Sie sind auf Seite 1von 11



The standards and standard procedures for production control are designed to ensure that all
portions of any given item conform to management ’ s plans for that item and that, as far as
possible, each portion of any given item is identical to all other portions of the same item.

Portion for any given menu should be identical in 4 respect.

 Ingredients
 Proportions of ingredients
 Production methods
 Quantity

To achieved the 4 respected areas we need to have

1. Standard Portion Size

2. Standard Recipe

3. Standard Portion Cost


One of the most important standards that any foodservice operation must establish is the
standard portion size, defined as the quantity of any item that is to be served each time that item
is ordered. In effect, the standard portion size for any item is the fixed quantity of a given menu
item, that management intends to give each customer in return for the fixed selling price
identified in the menu. It is possible and desirable for management to establish these fixed
quantities in very clear terms. Every item on a menu can be quantified in one of three ways:

 by weight,
 by volume, or
 by count.

Every item on a menu can be quantified in one of the three way:

 By Weight: Can be expresses in ounce or grams used to measure portion sizes for a
number of menu items.
 By Volume: Is used as the measure for portion of many menu items usually that of liquid
in nature, Milk, soup, juices of coffees
 By Count: Used to identify portion size, such as sausage, eggs and shrimps

Many devices are available to help foodservice operators standardize portion sizes. Among the
more common are the aforementioned scoops and slotted spoons, as well as ladles, portion
scales, and measuring cups. Even the number scale or dial on a slicing machine, designed to


regulate the thickness of slices, can aid in standardizing portion size: A manager may stipulate a
particular number of slices of an item on a sandwich and then direct that the item be sliced with
the dial at a particular setting

Advantages for practicing Standard Portion Size

 It helps reduce customer discontent as the customer cannot compare his or her portion
unfavorably with that of other customer and feel dissatisfied or cheated.
 It helps to eliminate animosity of miscommunication between the kitchen staff and the
server over the portion size that lead to delay in the serving of food.
 It helps to eliminate excessive costs of over portioned menu.
 Price on the menu is usually fixed, thus it will also reflect the portion size of the menu. If
the portion size is constantly change then it will dissatisfied the customer and server.


Another important production standard is the recipe. A recipe is a list of the ingredients and the
quantities of those ingredients needed to produce a particular item, along with a procedure or
method to follow. A standard recipe is the recipe that has been designated the correct one to
use in a given establishment.

Standard recipes help to ensure that the quality of any item will be the same each time the item
is produced. They also help to establish consistency of taste, appearance, and customer

The same ingredients are used in the correct proportions and the same procedure is followed,
the results should be nearly identical each time the standard recipe is used, even if different
people are doing the work. In likely to receive items of identical quality.

Standard recipes are also very important to food control. Without standard recipes, costs
cannot be controlled effectively. If a menu item is produced by different met different
ingredients, and in different proportions each time it is made, costs will be different each time
any given quantity is produced


A standard portion cost can be calculated for every item on every menu, provided th
ingredients, proportions, production methods, and portion sizes have been standardized as
previously discussed. In general, calculating standard portion cost merely requires that one
determine the cost of each ingredient used to produce a quantity o item, add the costs of the
individual ingredients to arrive at a total, and then divide the total by the number of portions


Standard portion cost is defined as the monetary amount that a standard portion should cost,
given the standards and standard procedures for its production. The standard portion cost for a
given menu item can be viewed as a budget for the production of one portion of that item. There
are several reasons for determining standard portion costs. The most obvious is that one should
have a reasonably clear idea of the cost of a menu item before establishing a menu sales price for
that item


Yield factor is defined as the percent of a whole purchase unit to that is available for portioning
after any required in completed.

Quantity = Number of portions X portion size (as a decimal) /Yield percentage

Recipe Standardization Process

-defines a standardized recipe as one that “has been tried, adapted, and retried several times for
use by a given foodservice operation and has been found to produce the same good results and
yield every time when the exact procedures are used with the same type of equipment and the
same quantity and quality of ingredients”.
-refers to a particular standard-of-use of certain metrics in cooking – standard sizes, time,
temperature, amount, etc. Abiding by this rule creates uniformity in kitchen produce, whether
or not it is tangible or intangible.

Cons of having a Standardized Recipe

1. Inconvenient – This can be from the Head Chef keeping the list of standardized recipe in his
room and had it locked or having three big books of standardized recipe and need kitchen staff to
flip over one by one to get everything done. Inconvenience is the number ONE factor that led to
kitchen staff not using standardized recipes.

2. Time consuming – This is also one of the reasons why standardized recipe are not followed.
During peak hours, a kitchen do not have time to waste, and every second counts.

3. Better variations – Some Chefs prefer to follow their centric of taste, some are just worship
their own believes. This could cause a problem when there is no proper training provided and
Kitchen Control.

4. Rules are meant to be broken – There are always different people/consumers around your
restaurant. What’s important, the customers. When standardized recipes are not tested regularly
on the restaurant, inaccurate information may be provided in the standardized recipe.


Solution: Leave room or space for food/cooking variation. This usually happen when the Head
Chef is not properly organized or trained well for his position.

5. A secret no more – Some restaurateurs or Chefs frown on making a book of standardized recipe
because they want to protect their food knowledge. This is a classic perception: Someone comes
by, takes all the recipe and leave the restaurant after a month.

6. When it’s gone, it’s really gone – At certain times in a restaurant, a piece of recipe sheet can
get lost. When it’s lost, there will be a slight havoc in understanding as the Head Chef needs to
take action immediately. On another situation, it can also be ‘stolen’ or ‘retrieved’ as
management of the restaurant changes, and/or someone steals the particular information, or the
restaurant faces mishaps like kitchen on fire.

Benefits of Standardized Recipes

Using standardized recipes provides many benefits to school foodservice operations. These
benefits include:
Consistent food quality—The use of standardized recipes ensures that menu items will be
consistent in quality each time they are prepared and served.
- Creates an absolute standard in kitchen produce and cooking activities.
- Maintains food quality and food standards during kitchen operational hours.

Predictable yield—The planned number of servings will be produced by using standardized

recipes. This can help to reduce the amount of leftover food if there has been over production,
and also will help to prevent shortages of servings on the line. A predictable yield is especially
important when food is transported from a production kitchen to other serving sites.

Customer satisfaction—Well-developed recipes that appeal to students are an important factor

in maintaining and increasing student participation levels. Schools may take a lesson from
national restaurant chains that have developed popular menu items consistent in every detail of
ingredient, quantity, preparation, and presentation. Standardized recipes provide this
consistency and can result in increased customer satisfaction.

Food cost control—Standardized recipes provide consistent and accurate information for food
cost control because the same ingredients and quantities of ingredients per serving are used each
time the recipe is produced.

Efficient purchasing procedures—Purchasing is more efficient because the quantity of food

needed for production is easily calculated from the information on each standardized recipe.

Inventory control—The use of standardized recipes provides predictable information on the

quantity of food inventory that will be used each time the recipe is produced

Labor cost control — Written standardized procedures in the recipe make efficient use of labor
time and allow for planned scheduling of foodservice personnel for the work day. Training costs


are reduced because new employees are provided specific instructions for preparation in each
- Allows smooth transition between different kitchen staffs

Increased employee confidence—Employees feel more satisfied and confident in their jobs
because standardized recipes eliminate guesswork, decrease the chances of producing poor food
products, and prevent shortages of servings during meal service.

Reduced record keeping— A collection of standardized recipes for menu items will reduce the
amount of information required on a daily food production record. Standardized recipes will
include the ingredients and amounts of food used for a menu item. The food production record
will only need to reference the recipe, number of planned servings, and leftover amounts.
- Guiding tool for newcomers to the kitchen.

Standardized Recipe Components

Standardized recipes for foodservice operations should always have certain components:
1. Recipe title—Name that adequately describes the recipe.

2. Recipe category—Recipe classification based on categories,

i.e., main dishes, grains/breads.

3. Ingredients—Products used in a recipe.

4. Weight/Volume of each ingredient—The quantity of each ingredient listed in weight and/or


5. Preparation instructions (directions)—Directions for preparing the recipe.

6. Cooking temperature and time—The cooking temperature and time, if appropriate.

2. Serving size— The amount of a single portion in volume and/or weight.

3. Recipe yield— The amount (weight or volume and number of servings) of product at the
completion of production that is available for service.

4. Equipment and utensils to be used — The cooking and serving equipment to be used in
preparing and serving the recipe.


Recommended Standard Recipe Elements to Add

These recommended standard recipe elements are absolutely optional and should only be
included at selected times. Note that most recipes require only the simplest of steps to take, and
portrayal of information should be as concise, clear and to the point as possible.
1. Taste – At what degree should this dish taste like, and how you can stretch its seasoning
properties from there.
2. Precautions and Warnings – Precautions while handling these food mix or cooking methods.

3. Tips & Advice – Best way to beef up preparation methods and cook well without the need for
practical training.

4. What to do while waiting – Important steps or methods to follow or take while waiting cooking
or preparing a food ingredient or food ingredient mixes, etc.

5. Alternatives – Alternatives to this cooking method, or that food ingredient which might not be
available in certain areas of the world. Should there be any alternative ways to do it, it should be
pointed out.

6. Halal status – Halal status is very important. Certain foods are pre-packed in a non-halal
manner, or foods containing pork-based materials used in preparation or alcohol usage. For
example, rum flavoring. Comes in halal and non-halal.

7. Garnishing recommendations – This should be included and portrayed after recipe methods.

8. Miscellaneous information – This information should be portrayed at the very bottom of the
recipe, stating ways on how to prepare and cut this meat, or measure the intensity of cooking in
the meat.



The process of standardisation of recipe refers to recipe that has been tried out, sampled, written
down and photographed.
Processing instructions:
 Standardising the recipes which act as blue prints for the product.
 The recipes formulated must be such that it can be followed at any period of operations
and the dishes thereby produced must be uniform every time it is served.
 The quantity of ingredients to be produced must be mentioned in proper units without any
 The procedure for preparation must be clearly mentioned with the with the cooking
time(s) and temperature, related colour and texture changes etc.

Phases of Recipe Standardization

Recipe Verification - consists of reviewing the recipe in detail, preparing it, verifying its yield,
and recording changes.
Product Evaluation - focuses on determining the acceptability of the product produced from the
Quantity Adjustment- Changing the recipe yield and ingredient amounts occurs in the quantity
adjustment phase.

Essentials of a standard recipe:

 The exact amount of each of the ingredients to be used are clearly mentioned
 The ingredients used must be listed in order and not in a haphazard condition
 Proper and simple technology must be used while writing down the procedure
 The cooking time and temperature required for each process must be mentioned clearly.
 Portion size and the exact yield of the recipe must be tested and categorically stated.
 The procedure must be written down sequentially one after the other and not in a
disorderly fashion.

It is extremely necessary to have right standard recipe and it should be written down
categorically so that whosoever prepares the food gets a proper idea about the quality parameters
of the dish. Lack of standard recipe will result in the lack of uniformity and the dishes would be
prepared according to individual judgement. Standard recipes are also a tool of sound basis for
determining portion costs. This information is must for internal control system.


Kitchen tests:
Testing of recipes may be considered as a kitchen test. The purpose of the test is to determine the
amount of usable food in relation to quantity purchased. It is also called cooking loss test.
1. The results may be used for the following purposes:
2. To determine the portion costs. This is a necessity on a continuous basis.
3. Purchasing data - this will be the basis for the quantity to be purchased for the given
number of portions.
4. Determining the best methods of preparation ensuring proper cooking time and
temperature etc.
5. Basis for specification of the best yield.
6. Testing adherence to established specifications on continuous basis. This is important to
ensure that the set parameters are followed and there are no deviations. This helps in
better quality control.
7. Checking how well the employees follow the standard recipes and procedures. The
awareness level of the kitchen employees and their working standards can be checked
through this.
8. This can also serve to understand the level of expertise of the kitchen employees.

Butchery tests:
The butcher test is used in computing the usable yields for meats, fish, poultry. The several by -
products of meat fabrication, offals etc which can be put to use must be considered while
calculating the yield. The portion cost must be adjusted accordingly too. The necessary credit
must be given for all usable parts.


Format of standard recipe















Adjustment Factor

The adjustment factor method for adjusting recipes involves mathematical calculations and is
the most commonly used method of manual adjustment.. The factor method consists of three
basic steps. They are:

Determine the “adjustment factor” to be used. The factor is a multiplier that will be used to
increase or decrease the quantity of ingredients in a recipe. The factor is determined by dividing
the desired yield (in number of servings) by the current recipe yield (in number of servings).

Desired yield ÷ Current yield = Adjustment Factor

For example, If a manager wishes to make 250 servings and the current recipe produces 100
servings, divide 250 by 100; the factor would be 2.5.

250 ÷ 100 = 2.5

Multiply each ingredient quantity by the “factor.” Each ingredient quantity in a recipe is
multiplied by the factor to determine the ingredient quantity needed to produce the new yield.
Ingredient quantities given as fractions would need to be converted to decimals prior to doing
this calculation. In addition, foodservice managers may find it easier to convert quantities that
are in multiple units (i.e., quarts and cups) to one unit (cups) before doing calculations.

For example, if the goal is to make 250 servings and the base recipe yields 100 servings, the
“factor” would be 2.5. If the original recipe calls for 1⁄2 cup lemon juice, 8 oz sour cream, and
1 Tbsp + 1 tsp chopped parsley, the math is as follows:

Lemon juice: .5 cup x 2.5 = 1.25 cups lemon juice (original amount) x (factor) = (amount
needed for 250 servings) (Note: Change 1⁄2 cup to the decimal .5 before calculating.)

Sour cream: 8 oz x 2.5 = 20 oz sour cream (original amount) x (factor) = (amount needed for
250 servings)

Parsley: 4 tsp x 2.5 = 10 tsp parsley (original amount) x (factor) = (amount needed for 250
servings) (Note: Change 1 Tbsp + 1 tsp to all tsp [4] before calculating.)



Change amounts into more common measurements. Often, the result of the mathematical
calculations is a quantity that is hard to measure or not commonly used. These quantities may
need to be converted to a more common measurement. Rounding to the nearest common
measure also may occur.

For example: The lemon juice is listed as 1.25 cups; the more common measurement would be
11⁄4 cups. The sour cream could be changed to 1 lb 4 oz (or 1.25 lb) for easier measurement.
(Note: 16 oz = 1 lb) The quantity of parsley might be changed to 3 Tbsp + 1 tsp for ease in

Information for Adjusting Recipes

Be aware that several categories of ingredients require special attention when adjusting recipes
because the amount needed for these ingredients often does not increase proportionately to the
increase in other ingredients. Ingredients that may not increase proportionately include herbs/
spices, leavening agents (baking soda, baking powder, yeast), thickening agents (flour,
cornstarch, eggs), and liquid (water, juice). Factors such as exposed surface area, evaporation,
and handling loss can change the total amount needed of an ingredient when the recipe quantity
is changed. In some cases, additional amounts of a product are needed; in others less is needed.
Only by preparing the recipe and evaluating the product can a determination of changes needed
be made. The text, Food for Fifty, provides information on the proportion of ingredients such as
leavening agents, seasonings, thickening agents, and gelatins that could be used in a recipe.

Other factors also need to be considered when adjusting recipe quantities. The quality of some
food items, such as meringues, may deteriorate when too large a quantity is produced at one
time. Size of equipment will impact the batch size of a recipe as well. For example, if 60 litres of
soup are needed, but the institution has only a 50-litre steam-jacketed kettle in which to make
the soup, adjusting the recipe to 30 litres and preparing two batches is preferable