9216338231

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 23


Number of ways of choosing r things out of n things be m, then the required number of ways
given things if p particular things must be included = 2 × m! × m!.
(p ≤ r) is n – pCr – p. Selection of One or More Objects
CONDITIONAL PERMUTATIONS Selection from Different Objects
The number of all permutations (arrangements) of (a) The number of ways of selecting any number
n different objects taken r at a time, of objects out of n different objects = 2n
(a) When a particular object is to be always (b) The number of ways of selecting atleast one
included in each arrangement is n–1Pr–1 ⋅ r object out of n different objects
(b) When a particular object is never taken in = nC1 + nC2 + nC3 + ... + nCn = 2n – 1
each arrangement is n–1Pr Selection from Identical Objects
When all of a certain given things are not to occur (a) The number of ways of selecting r objects out
together : of n identical objects is 1.
In order to find the number of permutations (b) The number of ways of selecting any number
when all of a certain given things are not to occur (zero or more) of objects out of n identical
together, find objects is n + 1.
(a) the total number of arrangements when there (c) The total number of selections of some or all
is no restriction. Let this number be x. out of x + y + z items where x are alike of one
(b) number of arrangements when all of the kind, y are alike of second kind and z are alike
things (which are not to occur together) are of third kind is (x + 1) (y + 1) (z + 1).
together. Let this number by y. (d) The total number of selections of atleast one
(c) Required number = x – y. out of x + y + z items where x are alike of one
When no two of a certain given things occur kind, y are alike of second kind and z are alike
together : of third kind is [(x + 1) (y + 1) (z + 1)] – 1.
In order to find the number of permutations when Selection from Identical and Distinct Objects
no two of a certain given things occur together. (a) If we have x alike objects of one kind, y alike
(a) First of all put the m things on which there is objects of second kind, z alike objects of third
no restriction in a line. These m things can be kind and k different objects, then the number
arranged in m! ways. of ways of selecting any number of objects
(b) Then count the number of places between = (x + 1) (y + 1) (z + 1).2k
every two of m things on which there is no (b) If we have x alike objects of one kind, y alike
restriction including end positions. Number objects of second kind, z alike objects of
of such places will be (m + 1). third kind and k different objects, then the
(c) If m is the number of things on which there is number of ways of selecting atleast one object
no restriction and n is the number of things = {(x + 1) (y + 1) (z + 1).2k} –1
no two of which are to occur together, then DIVISION AND DISTRIBUTION OF DISTINCT
required number of ways = m + 1Pn × m!. OBJECTS
If two type of things are to be arranged alternately, The number of ways of dividing n distinct objects in
then r groups of different sizes containing a1, a2, a3, ..., ar
(a) if there numbers differ by 1 put the thing objects respectively, where n = a1 + a2 + a3 + ... + ar
whose number is greater at first, third, fifth ... and a1, a2, a3, ..., ar are all different numbers
places etc. and other things at second, fourth, n!
sixth .... places. Let the number of numbers be =n Ca n−a1 Ca n−a1 −a2 Ca ...ar Ca =
1 2 3 r a1 ! a2 ! a3 ! ar !
m + 1 and m then the required number of ways
= (m + 1)! × m!. The number of ways of distributing n distinct objects
(b) If the number of two types of things is same, among r people such that one of them gets a1 objects,
consider two cases separately keeping first some one gets a2, some one gets a3, ... and some one
type of things at first place, third, fifth place... gets ar where a1 + a2 + ... + ar = n and a1, a2, a3, ..., ar
etc. and second type of things at first, third, n!
fifth place ... and then add. Let the number of are different numbers = .r !
a1 ! a2 ! a3 ! ar !

24 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


The number of ways in which m + n things can This equation may be interpreted as that n identical
be divided into two groups containing m and n objects are to be divided into r groups where a group
(m + n)! may contain any number of objects. Therefore,
things respectively = . Total number of solutions of equation (1)
m! n!
If n = m, the groups are equal, and in this case the = Coefficient of xn in (x0 + x1 + ... + xn)r
= n + r – 1Cr or n + r – 1Cn – 1.
2m !
number of different ways of subdivision = Total number of solution of the equation (1) when
m!m!2 ! x1, x2, x3 ..., xr are natural number
If 2m things are to be divided equally between two = Coefficient of xn in (x1 + x2 + x3 +.... + xn)r
2m ! = n – 1Cr – 1
persons, then the number of divisions = .
m!m! Consider the equation
The number of divisions of m + n + p things x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 + ... + qxr = n
into groups of m, n and p things respectively where x1, x2, x3 ....., xr and n are non-negative
(m + n + p)! integers then total number of solution of the above
=
m !n ! p ! equation is = Coefficient of xn in (1 + x + x2 + ... )
(1 + x2 + x4 + ... ) (1 + x3 + x6 + ... ) ... (1 + xq + x2q
If 3m things are divided into three equal groups, + ...)
(3m)! If zero is excluded, then the number of solutions
then the number of divisions = .
m!m!m!3! of the above equation = Coefficient of xn in
If 3m things are to be divided among three persons, (x + x2 + x3 + ... ) (x2 + x4 + x6 + ... ) (x3 + x6 + x9 +
(3m)! ... ) ... (xq + x2q + ... )
then the number of divisions = . Note :
m!m!m!
(i) The coefficient of xr in (1 – x)–n is n + r – 1Cr.
COMBINATION WITH REPETITION (ii) The coefficient of xr in (1 + x)–n is (–1)r n + r – 1Cr.
If there are a1 objects of Ist kind, a2 objects of 2nd CIRCULAR PERMUTATIONS
kind, a3 objects of 3rd kind, ..., an objects of nth kind If clockwise and anticlockwise orders are taken as
and we want to choose r objects out of these under different, number of circular arrangements of n
the condition that at least one object of every kind different things taken all at a time = (n – 1)!
should be chosen. If clockwise and anticlockwise orders are not taken
Number of ways = Coefficient of xr in as different, number of circular arrangements of n
(x + x 2 + ... + x a1 )(x + x 2 + ... + x a2 )...(x + x 2 + ... + x an ) 1
different things taken all at a time = (n − 1)!
Number of ways in which r identical things can be 2
distributed among n persons when each person If a circular arrangement can be flipped or turned
can get zero or more things upside down, number of circular arrangements
= Coeff. of xr in (1 + x + x2 + ... + xr)n (n − 1)!
of n different things taken all at a time = ,
r +1 ⎞
n 2
⎛ otherwise it is (n – 1)!
= Coeff. of xr in ⎜ 1 − x ⎟
If positions in a circular arrangement are numbered,
⎝ 1− x ⎠
number of circular arrangements of n different
= Coeff. of x in [(1 – xr + 1)n (1 – x)–n]
r
things taken all at a time = n!, otherwise obviously
= Coeff. of xr in (1 – x)–n [leaving terms containing (n – 1)!
powers of x greater than r] Number of circular permutations of n different
= n + r – 1Cr things taken r at a time if clockwise and anticlockwise
NUMBER OF INTEGRAL SOLUTIONS OF LINEAR orders are taken as different = nCr ⋅ (r – 1)!
EQUATIONS AND INEQUATIONS Number of circular permutations of n different
Consider the equation things taken r at a time if clockwise and
x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + .... + xr = n ....(1) anticlockwise orders are not taken as different
where x1, x2, x3, x4, ..., xr and n are non-negative (r − 1)!
=n Cr
integers. 2

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 25


DERANGEMENTS 6. Total number of ways of selecting two numbers
Derangement means destroy the arrangement i.e., from the set {1, 2, 3, 4, ......., 3n} so that their sum is
rearranging the objects in such a way that no object divisible by 3, is equal to
remains at its original place. 2n2 − n 3n2 − n
If n distinct things are arranged in a row, then (a) (b)
2 2
number of ways in which they can be deranged
(c) 2n2 – n (d) 3n2 – n
such that none of them occupies its original place
= n! – nC1 (n – 1)! + nC2 (n – 2)! – nC3 (n – 3)! 7. The total number of ways of selecting 10 balls out
+ ... + (–1)n nCn ⋅ 0! of an unlimited number of identical white, red and blue
⎛ 1 1 1 n 1⎞
balls, is equal to
= n ! ⎜1 − + − + + ( −1)
n ! ⎟⎠
(a) 12C2 (b) 12C3
⎝ 1! 2 ! 3 ! 10
(c) C2 (d) 10C3
If r(0 ≤ r ≤ n) objects occupy the places assigned
to them i.e., their original places and none of the 8. There are 10 persons among whom two are brothers.
remaining (n – r) objects occupies its original The total number of ways in which these persons can be
place, then the number of such ways seated around a round table so that exactly one person
sits between the brothers, is equal to
⎧ 1 1 1 1 ⎫
=n Cr ⋅ (n − r )! ⎨1 − + − + ...... + (−1)n−r ⎬ (a) (2!) (7!) (b) (2!) (8!)
⎩ 1! 2 ! 3 ! (n − r )! ⎭
(c) (3!) (7!) (d) (3!) (8!)
PROBLEMS 9. A library has ‘a’ copies of one book, ‘b’ copies each
of two books, ‘c’ copies each of three books and single
1. n1 and n2 are four digit numbers. Total number of copy of ‘d’ books. The total number of ways in which
ways of forming n1 and n2 so that n2 can be subtracted these books can be arranged in a shelf, is equal to
from n1 without borrowing at any stage, is equal to
(a + 2b + 3c + d )! (a + 2b + 3c + d )!
(a) (36) (55)3 (b) (45) (55)3 (a) 2 3
(b)
(c) (55) 4 (d) None of these a !(b !) (c !) a !(2b !)(3c !)3
2. Total number of positive integral solutions of (a + 2b + 3c + d )! (a + 2b + 3c + d )!
(c) 3
(d)
15 < x1 + x2 + x3 ≤ 20 is equal to (c !) a !(2b !)(c !)
(a) 1125 (b) 1150 10. The number of numbers that are less than 1000
(c) 1245 (d) 685 that can be formed using the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 such
3. ‘n’ is selected from the set {1, 2, 3, ....., 100} and the that no digit is being repeated in the formed number, is
number 2n + 3n + 5n is formed. Total number of ways of equal to
selecting ‘n’ so that the formed number is divisible by 4, (a) 130 (b) 131 (c) 156 (d) 155
is equal to 11. Total number of six digit numbers that can be
(a) 50 (b) 49 formed, having the property that every succeeding digit
(c) 48 (d) none of these is greater than the preceding digit, is equal to
4. Total number of times, the digit ‘3’ will be written, (a) 9C3 (b) 10C3 (c) 9P3 (d) 10P3
when the integers having less than 4 digits are listed, is 12. If letters of the word ‘KUBER’ are written in all
equal to. possible orders and arranged as in a dictionary, then
(a) 300 (b) 271 rank of the word ‘KUBER’ will be
(c) 298 (d) none of these (a) 67 (b) 68 (c) 65 (d) 69
5. A variable name in certain computer language 13. In a chess tournament, all participants were to play
must be either a alphabet or alphabet followed by a one game with the other. Two players fell ill after having
digit. Total number of different variable names that can played 3 games each. If total number of games played
exist in that language is equal to in the tournament is equal to 84, then total number of
(a) 280 (b) 240 participants in the beginning was equal to
(c) 286 (d) 80 (a) 10 (b) 15 (c) 12 (d) 14

26 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


14. The total number of flags with three horizontal (a) 2 · 5C3 · 5C4 (b) 2 . 5P3 · 5P4
strips, in order, that can be formed using 2 identical red, (c) 5C3 · 5C4 (d) 5P3 · 5P4
2 identical green and 2 identical white strips, is equal
22. The total number of six digit numbers x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6
to
having the property that x1 < x2 ≤ x3 < x4 < x5 ≤ x6
(a) 4! (b) 3.(4!)
is equal to
(c) 2.(4!) (d) none of these
(a) 10C6 (b) 12C6
15. The sides AB, BC, CA of a triangle ABC have 3, 4, 11
(c) C6 (d) none of these
5 interior points respectively on them. Total number 23. The total number of three digit numbers, the sum
of triangles that can be formed using these points as of whose digits is even, is equal to
vertices, is equal to (a) 450 (b) 350 (c) 250 (d) 325
(a) 135 (b) 145 (c) 178 (d) 205
24. ‘n’ different toys have to be distributed among ‘n’
16. ‘n1’ men and ‘n2’ women are to be seated in a row children. Total number of ways in which these toys can
so that no two women sit together. If n1 > n2 , then total be distributed so that exactly one child gets no toy, is
number of ways in which they can be seated, is equal equal to
to (a) n! (b) n! nC2
(a) n1 Cn (b) n1 Cn (n1 !)(n2 !) n
(c) (n – 1)! C2 (d) n! n – 1C2
2 2
n1 n1 +1 25. Total number of permutations of ‘k’ different
(c) Cn +1 (n1 !)(n2 !) (d) Cn (n1 !)(n2 !)
2 2 things, in a row, taken not more than ‘r’ at a time (each
17. There are ‘n’ numbered seats around a round table. thing may be repeated any number of times) is equal to
Total number of ways in which n1(n1 < n ) persons can (a) kr – 1 (b) kr
sit around the table, is equal to
kr − 1 k(k r − 1)
(a) n
Cn (b) n
Pn (c) (d)
1 1 k −1 (k − 1)
n n 26. Total number of 4 digit numbers that are greater
(c) Cn −1 (d) Pn −1
1 1
than 3000 and can be formed using the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
18. Three boys of class X, 4 boys of class XI and 5 boys
(no digit is being repeated in any number ) is equal to
of class XII, sit in a row. Total number of ways in which
(a) 120 (b) 240 (c) 480 (d) 80
these boys can sit so that all the boys of same class sit
together, is equal to 27. A teacher takes 3 children from her class to the zoo
(a) (3!)2 (4!) (5!) (b) (3!) (4!)2 (5!) at a time as often as she can, but she doesn’t take the
(c) (3!) (4!) (5!) (d) (3!) (4!) (5!)2 same set of three children more than once. She finds out
that she goes to the zoo 84 times more than a particular
19. Total number of ways in which the letters of the
child goes to the zoo. Total number of students in her
word ‘MISSISSIPPI’ be arranged, so that any two S’s are class in equal to
separated, is equal to (a) 12 (b) 14 (c) 10 (d) 11
(a) 7350 (b) 3675
(c) 6300 (d) none of these 28. A person predicts the outcome of 20 cricket
matches of his home team. Each match can result either
20. The number of ways in which a mixed double game in a win, loss or tie for the home team. Total number
can be arranged amongst nine married couples so that of ways in which he can make the predictions so that
no husband and his wife play in the same game, is equal exactly 10 predictions are correct, is equal to
to (a) 20C10 · 210 (b) 20C10 · 320
(a) 9C2 · 7C2 (b) 9C2 · 7C2 · 2C1 (c) 20C10 · 310 (d) 20C10 · 220
9 7
(c) P2 · P2 (d) 9P2 · 7P2 · 2P1
29. A team of four students is to be selected from a
21. A candidate is required to answer 7 out of 10 total of 12 students. Total number of ways in which
questions, which are divided into two groups, each team can be selected such that two particular students
containing 5 questions. He is not permitted to attempt refuse to be together and other two particular students
more than 4 questions from each group. Total number wish to be together only, is equal to
of different ways in which the candidate can answer the (a) 220 (b) 182
paper, is equal to (c) 226 (d) none of these

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 27


30. Two players P1 and P2 play a series of ‘2n’ games. Thus, total ways = 45(55)3
Each game can result in either a win or loss for P1. Total 2. (d) : 15 < x1 + x2 + x3 ≤ 20
number of ways in which P1 can win the series of these ⇒ x1 + x2 + x3 = 16 + r, r = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4.
games, is equal to Now number of positive integral solutions of
1 2n 2n 1 x1 + x2 + x3 = 16 + r is 13 + r + 3 – 1C13 + r,
(a) (2 − Cn ) (b) (22n − 2 ⋅2n Cn )
2 2 i.e. 15 + rC13 + r = 15 + rC2
1 n 2n 1 Thus required number of solutions
(c) (2 − Cn ) (d) (2n − 2 ⋅2n Cn ) 4
2 2 = ∑ 15+r C2 = 15C2 + 16C2 + 17C2 + 18C2 + 19C2 = 685
31. Total number of 3 letter words that can be formed r =0
from the letters of the word ‘SAHARANPUR’, is equal
to 3. (b) : If n is odd, then
(a) 210 (b) 237 (c) 247 (d) 227 3n = 4λ1 – 1, 5n = 4λ2 + 1
⇒ 2 + 3n + 5n is divisible by 4 if n > 2.
n
32. 15 identical balls have to be put in 5 different
Thus n = 3, 5, 7, 9, ........, 99 i.e., n can take 49 different
boxes. Each box can contain any number of balls. Total
values.
number of ways of putting the balls into box so that
If n is even, then
each box contains atleast 2 balls, is equal to
3n = 4λ1 + 1, 5n = 4λ2 + 1
(a) 9C5 (b) 10C5 (c) 6C5 (d) 10C6
⇒ 2n + 3n + 5n is not divisible by 4, as
33. Total number of positive integral solutions of the 2n + 3n + 5n will be in the form of 4λ + 2.
equation x1 · x2 · x3 = 60 is equal to Thus, total number of ways of selecting ‘n’ = 49.
(a) 27 (b) 54
4. (c) : Any integer having less than 4 digits will be in
(c) 64 (d) none of these
the form of xyz.
34. Total number of four digit numbers having all If 3 is used exactly once, then the number of ways
different digits, is equal to = 3C1 · 92
(a) 4536 (b) 504 (c) 5040 (d) 720 If 3 is used exactly 2 times, then the number of ways
35. Total number of 5 digit numbers having all different = (3C2 · 9) · 2
digits and divisible by 4 that can be formed using the If 3 is used exactly 3 times, then there is only one such
digits {1, 3, 2, 6, 8, 9}, is equal to number.
(a) 192 (b) 32 (c) 1152 (d) 384 Thus, required number of ways
= 1 + 2 · 3C2 · 9 + 3C1 . 92 = 298
SOLUTIONS
5. (c) : Total variables if only the alphabet is used is
1. (b) : Let n1 = x1 x2 x3 x4 and n2 = y1 y2 y3 y4 equal to 26.
n2 can be subtracted from n1 without borrowing at any Total variables if alphabets and digits both are used =
stage if xi ≥ yi 26.10.
For i = 2, 3, 4; let xi = r(r = 0, 1, 2, ...,9) ∴ Total variables = 26(1 + 10) = 286
⇒ yi ≤ r ⇒ yi = 0, 1, 2, ..., r
6. (b) : Given numbers can be rearranged as
That mean yi can be selected in (r + 1) ways.
1 4 7 .... 3n – 2 → 3λ – 2 type
Thus, total ways of selecting xi and yi suitably
9 2 5 8 .... 3n – 1 → 3λ – 1 type
11 ⋅10
= ∑ (r + 1) = 1 + 2 + 3 + ..... + 10 = = 55 3 6 9 .... 3n → 3λ type
r =0 2 That means we must take two numbers from last or one
For i = 1, let xi ≤ r(r = 1, 2, ...., 9) number each from first and second row.
⇒ yi ≤ r ⇒ yi = 1, 2, ...., r Total number of ways = nC2 + nC1 · nC1
That means yi can be selected in ‘r’ ways. n(n − 1) 2 3n2 − n
Thus, total ways of selecting x1, y1 suitably = +n =
2 2
9 9 ⋅10
= ∑ r = 1 + 2 + .... + 9 = = 45 7. (a) : Let xW, xR, xB be the number of white balls, red
r =1 2
balls and blue balls respectively being selected.

28 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


We must have 15. (d) : Total number of triangles
xW + xR + xB = 10. = 3C1 . 4C1 . 5C1 + 3C2(4C1 + 5C1)
Required number of ways + 4C2(3C1 + 5C1) + 5C2(3C1 + 4C1)
= Number of non-negative integral solutions of = 3.4.5 + 3.9 + 6.8 + 10.7 = 205
xW + xR + xB = 10 

= 3 + 10 – 1C10 = 12C10 = 12C2


8. (b) : Person who has to sit between the brothers can
be selected in 8C1 ways.
Thus, total ways = 8·(7!) · (2!) = (8!) · (2!)
9. (a) : Total number of books = a + 2b + 3c + d  

Total number of ways in which these books can be 16. (d) : There will be (n1 + 1) gaps created by n1 men.
arranged in a shelf (in same row) Now women have to be seated only in these gaps.
(a + 2b + 3c + d )! Thus number of such sitting arrangements
=
a !(b !)2 ⋅ (c !)3 =n1 +1 Cn ⋅ n1 !⋅ n2 !
2

10. (b) : That means formed number can be atmost of 17. (b) : When seats are numbered, circular permutation
three digits. is same as linear permutation. Thus total number of
Total number of one digit numbers = 6 sitting arrangements is equal to n Pn .
Total number of two digit numbers = 5 . 5 = 25 1
18. (a) : We can think of three groups. One consisting
Total number of three digit numbers= 5 . 5 . 4 = 100
of three boys of class X, other consisting of 4 boys of
Thus, total number of such numbers = 131
class XI and last one consisting of 5 boys of class XII.
11. (a) : Let the number is x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6. These groups can be arranged in 3! ways and boys in
We must have these groups can be further arranged in 3!, 4! and 5!
x1 < x2 < x3 < x4 < x5 < x6. ways respectively.
Clearly no digit can be zero. Thus total ways = (3!)2 (4!) (5!)
Thus total number of such numbers = 9C6 = 9C3.
19. (a) : 1M, 4I, 2P and 4S. Total gaps created by letter
12. (a) : Alphabetical order of these letters is B, E, K, R, 1M, 4I and 2P is 8.
U. 7!
Total words starting with B = 4! = 24 Thus total arrangements = 8C4 ⋅ = 7350
2!4!
Total words starting with E = 4! = 24 20. (b) : First of all two men can be selected in 9C2 ways.
Total words starting with KB = 3! = 6 Thereafter 2 women can selected in 7C2 ways (as wives
Total words starting with KE = 3! = 6 of selected men are not be selected). And finally they
Total words starting with KR = 3! = 6 can be paired up in 2C1 ways.
Next word will be KUBER = 24 + 24 + 18 + 1 = 67 Thus total ways = 9C2 · 7C2 · 2C1.
13. (b) : Let there were ‘n’ players in the beginning. 21. (a) : Choices available to the candidates are; 3
Total number of games to be played was equal to nC2 questions from first group and 4 from another or 4
and each player would have played (n – 1) games. Thus questions for first group and 3 questions from another.
nC – ((n – 1) + (n – 1) – 1) + 6 = 84
2 Thus total ways = 2 · 5C3 · 5C4
⇒ n2 – 5n – 150 = 0
22. (c) : x1 < x2 ≤ x3 < x4 < x5 ≤ x6
⇒ n = 15
It will give rise to following four cases :
14. (a) : All strips are of different colours, then number (i) x1 < x2 < x3 < x4 < x5 < x6 → 9C6 ways
of flags = 3! =6 (ii) x1 < x2 = x3 < x4 < x5 < x6 → 9C5 ways
When two strips are of same colour, then (iii) x1 < x2 < x3 < x4 < x5 = x6 → 9C5 ways
3!
number of flags = 3 C1 . . 2C1 = 18 (iv) x1 < x2 = x3 < x4 < x5 = x6 → 9C4 ways
2 Thus total number of such numbers
∴ Total flags = 6 + 18 = 24 = 4! = 9C6 + 9C5 + 9C5 + 9C4 = 10C6 + 10C5 = 11C6

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 29


23. (a) : Let the number be n = x1 x2 x3 30. (a) : ‘P1’ must win atleast (n + 1) games.
Since x1 + x2 + x3 is even. That means there are following Let ‘P1’ wins n + r games (r = 1 , 2 , ...., n)
cases : Corresponding ways = 2nCn + r
(i) x1 , x2, x3 all are even → 4 · 5 · 5 = 100 ways n
(ii) x1 is even and x2, x3 are odd → 4 · 5 · 5 = 100 ways
Total ways = ∑ 2n Cn+r
r =1
(iii) x1, x2 are odd and x3 is even → 5 · 5· 5 = 125 ways = 2nCn + 1 + 2nCn + 2 + .... + 2nC2n
(iv) x1 is odd, x2 is even and x3 is odd → 5 · 5 · 5
= 125 ways 22n − 2nCn 1
= = (22n −2n Cn )
Total ways = 100 + 100 + 125 + 125 = 450. 2 2
24. (b) : In this case, one child gets no toy and one 31. (c) : 1S, 3A, 1H, 2R, 1N, 1P, 1U when all letters are
gets 2 toys and all remaining children get one each. different.
Corresponding number of ways Corresponding ways = 7C3 · 3! = 7P3 = 210
When two letters are of one kind and other is different.
n!
= ⋅ n ! = n ! ⋅n C2 3!
2 !(n − 2)! Corresponding ways = 2C1 ⋅6 C1 ⋅ = 36
2!
25. (d) : Total permutations = 0 + k + k2 + k3 + ..... + kr When all letters are alike, corresponding ways
= 210 + 36 + 1 = 247
k(k r − 1)
= 32. (a) : Let the balls put in the box are x1, x2, x3, x4 and
(k − 1)
x5.
26. (b) : Let the formed number is x1 x2 x3 x4 We must have
Clearly, x1 ≥ 3. x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 = 15, xi ≥ 2
Thus total number of such numbers ⇒ (x1 – 2) + (x2 – 2) + (x3 – 2) + (x4 – 2) + (x5 – 2)
= 4 · 5 · 4 · 3 = 240 =5
⇒ y1 + y2 + y3 + y4 + y5 = 5, yi = xi – 2 ≥ 0
27. (c) : Let the number of students be n, then total Total number of ways is simply equal to number of non-
number of times the teacher goes to zoo is equal to nC3 negative integral solutions of the last equation, which is
and total number of times a particular student goes to equal to 5 + 5 – 1C5 = 9C5.
the zoo is equal to n – 1C2
33. (b) : x1 · x2 · x3 = 22 · 3 · 5
Thus nC3 – n – 1C2 = 84 ⇒ Total positive integral solutions = 54
n(n − 1)(n − 2) (n − 1)(n − 2)
⇒ − = 84 34. (a) : Let the number be x1x2 x3 x4.
3! 2 Then x1 can be chosen in 9 ways. x2 can be chosen in 9
⇒ n(n – 1) (n – 2) – 3(n – 1) (n – 2) = 504 ways. Similarly x3 and x4 can be chosen in 8 and 7 ways
⇒ (n – 1) (n – 2) (n – 3) = 504 respectively.
⇒ (n – 1) (n – 2) (n – 3) = 9 · 8 · 7 ∴ Total number of such numbers
⇒ n = 10 = 9 · 9 · 8 · 7 = 4536
28. (a) : Matches whose predictions are correct can be 35. (a) : A number is divisible by four, if the last two
selected in 20C10 ways. Now each wrong prediction can digits are divisible by four. In this case last two digits
be made in 2 ways. can be 12, 16, 28, 32, 36, 68, 92 or 96.
Thus total ways = 20C10 ⋅ 210. Total number of such numbers = 8 · (4C3 · 3!) = 192.
””
29. (c) : Let S1 and S2 refuse to be together and S3 and
S4 want to be together only.
Total ways when S3 and S4 are selected
= (8C2 + 2C1 · 8C1) = 44
Total ways when S3 and S4 are not selected
= (8C4 + 2C1 · 8C3) = 182
Thus total ways = 44 + 182 = 226.

30 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


CLASS XI Series 6


Sequences and Series

SEQUENCE If a constant is subtracted from each term of an A.P.,


A sequence is an arrangement of numbers in a definite the resulting sequence is also an A.P.
order according to a certain rule. If each term of an A.P. is multiplied by a constant,
Note : A sequence may be finite or infinite according to then the resulting sequence is also an A.P.
their number of terms. If each term of an A.P. is divided by a non-zero
SERIES constant then the resulting sequence is also an A.P.
Let {tn} be a sequence, then the expression of the form ARITHMETIC MEAN (A.M.)
t1 + t2 + .....+ tn + ..... is called a series. The series is finite Let a, b be any two numbers and A be the arithmetic
or infinite according to the given sequence is finite or mean between them. Then a, A, b are in A.P.
infinite. a +b
⇒ A=
ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION (A.P.) 2
Let a, b be any two numbers and A1, A2, ....., An be n
An A.P. is a sequence whose terms either increase or
A.M.’ s between them. Then a, A1, A2, ..... , An, b are
decrease by a fixed number.
b−a
Such a fixed number is called common difference in A.P. ⇒ d =
denoted by ‘d’. n +1
b−a ⎛b −a ⎞
Let a be the first term, d be the common difference, So, A1 = a + , A = a +2⎜
⎝ n + 1 ⎟⎠
, .....,
l be the last term and n be the number of terms in n +1 2
an A.P. such that a, a + d, a + 2d, ...... is an A.P., ⎛b −a ⎞
An = a + n ⎜
then ⎝ n + 1 ⎟⎠
General term an = a + (n – 1)d or ⎛a +b⎞
Sum of n A.M.’s = n ⎜
l = a + (n – 1)d ⎝ 2 ⎟⎠
n
Sum of first n terms Sn = {2a + (n − 1)d} GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION (G.P.)
2
n A G.P. is a succession of numbers in which first term
or Sn = (a + l )
2 is non-zero and each next term is the product of its
We can verify the following simple properties of an A.P.: preceding term and a non-zero constant.
If a constant is added to each term of an A.P., the This non-zero constant is called common ratio denoted
resulting sequence is also an A.P. by r.

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 31


Let a be the first term, r be the common ratio and n x+y y+z
4. If reciprocals of , y, are in A.P., show
be the number of terms such that a, ar, ar2, ar3, ..... 2 2
is a G.P., then that x, y, z are in G.P.
General term an = arn–1 5. Find the sum to infinity of the G.P.
1 1 1
⎧ a(1 − r n ) 1 + + + + .....
, if r < 1 3 9 27
⎪⎪
Sum to n terms
Sn = ⎨ 1 − r Short Answer Type
⎪ a(r − 1) , if r > 1
n
13
⎪⎩ r − 1 6. Between two numbers whose sum is an even
6
number of A.M.’s are inserted. If the sum of means
Sum to infinite terms S∞ = a , | r |< 1
1− r exceeds their number by unity, find the number of
means.
GEOMETRIC MEAN (G.M.)
7. If x, y, z are in A.P. and A1 is the A.M. of x and y and
Let a, b be any two numbers and G be the geometric
A2 is the A.M. of y and z, then prove that the A.M.
mean between them. Then a, G, b are in G.P.
of A1 and A2 is y.
⇒ G = ab
8. The sum of three numbers in A.P. is –3 and their
Let a, b be any two numbers and G1, G2, ....., Gn be n
product is 8. Find the numbers.
geometric means between them. Then a, G1, G2, .....,
Gn, b are in G.P. 1 1 1
9. Find the sum of 10 terms of the G.P. 1, , , .....
1 2 4 8
⎛ b ⎞ n+1
⇒ r=⎜ ⎟ 1
⎝a⎠ 10. If x > 0, prove that x + ≥ 2.
1 2 n x
⎛ b ⎞ n+1 ⎛ b ⎞ n+1 ⎛ b ⎞ n+1 Long Answer Type - I
So, G1 = a ⎜ ⎟ , G2 = a ⎜ ⎟ , ....., Gn = a ⎜ ⎟
⎝a⎠ ⎝a⎠ ⎝a⎠
11. If a2 + 2bc, b2 + 2ac, c2 + 2ab are in A.P., show that
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A.M. AND G.M.
1 1 1 are in A.P.
a +b ,
b−c c −a a −b
,
Let a, b be any two numbers and let A = , G = ab
Then, A ≥ G 2
12. If a, b, c, d are in G.P., show that
SUM TO n TERMS OF SPECIAL SERIES (b – c)2 + (c – a)2 + (d – b)2 = (a – d)2
n(n + 1) 13. x + y + z =15 if a, x, y, z, b are in A.P. and
1 + 2 + 3 + ..... + n =
2 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1
+ + = if , , , , are in A.P., find the
n(n + 1)(2n + 1) x y z 3 a x y z b
12 + 22 + 32 + ..... + n2 = G.M. of a and b.
6
⎡ n(n + 1) ⎤
2 14. If the sum of n terms of a series is 5n2 + 3n, find its
1 + 2 + 3 + ..... + n = ⎢
3 3 3 3
nth term. Are the term of this series in A.P. ?
⎣ 2 ⎥⎦
15. Find the sum of the series
PROBLEMS
1 . n + 2 . (n – 1) + 3 . (n − 2) + ..... + n . 1
Very Short Answer Type
Long Answer Type - II
1. Find the sum of the series
16. If a, b are the roots of equation x2 – 3x + p = 0 and
99 + 95 + 91 + 87 + ..... to 20 terms. c, d are roots of equation x2 – 12x + q = 0, where a, b, c,
2. Prove that the sum of n arithmetic means between d forms a G.P., then prove that (q + p) :(q – p) = 17 : 15.
two numbers in n times the single A.M. between
them. 17. If a, b, c are in A.P. and 1 , 1 , 1 are in A.P., then
a 2 b2 c 2
3. Find the sum of n terms of the series a
prove that either − , b, c are in G.P. or a = b = c.
(a + b) + (a2 + 2b) + (a3 + 3b)+ ..... 2

32 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


18. Find the relation between x and y such that the rth Now sum of the 2n A.M.’s between a and b
mean between x and 2y may be same as the rth mean a +b
= ⋅ 2n = (a + b)n
between 2x and y, if n means are inserted in each case. 2
13
19. Natural numbers are divided into groups in the Given, (a + b)n = 2n + 1 ⇒ ⋅ n = 2n + 1
following way : 1;(2, 3); (4, 5, 6); (7, 8, 9, 10) 6
∴ n = 6. Hence, number of means = 2n = 12
Show that the sum of the numbers in the nth group
n(n2 + 1) . 7. Given x, y, z are in A.P.
is ∴ 2y = x + z ...(1)
2
x+y
20. Find 5 + 7 + 13 + 31 + 85 + ..... to n terms. A1 is the A.M. of x and y ∴ A1 = ...(2)
2
SOLUTIONS y+z
A2 is the A.M. of y and z ∴ A2 = ...(3)
1. The terms of given series are in A.P. whose common 2
difference d = – 4 and first term a = 99. Adding (2) and (3), we get
Now, sum of 20 terms of the series, x + z + 2y 2y + 2y
A1 + A2 = = = 2y [From (1)]
20 2 2
S20 = [2 ⋅ 99 + (20 − 1)(−4)] A + A2
2 ∴ y= 1
= 10 (198 – 76) = 1220 2
∴ y is the A.M. of A1 and A2.
2. Let A1, A2, ....., An be n arithmetic means between
a and b. Then, a, A1, A2, ....., An, b is an A.P. with 8. Let the numbers be (a – d), a, (a + d). Then,
b−a (a – d) + a + (a + d) = – 3 ⇒ a = –1
common difference d given by d = . Also, (a – d)(a)(a + d) = 8 ⇒ a(a2 – d 2) = 8
n +1
⇒ (–1)(1 – d2) = 8 [... a = –1]
n
Now, A1 + A2 + .... + An = ( A1 + An ) ⇒ d =9⇒d=±3
2
2
When a = –1 and d = 3, the numbers are –4, –1, 2.
n ⎛a +b⎞
= (a + b) = n ⎜ = n × (A.M. between a and b) When a = –1 and d = –3, the numbers are 2, –1, –4.
2 ⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ So, the numbers are –4, –1, 2 or 2, –1, –4
3. (a + b) +(a2 + 2b) + (a3 + 3b) + ..... to n terms ⎛ 10 ⎞
and n = 10 ∴ S10 = a ⎜ r − 1 ⎟
1
= (a + a2 + a3 + ..... to n terms) 9. Here, a = 1, r =
2 ⎝ r −1 ⎠
+ b(1 + 2 + 3 + ..... to n terms)
⎧⎛1⎞ 10 ⎫
a(1 − an ) n(n + 1) ⎪⎪ ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎪⎪ ⎛ 1 ⎞
= +b⋅ ⎝ ⎠
1− a 2 ⇒ S10 = 1⎨ 2 ⎬ = 2 ⎜1 − 10 ⎟
⎪ ⎛ 1 ⎞ −1 ⎪ ⎝ 2 ⎠
2 1 2 ⎜ ⎟
⎪⎩ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎪⎭
4. Given, , , are in A.P.
x+ y y y+z ⎛ 210 − 1 ⎞ (1024 − 1) 1023
= 2⎜ = =

2
=
2
+
2
or =
1 x + 2y + z ⎝ 210 ⎟⎠ 512 512
y x+ y y+z y (x + y )( y + z )
10. Since A.M. ≥ G.M.
or xy + 2y2 + yz = xy + y2 + xz + yz
or y2 = xz ∴ x, y, z in G.P. x +1/ x 1 x +1/ x 1
∴ ≥ x. ⇒ ≥1 ⇒ x + ≥ 2
2 x 2 x
1
5. Here a =1, r = 11. a2 + 2bc, b2 +2ac, c2 + 2ab are in A.P.
3
a 1 3 ⇒ (a2 + 2bc) – (ab + bc + ca), (b2 + 2ac) –(ab + bc + ca),
So, S∞ = = =
1− r 1 2 (c2 + 2ab) – (ab + bc + ca) are in A.P.
1−
3 ⇒ a + bc – ab – ca, b2 + ca – ab – bc, c2 + ab – bc – ca
2

6. Let 2n be the number of arithmetic means between are in A.P.


two numbers a and b. ⇒ (a – b)(a – c), (b – c)(b – a), (c – a)(c – b) are in A.P.

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 33


(a − b)(a − c) (b − c)(b − a) 15. For general term we will take the rth term.
⇒ , , Since rth term of the sequence 1, 2, 3, .....
(a − b)(b − c)(c − a) (a − b)(b − c)(c − a)
= 1 + (r – 1) . 1 = r
(c − a)(c − b)
are in A.P. and rth term of the sequence n, n –1, n – 2, .....
(a − b)(b − c)(c − a)
= n + (r – 1)(–1) = n – r + 1
−1 −1 −1
⇒ , , are in A.P. Now, rth term (tr) = r(n – r + 1) = nr – r2 + r
b−c c −a a −b n n
1 1 1 ∴ Sn = ∑ tr = ∑ (nr − r 2 + r )
⇒ , , are in A.P. r =1 r =1
b−c c −a a −b
n n n n(n + 1) ⎛ 2n + 1 ⎞
12. Let r be the common ratio of the given G.P. = n ∑ r − ∑ r2 + ∑ r = ⎜n − + 1⎟
Then, b = ar, c = ar2 and d = ar3 r =1 r =1 r =1 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠
Now, L.H.S. = (b – c)2 + (c – a)2 + (d – b)2 n(n + 1) ⎡ 3n − 2n − 1 + 3 ⎤ n(n + 1)(n + 2)
= ⎥⎦ =
= (ar – ar2)2 + (ar2 – a)2 + (ar3 – ar)2 2 ⎢⎣ 3 6
= a2r2 (1 – r)2 + a2(r2 – 1)2 + a2r2(r2 –1)2 2
16. Given equations are x – 3x + p = 0 ...(1)
= a2[r2(1 – r)2 + (r2 –1)2 + r2(r2 –1)2] 2
and x – 12x + q = 0 ...(2)
= a2[r2(1 + r2– 2r) + (r4 – 2r2 + 1) + r2(r4 – 2r2 + 1)] Given a, b, c, d are in G.P.
= a2[r2 + r4 – 2r3 + r4 – 2r2 + 1 + r6 – 2r4 + r2] Let r be its common ratio.
= a2[r6 – 2r3 + 1] = a2(r3 – 1)2 = [a(r3 – 1)]2 Then, b = ar, c = ar2, d = ar3
= (ar3 – a)2 = (d – a)2 = (a – d)2 Now a and b i.e., a and ar are roots of equation (1)
13. Given, x + y + z = 15 ...(1) ∴ a(1+ r) = 3 ...(3)
when a, x, y, z, b are in A.P. and a2r = p ...(4)
⎛a +b⎞ Again, c and d i.e., ar2 and ar3 are the roots of
∴ Sum of A.M.’s = x + y + z = ⎜ ⋅3
⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ equation (2)
∴ ar2(1 + r) = 12 ...(5)
⎛a +b⎞
⇒ 15 = ⎜ ⋅ 3 or a + b = 10 and a2r5 = q
⎝ 2 ⎟⎠
...(2) ...(6)
Dividing (5) by (3), we get r2 = 4 ∴ r = ±2
1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1
Now q + p = a r + a r = r + 1 = 17
2 5 2 4
Also, + + = when , , , , are in A.P.
x y z 3 a x y z b q − p a2 r 5 − a2 r r 4 − 1 15
⎛1 1⎞
+
1 1 1 ⎝ a b ⎟⎠

a+c
∴ Sum of A.M.’s = + + = ⋅3 17. Given a, b, c are in A.P. ∴ b = ...(1)
x y z 2 2
5 ⎛a +b⎞ ⎛ 10 ⎞ 1 1 1
or =⎜ ⎟ ⋅3 = ⎜ ⋅3 [From (2)] and , , are in A.P.
3 ⎝ 2ab ⎠ ⎝ 2ab ⎟⎠ a 2
b 2
c2
∴ ab = 9 2 1 1 a2 + c 2 2a2c 2
∴ = + = or b2 = ...(2)
⇒ G.M. of a and b = ab = 3 b2 a2 c2 a2 c 2 a2 + c 2
14. Given Sn = 5n2 + 3n 2
⎛a +c ⎞ 2a2 c 2
∴ Sn–1 = 5(n – 1)2 + 3(n – 1) From (1) and (2), we get ⎜ =
⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ a2 + c 2
Now, tn = Sn – Sn – 1, n ≥ 2
= 5n2 + 3n – 5(n – 1)2 – 3(n – 1) ⇒ (a + c)2(a2 + c2) = 8a2c2
= 5[n2 – (n – 1)2 ] + 3[n – n + 1] ⇒ (a2 + c2 + 2ac)(a2 + c2) = 8a2c2
= 5(2n – 1) + 3 = 10n – 2, n ≥ 2 ⇒ (a2 + c2)2 + 2ac(a2 + c2) – 8a2c2 = 0
∴ t1 = S1 = 5 . 12 + 3.1 = 8
⇒ {(a2 + c2)2 – 4a2c2} + {2ac(a2 + c2) – 4a2c2}=0
t2 = 10 . 2 – 2 = 18
t3 = 10 . 3 – 2 = 28 and so on. ⇒ (a2 – c2)2 + 2ac(a2 + c2 – 2ac) = 0
Thus terms of the given series are 8, 18, 28 ..... which ⇒ (a2 – c2)2 + 2ac(a – c)2 = 0
are in A.P. whose c.d. is 10. ⇒ (a – c)2[(a + c)2 + 2ac] = 0

34 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


Either (a – c)2 = 0 ⇒ a = c Let Sn = 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + ..... + tn ...(1)
a+a Sn = 1 + 2 + 4 + ..... + tn–1 + tn ...(2)
and from (1), b = =a ⇒ a=b=c
2 Subtracting (2) from (1), we get
Or, (a + c)2 + 2ac = 0 ⇒ a2 + c2 + 4ac = 0 0 = 1 + [1 + 2 + 3 + ..... + to (n – 1) terms]–tn
2a2 c 2 (n − 1)n n2 − n + 2
or a + c = −4ac or
2 2
= −4ac [from (2)] or tn = 1 + =
b2 2 2
th
a Thus for the n group,
or ac = −2b2 or b2 = − ⋅ c
2 n2 − n + 2
a (first term) = , d = 1, n = n
a 2
Hence − , b, c are in G.P.
2 ∴ Sum of numbers in the nth group
n⎧ ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎫ n(n2 + 1)
18. Let a be the rth mean between x and 2y and b be the = ⎨2 ⎜ n − n + 2 ⎟ + (n − 1) ⋅1⎬ =
rth mean between 2x and y. 2⎩ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎭ 2
Here, n arithmetic means have been inserted in 20. The sequence of the difference between successive
both cases. terms is 2, 6, 18, 54, ....
∴ Number of terms of A.P. in each case = n + 2 This is a G.P. with first term 2 and common ratio 3.
Now, a = rth A.M. between x and 2y Let Sn = 5 + 7 + 13 + 31 ..... + tn ...(1)
= (r + 1)th term of A.P. Also, Sn = 5 + 7 + 13 + ..... + tn – 1 + tn ...(2)
= x + rd, where d is the common difference of A.P. Subtracting (2) from (1), we get
⎛ 2y − x ⎞ ⎡ last term − 1st term ⎤ 0 = 5 +[2 + 6 + 18 + ..... to (n – 1) terms] –tn
= x +r ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ∵ c.d. = ⎥ or tn = 5 + [2 + 6 + 18 + ..... to (n – 1) terms]
⎝ n +1 ⎠ no. of terms − 1 ⎦⎥
⎣⎢
(3n−1 − 1)
y − 2x ⎞ = 5+2 = 5 + (3n−1 − 1) = 4 + 3n−1
Similarly, b = 2 x + r ⎜⎛ (3 − 1)
⎝ n + 1 ⎟⎠ n n
n n
According to question, a = b Now, Sn = ∑ tr = ∑ (4 + 3r −1 ) = ∑ 4 + ∑ 3r −1
⎛ 2y − x ⎞ ⎛ y − 2x ⎞ r =1 r =1 r =1 r =1
∴ x +r ⎜ = 2x + r ⎜
⎝ n + 1 ⎟⎠ ⎝ n + 1 ⎟⎠
2 n–1
= 4n + (1 + 3 + 3 + ..... + 3 )
1(3n − 1) (3n − 1) 1 n
⇒ x=
r
(2 y − x − y + 2 x ) = 4n + = 4n + = [3 + 8n − 1]
n +1 3 −1 2 2
””
r
⇒ x= ( y + x ) ⇒ (n + 1)x = r(y + x)
n +1
19. Since 1st group contains one number, 2nd group
contains 2 numbers, 3rd group contains 3 numbers
and so on, therefore, nth group will contain n
numbers.
Here we observe that numbers in each group are in
A.P. whose c.d. is 1. Therefore, number in nth group
will be in A.P. having c.d. 1.
Thus, for nth group, d = 1, n= n
Sequence of first terms of groups is 2, 4, 7, .....
First terms of this sequence is the first term of the
first group.
Second term is the first term of the second group.
Third term is the first term of the third group and
so on.
nth term of this sequence i.e., tn will be the first term
of the nth group.

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 35


Class XI

T his specially designed column enables students to self analyse their


extent of understanding of specified chapters. Give yourself four
marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.
Self check table given at the end will help you to check your
readiness.
Permutations & Combinations |
Binomial Theorem
Total Marks : 80 Time Taken : 60 Min.
n
Only One Option Correct Type the expansion of (a + b) is 4096, then greatest
1. A class contains three girls and four boys. Every coefficient in the expansion is
saturday five students go on a picnic, a different (a) 1594 (b) 792
group being sent each week. During the picnic, each (c) 924 (d) 2924
girl in the group is given a doll by the accompanying 6. In the binomial expansion of (a – b)n, n ≥ 5,
teacher. After all possible groups of the five have the sum of 5th and 6th terms is zero, then a/b
gone once, the total number of dolls that the girls equals
have got, is n−5 n−4
(a) (b)
(a) 27 (b) 11 6 5
(c) 21 (d) 45 5 6
(c) (d)
2. For a game in which two partners play against n−4 n−5
two other partners, six persons are available. If
One or More Than One Option(s) Correct Type
every possible pair must play with every other
possible pair, then the total number of games 7. If the term independent of x in the expansion of
played is ( x − k / x 2 )10 is 405, then value of k is
(a) 90 (b) 45
(a) 3 (b) – 3
(c) 30 (d) 60
(c) 9 (d) –9
3. The expression (10C0)2 – (10C1)2 + (10C2)2 – ..... +
(10C8)2 – (10C9)2 + (10C10)2 equals
(a) 10 (b) (10C5)2
(c) –10C5 (d) 10
C5
4. At the time of Diwali festival, from a match box,
having 3 red, 2 blue, 7 green sticks, 3 are taken from
the box. The number of ways at least one of them is
red stick, is
(a) 136 (b) 108
(c) 27 (d) 135
5. If the sum of the coefficients of various terms in

36 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 37
8. The number of seven digit integers, with sum of the 14. The number of ways of forming the committee is
digits equal to 10 and formed by using any of the (a) 6000 (b) 6060
digits 1, 2 and 3 only, is (c) 6062 (d) 6080
(a) 55 (b) 66 15. The number of committee in which women are in
(c) 77 (d) 88 majority is
(a) 1008 (b) 2410
9. A man has 10 friends among whom two are married
(c) 2700 (d) 2702
to each other. Then the number of different ways in
Matrix Match Type
which he can invite 5 people to a dinner party if
16. Match the columns:
married couple refuse to attend separately is
(a) 10C5 – 2 (b) 10C5 – 2 × 8C4 Column I Column II
P The sum of the two middle 1 19
(c) 2 × 8C3 (d) 112
coefficients of (1 + x)9 is
10. If (1 + 2x + 3x2)10 = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + ... + a20x20, Q The coefficient of x4 in the 2 35
then expansion of (1 + x + x2)4 is
(a) a1 = 20 (b) a2 = 210 R The value of 3 252
( ) − ( ) + ( ) − ( ) + ( ) is
(c) a3 = 8085 (d) a20 = 22 · 37 · 7 8 8 8 8 8
0 1 2 3 4
11. Let S = {1, 2, ...., n}. If X denotes the set of all subsets
of S containing exactly two elements, then the value P Q R
of ∑ (min A) is given by (a) 1 2 3
A ∈X (b) 1 3 2
1 2
(a) n+1
C3 (n − 1)n
(b) (c) 2 3 1
6 (d) 3 1 2
1 n Integer Answer Type
(c) nC3 (d) (n − 1)
6
k+5 11(k −1) k +3
log x
12. If the third term in the expansion of ( x + x 10 )5 17. If Pk + 1 = × Pk , then value of k
2
is 106, then x is greater than 6 is
(a) 10–1/3 (b) 10
1 1
(c) 10–5/2 (d) 102 18. If x + = 1 and p = x 4000 + and q be the
x 4000
x
13. In the expansion of (x2 + 2x + 2)n, (where n is a n
digit at unit place in the number 22 + 1 , n ∈ N and
positive integer) then coefficient of n > 1, then p + q =
(a) x is 2n · n (b) x2 is n2 · 2n – 1
3 n n+1 19. The number of terms which are free from radical
(c) x is 2 · C3 (d) none of these signs in the expansion of (y1/5 + x1/10)55 is
Comprehension Type 20. A student is allowed to select at most n books from
A committee of 12 is to be formed from 9 women and a collection of (2n +1) books. If the total number of
ways in which he can select a book is 63, then the
8 men such that atleast 5 women have to be included in
value of n is
the committee. ””
Keys are published in this issue. Search now! ☺

Check your score! If your score is


> 90% EXCELLENT WORK ! You are well prepared to take the challenge of final exam.

No. of questions attempted …… 90-75% GOOD WORK ! You can score good in the final exam.
No. of questions correct …… 74-60% SATISFACTORY ! You need to score more next time.
Marks scored in percentage …… < 60% NOT SATISFACTORY! Revise thoroughly and strengthen your concepts.

38 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16



 *ALOK KUMAR, B.Tech, IIT Kanpur

This column is aimed at Class XII students so that they can prepare for competitive exams such as JEE Main/Advanced, etc. and
be also in command of what is being covered in their school as part of NCERT syllabus. The problems here are a happy blend
of the straight and the twisted, the simple and the difficult and the easy and the challenging.

Integration of a function is the reverse process of 1


differentiation. If f ′(x) is the derivative of a function (xii) ∫ dx = tan −1 x + c or − cot −1 x + c
1 + x2
f(x), then the process of finding f(x) from f ′(x) is called
1
integration. (xiii) ∫ dx = sec −1 x + c or − cos ec −1 x + c
x x −1
2
ALGEBRA OF INTEGRATION
(i) ∫ (U (x ) ± V (x ))dx = ∫ U (x )dx ± ∫ V (x )dx SOME STANDARD INTEGRALS USING THE
ABOVE RELATIONS ARE SHOWN BELOW
(ii) ∫ Kf (x) ⋅ dx = K ∫ f (x)dx , (i)
∫ tan x dx = log |sec x | +c = − log | cos x | + c
where K is a real number (constant). (ii)
∫ cot x dx = − log | cosec x | +c = log |sin x | + c
SOME FUNDAMENTAL INTEGRALS (iii) ∫ sec x dx = log |sec x + tan x | +c
x n +1
(i) ∫ x n ⋅ dx = + c, where n ≠ −1 (iv) ∫ cosec x dx = log | cosec x − cot x | + c
n +1
x
1 = log tan +c
(ii) ∫ dx = log e | x | + c, where x ≠ 0 2
x
(iii) ∫ e dx = e + c
x x
SOME SPECIAL INTEGRALS
ax
(iv) ∫ a x dx = + c, where a > 0 dx 1 x
(i) ∫ 2 2 = tan −1 + c
log e a x +a a a
(v) ∫ sin x dx = − cos x + c
dx 1 x −a
(ii) ∫ 2 2 = log +c
(vi) ∫ cos x dx = sin x + c x − a 2a x +a
(vii) ∫ sec x dx = tan x + c
2
dx 1 a+x
(iii) ∫a = log
− x 2 2a a−x
+c
(viii) ∫ cosec x dx = − cot x + c
2 2

dx
(ix) ∫ sec x ⋅ tan x dx = sec x + c (iv) ∫ = log x + x 2 ± a2 + c
a ± x2
2

(x) ∫ cosec x ⋅ cot x dx = − cosec x + c dx ⎛x⎞


(xi) ∫
dx
= sin −1 x + c or − cos −1 x + c, where | x | < 1
(v) ∫ a −x
2 2
= sin −1 ⎜ ⎟ + c, | x | < | a |
⎝ a⎠
1− x 2

* Alok Kumar is a winner of INDIAN NATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD (INMO-91).


He trains IIT and Olympiad aspirants.

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 39


INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION INTEGRATION BY PARTS
When integrand is a function i.e., ∫ f [φ(x )] φ′(x ) dx : ⎡d ⎤
Here, we put φ(x) = t, so that φ ′(x)dx = dt and in ∫ (I ⋅ II) dx = I∫ II dx − ∫ ⎢⎣ dx (I)∫ II dx ⎥⎦dx + c
that case the integrand is reduced to ∫ f (t ) dt . In this Choice of Ist function and IInd function depends on
method, the integrand is broken into two factors so that order of letters in the word ILATE
one factor can be expressed in terms of the function I → Inverse function
whose differential coefficient is the second factor. L → Logarithmic function
When integrand is the product of two factors such that A → Algebraic function
one is the derivative of the other i.e. I = ∫ f ′(x ) ⋅ f (x ) ⋅ dx. T → Trigonometric function
In this case we put f (x) = t and convert it into a E → Exponential function
Note : A special integral
standard integral.
∫ e [ f (x) + f ′(x)] dx = f (x) ⋅ e +c
x x
EVALUATION OF THE VARIOUS FORMS OF
INTEGRALS BY USE OF STANDARD RESULTS PARTIAL FRACTIONS AND THEIR USES IN
lx + m INTEGRATION
(i) ∫ ax+ bx + c
2
dx , where l ≠ 0, a ≠ 0
If the integrand is a rational function, i.e., of the
1 ⎛ lb ⎞ p(x )
Take lx + m = (2ax + b) + ⎜ m − ⎟ form , where p(x) and q(x) are both polynomial
2a ⎝ 2a ⎠ q(x )
lx + m functions, depending on the nature of p(x) and q(x)
(ii) ∫ dx , where l ≠ 0, a ≠ 0
integration can be done by the following processes:
ax 2 + bx + c
(i) I f d e g r e e ( p ( x ) ) < d e g r e e ( q ( x ) ) i . e . ,
Put z2 = ax2 + bx + c, mx + n
dz (2ax + b) f (x ) = , a ≠ b t he n we w r ite
so that 2z ⋅ = 2ax + b or dz = dx (x − a)(x − b)
dx 2z mx + n A B A and B being
and follow the same process as explained in (i) = + ,
(x − a)(x − b) x − a x − b
above. constants.
dx
(iii) ∫ , put ax + b = z 2 (ii) I f d e g r e e ( p ( x ) ) = d e g r e e ( q ( x ) ) o r
(lx + m) ax + b degree (p(x)) > degree (q(x)) of non-repeated
dx 1 mx 2 + nx + l
(iv) ∫ (lx + m) ax + bx + c
2
, put lx + m =
z
linear factors, i.e., f (x ) =
(x − a)(x − b)
, a≠b
mx 2 + nx + l A B
dx 1 then we write = 1+ +
(v) ∫ (lx 2
+ m) ax 2 + b
, put ax 2 + b = xz οr x =
z
(x − a)(x − b) x −a x −b

dx (iii) If denominator q(x) contains linear factors,


(vi) ∫ ( x − a) m
(x − b)n
, where m + n = 2 some of which are repeated, i.e., integrand is
p(x )
put x – a = z(x – b) of the form , then we write the
(x − a)(x − b)2
dx 1
(vii) ∫ = z or put as
, A B C
(linear ) quadratic linear integrand as + +
x − a x − b (x − b)2
some other variable.
Note : To evaluate integral of the type
dx
(viii) ∫ , put linear = z 2 , x2 + A
quadratic linear (i) ∫ 4 dx
x + kx 2 + A2
or some other variable, and then follow the similar
process of integration. Divide numerator and denominator by
A
dx lx + mx + n
2
x2 and substitute x − = u, A being any positive
(ix) ∫ ax 2
+ bx + c lx + mx + n
2
, put z 2 =
ax 2 + bx + c
,
constant. x

40 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


x2 − A FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM ON CALCULUS
(ii) ∫ x 4 + kx 2 + A2 dx I. Let f be a continuous function on closed
interval [α, β] and A(x) be the area of function.
Divide numerator and denominator by x 2 Then A′(x) = f(x) ∀ x ∈ [α, β]
A
and substitute x + = t , A being positive II. Let f be the continuous function on closed
x interval [α, β] and F be an anti-derivative of f.
constant.
β
ax 2 + bx + c
∫ f (x) dx = [ F (x)]
β
(iii) ∫ 2 dx Then α
= F (β) − F (α)
px + qx + r α
put ax2 + bx + c = l(px2 + qx + r) + m DEFINITE INTEGRAL AS THE LIMIT OF A SUM
⎛d ⎞ β
⎜⎝ ( px + qx + r ) ⎟⎠ + n
2

dx An alternative method of finding


β
∫ f (x) dx
α
is that
Find l, m and n by equating coefficients of
the definite integral ∫ f (x ) dx is a limiting case of
like powers of x and then split the integral α
into three integrals. the summation of an infinite series provided f(x) is
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRALS continuous on [α, β], i.e.,
β
a sin x + b cos x
To find the integral ∫ dx ∫ f (x) dx = lim h[ f (α) + f (α + h) + ... + f (α + (n − 1)h)]
h →0
c sin x + d cos x α
β−α
Put a sinx + b cosx where h =
n
= L (Denominator) +M (Derivative of denominator)
PROPERTIES OF DEFINITE INTEGRALS
Note : To evaluate the integration of the forms β β

dx dx dx
∫ a2 sin2 x + b2 cos2 x , ∫ a + b sin2 x ,∫ a + b cos2 x ,
(i) ∫
α
f (x ) dx = ∫ f (t ) dt
α
β α
dx
∫ (a sin x + b cos x)2 and
dx
∫ a + b sin2 x + c cos2 x (ii) ∫
α
f (x ) dx = − ∫ f (x ) dx
β
β γ β

Step 1 : Divide by cos2x in each case. (iii) (a) ∫ f (x) dx = ∫ f (x) dx + ∫ f (x) dx, where α < γ < β
α α γ
dt
Step 2 : Put tan x = t to get the form ∫ 2 which β c1 c2 β

is already discussed. at + bt + c (b) ∫ f (x ) dx = ∫ f (x ) dx + ∫ f (x ) dx + ... + ∫ f (x ) dx


α α c1 cn
α α
INTEGRALS OF THE FORM
dx dx (iv) ∫ f (x) dx = ∫ f (α − x) dx
(i) ∫
a sin x + b cos x
(ii) ∫ a + b sin x 0
β
0
β

dx (v) ∫ f (x) dx = ∫ f (α + β − x) dx
(iii) ∫
dx
(iv) ∫ α α
a + b cos x a sin x + b cos x + c ⎧ α
⎪2 ∫ f (x )dx , if f (− x ) = f (x )
α

For all the cases (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv), universal (vi) ∫ f (x ) dx = ⎨ 0
−α ⎪0 , if f (− x ) = − f (x )
x
substitution tan = t , sin x =
2 tan(x / 2)
& ⎩
2 1 + tan2 (x / 2) ⎧ α
f (x ) dx = ⎨ ∫0

1 − tan2 (x / 2) ⎪2 f (x )dx , if f (2α − x ) = f (x )
cos x = are used. This substitution convert (vii) ∫
1 + tan2 (x / 2) 0 ⎪0 , if f (2α − x ) = − f (x )
dt ⎩
the integrals in the form ∫ 2
x
. (viii) If f(t) is an odd function then g (x ) = ∫ f (t ) dt
at + bt + c a
In (i), (ii) and (iii); if a = b, then they becomes is an even function.
x
1 dx 1 dx 1 dx (ix) If f(t) is an even function then g (x ) = ∫ f (t ) dt
∫ , ∫ , ∫
a sin x + cos x a 1 + sin x a 1 + cos x is an odd function. 0

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 41


LEIBNITZ’S RULE (c) xsinα – sinα logsin(x – α) + c
If f(x) is continuous and u(x), v(x) are differentiable (d) None of these
functions in the interval [a, b], then, cos 2 x − 1
d v(x) d d 2. ∫ cos 2x + 1dx =
dx ∫u ( x )
f (t )dt = f {v(x )} {v(x )} − f {u(x )} {u(x )}
dx dx
(a) tanx – x + c (b) x + tanx + c
If the function φ(x) and Ψ(x) are defined on [a,b] (c) x – tanx + c (d) –x – cotx + c
and differentiable at a point x ∈(a, b) and f(x, t) is
(x + 1)2
continuous, then, 3. ∫ x(x 2 + 1) dx is equal to
d ⎡ Ψ( x ) ⎧ d Ψ(x ) ⎫
f (x , t )dt ⎤ = ∫
Ψ( x ) d


dx ⎣ ∫φ ( x ) ⎥
⎦ φ ( x ) dx
f (x , t )dt + ⎨
⎩ dx ⎭
⎬× (a) logex + c (b) logex + 2tan–1x + c

dφ(x ) (c) log e ⎛⎜ 1 ⎞⎟ + c (d) loge{x(x2 + 1)} + c


f (x , Ψ(x )) − f (x , φ(x )) ⎝ x2 + 1 ⎠
dx
x e −1 + e x −1
APPLICATION OF INTEGRALS
(i) The area bounded 
4.
∫ xe + e x
dx =
  
by the curve y = f(x), (a) log(xe + ex) + c (b) elog(xe + ex) + c
the x-axis and the lines 1
x = a and x = b is (c) log( x e + e x ) + c (d) None of these
b
e
A = ∫| f ( x)|dx  sin 2 x
  
5. ∫ dx =
sin x + cos 4 x
4
a

(ii) The area bounded (a) cot–1(tan2 x) + c (b) tan–1(tan2x) + c


by the curves y = f(x), (c) cot–1(cot2 x) + c (d) tan–1(cot2 x) + c
y = g(x) and the lines
sin 2 x
x = a and x = b is
b
6. ∫ a2 + b2 sin2 xdx =
A = ∫ | f (x ) − g (x )| dx 1
a (a) log(a2 + b2 sin2 x ) + c
2
b
(iii) The area bounded
1
by the curve x = f(y), (b) log(a2 + b2 sin2 x ) + c
the y-axis and the lines b
y = c and y = d is (c) log(a2 + b2sin2x) + c
d (d) b2log(a2 + b2sin2x) + c
A = ∫ | f ( y )| dy cos 2 x
c 7. ∫ (cos x + sin x)2 dx =
(iv) The area bounded
by the curves x = f(y) (a) log cos x + sin x + c (b) log(cosx – sinx) + c
and x = g(y) and the 1
(c) log(cosx + sinx) + c (d) − +c
lines y = c and y = d is cos x + sin x
1

d

A = ∫ | f ( y ) − g ( y )| dy 8. dx =
c
1 − e2 x
(a) x − log[1 + 1 − e 2 x ] + c
PROBLEMS
Single Correct Answer Type (b) x + log[1 + 1 − e 2 x ] + c
sin x
1. ∫ sin(x − α)dx = (c) log[1 + 1 − e 2 x ] − x + c (d) None of these
(a) xcosα – sinα logsin(x – α) + c sin 2 x
(b) xcosα + sinα logsin(x – α) + c
9. ∫ sin 5x sin 3x dx =
42 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16
(a) logsin3x – logsin5x + c 1/ 4 1/ 4
4 ⎛ x −1 ⎞ 4 ⎛ x +1 ⎞
1 1 (a) +c (b) +c
(b) log sin 3x + log sin 5x + c 3 ⎜⎝ x + 2 ⎟⎠ 3 ⎜⎝ x − 2 ⎟⎠
3 5
1/ 4 1/ 4
(c) 1 ⎜⎛ x − 1 ⎞⎟ (d) 1 ⎛⎜ x + 1 ⎟⎞
1 1
(c) log sin 3x − log sin 5x + c +c +c
3 5 3 ⎝x +2⎠ 3 ⎝ x −1⎠
(d) 3logsin3x – 5logsin5x + c
1
10. ∫
dx
=
15. ∫ 1 + sin2 xdx =
x log x . log(log x )
1
(a) 2log(logx) + c (b) log[log(logx)] + c (a) tan −1 ( 2 tan x ) + k
2
(c) log(xlogx) + c (d) None of these
(b) 2 tan −1 ( 2 tan x ) + k
2
1+ x
11.
∫ dx =
(c) −
1
tan −1 ( 2 tan x ) + k
1 − x2 2
3 −1 1 (d) − 2 tan −1 ( 2 tan x ) + k
(a) sin x − x 1 − x 2 + c
2 2
3 −1 1 x 2 tan −1(x 3 )
(b)
2
sin x + x 1 − x 2 + c
2
16.
∫ 1 + x 6 dx is equal to
3 1
(c) cos −1 x − x 1 − x 2 + c (a) tan–1(x3) + c (b)
1
(tan −1(x 3 ))2 + c
2 2 6
1 1
(d)
3 1
cos −1 x + x 1 − x 2 + c (c) − (tan (x )) + c (d) (tan −1(x 2 ))3 + c
−1 3 2
2 2 2 2
sin3 2 x
12. ∫
x
dx =
17. ∫ cos5 2xdx =
3 3
a −x
(a) tan4 x + c (b) tan 4x + c
3/2 3/2
⎛x⎞ 2 −1 ⎛ x ⎞ 1
(a) sin −1 ⎜ ⎟ +c (b) sin ⎜ ⎟ +c (c) tan42x + x + c (d) tan 4 2 x + c
⎝a⎠ 3 ⎝a⎠ 8
2dx
3/2 2 /3 18. The value of ∫ is
(c) 3 sin −1 ⎛⎜ x ⎟⎞ +c (d) 3 sin −1 ⎜⎛ x ⎞⎟ +c 1 − 4x2
2 ⎝a⎠ 2 ⎝a⎠ (a) tan–1(2x) + c (b) cot–1(2x) + c
(c) –1
cos (2x) + c (d) sin–1(2x) + c
x 5dx
13. ∫ = 19. If ∫ f (x)dx = g (x), then∫ f
−1
(x )dx is equal to
(1 + x 3 )
(a) g –1(x) (b) xf –1(x) – g( f –1(x))
2 (c) xf –1(x) – g–1(x) (d) f –1(x)
(a) (1 + x 3 )(x 3 + 2) + c
3
sin x
(b)
2
(1 + x 3 )(x 3 − 4) + c
20. ∫ sin x − cos xdx =
9 1
(a) log(sin x − cos x ) + x + c
2 2
(c) (1 + x 3 )(x 3 + 4) + c
9 1
(b) [log(sin x − cos x ) + x] + c
2 2
(d) (1 + x 3 )(x 3 − 2) + c
9 1
(c) log(cos x − sin x ) + x + c
1 2
14. ∫ [(x − 1)3 (x + 2)5 ]1/4 dx is equal to 1
(d) [log(cos x − sin x ) + x] + c
2

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 43


⎧ ⎫
2 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞
21. ⎪⎨ (log x − 1) ⎪⎬ dx is equal to (c) tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ (d) 2 3 tan −1 ( 3 )
∫ ⎪1 + (log x)2 ⎪ 3 ⎝ 3⎠
⎩ ⎭ a
x 4 dx
(a) xe x
+c (b)
x
2
+c 28. ∫ (a2 + x 2 )4 =
1+ x 2 (log x ) + 1 0
1 ⎛π 1⎞ 1 ⎛π 1⎞
log x
+c
x
+c
(a) ⎜ − ⎟ (b) ⎜ + ⎟
(c)
(log x )2 + 1
(d) 16a3 ⎝ 4 3 ⎠ 16a3 ⎝ 4 3 ⎠
x2 + 1
x 2dx 1 3 ⎛π 1⎞ 1 3 ⎛ π 1⎞
22. Let f (x ) = ∫ and f(0) = 0, then (c) a ⎜ − ⎟ (d) a ⎜ + ⎟
16 ⎝ 4 3 ⎠ 16 ⎝ 4 3 ⎠
(1 + x 2 )(1 + 1 + x 2 )
π/ 4
the value of f(1) be sin x + cos x
π
29. ∫ 9 + 16 sin 2 x
dx =
(a) log(1 + 2 ) (b) log(1 + 2 ) − 0
π 4
(c) log(1 + 2 ) + (d) none of these 1
(a) log 3 (b) log3
4 20
23. cos −3/7 x ⋅ sin −11/7 xdx =
∫ (c)
1
20
log 5 (d) none of these
4
(a) log |sin 4/7 x | +c (b) tan 4/7 x + c
7 π /2
sin x cos xdx
(c)
−7
tan −4/7 x + c (d) log|cos3/7x| +c
30. ∫ cos2 x + 3 cos x + 2
=
0
4
⎛8⎞ ⎛9⎞
π /2 (a) log ⎜ ⎟ (b) log ⎜ ⎟
⎝9⎠ ⎝8⎠
24. ∫ cos θ sin3 θdθ =
(c) log(8 × 9) (d) none of these
0
−20 31. The value of the integral
20 8 −8 π
(a) (b) (c) (d)
21
b
21 21 21
∫ sin mx sin nxdx for m ≠ n(m, n ∈ I ), is
log x −π
25. ∫ x
dx =
(a) 0 (b) π (c)
π
(d) 2π
a
2
⎛ log b ⎞ ⎛b⎞ π
(a) log ⎜ (b) log(ab)log ⎜ ⎟
⎝ log a ⎟⎠ ⎝a⎠ dx
32. ∫ 1 − 2a cos x + a2 =
1 ⎛b⎞ 1 ⎛a⎞ 0
(c) log(ab)log ⎜ ⎟ (d) log(ab)log ⎜ ⎟ π
2 ⎝a⎠ 2 ⎝ b⎠ (a) (b) π(1 – a2)
2(1 − a2 )
1
−1 π
26. ∫ tan xdx = (c) (d) none of these
0 1 − a2
π 1 1 dx
(a) − log 2
4 2
(b) π − log 2
2
33. The value of ∫ 1+ e cos x must be same as
π
(c) − log 2 (d) π − log 2 ⎛ 1− e
1 x⎞
4 (a) tan −1 ⎜ tan ⎟ + c
π /2 1 − e2 ⎝ 1+ e 2⎠
dx
27. ∫ 2 + cos x
= (e lies between 0 and 1)
0 2 ⎛ 1− e x⎞
(b) tan −1 ⎜ tan ⎟ + c,
1 −1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ −1 1 − e2 ⎝ 1+ e 2⎠
(a) tan ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ (b) 3 tan ( 3 )
3 3 (e lies between 0 and 1)

44 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


1 e 2 − 1 sin x 1/2 ⎧⎪ ⎛ x + 1 ⎞ 2 ⎛ x − 1 ⎞ 2 ⎪⎫
+ c, (e is greater than 1)
(c)
e2 − 1
log
1 + e cos x
38. ∫ ⎨⎜⎝ x − 1 ⎟⎠ + ⎜⎝ x + 1 ⎟⎠ − 2⎬dx is
−1/2 ⎪⎩ ⎪⎭
2 e + cos x + e 2 − 1 sin x ⎛4⎞ ⎛3⎞
(d) log + c, (a) 4 ln ⎜ ⎟ (b) 4 ln ⎜ ⎟
e −12 1 + e cos x ⎝3⎠ ⎝4⎠
(e is greater than 1)
34. Let f be a differentiable function such that ⎛ 81 ⎞ ⎛ 256 ⎞
(c) − ln ⎜ (d) ln ⎜
2 ⎝ 256 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 81 ⎟⎠
4 − e2
f ′(x) = f (x ) + ∫ f (x )dx , f (0) = , then f(x) is
3 x2
0 sin x
⎛ e −1⎞ 2 2
39. Let f (x ) = ∫ 1 + cos2 t
dt then
(a) e − ⎜ x
⎟ (b) e − (e − 2)
x 2
π /4
⎝ 3 ⎠ 3 ⎛π⎞ ⎛ π⎞
(a) f ′⎜ ⎟ = π (b) f ′ ⎜− ⎟ = π
e − [arg | z − 1 |] ⎝2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠
(c) e x + (d) None of these
3 π2 / 4
⎛ 3π ⎞ dx
Multiple Correct Answer Type (c) f ′ ⎜ ⎟ = −3π
⎝ 2 ⎠
(d) f ′(π) = ∫ 1 + cos2 x
π π π2
2 2 tan x cot x
sin(sin x ) sin x
35. If I = ∫ dx , I2 = ∫ tdt dt
sin x x
dx 40. The value of ∫ 2
+ ∫ 2
is
0 0 1/e 1 + t 1/e t (1 + t )
π
1
2
sin(tan x ) (a) (b) 1
and I3 = ∫ dx , then which of the following 2 + tan2 x
tan x 1
π 2 dt
∫ 1+ t2
0
is true? (c) (d)
4 π
(a) I1 > I3 (b) I2 > I3 −1
(c) I1 > I2 (d) I1 < I2 Comprehension Type
36. If f(x) is monotonic and differentiable function,
Paragraph for Q. No. 41 to 43
f (b)
−1
then ∫ 2 x(b − f (x ))dx = Let f(x) defined in [a, b] has discontinuities C1, C2, C3,
...., Cn such that a < C1 < C2 < .... < Cn < b then
f (a)
b b b C1 C2
∫( f ∫( f ∫ f (x)dx = ∫ ∫
2 2 2 2
(a) (x ) − f (a))dx (b) (x ) − f (b))dx f (x )dx + f (x )dx + ....
a a a a C1
b Cn b
(c) ∫ f 2 (x )dx + (a − b) f 2 (b) + ∫ f (x )dx + ∫ f (x )dx
a
Cn −1 Cn
b 1
(d) ∫f
2
(x )dx + (a − b) f (a) 2 41. ∫ [2x − 3]dx = (where [.] is greatest integer
a −1
⎡ ⎤ function)
dx 1 1
37. ∫ (1 + x )2010 ⎢ α(1 + x )α β(1 + x )β ⎥ + c
= 2 ⎢ − ⎥ (a) –7 (b) –9 (c) 5 (d) 11/2
⎣ ⎦ 50 π
where α, β > 0 then [tan −1 x]dx = (where [.] is greatest integer
42. ∫
(a) |α – β| = 1 0
(b) (β + 2)(α + 1) = (2010)2 function)
(c) β, α, 2010 are in A.P. (a) tan1 + 50π (b) –tan1
(d) α + 1 = β + 2 = 2010 (c) 50π – tan1 (d) 20π – 2tan1

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 45


3 π /2 Integer Answer Type
43. ∫ [sin x]dx = (where[.] is greatest integer a
−[log a x ]
π /2 46. If the value of definite integral ∫ x ⋅a dx
function) 1
(a) –π (b) π/2 (c) –π/2 (d) π e −1
where a > 1, and [.]denotes the greatest integer, is
Matrix-Match Type then the value of 5[a] is ___ 2
44. Match the following : π
47. If I = ∫ x(sin2 (sin x ) + cos2 (cos x ))dx , then
Column I Column II
0
A. The value of P. π [I] = ____, where [.] denotes the greatest integer
π /2 − α function
dx 2
∫ 1 + cotn x 48. Area bounded by 2 ≥ max. {|x – y|, |x + y|} is
α
k sq. units then k =
π
where, 0 < α < ,n > 0 is 49. The area bounded by the curves y = ln x, y = ln|x|,
2 y = |lnx|, y = |ln|x||(in sq. units) is
B. The value of Q. π 50. Let f(x) = x3 + 3x + 2 and g(x) is the inverse of it.
π 2 −α
sin x 4 The area bounded by g(x), the x-axis and the ordinates
∫ 1 + α x dx, α > 0 is m
at x = –2 and x = 6 is where m, n ∈ N and G.C.D of
−π
n
C. The value of R. 3π (m, n) = 1 then m – 2 =
3π − 2α 5 π/ 4
−α 4
2

sin 2n
x
dx is
51. The integral ∫ (| cos t |sin t + |sin t | cos t )dt has
sin 2n
x + cos 2n
x π/ 4
α the value equal to
D. The value of S. 52. If the area bounded by the curves y = –x2 + 6x – 5,
π
cot −1 α
− tan −1 α 73
tan x 4 y = –x2 + 4x – 3 and the line y = 3x – 15 is sq. units,
λ
∫ tan x + cot x
dx is then the value of λ is
tan −1 α 53. The minimum area bounded by the function
y = f(x) and y = αx + 9, (α ∈ R) where f satisfies the
45. Match the following :
relation f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y) + y f (x ) ∀x , y ∈ R and
Column I Column II f ′(0) = 0 is 9A, then value of A is
A. P. 54. Let R = {x, y : x2 + y2 ≤ 144 and sin(x + y) ≥ 0} and
sec x sin x − 2
∫ (sec x + tan x)2 dx = log
sin x − 1
+C S be the area of region given by R, then find S/9π.
55. If the area bounded by [x] + [y] = n and y = k;
B. Q. n, k ∈ N and k ≤ (n + 1) and [.] greatest integer function,
cos x cos2 x
∫ (sin x − 1)(sin x − 2) dx = − +C in the first quadrant, is n + r, then find r.
2(1 + sin x )2 SOLUTIONS
C. R. 2xtan–1 x – log (1 + x2) sin x sin(x − α + α)
∫ sin
−1 ⎛
⎜⎝
2x ⎞
⎟ dx , +C
1. (b) : ∫ sin(x − α)dx = ∫ sin(x − α)
dx
1 + x2 ⎠
| x |< 1 = (sin(x − α)cos α + cos(x − α)sin α
=∫ dx
sin(x − α)
D. S.
∫( tan x + cot x ) dx = ⎛ tan x − 1 ⎞
2 tan −1 ⎜
⎝ 2 tan x ⎟⎠
+C = ∫ cos αdx + ∫ sin α ⋅ cot(x − α)dx
= xcosα + sinα · logsin(x – α) + c

46 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


cos 2 x − 1 ⎡1 1 − e2 x ⎤
2. (c) : Let I = ∫ cos 2x + 1 dx = − log[e − x + e −2 x − 1] = − log ⎢ + ⎥
⎢ ex ex ⎥
(1 − cos 2 x ) 2 sin2 x ⎣ ⎦
⇒ I = −∫ dx = − ∫ dx
(1 + cos 2 x ) 2 cos2 x = − log[1 + 1 − e 2 x ] + log e x + c = x − log[1 + 1 − e 2 x ] + c
⇒ I = − ∫ tan2 xdx = − ∫ (sec2 x − 1)dx sin 2 x sin(5x − 3x )
⇒ I = x – tanx + c
9. (c) : ∫ sin 5x sin 3xdx = ∫ sin 5x sin 3x dx
(x + 1)2x 2 + 1 + 2x sin 5x cos 3x − cos 5x sin 3x
=∫
3. (b) : ∫ x(x 2 + 1) ∫ x(x 2 + 1) dx
dx =
sin 5x sin 3x
dx

x2 + 1 1 1
=∫ dx + 2 ∫
x
dx = log sin 3x − log sin 5x + c
2 2 3 5
x(x + 1) x(x + 1)
dx
dx dx 10. (b) : ∫
= ∫ + 2∫ = log e x + 2 tan −1 x + c x log x ⋅ log(log x )
2
x x +1 Put log (logx) = z
4. (c) : Put xe + ex =t⇒ e(xe – 1 + ex – 1)dx = dt 1 1
⇒ ⋅ dx = dz , then it reduces to
e −1 x −1
x +e 1 dt 1 1 log x x
Now, ∫ dx = ∫ = log t = log(x e + e x ) + c dz
e
x +e x e t e e ∫ z = log z = log[log(log x)] + c
sin 2 x 11. (a) : Put x = sinθ ⇒ dx = cosθdθ, then
5. (b) : Let I = ∫ dx
sin x + cos 4 x
4
1 + x2 1
2 sin x cos x 2 tan x sec x 2 ∫ dx = ∫ (1 + sin2 θ)dθ = θ +
2∫
(1 − cos 2θ)dθ
=∫ dx = ∫ dx 1 − x2
4 4 4
sin x + cos x 1 + tan x 3θ 1 3 1
= − sin θ 1 − sin2 θ + c = sin −1 x − x 1 − x 2 + c
Put = t ⇒ 2tanx sec2xdx = dt
tan2 x 2 2 2 2
dt 12. (b) : Put x = a(sinθ) 2/3
∴ I= ∫ = tan −1 t + c = tan −1 (tan2 x ) + c
1+ t 2 2
⇒ dx = a(sin θ)−1/3 cos θdθ
6. (a) : Put a2 + b2 sin2x = t ⇒ b2 sin2xdx = dt, then 3
2
sin 2 x 1 dt 1 a1/2 (sin θ)1/3 a(sin θ)−1/3 cos θ
∫ a2 + b2 sin2 xdx = b2 ∫ t = b2 log t + c ∴ ∫
x
dx = ∫ 3 dθ
a3 − x 3 a − a3 sin2 θ
3
1 3/2
= log(a2 + b2 sin2 x ) + c 2 cos θdθ 2 ⎛x⎞
b 2 = a3/2 ∫ = sin −1 ⎜ ⎟ +c
3 a3/2 1 − sin2 θ 3 ⎝a⎠
cos 2 x
7. (c) : ∫ (cos x + sin x)2 dx 13. (d) : Put 1 + x3 = t2 ⇒ 3x2dx = 2tdt
(cos x − sin x )(cos x + sin x ) cos x − sin x 2
∴ I = ∫ (t 2 − 1)dt
=∫ dx = ∫ dx
(cos x + sin x )2 cos x + sin x 3
Put t = sinx + cosx ⇒dt =(cosx – sinx)dx, then it ⎛
2 t 3 ⎞ 2 2
= ⎜ − t ⎟ + c = t (t 2 − 3) + c = (x 3 − 2) 1 + x 3 + c
reduces to 3⎝ 3 ⎠ 9 9
1
∫ t dt = log t + c = log(sin x + cos x) + c
1
14. (a) : Let I = ∫ dx
[(x − 1)3 (x + 2)5 ]1/ 4
1 e−x
8. (a) : ∫ dx = ∫ dx =∫
1
dx
1 − e2 x e −2 x − 1 ⎛ x −1 ⎞
3/ 4
2
(x + 2)
Put e–x = t ⇒ –e–x dx = dt, then it reduces to ⎝⎜ x + 2 ⎟⎠
1 x −1 3
−∫ dt = − log[t + t 2 − 1] + c Put =t ⇒ dx = dt
t2 −1 x +2 (x + 2)2

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 47


1 ⎛ t1/ 4 ⎞ 21. (b) : Put log x = t ⇒ dx = et dt
1/ 4
1 1 4 ⎛ x −1 ⎞
∴ I= ∫ dt = ⎜ ⎟ + c = ⎜⎝ ⎟ +c 2
3 t 3/4 3 ⎝1/ 4 ⎠ 3 x +2⎠ ⎪⎧ log x − 1 ⎪⎫ t⎡ 1 2t ⎤
1 dx ∫ ⎪⎨1 + (log x)2 ⎬⎪ dx = ∫ e ⎢1 + t 2 − (1 + t 2 )2 ⎥ dt
15. (a) : I = ∫ dx = ∫ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦
2
1 + sin x 2 sin x + cos2 x
2
e t
x
= +c = +c
sec2 xdx 1 sec2 xdx 1+ t 2
1 + (log x )2
=∫ =∫
2 tan2 x + 1 2 tan2 x + 1 22. (b) : Let x = tanθ ⇒ dx = sec2θdθ
2 x 2dx tan2 θ sec2 θdθ
Put tanx = t ⇒ sec2xdx = dt, then f (x ) = ∫ =∫
1 dt 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ −1 ⎛ t ⎞ (1 + x 2 )(1 + 1 + x 2 ) sec2 θ(1 + sec θ)
I= ∫ = tan ⎜ +k
2 2 1 2 ⎜⎝ 1 / 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 1 / 2 ⎟⎠ tan2 θdθ sin2 θdθ (1 − cos2 θ) dθ
t + =∫ =∫ =∫
2 1 + sec θ cos θ(1 + cos θ) cos θ(1 + cos θ)
1 −1
= tan ( 2 tan x ) + k (1 − cos θ)dθ
2 =∫ = ∫ sec θdθ − ∫ dθ
1 cos θ
16. (b) : Put tan–1(x3) = z ⇒ × 3x 2dx = dz
1 + x6 = log( x + 1 + x 2 ) − tan −1 x + c
x 2 tan −1 (x 3 ) 1 Now, f (0) = log(0 + 1 + 0 ) − tan −1 (0) + c ⇒ c = 0
Now, ∫ dx = ∫ zdz
6
1+ x 3 π
2
∴ f (1) = log(1 + 1 + 12 ) − tan −1 (1) = log(1 + 2 ) −
1 z 1 4
= ⋅ = (tan −1 (x 3 ))2 + c 23. (c) : I = ∫ cos −3/7 x ⋅ (sin(−2+3/7) x )dx
3 2 6
3
17. (d) : I = sin 2 x dx = tan3 2 x ⋅ sec2 2 xdx = ∫ cos −3/7 x sin −2 x sin3/7 x dx
∫ cos5 2x ∫
cos ec2 x cos ec2 xdx
Putting tan2x = t and 2sec22xdx = dt, we get =∫ dx = ∫
⎛ cos3/7 x ⎞ cot3/7 x
t 3dt 1 t 4 1 ⎜ 3/7 ⎟
I=∫ = ⋅ + c = (tan 4 2 x ) + c ⎝ sin x ⎠
2 2 4 8
Put cotx = t ⇒ –cosec2 xdx = dt
18. (d) : Put 2 x = sin θ ⇒ 2dx = cos θdθ
dt 7 7
cos θ I = −∫ = − t 4/7 + c = − tan −4/7 x + c
⇒ I=∫ dθ = ∫ dθ = θ + c t 3/7 4 4
1 − sin2 θ π /2

⇒ I = sin–1(2x) + c
24. (b) : Let I = ∫ cos θ sin3 θdθ
0
19. (b) :∫ f (x )dx = g (x ) (Given) Put t = cosθ ⇒ dt = –sinθdθ
⎧d ⎫ 0 1
Now, I = ∫ f −1(x ) ⋅ dx = f −1(x )∫ dx − ∫ ⎨ f −1(x )∫ dx ⎬dx
⎩ dx ⎭ I = − ∫ t1/2 (1 − t 2 )dt = ∫ (t1/2 − t 5/2 )dt

= xf −1 (x ) − ∫ x{ d −1
dx }
f (x ) dx = xf −1 (x ) − ∫ xd{ f −1 (x )}

1
⎡2 2 ⎤
I = ⎢ t 3/2 − t 7/2 ⎥ =
⎣3 7
8
⎦ 0 21
0
1

Let f –1(x)= t ⇒ x = f(t) and d{ f –1(x)} = dt b


1
∴ I = xf −1(x ) − ∫ f (t )dt = xf −1(x ) − g (t ) = xf −1(x ) − g { f −1(x )} 25. (c) : Let I = ∫ log xdx
x
a
sin x 1 2 sin x b
20. (b) : ∫ dx = ∫ dx 1
⇒ I = [log x . log x]ba − ∫ log xdx
sin x − cos x 2 sin x − cos x x
1 (sin x − cos x + sin x + cos x ) a
= ∫ dx 1
2 sin x − cos x ⇒ 2I = [(log x )2 ]ba
⇒ I = [(log b)2 − (log a)2 ]
2
1 ⎛ sin x + cos x ⎞ 1 1 1 ⎛b⎞
= ∫ ⎜1 + ⎟ dx = [x + log(sin x − cos x )] + c ⇒ I = [(log b + log a)(log b − log a)] = log(ab)log ⎜ ⎟
2 ⎝ sin x − cos x ⎠ 2 2 2 ⎝a⎠

48 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


26. (a) : Put x = tanθ ⇒ dx = sec2θdθ π/ 4
sin x + cos x
π 29. (a) : Let I = ∫ dx
Also as x = 0, θ = 0 and x = 1, θ = 0
9 + 16 sin 2x
4
Put sinx – cosx = t ⇒ (sinx + cosx)dx = dt
1 π/ 4
Therefore, ∫ tan −1xdx =
0 0
∫ θ sec2 θdθ I= ∫
dt
2
= ∫
dt
2
0 0 −1 9 + 16(1 − t ) −1 25 − 16t
π π 1 0
= − log 2 = − log 2 1 0 dt 1 ⎡2 5 + 4x ⎤
I= ∫ = ⎢ log
5 − 4x ⎥⎦ −1
4 4 2
16 −1 ⎛ 5 ⎞ 2 16 ⎣ 5
π /2 − t2
dx ⎝4⎠
27. (c) : I = ∫ 2 + cos x 1 1
= [log 1 − log 1 + log 9] = log 3
0
40 20
π /2
dx π /2
= ∫ x x x x 30. (b) : Let I = ∫
sin x cos xdx
0 2 sin
2
+ 2 cos2 + cos2 − sin2 cos2 x + 3 cos x + 2
0
2 2 2 2
Put cosx = t ⇒ –sinxdx = dt, then
x 1 1
π /2 π /2 sec2 tdt ⎡ 2 1 ⎤
dx I=∫ 2 =∫⎢ − dt
= ∫ = ∫ 2 dx
⎣ + + 1 ⎥⎦
2 x 2 x 2 x 0 t + 3t + 2 0 t 2 t
0 sin + 3 cos 0 3 + tan
2 2 2 = [2 log(t + 2) − log(t + 1)]10 = [2 log 3 − log 2 − 2 log 2]
x 1 x ⎛9⎞
Put t = tan ⇒ dt = sec2 dx , then = [log 9 − log 8] = log ⎜ ⎟
2 2 2 ⎝8⎠
π
1
dt ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2 31. (a) : Let I = 2 ∫ sin mx sin nxdx
I = 2∫ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟
2 ⎝ 3⎠ π 0
0 3+t
3
= ∫ [cos(m − n)x − cos(m + n)x]dx
28. (a) : Put x = atanθ ⇒ dx = asec2θdθ 0
π
⎡ sin(m − n)x sin(m + n)x ⎤
π/ 4 4 =⎢ −
(m + n) ⎥⎦ 0
4 2
a tan θ ⋅ a sec θ ⎣ (m − n)
∴ I= ∫ a8 sec8 θ

0 ⎡ sin(m − n)π sin(m + n)π ⎤
= ⎢ − =0
1
π/ 4
1 ⎡
π/ 4 ⎤ ⎣ (m − n) (m + n) ⎥⎦
= ∫ sin 4 θ cos2 θdθ = ⎢ ∫ (sin4 θ − sin6 θ) dθ⎥
3⎢ Since, sin(m – n)π = 0 = sin(m + n)π for m ≠ n
a3 0 a ⎣ 0 ⎦⎥
π
π/ 4 ⎡ dx
1 (1 − cos 2θ)2 (1 − cos 2θ)3 ⎤ 32. (c) : ∫ ⎛ ⎞ − 2a ⎛ 2 x x⎞
= ∫ ⎢ − ⎥ dθ x
0 (1 + a2 ) cos2 + sin2

x
⎠ ⎝
cos − sin2
a3 0 ⎢⎣ 4 8 ⎥⎦ 2 2 2 2⎠
π/ 4 π
1 dx
=∫

2
= (1 + cos 2θ)(1 + cos 2θ − 2 cos 2θ)dθ x x
8a3 0 0 (1 − a)2 cos2 + (1 + a)2 sin2
2 2

1 π/ 4 2 dt ⎧ x⎫
= ∫ (1 − cos 2θ − cos2 2θ + cos3 2θ)dθ = 2 ∫ 2 ⎨
; where t = tan ⎬
8a3 0 2
(1 + a) 0 {(1 − a) / (1 + a)} + t ⎩ 2⎭

1 π/ 4 2 (1 + a) ⎡ −1 ⎛ 1 + a ⎞ ⎤
= ⋅t
⎝ 1 − a ⎟⎠ ⎥⎦ 0
= tan ⎜
∫ (2 − cos 2θ − 2 cos 4θ + cos 6θ)dθ
(1 + a)2 (1 − a) ⎢⎣
32a3 0
2 π
π/ 4 = [tan −1 ∞ − tan −1 0] =
1 ⎡ sin 2θ sin 4θ sin 6θ ⎤ 1 ⎛ π 1⎞ 2
(1 − a ) 1 − a2
= 3 ⎢⎣
2θ − − + ⎥ = ⎜ − ⎟
32a 2 2 6 ⎦0 16a3 ⎝ 4 3 ⎠ 33. (b)

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 49


34. (a) : f ′(x) = f (x) + k 39. (a, b, c, d) :
x2
f ′(x) 2x 1
∫ f (x) + k dx = ∫ dx f ′(x) = sin x × 2
+ cos x ∫ 2
dt
1 + cos x π2 / 4 1 + cos t
⇒ log(f (x) + k) = x + C ⇒ f(x) = k1ex – k cot x
dt
2 40. (b, d) : Let I = ∫
∴ f (0) = k1 − k = 4 − e .... (1) t(1 + t 2 )
1/e
2 3
Also, k = ∫ f (x)dx ⇒ 3k = k1(e2 – 1) .... (2) Put t = 1/z ⇒ dt = − dz
1
0 z2
Solving (1) and (2), we get 1
tan x − 2 dz e e
⎛ 2 ⎞ zdz tdt
f (x) = e x − ⎜ e − 1 ⎟ ∴ I= ∫ z = ∫ =
1⎛ 1⎞ ∫
⎝ 3 ⎠ (z + 1) tan x (1 + t 2 )
2
e ⎜⎝1 + 2 ⎟⎠ tan x
π sin x z z
35. (a, b, c) : 0 < x < ⇒
2 x tan x cot x
tdt dt
is decreasing and sinx < x < tanx ∴ ∫ 2
+ ∫ 2
sin(sin x) sin x sin(sin x) 1/e 1 + t 1/e t(1 + t )
⇒ > > ⇒ I1 > I2 > I3
sin x x tan x tan x e e
t t 1
tdt
36. (a, d) : Let f –1(x) = y ⇒ x = f(y) = ∫ 2
dt + ∫ 2
dt = ∫ = [ln(1 + t 2)]1e/e
2
1/e 1+ t tan x 1 + t 1/e 1 + t
2
⇒ dx = f ′(y)dy
b 1⎧ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎫ 1
I = ∫ 2 f ( y)(b − y) f ′( y)dy = ⎨ln(1 + e 2 ) − ln ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ ⎬ = (ln e 2 ) = 1
2⎩ ⎝ e ⎠⎭ 2
a
b b 2 1 dt 4 1 dt 4 4 π
= b ∫ 2 f ( y) f ′( y)dy − ∫ 2 yf ( y) f ′( y)dy Also, ∫ = ∫ = ⋅ tan −1 1 = ⋅ = 1
π −1 1 + t 2 π 0 1 + t 2 π π 4
a a
b
−1/2
= b( f (b) − f (a)) − bf 2(b) + af 2(a) + ∫ f 2( y) dy
2 2 0 1/2 1
a
41. (a) : ∫ −5dx + ∫ −4dx + ∫ −3dx + ∫ −2dx
b b −1 −1/2 0 1/2
= ∫ f 2(x)dx + (a − b) f 2(a) = ∫ ( f 2(x) − f 2(a))dx 5 3
a a = − − 2 − − 1 = −7
2 2
dx x 50π
37. (a, b, c, d) : ∫ =∫ dx tan1
(1 + x ) 2010
x (1 + x )2010 42. (c) : ∫ 0 dx + ∫ 1 dx = 50π − tan1
t −1 0 tan1
= 2∫ 2010 dt (where t = 1 + x )
π 3π/2
t π
⎡ 1 1 ⎤
43. (c) : ∫ 0 dx + ∫ −1 dx = −
2
= 2⎢ 2009
− 2008 ⎥ + c π /2 π
⎣ 2009 t 2008 t ⎦
44. A  (Q), B  (P), C  (R), D  (S)
⇒ α = 2009, β = 2008
π /2 − α
1/2
⎛ x +1 x −1⎞
2 sinn x
38. (a, c, d) : Let I = ∫ ⎜⎝ − ⎟ dx (A) Let I = ∫ dx ... (i)
−1/2 x −1 x +1⎠ α sinn x + cosn x
π
sinn ⎛ − α ⎞
1/2 1/2
4x 4x π /2 − α
= ∫ dx = −2 ∫ dx ⎝2 ⎠
x2 − 1 (x 2 − 1) I= ∫ dx
−1/2 π π
sinn ⎛ − α ⎞ + cosn ⎛ − α ⎞
0
α
{ } 3⎞
= −4 ln ⎜⎛ ⎟
⎝2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠
1/2
= −4 ln | x 2 − 1 |
0 ⎝ 4⎠ π /2 − α
cosn α ... (ii)
⎛4⎞ ⎛ 256 ⎞ ⎛ 81 ⎞ = ∫
= 4 ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln ⎜ = − ln ⎜
⎝3⎠ ⎝ 81 ⎠⎟ ⎝ 256 ⎟⎠ α cosn α + sinn α

50 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


Adding (i) and (ii), we get sec x(sec x + tan x) dt
π /2 − α
=∫ 3
dx = ∫ 3 (Putting t = secx + tanx)
π π (sec x + tan x) t
2I = ∫ 1 ⋅ dx = − 2α ⇒ I= −α
2 4 1
α = − (sec x + tan x)−2 + C
π 2
sin2 x cos x dt
(B) Let I = ∫ dx ... (i) (B) ∫ dx = ∫
x
−π 1 + α (sin x − 1)(sin x − 2) (t − 1)(t − 2)
π π x
2 α sin2 x
sin (0 − x) (Putting t = sinx)
⇒ ∫ I= dx ⇒ I = ∫ dx ... (ii)
+ α 0− x 1 + α x ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ |sin x − 2 |
1 − π =∫⎜ − dt = log +C
⎝ t − 2 t − 1 ⎟⎠
−π
Adding (i) and (ii), we get |sin x − 1 |
π π
−1 ⎛ 2x ⎞
2I = ∫ sin2 xdx = 2 ∫ sin2 xdx (C) ∫ sin ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠
dx = 2∫ t sec2 tdt (Putting x = tan t )
−π 0 1+ x
π π /2 = 2[t tant – log|sect| + C 1] = 2x tan–1x – log(1 + x2) + C
π
⇒ I = ∫ sin2 xdx = 2 ∫ sin2 xdx =
2 2 ydy
0 0 (D) Putting tanx = y2 , so that dx = , we have

−α
(1 + y 4 )
2 sin2n x ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2y
(C) Let I = ∫ tan x + cot x ) dx = ∫ ⎜ y + ⎟
2n
sin x + cos x 2n
dx ... (i)
∫( ⎝ y ⎠ 1+ y4
dy
α
y2 + 1 1 + 1 / y2

−α ⎞ 2n ⎛ 3π = 2∫ dy = 2 ∫ 2 dy
sin ⎜ − x ⎟
2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 1+ y4 y + 1 / y2
= ∫ dx
⎛ 3π ⎞ 2n ⎛ 3π ⎞
α sin2n ⎜ − x ⎟ + cos ⎜ − x ⎟ 1 + 1 / y2 du 1
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ =2∫ dy = 2∫ 2
2
where u = y −
3π ( y − 1 / y) + 2 u +2 y
−α
2 cos2n x 1 u ⎛ tan x − 1 ⎞
⇒ I= ∫ =2 tan −1 + C = 2 tan −1 ⎜ +C
⎝ 2 tan x ⎟⎠
2n 2n
dx ... (ii)
sin x + cos x
α
2 2
Adding (i) and (ii), we get
46. (5) : Let log a x = t ⇒ a t = x ⇒ dx = a t log e a dt

−α
2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ 3π a 1 1
2I = ∫ 1 ⋅ dx = ⎜ − α − α ⎟ ⇒ I= −α −[log x] t −[t ] t 2t
⎝ 2 ⎠ 4 ∴ ∫ x ⋅ a a dx = ln a∫ a ⋅ a ⋅ a dt = ln a∫ a dt
α 1 0 0
cot −1 α
(D) Let I =
tan x a2 − 1 e − 1
∫ tan x + cot x
dx ... (i) = = ⇒ a= e
tan −1 α 2 2
cot −1
α π
=
cot x 47. (4) : I = ∫ (π − x)((sin2(sin x)) + cos2(cos x))dx
∫ cot x + tan x
dx ... (ii)
0
tan −1 α
π /2
Adding (i) and (ii), we get ⇒ 2I = 2π (sin2(sin x) + cos2 (cos x))dx
−1

cot α 0
2I = ∫ 1dx = cot −1 α − tan −1 α π /2
tan −1 α ⇒ I=π ∫ (sin2(sin x) + cos2 (cos x)) dx
0
π ⎞ π ⎞
= ⎜⎛ − tan −1 α ⎟ − tan −1 α or I = ⎜⎛ − tan −1 α ⎟ π /2
⎝2 ⎠ ⎝4 ⎠
=π ∫ (sin2(cos x) + cos2(sin x)) dx
45. A  (Q), B  (P), C  (R), D  (S) 0
π/2
(A) We have ∫
sec x
dx π2
⇒ 2I = π ∫ 2dx ⇒ I =
(sec x + tan x)2 2
0

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 51


48. (8) : 2 ≥ max.{|x – y|, |x + y|} 73
⇒ |x – y| ≤ 2 and |x + y| ≤ 2, which forms a square = sq. units
6
of diagonal length 4 units.
 f (x + h) − f (x + 0)
+=2 –=2 53. (8) : f ′(x) = lim
h→0 h
2
 –  = –2  +  = –2 f (x) + f (h) + h f (x) − f (x) − f (0) − 0 f (x)
= lim
  h→0 h
 2
⎛ f (h) − f (0) ⎞
= lim ⎜ ⎟+ f (x)
–2 h→0 ⎝ h−0 ⎠
 f ′(x)
1 ⇒ f ′(x) = f (x) ⇒ ∫ dx = ∫ dx
⇒ The area of the region = × 4 × 4 = 8 sq. units. f (x)
2
x2
1 ⇒ 2 f (x) = x + c ⇒ f (x) =
49. (4) : Area = 4∫ | ln x | dx 4
0 When α = 0, area is minimum.
1
= −4 ∫ ln x dx = −4 [ x ln x − x ]10 = 4 sq. units 9
Required minimum area = 2∫ 2 y dy
0
9 0
⎛ 3/2 ⎞
50. (7) : Then required area will be equal to area = 4 ⎜ y ⎟ = 72 sq. units.
enclosed by y = f (x), the y-axis between the abscissa ⎝ 3 / 2 ⎠0
at y = –2 and y = 6. 54. (8) : x2 + y2 ≤ 144 and sin(x + y) ≥ 0

=6 ⇒ 2nπ ≤ x + y ≤ (2n + 1)π ; n ∈I
Hence, we get the area
(0, 2)
π ⋅144 S
S= ⇒ =8
–1 2 9π
  
55. (1) : Area = n + 1
 = –2


+1
1 0 
Required area = ∫ {6 − f (x)}dx + ∫ [ f (x) − (−2)]dx –1
0 −1
9 m
⇒ = ⇒ m−2 =7 1
2 n
  +1 
π /2
51. (0) : I = ””
∫ 2 sin t cos tdt
π/ 4
π 5π/ 4
+ ∫ {(− sin t cos t ) + (sin t cos t )}dt + ∫ −2 sin t cos tdt
π /2 π
π /2 5π/ 4
= ∫ sin 2tdt − ∫ sin 2tdt = 0
π/ 4 π
5 3
52. (6) : Area = ∫ (6x − x 2 − 5)dx − ∫ (4x − x 2 − 3)dx
1 1
4 5
+ ∫ (4x − x 2 − 3)dx + ∫ (3x − 15)dx
3 4

52 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


CLASS XII Series 6


Differential Equations
HIGHLIGHTS Previous Years Analysis
2016 2015 2014
DEFINITION
Delhi AI Delhi AI Delhi AI
An equation involving the derivative(s) of dependent
variable y w.r.t. independent variable x or equation of VSA – – 2 2 - -

dependent variables with respect to independent variables SA 2 2 - - 3 3


involving derivative is called a differential equation. LA - - 1 1 - -
A differential equation involving derivatives with
The solution of the differential equation for
respect to only one independent variable is called
particular values of one or more of the arbitrary
ordinary differential equation.
constants is called a particular solution of the given
ORDER AND DEGREE OF A DIFFERENTIAL differential equation.
EQUATION
The order of the highest order derivative occurring FORMATION OF A DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
in the given differential equation is called the order WHOSE GENERAL SOLUTION IS GIVEN
of the differential equation. Suppose an equation of a family of curves contains
The power of the highest order derivative occurring n arbitrary constants (called parameters).
in the differential equation is called the degree of Then, we obtain its differential equation, using following
the differential equation. steps :
Note : Order and degree (if defined) of a differential Step I : Differentiate the equation of the given family of
equation are always positive integers. curves n times to get n more equations.
Step II : Eliminate n constants, using these (n + 1)
SOLUTION OF A DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
equations.
A relation between the independent and dependent
This gives us the required differential equation of order
variables free from derivatives satisfying the given
n.
differential equation is called a solution of the given
differential equation. METHODS OF SOLVING FIRST ORDER, FIRST
GENERAL AND PARTICULAR SOLUTIONS OF A DEGREE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION dy
(i) If the equation is = f (x ) , then y = ∫ f(x)dx + C
The general solution of a differential equation is the dx
the relation between the variables (not involving is the solution.
the differential coefficients) satisfying the given (ii) Variable separable : If the given differential
differential equation and containing as many equation can be expressed in the form f(x)dx = g(y)dy,
arbitrary constants as its order is. then ∫ f(x)dx = ∫ g(y)dy + C is the solution.

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 53


is
(iii) Reducible to variable separable : If the equation 9. Verify that y = ae3x + be–x is a solution of the
dy
= f (ax + by + c), then put ax + by + c = z. d2 y dy
differential equation − 2 − 3y = 0
dx dx 2 dx
(iv) Homogeneous equation : If a first order, first 10. Solve the following differential equation
degree differential equation is expressible in the dy y
dy f (x , y ) + = ex ; x > 0
form = , where f(x, y) and g(x, y) are dx x
dx g (x , y )
homogeneous functions of the same degree in x Long Answer Type-I
and y, then put y = vx. 11. Solve the differential equation
(v) Linear equation : If the equation is
dy
+ Py = Q, (1 + e2x)dy + ex(1 + y2)dx = 0. Given that y = 1,
dx when x = 0.
where P and Q are functions of x, then 12. Solve the following differential equation
∫ Pdx
y ⋅ e∫ dx + C , where e ∫
Pdx

Pdx
= Q ⋅e is the dy
+ 2 y = sin x
integrating factor (I.F.). dx
13. Find the differential equation of the family of all
OR circles touching the x-axis at the origin.
dx
If the equation is + Px = Q, where P and Q are 14. Show that the curve for which the normal at every
dy point passes through a fixed point is a circle.
functions of y, then
15. Solve the following differential equation
x ⋅e ∫ Pdy = ∫ Q ⋅e ∫ Pdy dy + C , where e ∫ Pdy is the dy ⎛ π⎞
+ sec x ⋅ y = tan x ⎜ 0 ≤ x < ⎟
dx ⎝ 2⎠
integrating factor (I.F.).
PROBLEMS Long Answer Type-II
Very Short Answer Type 16. Solve the following differential equation
dy (x3 + y3)dy – x2ydx = 0
1. Solve the differential equation = 1 − x + y − xy.
dx 17. In a bank, principal increases at the rate of 5% per
2. Determine the order and degree of the differential year. In how many years Rs. 1000 double itself?
2 18. Find the general solution of the following differential
d2 y
⎛ dy ⎞
equation = 1+ ⎜ ⎟ . equation y dx–(x + 2y2)dy = 0.
dx 2 ⎝ dx ⎠
19. Solve the following differential equation
3. Find the differential equation of the family of all
dy
straight lines. 2 xy + y 2 − 2 x 2 = 0; y(1) = 2 .
dx
4. Find the integrating factor of the differential 20. Solve the following differential equation
⎪⎧ −2 x y ⎪⎫ dx = 1(x ≠ 0). dy
equation ⎨ e − ⎬ + y cot x = x 2 cot x + 2 x
⎩⎪ x x ⎪⎭ dy dx
Also find the particular solution, given that y = 0
5. Find the order and degree of the differential
π
dy when x = .
equation y = px + a p + b , where p = .
2 2 2
2
dx
SOLUTIONS
Short Answer Type
dy dy
6. Obtain the differential equation of the family of 1. We have = (1 − x )(1 + y ) ⇒ = (1 − x )dx
curves represented by y = Aex + Be–x + x2, where A dx 1+ y
and B are arbitrary constants. dy x2
⇒ ∫ = ∫ (1 − x )dx ⇒ log | 1 + y | = x − +C
1+ y 2
7. Solve the differential equation log ⎛⎜ ⎟⎞ = ax + by.
dy
⎝ dx ⎠ d2 y ⎛ dy ⎞
2
2. We have = 1+ ⎜ ⎟
8. Solve : (1 + xy)ydx + (1 – xy)xdy = 0 dx 2 ⎝ dx ⎠

54 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


On squaring, we get ⎛ dy ⎞
2 7. We have log ⎜ ⎟ = ax + by
⎛d y ⎞
2
⎛ dy ⎞
2 ⎝ dx ⎠
⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ = 1 + ⎜⎝ dx ⎟⎠ dy 1
dx ⇒ = e ax +by = e ax ⋅ eby ⇒ by dy = e ax dx
Clearly, order of differential equation is 2 and dx e
degree is also 2. e −by eax
⇒ ∫ e −by dy = ∫ eax dx ⇒ = +C
3. The general equation of the family of all straight −b a
lines is given by y = mx + c, where m and c are ⇒ ae–by + beax = K, where K = –abC.
parameters. This is the required solution of the given differential
dy d2 y equation.
Now, y = mx + c ⇒ =m ⇒ =0
dx dx 2 8. Given, (1 + xy)ydx + (1– xy)xdy = 0
d2 y ⇒ (ydx + xdy) + xy(ydx – xdy) = 0
So, the required differential equation is =0
dx 2 ⇒ d(xy) = xy(xdy – ydx)
d(xy ) xdy − ydx d(xy ) dy dx
−2 x ⇒ 2 2 = ⇒ = −
4. We have dy + 1 ⋅ y = e x y xy (xy )2 y x
dx x x 1
dy 1 Integrating, we get − = log y − log x + c
This is of the form + Py = Q, where P = xy
dx x
−2 x 1 ⎛y⎞
e ⇒ − = log ⎜ ⎟ + c , which is the required
and Q = . xy ⎝ x⎠
x
1
solution.
∫ dx
I.F. = e ∫ 9. We have y = ae3x + be–x
Pdx
=e x = e2 x
.
dy d2 y
∴ = 3ae3 x − be − x and = 9ae3 x + be − x
5. We have y = px + a p + b
2 2 2
dx dx 2
d2 y dy
⇒ y − px = a2 p2 + b2 Now,
2
− 2 − 3 y = (9ae 3 x + be − x )
dx dx
⇒ (y – px)2 = a2p2 + b2 [On squaring both sides] –2(3ae3x – be–x) – 3(ae3x + be–x) = 0
⇒ y2 + x2p2 – 2xyp = a2p2 + b2 Hence, y = ae + be–x is a solution of the differential
3x
⇒ (x2 – a2)p2 – 2xyp+ (y2 – b2) = 0
d2 y dy
⎛ dy ⎞
2
⎛ dy ⎞ equation 2
− 2 − 3y = 0
⇒ (x 2 − a2 ) ⎜ ⎟ − 2 xy ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ + ( y 2 − b2 ) = 0 dx dx
⎝ dx ⎠ ⎝ dx ⎠
dy 1
Clearly, it is a differential equation of order 1 and 10. We have + y = e x ;( x > 0)
degree 2. dx x
dy
This is a linear D.E. of the form + Py = Q
6. We have y = Aex + Be–x + x2 ...(1) dx
1
Differentiating (1) w.r.t. x, we get Where, P = and Q = e x
x
dy
= Ae x − Be − x + 2 x ...(2) ∫
1
I.F. = e ∫
Pdx dx
dx ∴ = e x = e log x = x
Again differentiating (2) w.r.t. x, we get ∴ The solution is given by
d2 y yx = ∫ xe x dx + C
2
= Ae x + Be − x + 2 ...(3)
dx or yx = ex(x – 1) + C
d2 y
(1) − (3) ⇒ y − = x −2
2 This is the required solution of the given differential
dx 2 equation.
d2 y 11. We have (1 + e2x)dy + ex(1 + y2)dx = 0
or, 2
− y + x 2 − 2 = 0 , which is the required
dx dy ex
differential equation. ⇒ + dx = 0
1 + y 2 1 + e2 x

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 55


Integrating, we get 1
dt (x, y) is Y − y = − ( X − x)
tan −1 y + ∫ =c (Where t = ex)
dy
1+ t2 dx
⇒ tan–1y + tan–1t = c ⇒ tan–1y + tan–1(ex) = c It is given that the normal at every point passes
When x = 0, y = 1 through a fixed point (α, β) (say).
⇒ tan–1 1 + tan–1(e0) = c dx
Therefore, β − y = − (α − x )
π π π −1 −1 x π dy
or c = + = ∴ tan y + tan e = ⇒ (x – α)dx + (y – β)dy = 0
4 4 2 2
This is the required solution of the given differential Integrating both sides, we get
⇒ ∫ (x − α)dx + ∫ ( y − β)dy = C
equation.
(x − α)2 ( y − β)2
dy ⇒ + =C
12. We have + 2 y = sin x 2 2
dx ⇒ (x – α)2 + (y – β)2 = r2, where r2 = 2C
dy
This is a linear D.E. of the form + Py = Q Clearly, this equation represents a circle, having
dx centre at (α, β) and radius r.
Where, P = 2 and Q = sin x
dy
Now, I.F. = e ∫ = e∫ + sec x ⋅ y = tan x
Pdx 2dx
= e2 x 15. We have ...(1)
dx dy
∴ The solution is given by This is a linear D.E. of the form + Py = Q .
dx
y × I.F. = ∫ Q × I.F. dx + c
Where, P = secx and Q = tanx
⇒ ye 2 x = ∫ e 2 x sin x dx + c Now, I.F. = e ∫ = e∫
Pdx sec xdx
log(secx + tanx)
e2 x =e = secx + tanx
= (2 sin x − cos x ) + c ∴ The solution of (1) is given by
5
1 y ⋅ (sec x + tan x ) = ∫ tan x(sec x + tan x )dx + c
⇒ y = (2 sin x − cos x ) + ce −2 x
5 = ∫ (sec x tan x + tan2 x )dx + c
This is required solution of the given differential
equation. = ∫ sec x tan x dx + ∫ sec2 x dx − ∫ 1 ⋅ dx + c
∴ y(secx + tanx) = secx + tanx – x + c
13. Equation of a circle with centre (0, a) and radius a is
This is the required solution of the given differential
x2 + (y – a)2 = a2 or x2 + y2 = 2ay ...(1) equation.
where a is a parameter.
16. We have (x3 + y3)dy – x2ydx = 0
Differentiating both sides of (1) w.r.t. x, we get
dy x2 y
2x + 2 y
dy
= 2a
dy dy
or a = x + y
dy ⇒ = 3 ...(1)
dx dx dx dx dx x + y 3
x This is a homogeneous differential equation.
or a = +y ...(2) dy dv
⎛ dy ⎞ Put y = vx ⇒ =v+x ...(2)
⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ dx dx
dx
Now, differential equation (1) becomes
Putting the value of a from (2) in (1), we get
dv v dv v v4
⎧ x ⎫ 2 xy v+x = ⇒ x = − v = −
x2 + y2 = 2 y ⎪ + y ⎪ or (x 2 − y 2 ) = dx 1 + v 3 dx 1 + v 3 1 + v3
⎨ ⎛ dy ⎞ ⎬ ⎛ dy ⎞
⎪⎩ ⎜⎝ dx ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ 1+ v 3
⎪⎭ dx ⇒ dv +
dx
=0
4 x
dy v
or (x 2 − y 2 ) − 2 xy = 0 Integrating both sides, we get
dx
⎡ 1 1⎤ dx
This is the required differential equation. ∫ ⎢ 4 + v ⎥ dv + ∫ x = 0
14. Let P(x, y) be an arbitrary point on the given curve. ⎣v ⎦
1
The equation of the normal to the given curve at ⇒ − 3 + log | v | + log | x | = c
3v

56 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


This is a linear homogeneous differential equation.
1 x3
⇒ − + log | vx | = c ⇒ − + log | y | = c dy dv
3v 3 3 y3 Put y = vx, then =v+x
dx dx
This is the required solution of the given differential ∴ Equation (2) becomes
equation.
dv 2v + v 2 1
17. Let P be the principal at any time t. Then, v+x = = v + v2
dx 2 2
dP 5P
= 5% of P = dv 1 2 dv dx
dt 100 ⇒ x = v ⇒ −2 2 + =0
dx 2 v x
dP P 1 1
⇒ = ⇒ dP = dt Integrating, we get
dt 20 P 20 2 2x
Integrating both sides, we get + log | x | = c ⇒ + log | x |= c ...(3)
1 1 v y
∫ P dP = ∫ 20 dt Since y(1) = 2
2 ×1
1 P 1 ∴ From (3), + log 1 = c ⇒ c = 1
⇒ log P = t + log C ⇒ log = t 2
20 C 20 2x
⇒ P = Ce t/20
...(1) ⇒ + log | x | = 1 ⇒ 2x – y + ylog|x| = 0
y
When t = 0, we have P = 1000 This is the required particular solution.
Putting these values in (1), we get 1000 = C
⇒ P = 1000 et/20 dy
...(2) 20. We have + y cot x = x 2 cot x + 2 x ...(1)
Let T years be the time required to double the dx
principal i.e., at t = T, P = 2000. Substituting these dy
This is a linear D.E. of the form + Py = Q
values in (2), we get 2
dx
2000 = 1000eT/20 Where P = cot x and Q = x cotx + 2x
∴ I.F. = e ∫ = e∫
T Pdx cot x dx
⇒ eT /20 = 2 ⇒ = log e 2 ⇒ T = 20 log e 2
20 =elog sinx = sinx
Hence, the principal doubles in 20 loge 2 years. ∴ The solution of (1) is given by
18. We have y dx –(x + 2y2)dy = 0 y ⋅ sin x = ∫ (x 2 cot x + 2 x )sin xdx + c
dx x + 2 y 2 dx ⎛ 1⎞
or = or + x ⎜− ⎟ = 2y ...(1) = ∫ x 2 cos xdx + 2 ∫ x sin xdx + c
dy y dy ⎝ y⎠
This differential equation is of the form = x 2 sin x − ∫ 2 x ⋅ sin xdx + 2 ∫ x sin xdx + c
dx 1 = x2sin x + c
+ Px = Q, where P = − and Q = 2 y
dy y ⇒ y = x2 + c · cosec x ...(2)
1
− ∫ dy π
Since, y = 0, when x =
Now, I.F. = e ∫
1
= e − log y =
Pdy
=e y
2
y
π2 π2
1 1
∴ Solution is given by x ⋅ = ∫ Q ⋅ dy + C ∴ From (2), 0 = +c ⇒ c = −
y y 4 4
x 1 π2
⇒ = ∫ 2 y ⋅ dy + C = 2 y + C ⇒ x = 2y + Cy
2
⇒ y = x2 − cosec x
y y 4
This is the required particular solution of the given
This is the general solution of the given differential differential equation.
equation. ””
dy MPP-4 CLASS XI ANSWER KEY
19. We have 2 xy + y 2 − 2 x 2 =0 ...(1)
dx 1. (d) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (a) 5. (c)
and y(1) = 2 6. (b) 7. (a, b) 8. (c) 9. (b,c,d) 10. (a,b,c)
dy 2 xy + y 2
From (1), = ...(2) 11. (a,b) 12. (b,c) 13. (a,b,c) 14. (c) 15. (d)
dx 2x 2 16. (d) 17. (7) 18. (6) 19. (6) 20. (3)

58 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


 

   


SECTION-I θ
Single Correct Answer Type (c) ∫ 1 + cos2 tdt < θ2 + sin2 θ
0
1. A continuous function f : [0, 1] → R satisfies the θ
1 2
1
1 1 ⎛1⎞ (d) ∫ 1 + cos2 tdt = θ + sin2 θ
equation ∫ f (x)dx = + ∫ f 2(x 2 ) dx, then f ⎜ ⎟ = 2
3 0 ⎝ 4⎠ 0
0
7. y(x) satisfies the differential equation
(a) 1 (b) 1/2 (c) 1/4 (d) –1/4
dy
2. A continuous function f : [0, 1] → R satisfies the = y log y + ye x . If y(0) = 1, then y(1) =
dx
1
f ⎜⎛ ⎞⎟ =
1 1 (a) ee (b) e–e (c) e1/e (d) e
condition ∫ f (x)(x − f (x))dx = 12 , then ⎝4⎠ π /2
0 dx
(a) 1/2 (b) 1/4 (c) 1/6 (d) 1/8 8. The function f (λ) = ∫ , λ ∈(0, 1) is
2
0 1 − λ cos x
1
3 2 1/3 (a) increasing (b) decreasing
3. Compute ∫ (2x − 3x − x + 1) dx
(c) increasing on (0, 1/2) and decreasing on (1/2, 1)
0
(d) increasing on (1/2, 1) and decreasing on (0, 1/2)
(a) 0 (b) –1 (c) 1/8 (d) –1/8
9. Let f satisfy the equation x = f(x)·e f(x) then
4. Consider a one-to-one differentiable solution y to e
d 2 y d 2x ∫ f (x) dx =
the equation + = 0 such that y(0) = 2 and 0
dx 2 dy 2 (a) 1 (b) e – 1 (c) e + 1 (d) 0
y(–1) = –1 then y(1) =
(a) –20 (b) 20 (c) –5 (d) 5 10. Let a, b ∈ R, a < b and let f be a differentiable function
b
5. Let f : [0, 1] → R be a continuous function with the on the interval [a, b] then lim ∫ f (x)sin nxdx =
property that x f(y) + y f(x) ≤ 1 for all x, y ∈ [0, 1] n→∞ a
then (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) b (d) b – a
1
1
π π 11. The shortest possible length of an interval [a, b] for
(a) ∫ f (x)dx = 4 (b) ∫ f (x)dx ≤ 4 b
4
0 0 which ∫ 2
dx = π is
1
π 1
π a 1+ x
(c) ∫ f (x)dx ≥ 4 (d) ∫ f (x)dx ≥ 2 (a) 2 (b) 2 2 (c) 2 2 + 2 (d) 2 2 − 2
0 0
6. For every θ ∈ (0, π], we have SECTION-II
θ Comprehension Type
(a) ∫ 1 + cos2 tdt > θ2 + sin2 θ Paragraph for Question No. 12-14
0
Let θk(x) be 0 for x < k and 1 for x ≥ k. The dirac delta
θ
1 + cos2 tdt = θ2 + sin2 θ d
(b) ∫ function is defined to be δk (x) = θk (x). Suppose
0 dx
By : Tapas Kr. Yogi, Mob : 9533632105.

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 59


π /2
d 2 f (x) 1
= δ1(x) + δ2(x) and f(0) = f ′(0) = 0. 5. (b) : Let I = ∫ f (x) dx = ∫ f (sin θ)cos θdθ
dx 2 0 0
π /2
12. The value of f(5) is or, I =
(a) 2 (b) 5 (c) 7 (d) 10 ∫ f (cos θ)sin θdθ [By (a − x) property]
0
13. The value of f ′(5) is Adding, we get
(a) 2 (b) 5 (c) 7 (d) 10
π/2
14. The number of points where f ′(x) is not π
2I ≤ ∫ 1 dθ i.e. I ≤
differentiable is 0
4
(a) zero (b) one (c) two (d) infinite θ
Paragraph for Question No. 15-17 6. (a) : Notice that ∫ 1 + cos2 t dt is the arc length
0
(x − 3 y)3/2 dy y
For the curve y = , = of the curve y = sinx from (0, 0) to (θ, sinθ) and
x dx Q(x)
θ2 + sin2 θ is the distance between these points.
15. y2 + (Q(x))2= logπ represents
(a) line (b) circle 7. (a) : Put y = et to convert the given differential
(c) sine curve (d) ellipse equation into linear equation.
16. Q′(1) = 8. (a) : For x ∈ (0, π/2), 0 ≤ λ1 < λ2 < 1
(a) 0 (b) –1 (c) 1 (d) –2 –λ1cos2x > –λ2cos2x
sin(Q(x)) ⇒ f(λ1) < f(λ2) ⇒ increasing function
17. lim =
x →0 x 9. (b) : Note that f is inverse function of g(y) = ye y
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) –1 (d) does not exist and f(e) = 1
SOLUTIONS e 1
1. (b) : Rewrite the given integral eqn. as So, ∫ f (x)dx + ∫ g ( y)dy = e(1) − 0(0)
1 1 1 0 0
2 2 2 2
∫ 2xf (x ) dx = ∫ x dx + ∫ f (x ) dx e 1
0 0 0 ⇒ ∫ f (x)dx = e − ∫ ye y dy = e − 1
1 0 0
2 2 2
∫ ( f (x ) − x) dx = 0 i.e., f (x ) = x
i.e. b
1
0
10. (a) : ∫ f (x)sin nxdx = n [ f (a)cos na − f (b)cos nb]
a
2. (d) : Rewrite the given integral as 1 b
+ ⋅ ∫ f ′(x)cos nxdx
1 1 2
x n a
2
∫ xf (x) − f (x) dx = ∫ 4 dx (Integration by parts)
0 0
1 2 1 1
⎛ x⎞ x Now, ( f (a)cos na − f (b)cos nb ≤ (| f (a)cos na |
i.e., ∫ ⎜⎝ f (x) − 2 ⎟⎠ dx = 0 ⇒ f (x) = 2 n n
0
a a + |f(b) cosnb|)
3. (a) : Use property, ∫ f (x)dx = ∫ f (a − x) dx (triangle inequality)
0 0 1
2 ≤ (| f (a)| + | f (b)|) → 0
d x − y2 n
4. (d) : Use the standard result,
2
= , the given
dy y13
y
equation reduces to y2 − 23 = 0 i.e. y2 = 0 or y1 = 1 MPP-4 CLASS XII ANSWER KEY
y1
1. (d) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (d) 5. (c)
y2 = 0 ⇒ y1 = b and y = bx + c (linear function)
6. (b) 7. (a,b,c) 8. (a,c) 9. (a,b,c) 10. (a,d)
y1 = 1 ⇒ y = x + k (which is already included in
the above solution) 11. (b,c) 12. (a,d) 13. (a,c) 14. (b) 15. (b)
Hence, y = bx + c, b ≠ 0 16. (b) 17. (6) 18. (6) 19. (3) 20. (3)

60 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 61
1b 1 b
and ∫ f ′(x )cos nxdx ≤ ⋅ ∫ | f ′(x)|| cos nx | dx 



na n a
     
1b M(b − a) Now the graphs of θ1(x) and (θ2)x are
≤ ∫ Mdx = →0
na n So, f(5) = area of the shaded region
where |f ′(x)| ≤ some M = (4 × 1) + (3 × 1) = 7
b 13. (a) : Combine the graphs
Hence, ∫ f (x)sin nxdx → 0 as n → ∞ of θ1(x) and θ2(x) to get the 
a graph of f ′(x). 
π a +1
11. (d) : tan −1 b − tan −1 a = ⇒ b= So, f ′(5) = 2   
1− a

4
2 14. (c): From the graph, it is clear that f ′(x) is not
1+ a
So, length of interval l = b − a = differetiable at two points x = 1 and x = 2.
1− a
dl 15. (b) : The given curve equation is xy2 = (x – 3y)3, a
Using, = 0, at l min , we have a = 1− 2 homogeneous equation.
da
dy y
12. (c): When integrated once, So, = i.e. Q(x) = x
dx x
f ′(x) = ∫ δ1(x) + δ2(x) ⋅ dx = θ1(x) + θ2(x) + c
So, y2 + (Q(x))2 = logπ represents a circle.
f ′(0) = c = 0
16. (c): Q′(x) = 1 ⇒ Q′(1) = 1
So, f ′(x) = θ1(x) + θ2(x)
To find f (x), weintegrate f′(x) or take the area covered sin Q(x) sin x
17. (b) : lim = lim =1
by θ1(x) and θ2(x). x →0 x x →0 x
””

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62 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


Class XII

T his specially designed column enables students to self analyse their


extent of understanding of specified chapters. Give yourself four
marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.
Self check table given at the end will help you to check your
readiness.

Application of Derivatives
Total Marks : 80 Time Taken : 60 Min.
Only One Option Correct Type 6. The diagonal of a square is changing at the rate of
1. The equation of the tangent to the curve y = e –|x|
at the 0.5 cm/sec. Then the rate of change of area, when
the area is 400 cm2 , is equal to
point where the curve cuts the line x = 1 is
2
(a) x + y = e (b) e(x + y) = 1 (a) 20 2 cm2 /sec (b) 10 2 cm /sec
(c) y + ex = 1 (d) none of these 1 10
(c) cm2 / sec (d) cm2 /sec
2. The acute angles between the curves y = |x2 – 1| and 10 2 2
y = |x2 – 3| at their points of intersection is One or More Than One Option(s) Correct Type
π −1 ⎛ 4 2 ⎞
(a) (b) tan ⎜⎝ ⎟ 7. A point on the ellipse 4x2 + 9y2 = 36, where the
4 7 ⎠
tangent is equally inclined to the axes is
−1
(c) tan (4 7 ) (d) none of these ⎛ 9 4 ⎞ ⎛ 9 4 ⎞
α (a) ⎜ , ⎟ (b) ⎜ − , ⎟
3. If f(x) = x ln x and f(0) = 0, then the possible value of ⎝ 13 13 ⎠ ⎝ 13 13 ⎠
α for which Rolle’s theorem can be applied in [0, 1] is ⎛ 9 4 ⎞
(a) –2 (b) –1 (c) ⎜ ,− ⎟ (d) none of these
⎝ 13 13 ⎠
(c) 0 (d) none of these
8. The extreme values of the function
4. If f : R → R is the function defined by f (x ) =
1

1
where x ∈ R is
2 2 sin x + 4 cos x − 4
e x − e− x
f (x ) = 2 2
, then (a)
4
(b)
2 2
e x + e− x 8− 2 8− 2
(a) f(x) is an increasing function
2 2 4 2
(b) f(x) is a decreasing function (c) (d)
4 2 +1 8+ 2
(c) f(x) is onto (surjective)
(d) none of these ⎧3x 2 + 12 x − 1, − 1 ≤ x ≤ 2

5. Let f (x) = tan x – tan 2x. Then 9. If f ( x ) = ⎨ , then
(a) f has no critical point ⎪⎩ 37 − x , 2 < x ≤ 3

(b) f has minimum at x = cos−1( 10 − 1) / 4 (a) f (x) is increasing on [–1, 2]


(b) f (x) is continuous on [–1, 3]
(c) f has minimum at x = cos−1( 10 − 2 ) / 4 (c) f ′(2) does not exist
(d) f has maximum at x = cos−1( 10 − 2 ) / 4 (d) f (x) has the maximum value at x = 2

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 63


⎧ 3 b3 − b 2 + b − 1 15. If f(x) decreases, then x ∈
⎪−x + 2 ,0≤ x <1 (a) (– ∞, 1) (b) (– ∞, 3)
10. Let f ( x ) = ⎨ b + 3b + 2 (c) (– ∞, 5) (d) (3, 5)
⎪ 2 x − 3, 1 ≤ x < 3
⎩ Matrix Match Type
If f(x) has least value at x = 1, then
16. Match the columns:
(a) –2 < b < –1 (b) –1 < b < 0
Column I Column II
(c) 0 < b < 1 (d) 1 ≤ b < ∞
(P) f(x) = cosπx + 10x + 3x2 + x3, (1) 3/4
11. Let the function f(x) = sinx + cos x, be defined in –2 ≤ x ≤ 3. The absolute minimum
[0, 2π], then f(x) value of f (x) is
⎛π π⎞
(a) increases in ⎜ , ⎟
⎝4 2⎠ (Q) If x ∈ [–1, 1], then the minimum (2) 2
value of f(x) = x2 + x + 1, is
⎛ π 5π ⎞
(b) decreases in ⎜⎝ , ⎟ (R) Let f (x) = (4/3) x3 – 4x, 0 ≤ x ≤ 2. (3) –15
4 4 ⎠ Then, the global minimum value
π 5π
(c) increases in ⎢⎡ 0, ⎞⎟ ∪ ⎛⎜ , 2 π ⎥⎤ of the function is
⎣ 4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎦ (S) Let f (x) = 6 – 12x + 9x2 – 2x3, (4) – 8/3
⎡ π⎞ ⎛π ⎤ 1 ≤ x ≤ 4. Then the absolute
(d) decreases in ⎢ 0, ⎟ ∪ ⎜ , 2 π ⎥ maximum value of f(x) in the
⎣ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎦
interval is
12. Let f(x) = 2x2 – ln |x|, x ≠ 0, then f(x) is
monotonically P Q R S
(a) 2 1 3 4
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛1 ⎞
(a) increasing in ⎜ − , 0 ⎟ ∪ ⎜ , ∞ ⎟ (b) 3 1 4 2
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠
(c) 3 2 1 4
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ (d) 1 2 3 4
(b) decreasing in ⎜ − , 0 ⎟ ∪ ⎜ , ∞ ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ Integer Answer Type
⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞
(c) increasing in ⎜⎝ − ∞, ⎟ ∪ ⎜ 0, ⎟ 17. If the approximate value of log10 (4.04) is 0.abcdef.
2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠
It is given that log10 4 = 0.6021 and log10 e = 0.4343,
⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞
(d) decreasing in ⎜ − ∞, − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ 0, ⎟ then the value of a must be
⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠
18. The minimum value of the expression
13. Rolle’s theorem holds for the function
3b + 4c 4c + a a + 3b
4 + + (a, b, c are +ve) is
f(x) = x3 + bx2 + cx, 1 ≤ x ≤ 2 at the point , then a 3b 4c
3
(a) c = 8 (b) c = –5 19. The number of critical points of the function f ′(x)
(c) b = –5 (d) b = 8 |x −2|
where f ( x ) = is
Comprehension Type x2
If f(x) = |x – 1| + |x – 3| + |5 – x|, ∀ x ∈ R 20. The three sides of a trapezium are equal each being
6 cm long. If area of trapezium when it is maximum
14. If f(x) increases, then x ∈
is 27 A , then the value of A must be ””
(a) (1, ∞) (b) (3, ∞) (c) (5, ∞) (d) (1, 3)
Keys are published in this issue. Search now! ☺

Check your score! If your score is


> 90% EXCELLENT WORK ! You are well prepared to take the challenge of final exam.

No. of questions attempted …… 90-75% GOOD WORK ! You can score good in the final exam.
No. of questions correct …… 74-60% SATISFACTORY ! You need to score more next time.
Marks scored in percentage …… < 60% NOT SATISFACTORY! Revise thoroughly and strengthen your concepts.

64 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


M aths Musing was started in January 2003 issue of Mathematics Today with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Maths
Musing is to augment the chances of bright students seeking admission into IITs with additional study material.
During the last 10 years there have been several changes in JEE pattern. To suit these changes Maths Musing also adopted the new
pattern by changing the style of problems. Some of the Maths Musing problems have been adapted in JEE benefitting thousand of our
readers. It is heartening that we receive solutions of Maths Musing problems from all over India.
Maths Musing has been receiving tremendous response from candidates preparing for JEE and teachers coaching them. We do hope
that students will continue to use Maths Musing to boost up their ranks in JEE Main and Advanced.

JEE MAIN 8. The number of numbers divisible by 12 is


(a) 54 (b) 66 (c) 108 (d) 144
1. If f (x, y) is a polynomial of degree 3 such that
f (0, 0) = f (±1, 0) = f (0, ± 1) = f (2, 2) = 0, then INTEGER MATCH
f (a, b) = 0 for a + b = 9. If y = f (x) is the orthogonal trajectory of the circles
21 19 21 20 3
(a) (b) (c) (d) (x – c)2 + y2 = 1, x ≥ 0, f (0) = 1 and f ( x ) = 2 ,
20 21 19 21
2. The inradius of a right angled triangle with integer then e2x + 1 is
sides is 2011. The number of such triangles is MATRIX MATCH
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 5 (d) 7
10. Match the following columns.
⎛1 ⎞
3. The radius of the largest circle with centre ⎜ , 0 ⎟
⎝2 ⎠ Column I Column II
inscribed in the ellipse x2 + 2y2 = 2 is
tan x cot x 1
tdt dt (1)
1
(a) 2 (b) 1 (c)
3
(d)
1 (P) ∫ 1 + t2
+ ∫ t (1 + t 2 )
= 4
2 2 1/e 1/e
π
4. In triangle ABC, C = , D and E are points on the π /2 1
2 dx
side AC such that AD = 11, DE = 5. (Q) ∫ ( sin x + cos x )4
= (2) 3
0
If CAB : CDB : CEB = 1 : 2 : 3, then BC =
tan −1 x
44 15 1 1
(a) 8 (b) 9 (c)
5
(d) 2 (R) I1 = ∫ x
dx and (3)
2
5. The normal to the curve 2y + 5x5 – 10x3 + x + 6 = 0 0
at the point (0, –3) is a tangent to the curve at the π /2
x I
point I2 = ∫ sin x
dx , 1 =
I2
(a) (2, –44) (b) (–2, 38) 0
(c) (1, –1) (d) (–1, –4) x
ln t (4) 1
JEE ADVANCED (S) If f ( x ) = ∫ 1 + t dt and
1
N 7
1 ⎛1⎞
6. If = ∑ , then 5 N is divisible by F(x) = f(x) + f ⎜ ⎟ , then F(e) =
1! 14 ! r = 2 r !(15 − r )! ⎝x⎠
(5) 2
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 11 (d) 31
P Q R S
COMPREHENSION (a) 4 2 1 5
Consider 5-digit numbers formed using the digits 0, 1, (b) 4 2 3 3
2, 3, 4, 5 without repetition of digits. (c) 3 4 2 3
7. The number of numbers divisible by 4 is (d) 5 1 2 4
(a) 48 (b) 54 (c) 66 (d) 144 See Solution Set of Maths Musing 165 on page no. 84

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 65


Duration : 30 minutes
SECTION-I
Single Correct Answer Type (c)
∑ (sin A − cos x)2
∑ sin A cos x
∞ ⎧ r ⎫⎪ ∞
⎪⎛ 1 ⎞
1. If A = ∑ ⎨⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ sin2r x ⎬ , B = ∑ sin2r x, then
− ( ∑ sin x )2 − ( ∑ cos A )2
r =0 ⎪
⎩ ⎪⎭ r =0 (d)
number of solution in [–2π, 2π] of ∞
∑ (sin x − cos A) ∞
A:B = 4sin2x : (1 + cos2x) is 6. If ∑ ( x r + x r +1 + x r +2 ) = ∑ pr x r (| x |< 1), then
(a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 8 (d) none of these r =0 r =0
671
⎡ 2013 ⎤
⎢ ∑ (r + x )
2013
⎥ ∑ pr =
⎢ ⎥ r=0
2. lim ⎢ r =1 ⎥= (a) 0 (b) 2012 (c) 2015 (d) 2013
x →∞ x 2013 + 20132013
⎢ ⎥ 1
⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ 7. If ∫ (1 + x tan x )−2 dx = + c, then f(x) =
x + f (x )
1
(a) 2014 (b) 2013 (c) (d) none of these (a) x tan x (b) cot x
2013
(c) tan x (d) none of these
γ γ
= α ⎡ x + log e | x − 1 |⎤ + c, then
dx
3. If ∫3 ⎢
⎣ ⎥⎦ 8. If xsin2α + y + z = 0, x + ysin2β + z = 0 &
x2 − 3 x x + y + zsin2γ = 0 (α ≠ β ≠ γ ≠ (2n + 1)π/2, where
(a) α, β, γ are in A.P. n ∈ I) have a non-trivial solution, then ∑tan2α =
(b) α, β, γ are in G.P. (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) none of these
(c) α = β = γ (d) all of these 9. If ai > 0 (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) so that 502a1 + 503a2 + 504a3
4. If f(x) be an identity function, then equation 4
⎛ 4 ⎞
3 + 505a4 = 2014 and 256 a1a2a3a4 ≥ ⎜ ∑ ar ⎟ , then
−1 ⎜ ⎟
∑ { f (x) − (2012 + r )} = 0 has 4 ⎝ r=1 ⎠
r =1 ∑ ar =
r

(a) no real roots (b) real and equal roots r=1


(c) real and different roots (a) 2014 (b) 1 (c) 4 (d) none of these
(d) none of these 10. If x and y be two real variables satisfying
5. If sin x : sin y : sin z = cos A : cos B : cos C then 4
t 2 − 1 and x 4 + y 4 = t + 1 , then which
⎛ sin2 A − cos2 x ⎞ x2 + y2 =
∑ ⎜⎜ sin x − cos A ⎟⎟ = t
of the following is(are) true?
t2
⎝ ⎠
dx
∑ sin A cos x (a) y2 + x–2 = 0 (b) x 3 y =
(a)
∑ sin2 x − ∑ cos2 A (b) dy
( ∑ sin x )( ∑ cos A ) ∑ sin x − ∑ cos A (c) xdy + ydx = 0 (d) none of these

66 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


SECTION-II SOLUTIONS
Multiple Correct Answer Type
1. (c) :
11. If a , b , c be unit vectors such that a ⊥ b , c is ∞⎧⎪⎛ 1 ⎞r ⎫⎪ 1 1
A= ∑ ⎨⎜ − ⎟ sin2r x ⎬ = 1− sin2x + sin 4x − ... to ∞
inclined at the same angle to both a and b and
r =0 ⎩⎪⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎭⎪
2 4
c = pa + qb + r (a × b ) then
1 2
(a) p = q (b) |p| ≤ 1 = =
(c) |q| ≤ 1 ⎛ 1 2 ⎞ 2 + sin2 x
(d) pq > 1 1 − ⎜ − sin x ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠
12. If a, b, c be three positive numbers and (ab + bc ∞
1
+ ca)x2 + (a + b + c)x + 1 = 0 has complex roots, B = ∑ sin2r x = 1 + sin2 x + sin 4 x + ... to ∞ =
then r=0 cos2 x
(a) a + c > b 2 cos2 x 4 sin2 x
(b) a+ b+ c >4 ∴ A : B = 4 sin2x :(1+ cos 2 x) ⇒ =
2 + sin2 x 2 cos2 x
⎛ 1 1 1 ⎞⎛ 1 1 1 ⎞
(c) ⎜ + − ⎟⎜ + − ⎟ 1
⎝ ab bc ca ⎠ ⎝ bc ca ab ⎠ ⇒ cos4x = 2sin2x + sin4 x ⇒ sin x = ±
2
⎛ 1 1 1 ⎞ Hence, there will be 8 solutions in [–2π, 2π]
×⎜ + − ⎟>0
⎝ ca ab bc ⎠ 2. (b) :
(d) none of these
{(1 + x) 2013
+ (2 + x )2013 + .... + (2013 + x )2013 }
13. If a sin θ + b cos θ = c = a cosec θ + b sec θ, then lim
x →∞ x 2013 + 201320133
2ab
(a) sin 2θ = 2 2 2
c −a −b ⎧⎛ 1 ⎞2013 ⎛ 2 ⎞2013 ⎫
⎪⎜ + 1 ⎟ + ⎜ + 1⎟ + ........... ⎪
⎪ x ⎠ ⎪
x 2013 ⎨⎝ ⎝x ⎠
3 a
(b) tan θ =
b 2013 ⎬
⎪ ⎛ 2013 ⎞ ⎪
(c) a cos3 θ + b sin3θ = 0 ⎪ +⎜ + 1⎟ ⎪
⎩ ⎝ x ⎠ ⎭
= lim
a 2 + c 2 − b2 x →∞ ⎛ 2013 ⎞
(d) sin θ + cosec θ = 2013 ⎜ ⎛ 2013 ⎞ ⎟
1+
⎜ ⎜⎝ x ⎟⎠
ac x

1 ⎝ ⎠
14. Let f (x ) = x x }
{ (where {·} denotes the fractional (0 + 1)2013 + (0 + 1)2013 + .... + (0 + 1)2013
part of x) then = = 2013
1+ 0
(a) lim f (2013 x ) = 2013
x →0+ [As x → ∞, 1/x → 0]
(b) lim f (2013 x ) = 1 3. (d) : Let x = z3 ⇒ dx = 3z2dz

x →0 3z 2dz zdz (z − 1) + 1
(c) lim f (2013 ) = e x ∫ z 2 − z = 3∫ z − 1 = 3∫ z − 1 dz
x →0+
= 3 [ z + log | z − 1 |] + c = 3 ⎡ 3 x + log | 3 x − 1 |⎤ + c
x
(d) lim f (2013 ) does not exist ⎣ ⎦
x →0
⇒ α = β = γ = 3 ⇒ α, β, γ are in A.P. and G.P. both.
15. A person draws 3 balls randomly from a bag 4. (c) : ... f(x) is an identity function ∴ f(x) = x
containing 3 white and 3 black balls and then he ∴ Given equation becomes
put 3 red balls into the bag and draws 3 balls again 3
−1
randomly. The probability that now he has all 3 ∑ {x − (2012 + r )} =0
balls of different colour is r =1
(a) > 20 % (b) > 25 % 1 1 1
⇒ + + =0
(c) > 30 % (d) > 33 % x − 2013 x − 2014 x − 2015

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 67


⇒ (x – 2014) (x – 2015) + (x – 2015) (x – 2013) 8. (d) : For non-trivial solution, we must have
+ (x – 2013)(x – 2014) = 0 ⇒ g(x) = 0 [say] sin2 α 1 1 p 1 1
∴ g(2013) = (–1)(–2) = 2 > 0, g(2014) = (– 1)(1) = –1 < 0 2
and g(2015) = (2)(1) = 2 > 0 1 sin β 1 =0⇒ 1 q 1 =0
As g(x) changes sign between 2013 & 2014, 2014 & 1 1 sin2 γ 1 1 r
2015, the equation g(x) = 0 has roots between them.
(where p = sin 2 α, q = sin2 β, r = sin2 γ)
∴ Both roots are real and different.
p 1 1
5. (d) : Let
sin x sin y sin z
= = =k ⎡ R → R2 − R1 , ⎤
⇒ 1 − p q −1 0 = 0 ⎢ 2
cos A cos B cos C
⎣ R3 → R3 − R1 ⎥⎦
∴ sin x = kcos A ...(i) 1− p 0 r −1
⎛ sin2 A − cos2 x ⎞ ⎛ 1 − cos2 A − 1 + sin2 x ⎞ ⇒ p(q – 1)(r – 1) – (1 – p)(r – 1) + 1{0 – (1 – p)
∴ ∑⎜ ⎟ =∑ ⎜ ⎟
⎜ sin x − cos A ⎟ ⎜ sin x − cos A ⎟ (q – 1)} = 0
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
( p − 1) + 1 1 1
⎛ sin2 x − cos2 A ⎞ ⇒ + + =0
= ∑⎜ ⎟ p −1 q −1 r −1
⎜ sin x − cos A ⎟
⎝ ⎠ 1 1 1
⇒ + + =1
= ∑(sinx + cos A) = ∑sinx + ∑cos A 1 − sin α 1 − sin β 1 − sin2 γ
2 2

=
( ∑ sin x +∑ cos A ) ( ∑ sin x −∑ cos A ) ⇒ sec2 α + sec2 β + sec2 γ = 1 ⇒ ∑ (1 + tan2 α) = 1
∑ sin x −∑ cos A ⇒ ∑ tan2 α = −2 < 0, which is impoossible
=
( ∑ sin x ) − ( ∑ cos A )
2 2
⎛ 4 ⎞
4

∑ (sin x − cos A) 9. (c) : . 256 a1a2a3a4 ≥ ⎜ ∑ ar ⎟⎟


. . ⎜
∞ ∞
⎝ r=1 ⎠
6. (d) : ∑ x r (1 + x + x 2 ) = ∑ pr x r ∵ 4 4 a1a2a3a4 ≥ a1 + a2 + a3 + a4
r =0 r =0
a +a +a +a
⇒ (1 + x + x2)(1 + x + x2 + x3 +... to ∞) ⇒ 1 2 3 4 ≤ 4 a1a2a3a4 ⇒ A.M. ≤ G.M.
= p0 + p1x + p2x2 + p3x3 + ... to ∞ 4
But, A.M ≥ G.M ⇒ A.M = G.M
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⇒ a1= a2 = a3 = a4
⇒ (1 + x + x 2 ) ⎜ 2
⎟ = p0 + p1x + p2 x + ... + to ∞
...(i)
⎝1− x ⎠ Also, 502a1 + 503a2 + 504a3 + 505 a4 = 2014
⇒ p0 + p1x + p2 x 2 + p3 x 3 + ... to ∞ ∴ 2014 a1 = 2014 ⇒ a1 = 1 = a2 = a3 = a4
4
= (1–x)–2 (1 – x3)
= (1 + 2x + 3x2 + 4x3 + ... to ∞) (1 – x3)
Now, ∑ arr = a1 + a22 + a33 + a44 = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 4
r =1
∴ On comparing, we get 1 1
p0 = 1, p1 = 2, p2 = 3 = p3 = p4 = p5 = ........ 10. (d) : ∵ x 2 + y 2 = t − and x 4 + y 4 = t 2 +
t t2
671 4 4 2 2 2 1
⇒ x + y + 2x y = t + − 2
∴ ∑ pr = p0 + p1 + p2 + p3 + ... + p671 t2
r =0 1
= 1 + 2 + (3 + 3 + 3 + ... to 670 terms) and x 4 + y 4 = t 2 + 2
t
= 3 × 671 = 2013
⇒ x2y2 = –1, which is not possible for x, y ∈ R.
dx
7. (b) : Let I = ∫ ∴ (a), (b) and (c) are not possible.
(1 + x tan x )2
2
cot xdx −(1 − cosec2 x )dx 11. (a,b,c): ∵ a = b = c =1
=∫ =∫
(cot x + x )2 (cot x + x )2 Let θ be the angle between a & c and b & c
d(x + x cot x ) 1 a .c
= −∫ = + c ⇒ f (x ) = cot x ∴ cos θ = = a .c ...(i)
(x + cot x )2 x + cot x | a || c |

68 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


Similarly, cos θ = b . c ...(ii) 14. (b,c,d) :
... If x → 0+, 2013x ∈ (1, 2) ⇒ {2013x} = 2013x – 1
∵ a ⊥ b ∴ a .b = 0
And, x → 0–, 2013x ∈ (0, 1) ⇒ {2013x} = 2013x
Also, c = pa + qb + r (a × b ) 1
∴ a . c = pa.a + q a.b + r a.(a × b )
lim f (2013 x ) = lim (2013 x )
{ 2013x }
= p + 0 + 0 = p ⇒ cos θ = p ∴ |p| = |cos θ| ≤ 1 x →0 +
x →0 +

Similarly, cosθ = q ⇒ |q| ≤ 1 1


Also, p = q. x
= lim (2013 x ) 2013 −1
12. (a, c) : ... Roots are complex x →0+
1
∴ D < 0 ⇒ (a + b + c)2 – 4 (ab + bc + ca) < 0
⇒ (a + c)2 + b2 + 2b(a + c) – 4b(a + c) < 4 ac
h 2013h −1
= lim (2013 ) (1∞ form)
h→0
⇒ (a + c – b)2 < 4 ac ⇒ −2 ac < a + c − b < 2 ac
⇒ ( a + c )2 > b ⇒ a + c > b ⇒ (a ) is correct.

(
lim ⎢ 2013h −1 .
h →0 ⎢⎣
) (20131h −1) ⎤⎥⎥⎦
=e =e
1 1 1
⇒ a + c − b>0 ⇒ + − >0 And,
1
bc ab ca
{2013x }
( )
Similarly,
1 1 1 1 1 1 lim f (2013x ) = lim 2013x
+ − > 0 and + − >0 x →0− x →0− 1
bc ca ab ca ab bc
{ }
1
20130 −h
2013x
∴ On multiplying,
⎛ 1 1 1 ⎞
= lim 2013
x →0−
( x
) = lim 2013
h→0
( 0 −h
)
⎜ + − ⎟ 1
⎝ ab bc ca ⎠
2013− h
⎛ 1
⎜ +
1

1 ⎞⎛ 1
⎟⎜ +
1

1 ⎞
⎟>0
= lim 2013−h
h→0
( ) = 11 = 1
⎝ bc ca ab ⎠ ⎝ ca ab bc ⎠ ... R.H.L ≠ L.H.L
⇒ (c) is correct.
⇒ lim f (2013x ) does not exist
13. (a, c, d) : ... a sinθ + b cosθ = c ...(i) x →0
& a cosec θ + b sec θ = c ...(ii) 15. (a, b) : Diagramatically
⎛ sin θ cos θ ⎞
∴ On multiplying, a2+ b2+ ab⎜ + ⎟ =c
2
⎝ cos θ sin θ ⎠
⎛ 1 ⎞ 2 2ab
⇒ a2 + b 2 + 2ab⎜ ⎟ = c ∴ sin2θ =
⎝ sin 2θ ⎠ c − a 2 − b2
2 Clearly, required probability
From (i) & (ii), a sin θ + bcosθ = a cosec θ + b secθ ⎡⎛ 3 C ×3 C ⎞ ⎛ 1 C × 2C ×3 C ⎞ ⎤
= 2 ⎢⎜ 1 2 ⎟×⎜ 1 1 1 ⎟⎥
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎢⎣⎜⎝ 6 C3 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 6
C3 ⎟⎥
⎠⎦
⇒ a⎜ − sin θ ⎟ + b ⎜ − cos θ ⎟ = 0
⎝ sin θ ⎠ ⎝ cos θ ⎠ 2 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 27
= = = 27%
cos2 θ sin2 θ 3 3 20 ⋅ 20 100
⇒ a +b = 0 ∴ a cos θ + b sin θ = 0 ””
sin θ cos θ
From (i), b cos θ = c – a sinθ ...(iii)
& from (ii), b sec θ = c – a cosec θ ...(iv)
2 2 2
From (iii) & (iv), b = c + a – ac (sinθ + cosecθ)
a 2 + c 2 − b2
∴ sin θ + cosec θ =
ac

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 69


1. Suppose a quadratic function f(x) = ax2 + bx + c z = z0cos4t + 2z1cos2t · sin2t + z2sin4t (t ∈ R) shares
(a, b, c ∈ R and a ≠ 0) satisfies the following a single common point with the line bisecting AB
conditions : and parallel to AC in ΔABC and find this point.
(1) When x ∈ R, f(x – 4) = f(2 – x) and f(x) ≥ x. 5. A sequence is formed by the following rules :
2
⎛ x +1⎞ s1 = a, s2 = b and sn + 2 = sn + 1 + (–1)nSn for all n ≥ 1.
(2) When x ∈ (0, 2), f ( x ) ≤ ⎜
⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ If a = 3 and b is an integer less than 1000, what is the
(3) The minimum value of f(x) on R is 0. largest value of b for which 2015 is a member of the
Find the maximal m(m > 1) such that there exists sequence? Justify your answer.
t ∈ R, f(x + t) ≤ x holds so long as x ∈ [1, m]. SOLUTIONS
x2
2. Draw a tangent line of parabola y = at the point 1. Since f(x – 4) = f(2 –x) for x ∈ R, it is known that
A(1, 1). Suppose the line intersects the x-axis and the quadratic function f(x) has x = –1 as its axis
y-axis at D and B respectively. Let point C be on the of symmetry. By condition (3), we know that f(x)
AE opens upward, that is, a > 0.
parabola and point E on AC such that = λ1.
EC Hence, f(x) = a(x + 1)2 (a > 0).
BF By condition (1), we get f(1) ≥ 1 and by (2),
Let point F be on BC such that = λ2 and
FC 2
⎛1 + 1⎞
λ1 + λ2 = 1. Assume that CD intersects EF at point f (1) ≤ ⎜ = 1 . It follows that f(1) = 1,
⎝ 2 ⎟⎠
P. When point C moves along the parabola, find the 1
equation of the trail of P. i.e., a(1 + 1)2 = 1. So a = .
4
3. Suppose that α and β are different real roots of 1
Thereby, f ( x ) = ( x + 1)2 .
the equation 4x2 – 4tx – 1 = 0 (t ∈ R). [α, β] is the 4 1 2
2x − t Since the graph of the parabola f ( x ) = ( x + 1)
domain of the function f ( x ) = . 4
x2 + 1 opens upward and a graph of y = f(x + t) can be
(1) Find g(t) = max f(x) – min f(x). obtained by translating that of f(x) by t units. If we
⎛ π⎞ want the graph of y = f(x + t) to lie under the graph of
(2) Prove that for ui ∈ ⎜ 0, ⎟ (i = 1, 2, 3), y = x when x ∈ [1, m] and m to be maximal, then
⎝ 2⎠
if sin u1 + sin u2 + sin u3 = 1, then 1 and m should be two roots of an equation with
respect to x
1 1 1 3
+ + < 6. 1
g (tan u1 ) g (tan u2 ) g (tan u3 ) 4 ( x + t + 1)2 = x . ...(i)
4
4. Suppose A, B, C are three non-collinear points Substituting x = 1 into (i), we get t = 0 or t = –4.
corresponding to complex numbers z0 = ai , When t = 0, substituting it into (i), we get x1 = x2 = 1
1 (in contradiction with m > 1).
z1 = + bi , z 2 = 1 + ci (a, b and c being real
2 When t = –4, substituting it into (i), we get x1 = 1
numbers), respectively. Prove that the curve and x2 = 9 and so m = 9.

70 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


Moreover, when t = –4, for any x ∈ [1, 9], we 3 ⎛1 1 ⎞ 3 1
− y = ⎜ λ 2 − λ1 − 3 ⎟ x + − λ 2 , the equation
have always 2 ⎝ 4 4 ⎠ 2 4
(x – 1) (x – 9) ≤ 0 1
1 of CD is x = . Combining them, we conclude that
⇔ (x − 4 + 1)2 ≤ x , that is f(x – 4) ≤ x. 2
4 ⎛ 1 1⎞
( x , y ) = ⎜ , ⎟ is on the trail of P. Since C and
Therefore, the maximum value of m is 9. ⎝ 2 12 ⎠
2. 1st solution : 2
A cannot be congruent, x0 ≠ 1, x ≠ .
The slope of the tangent line passing through A 3
Therefore the equation of the trail is
is y′ = 2x|x = 1 = 2. So the equation of the tangent
1 2
line AB is y = 2x –1. y = (3x − 1)2 , x ≠ .
Hence the coordinates of B and D are B(0, –1), 3 3
⎛1 ⎞ 2nd solution :
D ⎜ , 0 ⎟ . Thus D is the midpoint of line segment
⎝2 ⎠ From 1st solution, the equation of AB is
AB. ⎛1 ⎞
Consider P(x, y), C(x0, x02), E(x1, y1), F(x2, y2). y = 2x –1, B(0, –1), D ⎜ , 0 ⎟ .
⎝2 ⎠
AE 1 + λ1x0 Thus D is the midpoint of AB.
Then by = λ1 , we know x1 = ,
EC 1 + λ1 Set γ =
CD
, t1 =
CA
= 1 + λ1 , t2 =
CB
= 1 + λ2 .
1 + λ1x02 . From BF CP CE CF
y1 = = λ2 , we get
1 + λ1 FC Then t1 + t2 = 3.
λ 2 x0 −1 + λ 2 x02 Since AD is a median of ΔABC, SΔCAB = 2SΔCAD
x2 = , y2 = . = 2SΔCBD where SΔ denotes the area of Δ.
1 + λ2 1 + λ2
1 CE ⋅ CF SΔCEF S S
Therefore the equation of line EF is But = = = ΔCEP + ΔCFP
t1 t2 CA ⋅ CB SΔCAB 2SΔCAD 2SΔCED
1 + λ1x02 1 + λ1x0
y− x− 1⎛ 1 1 ⎞ t1 + t2 3
1 + λ1 1 + λ1 = ⎜ + ⎟ = = ,
= . 2 ⎝ t1 γ t2 γ ⎠ 2t1t2 γ 2t1t2 γ
2
−1 + λ2 x0 1 + λ1x0 2 λ 2 0 − 1 + λ1x0
x
− 1 + λ2 1 + λ1 3
1 + λ2 1 + λ1 So γ = and P is the center of gravity for
2
Simplifying it, we get ΔABC.
Consider P(x, y) and C(x0, x02). Since C is different
[(λ2 – λ1)x0 – (1 + λ2)]y
from A, x0 ≠ 1. Thus the coordinates of the center
= [(λ2 –λ1) x02 – 3] x + 1 + x0 – λ2x02. ...(i) 0 + 1 + x0 1 + x0 2
of gravity P are x = = ,x≠ ,
1 3 3 3
When x0 ≠ , the equation of line CD is 2
−1 + 1 + x 0 x 0 2
2 y= = .
2 x02 x − x02 3 3
y= ...(ii) 1 2
2 x0 − 1 Eliminating x0, we get y = (3x − 1) .
3
⎧ x +1 Thus the equation of the trail is
x= 0 ,
⎪⎪ 3 1 2
From (i) and (ii), we get ⎨ y = (3x − 1)2 , x ≠ .
⎪ y = x0 . 3 3
⎪⎩ 3 3. (1) Let α ≤ x1 < x2 ≤ β, then
Eliminating x0, we get the equation of the trail of
4x12 – 4tx1 – 1 ≤ 0, 4x22 –4tx2 –1 ≤ 0.
1 2
point P as y = (3x − 1) . Therefore, 4(x12 + x22) –4t(x2 + x2) – 2 ≤ 0,
3
1 1
When x0 = , the equation of EF is 2 x1x2 − t ( x1 + x2 ) − < 0.
2 2

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 71


2 x2 − t 2 x1 − t Remark : Part (1) of this problem is well-known,
But f (x2 ) − f (x1 ) = −
x22 +1 x12 +1 we put in an inequality to increase the level of
difficulty.
( x2 − x1 )[t ( x1 + x2 ) − 2 x1x2 + 2]
= , 4. 1st solution :
( x22 + 1) ( x12 + 1) Let z = x + yi (x, y ∈ R), then
⎛1 ⎞
and t(x1 + x2) – 2x1x2 + 2 x + yi = a cos4 t ⋅ i + 2 ⎜ + bi ⎟ cos2 t ⋅ sin2 t
⎝2 ⎠
1 +(1 + ci) sin4t.
> t(x1 + x2) −2 x1x2 + > 0 , thus f(x2 – f(x1) > 0.
2 Separating real and imaginary parts, we get
Consequently, f(x) is an increasing function on x = cos2t · sin2t + sin4t = sin2t,
the interval [α, β]. y = a(1 – x)2 + 2b(1 – x)x + cx2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1)
1
Since α + β = t and αβ = − , 
4 
g(t) = max f(x) –min f(x) = f(β) – f(α)

⎛ 5⎞
t 2 + 1 ⎜ t 2 + ⎟ 8 t 2 + 1 (2t 2 + 5)
⎝ 2⎠ =  
=   
t2 +
25 16t 2 + 25 

16
8 ⎛ 2 ⎞
+3 
cos ui ⎜⎝ cos2 ui ⎟⎠ That is,
(2) g (tan ui ) = y = (a + c – 2b)x2 + 2(b – a)x + a (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) ...(i)
16
+9
cos2 ui Since A, B, C are non-collinear, a + c –2b ≠ 0.
So equation (i) is the segment of a parabola
16 (see the diagram). Furthermore, the mid points
+ 24 cos ui
cos ui
= ⎛1 a+b⎞ ⎛3 b+c⎞
of AB and BC are D ⎜ ,
⎝ 4 2 ⎟⎠
and E ⎜ ,
⎝ 4 2 ⎟⎠
,
16 + 9 cos2 ui
respectively. So the equation of line DE is
2 16 × 24 16 6
≥ = (i = 1, 2, 3) 1
16 + 9 cos ui 2
16 + 9 cos2 ui y = (c − a)x + (3a + 2b − c ) ..(ii)
4
3 3
1 1 Solving equations (i) and (ii) simultaneously, we
So, ∑ g (tan u ) 16 6 ∑ (16 + 9 cos2 ui )

⎛ 1⎞
2
1
i =1 i i =1 get (a + c − 2b) ⎜ x − ⎟ = 0 . Then x = ,
⎝ 2 ⎠ 2
⎛1 3 ⎞
⎜16 × 3 + 9 × 3 − 9 ∑ sin ui ⎟ since a + c –2b ≠ 0. So the parabola and line DE have
2
=
16 6 ⎝ i =1 ⎠ ⎛ 1 a + c + 2b ⎞
one and only one common point P ⎜ , ⎟⎠ .
⎝2 4
3
⎛ π⎞ 1 1 3
Since ∑ sin ui = 1 and ui ∈ ⎜⎝ 0, 2 ⎟⎠ , Notice that < < , so point P is on the segment
4 2 4
i =1
DE and satisfies equation (i), as required.
i = 1, 2, 3, we obtain 2nd solution :
2
3 ⎛ 3 ⎞ We can solve the problem using the method of
3 ∑ sin ui > ⎜ ∑ sin ui ⎟ = 1.
2
complex numbers directly. Let D, E be the mid
i =1 ⎝ i =1 ⎠ points of AB, CB, respectively.
1 1 1 Then the complex numbers corresponding to
Thus, + + 1 1 a+b
g (tan u1 ) g (tan u2 ) g (tan u3 ) D, E are (z0 + z1 ) = + i,
2 4 2
⎛1 1⎞ 3 1 3 b+c
< ⎜⎝ 75 − 9 × ⎟⎠ = 6. (z1 + z2 ) = + i , respectively. So, complex
16 6 3 4 2 4 2

72 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


number z corresponding to a point on the segment 2 2
⎛ 2 1⎞ 3 λ 1 ⎛1⎞ 1
DE satisfies ⎜⎝ sin t − ⎟⎠ = 0 . Then we have − = + ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ = ,
⎛1 a+b ⎞ ⎛3 b+c ⎞ 2 4 2 4 2 2
z = λ⎜ + i ⎟ + (1 − λ) ⎜ + i⎟, 0 ≤ λ ≤ 1
⎝4 2 ⎠ ⎝ 4 2 ⎠ 1
so λ = ∈[0, 1]. That means that the curve and
Substitute the above expression into the equation 2
of the curve z = z0cos4t + 2z1cos2t · sin2t + z2sin4t, the line DE have one and only one common point
and separate the real and imaginary parts from both and the complex number corresponding to this
sides to give the following two equations, common point is
⎧3 λ 1 ⎛1 a+b ⎞ 1 ⎛3 b+c ⎞
− = sin2 t cos2 t + sin 4 t , z= ⎜ + i⎟ + ⎜ + i⎟
⎪⎪ 4 2 2⎝4 2 ⎠ 2⎝4 2 ⎠

⎪ 1 [ λa + b(1 − λ)c] = a cos4 t + 2b sin2 t cos2 t + c sin 4 t 1 a + c + 2b
= + i
⎪⎩ 2 2 4
Eliminating λ from the equations, we get 5. Working out the first few terms gives us an idea
3 b+c of how the given sequence develops:
(a − c ) +
4 2 n s2n – 1 s2n
= acos t + (2b + a – c) sin2tcos2t + asin4t
4
1 a b
= a(1 – 2sin2t cos2t) + (2b + a – c) sin2t cos2t
2 b–a 2b – a
= a + (2b – a – c)sin2t cos2t.
⎛ 1⎞ 3 b 3b – a
Then (2b – a – c) ⎜ sin2 t cos2 t − ⎟ = 0 .
⎝ 4⎠ 4 2b – a 5b –2a
Since A, B, C are non-collinear, we know that 5 3b – a 8b – 3a
1
z1 ≠ (z0 + z2 ) . So 2b – a – c ≠ 0. 6 5b – 2a 13b – 5a
2 1
Then sin2t cos2t = sin2t(1 – sin2t) = , that is, 7 8b – 3a 21b – 8a
4 It appears that the coefficients in the even terms
form a Fibonacci sequence and from the 5th term,
every odd term is a repeat of the third term before
it.
These observations are true for the entire sequence
since, for m ≥ 1, we have:
s2m + 2 = s2m + 1 + s2m
s2m + 3 = s2m + 2 – s2m + 1 = s2m
s2m + 4 = s2m + 3 + s2m + 2 = s2m + 2 + s2m
So, defining F1 = 1, F2 = 2 and Fn = Fn – 1 + Fn – 2
for n ≥ 3, we have s 2n = bF n – aF n – 2 for
n ≥ 3. Since a = 3 and b < 1000, none of the first
five terms of the given sequence equal 2015. So we
are looking for integer solutions of
bFn – 3Fn – 2 = 2015 for n ≥ 3.
s6 = 3b –3 = 2015, has no solution.
s8 = 5b – 6 = 2015, has no solution.
s10 = 8b – 9 = 2015 implies b = 253.
For n ≥ 6 we have b = 2015/Fn + 3Fn –2/Fn. Since
Fn increases, we have Fn ≥ 13 and Fn – 2/Fn < 1
for n ≥ 6.
Hence b < 2015/13 + 3 = 158. So the largest value
of b is 253.
””

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 73


Series-3
The entire syllabus of Mathematics of WB-JEE is being divided into eight units, on each unit there will be a Mock Test Paper
(MTP) which will be published in the subsequent issues. The syllabus for module break-up is given below:

Unit Topic Syllabus In Details


No.
Permutations Fundamental principle of counting, permutation as an arrangement and combination
and as selection, meaning of P(n, r) and C(n, r), simple applications.
Combinations
UNIT NO. 3

Trigonometry General solution and Properties of Triangle.


Logarithms Logarithm and their properties.
Co-ordinate Circles: Standard form of equation of a circle, general form of the equation of a circle,
Geometry-2D its radius and centre, equations of a circle when the end points of a diameter are
given, points of intersection of a line and a circle with the centre at the origin and
condition for a line to be tangent to a circle, equation of the tangent.
Time : 1 hr 15 min Full marks : 50
CATEGORY-I
n nP
For each correct answer one mark will be awarded, whereas, 4. The value of ∑ r will be
for each wrong answer, 25% of full mark (1/4) will be deducted. r =1 r!
If candidate marks more than one answer, negative marking (a) 2n (b) 2n – 1
will be done.
(c) 2n + 1 (d) 2n – 1
1. A person is permitted to select atleast one and
5
at most n coins from a collection of 2n + 1 distinct
5. The value of 47C4 + ∑ 52− jC3 is equal to
coins. If the total number of ways in which he can j =1
select coins is 255, then n equals 47C 52C 52C 52C
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(a) 4 (b) 8 (c) 16 (d) 32 5 5 4 3

2. The letters of the word ‘ARRANGE’ is so arranged 6. The number of 5 digit numbers that can be formed
that two R’s do not come together. Number of such with the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 which are divisible by 3
words is and no digit can be repeated in any number, is
(a) 540 (b) 900 (a) 216 (b) 120 (c) 240 (d) 312
(c) 1080 (d) none of these
7. There are 9 points in a plane of which no three are
3. The number of ways in which 6 oranges of different collinear and 4 points are concyclic. The number of
sizes can be distributed among 6 boys of different different circles that can be drawn through atleast 3
ages so that the largest orange is always given to the points of these points is
youngest boy, is
(a) 720 (b) 600 (a) 80 (b) 81
(c) 120 (d) none of these (c) 84 (d) none of these

By : Sankar Ghosh, HOD(Math), Takshyashila. Mob : 09831244397.

74 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


8. Five speakers A, B, C, D and E have been asked to D divides BC internally in the ratio 1 : 3, then
deliver a lecture in a meeting. In how many ways sin ∠BAD
equals
can their lectures be arranged so that C delivers sin ∠CAD
lecture just after A?
(a) 48 (b) 24 1 1 1 2
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(c) 60 (d) none of these 3 3 6 3
9. The equation 3 sin x + cos x = 4 has 16. The ratio of the sides of a triangle is 4 : 5 : 7, then the
(a) infinitely many solutions triangle must be
(b) no solution (c) two solutions (a) right-angled
(d) only one solution (b) acute-angled
(c) obtuse-angled
θ (d) right-angled and isosceles
10. If 5 cos 2θ + 2 cos2 + 1 = 0, when 0 < θ < π , then
2 17. In a triangle ABC, (a + b + c)(b + c – a) = λbc, if
the values of θ are
(a) λ < 0 (b) 0 ≤ λ ≤ 4
π π −1 ⎛ 3 ⎞ (c) 0 ≤ λ < 4 (d) 0 < λ ≤ 4
(a) ±π (b) , cos ⎜ ⎟
3 3 ⎝5⎠
π 18. If two sides of a triangle are 2 3 − 2 and 2 3 + 2
⎛3⎞ ⎛3⎞
(c) cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ± π (d) , π − cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ and their included angle is 60°, then the other
⎝5⎠ 3 ⎝5⎠
angles are
11. The most general solution of the equation (a) 75°, 45° (b) 105°, 15°
log cos θ tan θ + log sin θ cot θ = 0 , is (c) 60°, 60° (d) 90°, 30°
π π π π
(a) nπ + , n ∈ Z (b) nπ − , n ∈ Z 19. In a triangle ABC, if B = , C = and a = ( 3 + 1) cm,
4 4 4 3
π then the area of the triangle is
π
(c) 2nπ − , n ∈ Z (d) 2nπ + , n ∈ Z 3+ 3 2
4 4 3 +1 2
(a) cm (b) cm
2 2
x
12. The general solution of 2 − cos x = 2 tan is 3 2 3 −1 2
2 (c) cm (d) cm
π π 2 2
(a) (2n + 1) , n ∈ Z (b) (4n + 1) , n ∈ Z
2 2 20. Two adjacent sides of a cyclic quadrilateral are 3
(c) 2nπ, n ∈Z (d) (4n + 1)π, n ∈Z and 5 and the angle between them is 60°. If the third
13. The general solution of side is 2, then the remaining fourth side is
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 5 (d) 4
sin x + cos x = min{1, a2 − 4a + 6} is
a∈R 21. The circles x2 + y2 + 6x + 6y = 0 and
nπ π nπ x2 + y2 – 12x – 12y = 0
(a) + (−1)n , n ∈Z (b) 2nπ + (−1) , n ∈Z (a) cut orthogonally
2 4 4
π
(b) touch each other internally
(c) nπ + (−1)n+1 , n ∈ Z (c) intersect at two points
4 (d) touch each other externally
π π
(d) nπ + (−1)n − , n ∈ Z 22. If the ends of the diameter of a circle are the points
4 4
⎛ 1⎞
14. The equation cos4θ + sin4θ + λ = 0 has real solution (0, 0) and ⎜ a3, 3 ⎟ , then through which of the
⎝ a ⎠
for θ, if following points the circle passes?
3 1
(a) ≤ λ ≤1 (b) −1 ≤ λ ≤ − ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 1⎞
4 2 (a) ⎜ a, ⎟ (b) ⎜ a , 2 ⎟
⎝ a⎠ ⎝ a ⎠
(c) 0 ≤ λ ≤ 1 (d) λ < –1
π π ⎛ 1 2⎞ ⎛1 ⎞
(c) ⎜ 2 , a ⎟ (d) ⎜ , a ⎟
15. In a triangle ABC, if ∠B = , ∠C = and ⎝a ⎠ ⎝a ⎠
3 4

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 75


23. If the circles x2 + y2 – 4rx – 2ry + 4r2 = 0 and 32. The equation of the circle described on the chord
x2 + y2 = 25 touch each other, then r satisfies 3x + y + 5 = 0 of the circle x2 + y2 = 16 as diameter
(a) 4r2 + 10r ± 25 = 0 is
(b) 5r2 + 10r ± 16 = 0 (a) x2 + y2 + 3x + y + 11 = 0
(c) 4r2 ± 10r + 25 = 0 (b) x2 + y2 – 3x – y – 11 = 0
(d) 4r2 ± 10r – 25 = 0 (c) x2 + y2 + 3x + y – 11 = 0
24. If the points (0, 0), (1, 0), (0, –1) and (λ, 3λ) are (d) x2 + y2 + 3x – y – 11 = 0
concyclic, then λ is C A 3b
(a) 5 (b) 1/5 (c) –5 (d) –1/5 33. In a triangle ABC, if a cos2 + c cos2 = , then
2 2 2
the sides a, b, c
25. The shortest distance of the point (9, –12) from the
(a) satisfy a + b = c (b) are in A.P.
circle x2 + y2 = 16, is
(c) are in G.P. (d) are in H.P.
(a) 7 units (b) 11 units
(c) 15 units (d) 4 units 34. The number of integral values of k for which the
equation 3cosx + 4sinx = 2k + 1 has a solution, is
26. One extremity of a diameter of the circle
(a) 3 (b) 6 (c) 4 (d) 5
x2 + y2 – 8x – 4y + 15 = 0 is (2, 1), the other extremity
is 35. The number of ways in which the letters of the word
(a) (0, 0) (b) (6, 3) ‘COMBINE’ can be arranged so that the word begin
(c) (4, 2) (d) (–3, –6) and end with a vowel, is
(a) 30 (b) 504 (c) 360 (d) 720
27. The triangle PQR is inscribed in the circle
x2 + y2 = 25. If Q and R have coordinates (3, 4) and CATEGORY-III
(–4, 3) respectively, then ∠QPR is equal to In this section more than 1 answer can be correct. Candidates
(a) π/2 (b) π/3 (c) π/4 (d) π/6 will have to mark all the correct answers, for which 2 marks
will be awarded. If candidate marks one correct and one
28. The equation of a circle which passes through the incorrect answer then no marks will be awarded. But if,
point (h, k) and touches the y-axis at origin, is candidate makes only correct, without making any incorrect,
(a) h2(x2 + y2) = (h2 + k2)x formula below will be used to allot marks.
(b) h2(x2 + y2) = (h2 + k2)y 2×(no. of correct response/total no. of correct options)
(c) k2(x2 + y2) = (h2 + k2)x 36. If nC4, nC5 and nC6 are in A.P., then n is
(d) k2(x2 + y2) = (h2 + k2)y (a) 8 (b) 9 (c) 14 (d) 7
29. If ax2 + (2a – 3)y2 – 6x + ay – 3 = 0 represents a 37. If 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π and |cosx| ≤ sinx, then
circle, then its radius is
⎡π π⎤
(a) 1 (b) 6 (c) 1/2 (d) 3/2 (a) the set of values of x is ⎢ , ⎥
⎣4 2⎦
30. Locus of a point which divides chord at a distance
(b) the number of solutions that are integral
1 unit from the centre of the circle x2 + y2 = 1 in the
multiples of π/4 is three
ratio 2 : 1 is
(c) the sum of the largest and the smallest solution
(a) x2 + y2 = 2 (b) x2 + y2 = 4
2 2 is 3π/4
(c) x + y = 8 (d) x2 + y2 = 16
⎡ π π ⎤ ⎡ π 3π ⎤
CATEGORY-II (d) x ∈ ⎢ , ⎥ ∪ ⎢ , ⎥
Every correct answer will yield 2 marks. For incorrect response, ⎣4 2⎦ ⎣2 4 ⎦
25% of full mark (1/2) would be deducted. If candidate marks
38. In a ΔABC, tanA and tanB are the roots of the
more than one answer, negative marking will be done.
equation ab(x2 + 1) = c2x, where a, b and c are the
31. If intercept on the line y = x by the circle sides of the triangle. Then
x2 + y2 – 2x = 0 is AB, then equation of the circle
a 2 − b2
with AB as diameter is (a) tan(A − B) =
(a) x2 + y2 + x + y = 0 2ab
(b) x2 + y2 – x + y = 0 (b) cotC = 0
(c) x2 + y2 – x – y = 0 (c) sin2A + sin2B = 1
(d) x2 + y2 + x – y = 0 (d) none of these

76 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


A−C a+c 6. (a) : The required number of numbers are
39. In a triangle ABC, 2 cos = . Then 5! + (5! – 4!) = 120 + 96 = 216
2 a2 + c 2 − ac
(a) B = π/3 (b) B = C 7. (b) : To form a circle atleast 3 points are required.
(c) A, B, C are in A.P. ∴ Number of circles which can be drawn by 9 points
(d) B + C = A = 9C3, but given that 4 points are concyclic.
Therefore, instead of getting 4C3 number of circles we
40. A line parallel to the line x – 3y = 2 touches the
get only one circle.
circle x2 + y2 – 4x + 2y – 5 = 0 at the point
(a) (1, –4) (b) (1, 2) Hence total number of required circles is
9C – 4C + 1 = 81
(c) (3, –4) (d) (3, 2) 3 3

SOLUTIONS 8. (b) : The arrangement of lectures of the 5 persons


may be done as (AC)BDE, where C always deliver lecture
1. (a) : The total number of ways, the person can
select n coins from 2n + 1 coins is after A. Thus total number of such arrangements are
2n+1 4! = 24
C1 + 2n+1C2 + 2n+1C3 + ... + 2n+1Cn = 255
9. (b) : We have 3 sin x + cos x = 4
⇒ 1 + 2n+1C1 + 2n+1C2 + 2n+1C3 + ... + 2n+1Cn = 255 + 1
3 1
1 ⇒ sin x + cos x = 2
⇒ (22n+1) = 256 ⇒ 22n = 28 ⇒ 2n = 8 ⇒ n = 4. 2 2
2 π π
⇒ sin x sin + cos x cos = 2
2. (b) : The word ARRANGE consist of 7 letters. 3 3
Among these 7 letters there are two R’s and two A’s. No. ⎛ π⎞
of ways of arranging the letters such that two R’s are ⇒ cos ⎜ x − ⎟ = 2 , which is impossible.
⎝ 3⎠
6!
always together = ⎛ π⎞
2! As we know that −1 ≤ cos ⎜ x − ⎟ ≤ 1 .
∴ The numbers of words where two R’s do not come ⎝ 3⎠
7! 6! 6! ⎛ 7 ⎞ 6! 5 θ
together are − = ⎜ − 1⎟ = ⋅ = 900. 10. (d) : We have 5 cos 2θ + 2 cos2 + 1 = 0, 0 < θ < π
2 !2 ! 2 ! 2 ! ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 ! 2 2
3. (c): After giving the largest fruit to the youngest boy, ⇒ 5cos2θ + 1 + cosθ + 1 = 0
the remaining 5 fruits can be given to the remaining 5 ⇒ 5(2cos2θ – 1) + cosθ + 2 = 0
boys in 5! ways, i.e. in 120 ways.
⇒ 10cos2θ + cosθ – 3 = 0
n n nP n
Pr n ⇒ (2cosθ – 1)(5cosθ + 3) = 0
4. (b) : We know that = Cr ⇒ ∑ r = ∑ nCr
r! r =1 r ! r =1 π ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛3⎞
n ∴ θ = and θ = cos −1 ⎜ − ⎟ = π − cos −1 ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 5⎠ ⎝5⎠
Now ∑ nCr = nC0 + (nC1 + nC2 + nC3 + ... + nCn) − nC0 3
r =1 (∵ 0 < θ < π)
= ( C0 + nC1 + nC2 + nC3 + ... + nCn ) − nC0 = 2n − 1
n
11. (a) : We have log cos θ tan θ + log sin θ cot θ = 0
5 ⇒ log cos θ tan θ − log sin θ tan θ = 0
5. (c): We have 47C4 + ∑ 52− jC3
j =1 log tan θ log tan θ
⇒ =
= 47 51 50
C4 + C3 + C3 + 49
C3 + 48
C3 + 47
C3 log cos θ log sin θ
log sin θ
= ( 47C4 + 47C3) + 48C3 + 49C3 + 50C3 + 51C3 ⇒ =1
log cos θ
= ( 48C4 + 48C3) + 49C3 + 50C3 + 51C3 π
⇒ log cos θ sin θ = 1 ⇒ cos θ = sin θ ⇒ tan θ = tan
4
= ( 49C4 + 49C3) + 50C3 + 51C3
π
∴ θ = nπ + , n ∈ Z.
= ( 50C4 + 50C3) + 51C3 = ( 51C4 + 51C3) = 52C4 4

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 77


12. (b) : We have BD AD
x ⎛ x⎞ 15. (c): From ΔABD, we have =
2 − cos x = 2 tan ⇒ 2 ⎜1 − tan ⎟ = cos x sin ∠BAD sin B
2 ⎝ 2⎠ CD AD
From ΔACD, we have =
2x sin ∠CAD sin C
⎛ x ⎞ 1 − tan 2
⇒ 2 ⎜1 − tan ⎟ = 
⎝ 2 ⎠ 1 + tan2 x
2
⎛ x ⎞
1 + tan
⎛ x⎞⎜ 2 ⎟=0   
⇒ ⎜1 − tan ⎟ ⎜ 2 − ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠ 2x ∵ BD : CD = 1 : 3
⎜⎝ 1 + tan ⎟⎠
2 AD sin ∠BAD AD sin ∠CAD
∴ : = 1: 3
x sin B sin C
Either 1 − tan =0
2 sin ∠BAD sin ∠CAD 2 sin ∠BAD 1
x π x π ⇒ : = 1: 3 ⇒ =
∴ tan = 1 = tan ⇒ = nπ + , n ∈ Z π π 3 sin ∠CAD 3
2 4 2 4 sin sin
3 4
π π sin ∠BAD 1
⇒ x = 2nπ + , n ∈ z ⇒ x = (4n + 1) , n ∈ Z ⇒ =
2 2 sin ∠CAD 6
x
1 + tan x x
16. (c): Let the sides of the triangle ABC be 4x, 5x and 7x
or 2 − 2 =0 ⇒ 2 tan2 − tan + 1 = 0
2x
(5x)2 + (4x)2 − (7x)2 1
1 + tan 2 2 ∴ cos A = =−
2 2 ⋅ 5x ⋅ 4x 5
x 1 ± 12 − 4 ⋅ 2 ⋅1 1 ± i 7 ⇒ the angle A is an obtuse angle
⇒ tan = = Thus, ΔABC is obtuse-angled
2 2⋅2 4
⇒ no solution 17. (b) : We have (a + b + c)(b + c – a) = λbc
⇒ (b + c)2 – a2 = λbc ⇒ b2 + c2 – a2 = (λ – 2)bc
13. (d) : Here a2 – 4a + 6 = (a – 2)2 + 2 ≥ 2
b2 + c 2 − a 2 λ − 2 λ−2
∴ min{1, a2 − 4a + 6} = 1 ⇒ = ⇒ cos A =
a∈R 2bc 2 2
1 1 1 ∵ –1 ≤ cosA ≤ 1
Now, sin x + cos x = 1 ⇒ sinx + cosx =
2 2 2 λ−2
π π π π ∴ −1 ≤ ≤1 ⇒ −2 ≤ λ −2 ≤ 2 ⇒ 0 ≤ λ ≤ 4
⎛ ⎞ 2
⇒ sin ⎜ x + ⎟ = sin ⇒ x + = nπ + (−1)n
⎝ 4⎠ 4 4 4
18. (b) : Let b = 2 3 + 2, c = 2 3 − 2 and A = 60°
π π
⇒ x = nπ + (−1)n − , n ∈ Z
4 4 ⎛ B −C ⎞ b−c A 4
∴ tan ⎜ = cot = cot 30° = 1 = tan 45°
⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ b + c 2 4 3
14. (b) : We have 1 – 2sin2θcos2θ = –λ
1 ⇒ B – C = 90°. Again, B + C = 120° (∵ A = 60°)
⇒ 1 − sin2 2θ = −λ Therefore the other two angles are B = 105° and
2
C = 15°.
1 3 1
⇒ 1 − (1 − cos 4θ) = −λ ⇒ + cos 4θ = −λ ⎛ π π ⎞ 5π
4 4 4 19. (b) : Here A = π − ⎜ + ⎟ = = 75°.
⎝ 4 3 ⎠ 12
∵ –1 ≤ cos4θ ≤ 1
1 1 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 a b 3 +1 b
∴ − ≤ cos 4θ ≤ ⇒ − ≤ + cos 4θ ≤ + Now = ⇒ =
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 sin A sin B sin 75° sin 45°
1 1 sin 45°
⇒ ≤ −λ ≤ 1 ⇒ − 1 ≤ λ ≤ − ∴ b= ( 3 + 1) = 2
2 2 sin 75°

78 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


1 25. (b) : The centre and radius of the circle x2 + y2 = 16
Area of the triangle = ab sin C are respectively (0, 0) and 4.
2

{ }
Now the distance of the point (9, –12) from (0, 0) is
1 π ⎛3+ 3 ⎞ 2
= ( 3 + 1) ⋅ 2 sin cm2 = ⎜
⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 81 + 144 = 225 = 15.
cm
2 3
Hence, the least distance of the circle x2 + y2 = 16 from
20. (b) : Let AB = 3, BC = 5, CD = 2, DA = x and
the point (9, –12) is 15 – 4 = 11 units
∠ABC = 60° of the cyclic quadrilateral ABCD
∴ ∠CDA = 180° – 60° = 120° 26. (b) : Here, the given equation of the circle is
x2 + y2 – 8x – 4y + 15 = 0
AB2 + BC 2 − AC 2
From ΔABC, we have cos ∠ABC = ∴ Centre is (4, 2). Given that one extremity of the
2AB ⋅ BC
diameter is (2, 1). Let the other extremity be (x, y).
1 9 + 25 − AC 2
⇒ = ⇒ AC2 = 19 ... (1) Therefore the other extremity of the diameter is (6, 3)
2 2⋅3⋅5 [Since the centre is the mid-point of diameter]
CD 2 + AD 2 − AC 2
From ΔADC, we have cos∠CDA = 27. (c): The centre of the circle x2 + y2 = 25 is (0, 0).
2CD ⋅ AD Now slope of QO × slope of RO
−1 4 + x 2 − 19
⇒ = (Using (1)) 4−0 3−0 4 3
2 2⋅ x ⋅2 = × = × − = −1
3 − 0 −4 − 0 3 4
⇒ x2 + 2x – 15 = 0 ⇒ (x + 5)(x – 3) = 0
⇒ x = 3 (∵ x ≠ –5) π
Therefore angle at the centre (∠QOR) = ,
21. (d) : For the circle, x2 + y2 + 6x + 6y = 0, 2
∴ Angle at the circumference is
the centre is at (–3, –3) and radius = 3 2
1 π
Also the centre and radius of the circle ∠QPR = × ∠QOR =
x2 + y2 – 12x – 12y = 0 is (6, 6) and 6 2 respectively. 2 4
Distance between the centres of the circles 28. (a) : Let the equation of the circle be
(x – α)2 + (y)2 = α2
= 81 + 81 = 9 2 = sum of the radii
(∵ the circle touches y-axis at origin. ∴ centre is on
∴ the two circles touch each other externally. x-axis)
22. (d) : The equation of the circle whose diameter's ⇒ x2 – 2αx + α2 + y2 = α2
⎛ 1⎞ ⇒ x2 – 2αx + y2 = 0 ... (1)
end points are (0, 0) and ⎜ a3, 3 ⎟ is
⎝ a ⎠ Since (1) is passing through (h, k), therefore
⎛ 1⎞ h2 + k 2
(x − 0)(x − a3) + ( y − 0) ⎜ y − 3 ⎟ = 0 .... (1) α=
⎝ a ⎠ 2h
⎛1 ⎞ Now (1) becomes
Since the equation (1) is satisfied by ⎜ , a ⎟ , therefore
⎝a ⎠ ⎛ h2 + k 2 ⎞
⎛1 ⎞
the circle is passing through ⎜ , a ⎟ . x2 + y2 = 2 ⎜ 2 2 2 2
⎟ x ⇒ h(x + y ) = (h + k )x
⎝a ⎠ ⎝ 2h ⎠
23. (d) : Hint: Two circles touch each other if the 29. (d) : The given equation is
distance between their centres is equal to the sum or ax2 + (2a – 3)y2 – 6x + ay – 3 = 0
difference of the their radii. This equation will represent a circle if the coefficient of
24. (d) : Equation of the circle passing through the x2 is equal to the coefficient of y2.
points (0, 0), (1, 0), (0, –1) is ∴ a = 2a – 3 ⇒ a = 3.
⇒ x2 + y2 – x + y = 0 ... (1) Now, the equation of the circle is
(0, 0), (1, 0), (0, –1) and (λ, 3λ) are concyclic, therefore 3x2 + 3y2 – 6x + 3y – 3 = 0
from (1), we get ⇒ x2 + y2 – 2x + y – 1 = 0
λ2 + 9λ2 – λ + 3λ = 0 ⇒ 10λ2 + 2λ = 0
1 3
1 ∴ Radius = 1 + + 1 = .
⇒ 2λ(5λ + 1) = 0 ⇒ λ = − (∵ λ ≠ 0) 4 2
5
MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 79
30. (a) : Let P(h, k) divides the chord AB in the ratio 3 4 2k + 1
⇒ cos x + sin x =
2 : 1. OD ⊥ AB, where O is the centre of the circle 5 5 5
2k + 1 3 4
and D is the foot of the perpendicular drawn from the ⇒ cos(x − α) = , where cos α = ,sin α =
centre O. 5 5 5
2k + 1
Now, OB = 10 ; OD = 1. ∵ − 1 ≤ cos(x − α) ≤ 1 ⇒ − 1 ≤ ≤1
5
∴ DB = 10 − 1 = 3 ∴ AB = 2; DB = 6. ⇒ –5 ≤ 2k + 1 ≤ 5 ⇒ –6 ≤ 2k ≤ 4
Therefore integral values of k are –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2
1 ∴ Required number is 6.
∵ AP : PB = 2 : 1 ∴ PB = AB = 2
3 35. (d) : The word ‘COMBINE’ is consisting of 7 letters.
∴ DP = DB − PB = 3 − 2 = 1. There are 3 vowels namely- E, I and O.
The two vowels for beginning and ending place can
Now, from ΔODP, we have
be arranged in 3P2 ways. For each of the 3P2 ways the
OP2 = OD2 + DP2 ⇒ h2 + k2 = 1 + 1 = 2 remaining 5 letters can be arranged in 5! ways.
∴ locus of the point (h, k) is x2 + y2 = 2 Therefore required number is 3P2 × 5! = 720.
31. (c): The line y = x cuts the circle x2 + y2 – 2x = 0 at 36. (c, d) : Given that nC4, nC5 and nC6 are in A.P.
the points A(0, 0) and B(1, 1). Therefore the equation of n! n! n!
the circle, whose diameter is AB, is ∴ 2⋅ = +
5 !(n − 5)! 4 !(n − 4)! 6 !(n − 6)!
(x – 0)(x – 1) + (y – 0)(y – 1) = 0 2 1 1
⇒ x2 + y2 – x – y = 0 ⇒ = +
5(n − 5) (n − 4)(n − 5) 6 × 5
32. (c): Let the line 3x + y + 5 = 0 cut the circle x2 + y2 = 16 12 (n − 4)(n − 5) + 30
⇒ =
at the points A and B, hence AB is a chord of the circle. (n − 5) (n − 4)(n − 5)
⎛ 3 1⎞ ⇒ n – 9n + 50 = 12(n – 4) ⇒ n2 – 21n + 98 = 0
2
The mid-point of the chord AB is ⎜ − , − ⎟ (the foot
⎝ 2 2⎠ ⇒ n2 – 14n – 7n + 98 = 0 ⇒ (n – 14)(n – 7) = 0
of the perpendicular from the centre to the chord) and ⇒ n = 14 or n = 7
25 27 37. (b, d) : We know that |cosx| ≥ 0
length of the chord AB = 2 × 16 − =2 . ⇒ sinx ≥ 0. So, there is no x in (π, 2π).
10 2
Now, if x = 2π, |cos2π| ≤ sin2π, which is not true.
∴ Centre of the circle, whose diameter is AB, is
So, 0 ≤ x ≤ π
⎛ 3 1⎞ 1 27 π
⎜⎝ − , − ⎟⎠ and its radius = AB = . If 0 ≤ x ≤ then cos x ≤ sin x ⇒ cos x ≤ sin x
2 2 2 2 2
Thus the equation of the circle is π π
⇒ tan x ≥ 1 ∴ ≤ x ≤
2 2 4 2
⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ 27
⎜⎝ x + ⎟⎠ + ⎜⎝ y + ⎟⎠ = π
2 2 2 If ≤ x ≤ π then cos x ≤ sin x
2
⇒ x2 + y2 + 3x + y = 11
⇒ –cosx ≤ sinx ⇒ tanx ≤ –1 (∵ cosx < 0)
2 C A 3b
+ c cos2 = π 3π ⎡ π π ⎤ ⎡ π 3π ⎤
33. (b) : Given that, a cos ∴ <x≤ ∴ x ∈⎢ , ⎥ ∪ ⎢ , ⎥ .
2 2 2 2 4 ⎣4 2⎦ ⎣2 4 ⎦
⇒ a(1 + cosC) + c(1 + cosA) = 3b
⇒ a + c + (acosC + ccosA) = 3b Solution Sender of Maths Musing
⇒ a + c + b = 3b (∵ acosC + ccosA = b) SET-164
⇒ a + c = 2b, i.e. a, b, c are in A.P. 1. Akash Banerjee W.B.
34. (b) : We have 3cosx + 4sinx = 2k + 1 2. Sk. Izajur Rahaman W.B.
3 4 2k + 1 3. N. Jayanthi Hyderabad
⇒ cos x + sin x =
32 + 42 32 + 42 32 + 42 4. Khokon Kumar Nandi W.B.

80 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


38. (a, b, c) : Here tanA, tanB are the roots of the and x – 3y + k = 0 are identical
equation abx2 – c2x + ab = 0 x − 2 y1 + 1 −2x1 + y1 − 5
Hence, 1 = =
c2 1 −3 k
Therefore, tan A + tan B = and tan A tan B = 1
ab 2(x1 − 2) − 1( y1 + 1) + (−2x1 + y1 − 5)
=
Now tanA tanB = 1 ⇒ cos(A + B) = 0 2 × 1 − 1 × (−3) + k
(as A, B are both acute) x1 − 2 y1 + 1 −10 −10 2k
∴ = = ⇒ x1 = +2=
π π 1 −3 5+k 5+k 5+k
∴ A + B = i.e. C =
2 2
30 25 − k
and y1 = −1 =
π 5+k 5+k
Also cot C = cot =0
2 (x1, y1) is on the circle.
So ΔABC is right angled at C and
2 2
sinA = cosB ⇒ sin2A + sin2B = 1 ⎛ 2k ⎞ ⎛ 25 − k ⎞ ⎛ 2k ⎞ ⎛ 25 − k ⎞
So, ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ −4⋅⎜ ⎟ + 2⋅ ⎜ −5=0
a b ⎝ 5+k ⎠ ⎝ 5+k ⎠ ⎝ 5+k ⎠ ⎝ 5 + k ⎟⎠
tan A − tan B b − a a2 − b2 On simplification, k2 + 10k – 75 = 0 ⇒ k = 5, –15
Also tan(A − B) = = = .
1 + tan A tan B 1 + 1 2ab − 30 25 + 15
10 20
∴ x1 = = 1, y1 = =2 or x1 = = 3, y = = − 4.
39. (a, c) 10 10 − 10 5 − 15
40. (b, c) : Let x – 3y + k = 0 touch the circle at (x1, y1) So, (x1, y1) = (1, 2), (3, –4).
Then xx1 + yy1 – 2(x + x1) + y + y1 – 5 = 0 ””

Declining IIT cutoffs spark fears of falling standards


The IITs are struggling to get the best Experts said tough
students, so much so that cutoff marks question papers and LOWERING THE BAR
have been lowered in the past two years negative marking in the
to fill seats in the country’s premier entrance examination
Cutoffs over the years show a steady drop in merit
engineering institutes. had resulted in a GENERAL OBC SC/ST
Marks as low as 75 out of 372 in the joint shortfall of candidates 35%
entrance examination (JEE-Advance) meeting the benchmark, 31.39%
this year were good enough to land thus forcing the IIT
24.5%
a general category student a seat in management to lower 22.05%
one of the 23 IITs. Reserved category the bar. 20%
18% 17.5%
students —Dalits, tribals, and people Doubts over a fall in
with disability — had to get only 38 to st and ard have b e en 12.25%
10%
secure admission. dismissed.
This comes at a time the IIT Council “The teaching-learning
d e c i d e d to i n c re as e t he nu mb e r process at IITs is intense,
of students from around 70,000 to and many students who 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016
100,000 over the next three years, come with low ranks in
enrolling even day scholars for the JEE turn out to be gems
first time. when they pass the BTech programme,” “Maintaining quality is a major issue
The lowered benchmark has raised said the director of an IIT who didn’t which is why IITs coach such students
questions about academic quality. wish to be named. so that they are on par with the rest.
IIT-Roorkee expelled 11 BTech students A former director suggested improving Students who were expelled by IIT-
early this year for poor academic the education standard at schools so that Roorkee in 2015 have done much better
performance. Last year, the premier students could pass the entrance exam now with extra help, coaching from other
institute expelled 72 students for dismal for IITs with higher grades. Of 147,678 students and faculty.”
academic record, but re-admitted them students who appeared for this year’s JEE
later. (Advanced), 36,566 qualified. Courtesy : Hindustan Times

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 81






Math Archives, as the title itself suggests, is a collection of various challenging problems related to the topics of IIT-JEE Syllabus. This section
is basically aimed at providing an extra insight and knowledge to the candidates preparing for IIT-JEE. In every issue of MT, challenging
problems are offered with detailed solution. The readers’ comments and suggestions regarding the problems and solutions offered are
always welcome.

π 2π 3π 5π (c) A → R, B → P, C → Q
1. The value of tan2 + tan2 + tan2 + tan2 (d) none of these
16 16 16 16
2 6π 2 7π is equal to 5. If θ is small and positive number, then which of the
+ tan + tan
16 16 following is/are correct?
(a) 24 (b) 34 sin θ
(a) =1 (b) θ < sinθ < tanθ
(c) 44 (d) none of these θ
sin( x − [x]) cos π x tan θ sin θ
2. If f (x) = e , then f(x) is ([x] denotes (c) > (d) none of these
θ θ
the greatest integer function) cos 3x
(a) non-periodic 6. If y = cos −1 , then prove that
cos3 x
(b) periodic with no fundamental period dy 3
(c) periodic with period 2 = .
dx cos x cos 3x
(d) periodic with period π
7. Let a ∈ R, then prove that a function f : R → R
3. Which of the following homogeneous functions is differentiable at a if a function φ : R → R satisfies
are of degree zero? f (x) – f (a) = φ(x)(x – a) ∀ x ∈ R and φ is continuous at ‘a’.
x y y x x(x − y) 8. If β, γ ∈ (0, π) such that cosα + cos(α + β) +
(a) ln + ln (b)
y x x y y(x + y) cos(α + β + γ) = 0 and sinα + sin(α + β) + sin(α +
xy β + γ) = 0. Then evaluate f ′(β) and lim g (x), where
(c) (d) all of these x →γ
x + y2
2
1 + sin x − cos x
f (x) = sin2x(1 + cos2x)–1 and g (x) = .
4. Match the following. 1 + sin x + cos x
Column-I Column-II 9. Find the area of the triangle formed with vertices
ln(cos x) ⎛ ⎡ π⎤ ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞
A. lim P. –1 ⎜ ⎢x − 2 ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎛ tan x ⎞ x ⎟
x →0
⎜ x →0 ⎝ x ⎟⎠ ⎟
x , 0 and 0, lim ⎜
π cos x ⎥ ⎟
(0, 0), ⎜ lim ⎢ ,
⎛ 1 x ⎞ 1 ⎜⎝ 2
x → ⎢ ⎥ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
B. lim ⎜ − ⎟ Q. − ⎣ ⎦ ⎠
x →1 ⎝ ln x ln x ⎠ 2 where [·] denotes the greatest integer function.
x − sin x 10. Prove that the straight lines whose direction
C. lim R. 0
x →0 x − tan x cosines are given by the relations al + bm + cn = 0 and
(a) A → P, B → R, C → Q f g h
fmn + gnl + hlm = 0 are perpendicular if + + = 0.
(b) A → Q, B → P, C → R a b c
By : Prof. Shyam Bhushan, Director, Narayana IIT Academy, Jamshedpur. Mob. : 09334870021

82 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


SOLUTIONS ⇒ f ′(a) = φ(a) [∵ lim φ(x) = φ(a)]
π π x →a
1. (b) : Let θ = ⇒ 8θ = ⇒ f is differentiable at x = a.
16 2
8 8. Given cosα + cos(α + β) + cos(α + β + γ) = 0
Ist and last gives tan2θ + cot2θ = −2 sinα + sin(α + β) + sin(α + β + γ) = 0
1 − cos 4θ
Similarly other terms. where β, γ ∈ (0, π)
sin (x − [x]) cos πx ⇒ [cosα + cos(α + β)]2 + [sinα + sin(α + β)]2 = 1
2. (c) : f (x) = e ⇒ 2 + 2[cosβ] = 1
sin(x – [x]) = sin{x}. Period is 1 1 1
cosπx, Period is 2 ∴ cosβ = − . Similarly, cos γ = −
2 2,
Hence f (x) is of period 2

3. (d) : f(x, y) is homogeneous function of degree ∴ β=γ=
n ∈ R in x, y if f (kx, ky) = kn f(x, y) ; where k > 0 3
sin 2x x
⎛ x⎞
1/ x Now, f (x) = = tan x and g (x) = tan
4. (c) : (A) lim ln ⎜1 − 2 sin2 ⎟ 1 + cos 2x 2
x →0 ⎝ 2⎠
⎛ 2π ⎞ 2π π
−2 sin2
x ∴ f ′ ⎜ ⎟ = sec2 = 4 and lim g (x) = tan = 3
2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ 3 x→
2 π 3
⎡ −1 ⎤ x 3
x −2 sin2
⎢ ⎛ 2 x ⎞ 2 sin2 x ⎥ 2 =0 9. Let O = (0, 0)
= lim ln ⎢ ⎜1 − 2 sin ⎟ 2⎥
= lim
x →0 ⎝ 2⎠ x →0 x ⎛ ⎡ π⎤ ⎞
⎢⎣ ⎦⎥ ⎜ ⎢x − 2 ⎥ ⎟
1− x h 1
A = ⎜ lim ⎢
π cos x
⎥ , 0 ⎟ = (−2, 0)
(B) lim = lim = lim = −1 ⎜ x→ 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎟
x →1 ln x h→0 ln(1 − h ) h→0 ln[(1 − h)−1/h]−1 ⎝ ⎣ ⎦ ⎠
x − sin x ⎛ ⎛ tan x ⎞ ⎞
1/ x
1 B = ⎜ 0, lim ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ = (0, 1)
(C) lim x 3
= 6 =−
1 ⎝ x →0 ⎝ x ⎠ ⎠
x →0 x − tan x 1 2
− 1
x 3 3 ∴ Area of ΔOAB = −2 − 0 = 1 sq. unit
2
5. (c) 10. We have al + bm + cn = 0 ... (1)
cos 3x ... (1) fmn + gnl + hlm = 0 ... (2)
6. We have cos y = Eliminate n, we get
cos3 x
2
⎛l ⎞ ⎛l ⎞
3
4 cos x − 3 cos x ⇒ ag ⎜ ⎟ + (af + bg + ch ) ⎜ ⎟ + bf = 0 ... (3)
= = 4 − 3 sec2 x ⎝m⎠ ⎝m⎠
3
cos x
Now, if l1, m1, n1 and l2, m2, n2 are d.c.’s of two lines
⇒ cos2y
=4– 3sec2x
= 4 – 3(1 + tan2x) l l
= 1 – 3tan2x then roots of (3) are 1 and 2 .
m1 m2
⇒ sin2y = 3tan2x ⇒ sin y = 3 tan x l1 l2 bf
dy ∴ product of the roots = . =
⇒ cos y = 3 sec2 x m1 m2 ag
dx
l1l2 m1m2

dy
=
3
[from (1)] ∴ =
dx cos x ⋅ cos 3x f /a g /b
7. ∵ φ : R → R is continuous at x = a and satisfies ∴
l1l2 m1m2 n1n2
= =
f(x) – f(a) = φ(x)(x – a) ∀ x ∈ R f /a g /b h /c
f (x) − f (a) ∵ lines are perpendicular
⇒ = φ(x)
x −a ∴ l 1l 2 + m 1m 2 + n 1n 2 = 0
f (x) − f (a)
⇒ lim = lim φ(x) ⇒
f g h
+ + =0
x →a x −a x →a
a b c ””

MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 83


3 3
⇒ 1 − sin2 2θ = sin3 2θ + 1
4 2
⇒ sin2 2 (2sin 2 + 1) = 0
SOLUTION SET-165
1 ⎛ 7π ⎞
⎛ 1⎞ A(1, 2
) ⇒ sin 2 = – = sin ⎜ ⎟
1. (c) : Focus is ⎜ 0, ⎟ 2 ⎝ 6 ⎠
⎝ 4⎠ 1
S P ⎛ 7π ⎞
Directrix is y = −
1 4 ⇒ 2 = nπ + (−1)n ⎜ ⎟
4 1
⎝ 6 ⎠
y=− M
PS + PA = PM + PA, takes 4 nπ 7π 7 π 11π 19 π 23π
minimum value when A, P, M are collinear. ⇒ θ= + (−1)n ;θ= , , ,
1 9 2 12 12 12 12 12
∴ Minimum value = 2 + = dx
4 4 7. (c) : − x = y ⇒ xe–y = ∫ye–y dy = –(y + 1)e–y + A
dy
2. (a) : The number of all 5 digit numbers is 6! – 5! = 600
x = 0, y = 0 ⇒ A = 1 and x = ey – (y + 1)
Numbers divisible by 11 without digit 1 are
dx 1
23045 with 8 permutations At y = ln 3, = 3 – 1 = 2 ⇒ dy =
32450 with 8 permutations dy dx 2
1 5
8. (d) : ∫ x dy = (e y − y − 1)dy = e −
1
Likewise there are 16 numbers without 3 and 16
numbers without 5 0 ∫0 2
∴ The number of numbers divisible by 11 are 16 × 3 = 48 9. (6) : The minimum number 1 occurs as 2nd, 3rd, ...
Probability =
48
=
2 9th term in the sequence.
600 25 9
⎛ 9 ⎞ ⎛9⎞ ⎛9⎞ ⎛9⎞
10
1 ∴N = ∑ ⎜⎝ r − 1⎟⎠ = ⎜⎝ 1 ⎟⎠ + ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ + ... + ⎜⎝ 8 ⎠⎟ = 29 − 2 = 510
3. (b) : ∑ r =2
r = 1 (2r − 1)(2r + 1)(2r + 3)
10. (P) → 4; (Q) → 1; (R) → 3; (S) → 2
1⎛ 2 1 1 1 ⎞ 40 m (P) The desired number is the coefficient of x10 in
= ⎜1 − + − + ⎟ = =
8 ⎝ 3 3 21 23 ⎠ 483 n (x + x2 + ... + x6)4 or coefficient of x6 in (1+ x + ... + x5)4
∴ m + n = 523 = (1 – x6)4 (1 – x)–4
4. (d) : Let α, β be the roots. α + β = –a, αβ = 6a ⎛ ⎛4⎞ ⎛5⎞ ⎞
= (1 − 4 x 6 + ...) ⎜ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ x + ⎜ ⎟ x 2 + ... ⎟
Eliminating a, we get (α+ 6)(β + 6) = 36 ⎝ ⎝1⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎠
36
∴ α = −6 + d , β = −6 + ⎛9⎞
d Required coefficient = ⎜ ⎟ − 4 = 84 − 4 = 80
The number of pairs (α, β), is the number of divisors ⎝6⎠
of 36. (Q) a = 2α – 1, b = 2β – 1, c = 2γ – 1, d = 2δ – 1
i.e., d = ± 1, ± 2, ± 3, ± 4, ± 6 ⇒ α + β + γ + δ = 10
∴ The number of values of a is 10. ⎛9⎞
The number of solutions is ⎜ ⎟ = 84
5. (c) : Let a = cos θ, b = sin θ ⎝3⎠
2
⎛ θ θ⎞ ⎛5⎞
(1 + (x + 2 y ))
5
z = cos  + i sin  = ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ (R) = 1 + ⎜ ⎟ (x + 2 y ) +
⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝1⎠
θ θ
cos + i sin ⎛5⎞ ⎛ 5⎞
2 = c + i , where, ⎜ ⎟ (x + 2 y ) + ⎜ ⎟ (x + 2 y ) + ....
2 3
= 2
θ θ c −i 2
⎝ ⎠ 3
⎝ ⎠
cos − i sin
2 2 ⎛5⎞
The coefficient of x y = ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 = 60
2
θ 1 + cos θ 1 + a
c = cot = = ⎝3⎠
2 sin θ b 10
r ⋅ Cr 10
r (10 − r + 1) 10
6. (a, b, c, d) : sin θ + cos θ = 12 + 8
3 3
(S) ∑C
r =1
=∑
r =1 r
= ∑ (11 − r )
r =1
r −1
cos3 θ sin3 θ sin3 2θ
10 ⋅11
3
⇒ sin6  + cos6 = sin3 2θ + 1 = 10 + 9 + 8 + ... + 1 = = 55
2 2 ””

84 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16


Y U ASK Ans. Here, f(x) = |x + 1| {|x| + |x – 1|}
⎧( x + 1)(2 x − 1) ; − 2 ≤ x < −1
⎪⎪ −( x + 1)(2 x − 1); − 1 ≤ x < 0
f (x ) = ⎨

WE ANSWER
Do you have a question that you just can’t get

⎩⎪
( x + 1);
( x + 1)
) (2
Thus the graph of f(x) is;
x − 1) ;
0 ≤ x <1
1≤ x ≤ 2

answered?
Use the vast expertise of our MTG team to get to the
bottom of the question. From the serious to the silly,
the controversial to the trivial, the team will tackle the
questions, easy and tough.
The best questions and their solutions will be printed in
this column each month.
1. If A, B, C be the centres of three co-axial circles
and t1, t2, t3 be the lengths of the tangents to them which is clearly, continuous for x ∈[–2, 2] and
from any point, then prove that differentiable for x ∈[–2, 2] – {–1, 0, 1}
3. If n is a positive integer, show that
BC ⋅ t12 + CA ⋅ t22 + ABt32 = 0 n! C (2 !) C2
Kishor, U.P. = 1 − +
(x + 1)(x + 2)....(x + n) x + 1 x + 2
Ans. Let the equations of three circles are
(3 !)C3 n + 1 (n !) Cn
x2 + y2 + 2gix + c = 0, i = 1, 2, 3. − .... + (−1)
According to the question x +3 x +n
Mehul, Assam
A ≡ (–g1, 0), B ≡ (–g2, 0), C ≡ (–g3, 0) Ans. If the L.H.S of the given expression is decomposed
Let any point be P(h, k) into partial fractions, we have
n! A A A
t1 = h2 + k 2 + 2 g1h + c = 1 + 2 + .... + n
( x + 1)( x + 2) ( x + n) x + 1 x + 2
.... x +n
t 2 = h2 + k 2 + 2 g 2 h + c i.e., n! = A1(x + 2) (x + 3)····(x + n) + A2(x + 1)
(x + 3) ···· (x + n) + ···· + An(x + 1) (x + 2)
t3 = h2 + k 2 + 2 g 3h + c ····(x + n – 1) ...(i)
Putting x = –1 in (i), we have
and AB = ( g1 − g 2 ) n! = A1 · 1 · 2 · 3 ········(n – 1)
BC = ( g 2 − g 3 ) n!
i.e., A1 = = n = nC1
1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 .......(n − 1)
and CA = ( g 3 − g1 ) Similarly, putting x = –2, –3, ········, –n in (i)
Now BC ⋅ t12 + CA ⋅ t 22 + AB ⋅ t32 respectively, we have
n!
= Σ(g2 – g3) (h2 + k2 + 2g1h + c) A2 = = −n(n − 1) = − nC2 (2 !)
−1 ⋅ 2 ....... (n − 2)
= (h2 + k2 + c) Σ (g2 – g3) + 2hΣg1(g2 – g3)
n!
= (h2 + k2 + c) (g2 – g3 + g3 – g1 + g1 – g2) A3 = = n(n − 1)(n − 2) = nC3 (3 !)
1⋅ 2 ....... (n − 3)
+2h {g1(g2 – g3) + g2(g3 – g1) + g3(g1 – g2)}.
= (h2 + k2 + c) (0) + 2h(0)
=0 and An = (–1)n + 1 nCn (n!)
Hence, we have
which proves the result.
n! C (2 !)C2
= 1 − +
2. If f(x) = |x + 1| {|x| + |x – 1|}, then draw the graph ( x + 1)( x + 2) ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅( x + n) x + 1 x + 2
of f(x) in the interval [–2, 2] and discuss the (3 !)C3 n + 1 (n !)Cn
continuity and differentiability in [–2, 2]. − .... + (−1)
x +3 x +n
Karan Sharma, New Delhi which is the desired result. ””
MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16 85
86 MATHEMATICS TODAY | OCTOBER‘16