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102087 Secondary Curriculum 1A

Science Assignment 2: Unit Plan

By. Paige Bishop 17288141

Contents
Unit Plan .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2
Key Concepts................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2
Outcomes ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Teaching and Learning Strategies ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4
Summative Assessment ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9
Appendix .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11
Justification ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 14
References ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 17

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Unit Plan
Ecosystems 8 weeks
Unit Tile: Duration (weeks):
(3 x 60 minutes lessons / week)
Stage 5 Year 9
Stage: Year:

Key Concepts / Big Ideas


The interactions within and between systems can determine that systems functionality and survival.
(Essential Question)
This unit will be implemented Term 3 of year 9. At this point students should be familiar with classroom practices and should have
Unit Context:
encountered or developed many Stage 4 Working Scientifically outcomes. This unit will be focussing on the content descriptors of LW2-
(Scope and Sequence Conserving and maintaining the quality and sustainability of the environment requires scientific understanding of interactions within,
Information) the cycling of matter and the flow of energy through ecosystems. Students would have completed the basic knowledge for this topic
during Stage 4 and should therefore be able to classify living things within an environment, specifically plants and animals, and describe
the features and adaptations for survival and reproduction of various species. However, this knowledge will not be assumed and pre-
assessment activities will be conducted prior to starting this unit.
Literacy Focus Numeracy Focus ICT Focus Differentiation

-Reading - Spelling -Calculating energy flow through ecosystems -Researching skills -Students receive same activities, however,
expectations of quality and completion of
-Punctuation - Oral Presentation -Measurement (length, distance, volume) -Presentation skills focussing on an electronic
work is lower or higher depending on their
visual aide.
-Grammar - Comprehension level of capability.
-Determining reliable source -Students may acquire heavily scaffolded
activities.
-The amount of metalanguage used in
activities will vary depending on the
capability of the student.
-Students may choose to complete
activities individually or collaboratively.

Cross Curriculum Priorities

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 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures  Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia  Sustainability

General Capabilities
 Intercultural
 Critical and creative  Ethical  Information and  Literacy  Numeracy  Personal and social
thinking understanding communication technology understanding
capability
capability

Other learning across the curriculum areas


 Civics and citizenship  Difference and diversity  Work and enterprise

Outcomes

Values and Attitudes


Outcomes
SC5-1VA Appreciates the importance of science in their lives and the role of scientific inquiry in increasing understanding of the world around them

SC5-3VA Demonstrates confidence in making reasoned, evidence-based decisions about the current and future use and influence of science and technology, including ethical
considerations

Skills
Strand Outcomes
Questioning and predicting SC5-4WS develops questions or hypotheses to be investigated scientifically

Planning investigations SC5-5WS produces a plan to investigate identified questions, hypotheses or problems, individually and collaboratively

Conducting investigations SC5-6WS undertakes first-hand investigations to collect valid and reliable data and information, individually and collaboratively

Processing and analysing data and information SC5-7WS processes, analyses and evaluates data from first-hand investigations and secondary sources to develop evidence-based
arguments and conclusions

Problem solving SC5-8WS applies scientific understanding and critical thinking skills to suggest possible solutions to identified problems

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Strand Outcomes
Communicating SC5-9WS presents science ideas and evidence for a particular purpose and to a specific audience, using appropriate scientific
language, conventions and representations

Knowledge and understanding


Strand Outcomes Content
Earth and space

Physical world

Living world SC5-14LW analyses interactions between components and LW2 Conserving and maintaining the quality and sustainability of
processes within biological systems the environment requires scientific understanding of interactions
within, the cycling of matter and the flow of energy through
ecosystems.

Chemical world

Knowledge & Working Scientifically Teaching and Learning Strategies Assessment for Learning Resources
Understanding Content
Content
a. recall that Questioning and Engagement Activity: Round-Robin Brainstorming David Attenborough ‘Planet
ecosystems consist predicting Earth’ documentary examines
Show a clip from the ‘Planet Earth’ documentary and ask the students
of communities of various ecosystems around the
b. predicting outcomes to state one idea or thought about what they think this topic is about.
interdependent world and interactions within
based on observations and Each student will add their ideas until every student has expressed their
organisms and ecosystems
scientific knowledge thoughts. No two ideas can be expressed so the teacher may situate
abiotic components
students in a way that the less capable students get to speak first and
of the environment Planning investigations
the gifted students speak last to challenge them.
a. identifying appropriate
equipment and materials
Pre-assessment activity 1:
c. selecting equipment to
Students individually
collect and record reliable Alphabet Vocabulary. Students independently list words relating to the
define key terms relating
data or information, using word ‘ecosystems’ using each letter from the alphabet.
to ecosystems.
digital technologies as
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appropriate, e.g. data
Kahoot quiz
loggers
Pre-assessment activity 2: Students results from the http://bit.ly/2xKUzgv
Conducting Investigations
kahoot quiz will determine
Kahoot quiz introducing ecosystems topic and to assess students’ prior Students use laptops or their
a. individually and the progression
knowledge about ecosystems phones to participate in the
collaboratively using throughout the unit.
kahoot quiz
appropriate investigation
methods, including
fieldwork and laboratory
Venn diagram worksheet
experimentation, to collect Structured inquiry based learning using Venn diagram
Students can distinguish
reliable data (Appendix 1) Compare
Teacher asks students how do you differentiate between ecosystems? between ecosystems and
similarities and differences
e. reporting data and Students discuss as a class and then compare the similarities and features of various
between ecosystems
information, evidence and differences of characteristics between various ecosystems using the ecosystems.
findings, with accuracy and Venn diagram worksheet. Constructive feedback will be provided by the
honesty teacher.
f. evaluating the Biotic and abiotic simulation
effectiveness of the http://bit.ly/21kmt8N
Teacher led mini lecture using ICT simulation
planned procedure, Students are to use the
Students can individually
considering risk factors Teacher will ask students what do the terms biotic and abiotic mean. simulation on their laptops to
distinguish between
and ethical issues, and Based on student answers, teacher will explain both concepts. Teacher sort the biotic and abiotic
abiotic and biotic factors
suggesting improvements will then get the students to complete an online simulation where they factors.
as appropriate must categorize various biotic and abiotic factors.
Communicating
b. selecting and Structured Inquiry based learning using Think-Pair-Share Identify the factors Equipment used for estimating
constructing an determining the populations are strategically
Teacher asks students to think about what factors might determine the
appropriate table, type of distribution and placed at the front of the room
distribution and abundance of species? Teacher has equipment used to
diagram, table or graph abundance of a species in to prompt discussion about
estimate populations at the front of the classroom and ask students
(histogram or sector, each environment how to estimate populations.
what they think they equipment is used for? Based on the answers,
column or line graph) to
teacher asks students how could scientists estimate the number of
present information and
populations within an ecosystem? Get students to discuss their answers
show relationships clearly
with the student sitting next to them and then discuss class the
and succinctly using digital
student’s answers.
technologies as
appropriate Students may need prompting when discussing techniques to estimate
populations if they have not been exposed to them before. Teacher can
ask shy or anxiety students to speak first to reduce discomfort. Teacher Equipment use to estimate
provides constructing feedback and support to students. With guidance, students populations- transect or
can effectively plan and capture-mark-recapture,

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undertake first-hand depending on the student’s
Predict, Observe and Explain (POE) and constructing experiments
investigations and analyse methods. Some equipment may
using ICT for data analysis
data. include meter rulers, 100-
Students are asked to use the equipment provided and create a meter rulers, quadrat squares,
procedure for estimating populations. Students must perform an traps. Students must also use
investigation to estimate populations of plants and insects within the Excel spreadsheet to undertake
school grounds. Students must predict how many of each species they data analysis.
will find, observe the investigation and then explain the results they
obtained and reflect on their chosen method. Investigation should be
repeated multiple times to ensure accuracy. Students are then asked to
analyse their data using an Excel spreadsheet to calculate the mean,
mode and range of their results. Teacher will check students work for
accountability and provide valuable feedback.
Students can accurately
d. analyse how Communicating Structured inquiry based learning with Think-pair-share using either Students use the food web
and creatively predict how
changes in some Flow Charts or T charts. simulation to design food webs
e. presenting scientific changes in biotic and
biotic and abiotic and gain a better
ideas and information for Students are asked to choose a food web that interests them and abiotic factors within an
components of an understanding of the
a particular purpose, predict how changes in the biotic and abiotic factors of their ecosystem ecosystem can alter that
ecosystem affect interconnections between
including constructing would affect populations of organisms within that ecosystem. Students ecosystem.
populations and/or biotic and abiotic factors within
evidence-based arguments can draw flow charts to depict the chain of events that will occur with
communities an ecosystem.
and using appropriate their biotic and abiotic factor changes or use T charts to demonstrate
scientific language, the pros and cons on these changes. Once students have predicted http://bit.ly/2yrO2F8
conventions and what will happen, they are to turn to the person next to them and
representations for discuss with them each other’s results, to which they can modify their
specific audiences answers if they wish and then as a class every student will discuss their
answers. Students can then use the food web simulation to grasp a
better understanding of the significance of every organism and its’
ecosystem. Teacher may guide students and provide feedback to show
support.
c. describe how Teacher led mini lecture using concept maps and flow charts. Students can describe the PowToon presentation
energy flows role of photosynthesis and
Teacher writes the words photosynthesis and respiration on the board http://bit.ly/2k9JPUg
through ecosystems, respiration in ecosystems
and students create concept maps using these words. Teacher explains
including input and explains to students how
both processes with examples and demonstrates their role within
output through food energy is cycled through
ecosystems. Students are to create a diagram or flow chart outlining
webs ecosystems, focusing on the
both photosynthesis and respiration.
10% rule.
Energy flow in ecosystems
Students can identify the
Teacher led mini lecture with ICT visual presentation, discussions and worksheet (appendix 2) gives
uses of energy by
flow charts. students a scenario to calculate
organisms and explains
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Teacher shows the PowToon presentation and asks students to take what happens to energy the energy flow within that
notes. Once the presentation is finished the class discusses the main within ecosystems ecosystem.
points of the presentation and are then given the energy flow in
Energy flow through pond
ecosystems worksheet to complete. Students are then asked to
simulation
construct and analyse a range of food chains, food webs and explain
trophic level interactions between organisms in an ecosystem. Students http://bit.ly/2mdQAoq
can use the energy flow through pond simulation or can draw their own
students can create a food
flow charts in their workbooks.
chain or web and demonstrate
Teacher to check student’s workbooks for student accountability.
how energy flows.
b. outline using Communicating Structured inquiry-based learning using the Jigsaw Co-operative Collaboratively, students Example of poster may be
examples how learning strategy and discussion can describe how matter given to students who require
a. selecting and using in
matter is cycled is cycled through more guidance
presentations, for Teacher asks students how is matter cycled through ecosystems? Then
through ecosystems ecosystems using one
different purposes and breaks students into groups, where the group chooses a leader and that Students use the laptops to
such as nitrogen cycle as example.
contexts, appropriate text leader researches the cycle the group has chosen and then reports back research how matter is cycled
types including to the group where they must collaboratively create a poster of the through ecosystems and to
discussions, explanations, cycle within an ecosystem, expressing its’ importance with detailed research the cycle they have
Students can describe
expositions, procedures, description and accuracy of the cycle. Once the poser is complete, the chosen.
their chosen cycle in
recounts or reports class discusses the different cycles they researched.
detail.
e. presenting scientific Students who need more guidance can be prompted to create a poster
ideas and information for of the water or carbon cycle, while gifted students may wish to
a particular purpose, complete more challenging cycles such as the nitrogen or phosphorous
including constructing cycles. Teacher ensures groups research different cycles and provides
evidence-based arguments feedback and support to students. Teachers collects and hangs posters
and using appropriate around classroom for student accountability.
scientific language,
conventions and
representations for
specific audiences
e. assess ways that Communicating Structured inquiry based learning using ICT and Venn Diagrams. Students can identify ways Main website for students to
Aboriginal and that Aboriginal and Torres use, however they can use
e. presenting scientific Students are asked how did Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Torres Strait Islander Strait Islander peoples other reliable sources.
ideas and information for peoples conserve their environment? Students must use laptops to
peoples' cultural managed and conserved
a particular purpose, research this question in detail using multiple reliable secondary http://www.clc.org.au/
practices and their environment
including constructing sources. Students are then to compare indigenous and non-indigenous
knowledge of the
evidence-based arguments land uses over the years using a Venn diagram. Once students have Weebly
environment
and using appropriate completed the task, each student must create a website on Weebly that Students can use this program
contribute to the Students demonstrate
scientific language, demonstrates their research. Students can work in pairs to create a to create their website as it is
conservation and effective research by using
conventions and website if they lack ICT skills and need guidance. Students must give the easy to function.
management of
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sustainable representations for teacher their website URL so the teacher can assess to provide reliable secondary
ecosystems specific audiences feedback. sources.

f. evaluate some Communicating Structured Inquiry based learning using ICT in Expert Groups. Students can identify Google docs page, Weebly or a
examples in examples of strategies brochure in Publisher can be
a. selecting and using in Students will be split up into 4 groups and given a topic to research and
ecosystems, of used to conserve the used as a platform to present
presentations, for become experts in. Once students have gathered their information, the
strategies used to environment while also their research.
different purposes and groups will synthesize their research to form a Google docs report, a
balance conserving, allowing human activities.
contexts, appropriate text website illustrating their research or a brochure to inform the public.
protecting and
types including Students can decide on the platform to present their information at the
maintaining the
discussions, explanations, beginning of the lesson. All students must present different sides of the
quality and Students demonstrate
expositions, procedures, argument (multiple perspectives).
sustainability of the effective research by using
recounts or reports
environment with Group 1: reliable secondary
human activities and d. proposing ideas that sources.
Discuss strategies used to balance human activities and the needs of
needs demonstrate coherence
ecosystems with conserving, protecting and maintaining the quality and
and logical progression
sustainability of the environment
Students can
e. presenting scientific
Group 2: collaboratively deliver
ideas and information for
accurate information to
a particular purpose, Research and describe some impact of human activities on ecosystems,
an audience.
including constructing focusing on Australian examples and discuss examples of positive and
evidence-based arguments negative impacts of recent scientific developments on the environment.
and using appropriate
Group 3:
scientific language,
conventions and Analyze why different cultural groups hold different views in relation to
representations for scientific issues. Provide environmental issues.
specific audiences
Group 4:
Give reasons why society should support scientific research in general
and with an environmental focus and identify choices that need to be
made when considering whether to use certain scientific advances.
Teacher must collect their URL or copy of their brochure to assess
student learning and provide feedback.

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Summative Assessment Description: Outcomes Assessed:
SC5-14LW analyses interactions between components and processes within biological
This assessment focusing on the interactions and features within ecosystems and ways to
systems
conserve endangered ecosystems. This assessment provides learning opportunities to further
SC5-4WS develops questions or hypotheses to be investigated scientifically
develop student’s skills in ICT, research, investigations, observations, communication,
SC5-6WS undertakes first-hand investigations to collect valid and reliable data and
literacy, and numeracy.
information,
individually and collaboratively
Students will have 7 weeks to complete this assessment and must reference their
SC5-8WS applies scientific understanding and critical thinking skills to suggest possible
information. Part A of this assessment will be completed during class time, to ensure that
solutions to identified problems
students understand the task and to provide guided support for less capable students, while
Part B will be completed at home. Students will also be given a detailed marking rubric at the SC5-9WS presents science ideas and evidence for a particular purpose and to a specific
beginning of the unit for all tasks to ensure that students are aware of the teachers’ audience, using appropriate scientific language, conventions and representations
expectations. Differentiation is provided by allowing students to choose to work individually
or collaboratively in both sections of this assignment and allowing freedom with the
designing and construction of their ecosystem and the way they present their information

Assessment details
Part A:
Students are to design and construct a biodome/mini ecosystem using recycled materials
provided by students and teachers and there is no limit on size. Students will be given class
time and field trips to rock platforms and bushlands, to construct their mini ecosystem and
collect invertebrates and plants for their ecosystem. Students must monitor their ecosystems
and keep a journal or blog throughout the unit of the interactions that occur between the
biotic and abiotic factors.
Part B:
Students, are to then create a presentation detailing the design and construction procedures
used to create their ecosystem, identifying biotic and abiotic factors, identification of specific
species where possible, how energy and matter is cycled through the ecosystem and the
students’ observations of interactions within their mini ecosystem over the 6 weeks. Students
must also choose an ecosystem that is like the one they created and assess and evaluate
specific threats to that ecosystems and at least five strategies to conserve and preserve that
ecosystem. Students’ can choose the platform they use to present their information (i.e.
PowerPoint, website, iMovie, poster) to the rest of the class, providing it is arranged with the
teacher beforehand.
Evaluation of Teaching and Learning:

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Did the students like or dislike the unit as a whole?
Which parts in particular did the students dislike and what suggestions on improvement do they have?
How many students presented their assessment to the class?
What was the average level of achievement?
Did the students enjoy making their ecosystems and finding various species to place in their ecosystems?
Did majority of students attend the lessons and were engaged?
Did the students understand the unit?
References:

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Appendix 1

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Appendix 2

Name_____________________________________________ Period_______________ Date_______________

Energy through Ecosystems Worksheet


The amount of available energy at each trophic (feeding) level decreases as it moves through an
ecosystem. As little as 10 percent of the energy at any level is transferred up to the next level.

In the energy pyramid below, calculate the amount of energy that is passed up from one trophic
level to the next, assuming only 10% of the energy from the previous level is available for the next
level. For each trophic level, circle all the words that apply to identify each organism as either a
producer or consumer and as either an autotroph or a heterotroph. If the organism could be
considered a predator and/or prey, circle those words also.

Circle all words that apply:


Calories transferred to eagle :
producer consumer predator

prey heterotroph autotroph

Calories transferred to snake :


producer consumer predator
prey heterotroph autotroph

Calories transferred to grasshopper : producer consumer predator


prey heterotroph autotroph

Calories available from grass:


producer consumer predator
10,000
prey heterotroph autotroph

Questions

1. Assume that the grasshopper in the food pyramid above must eat half its body weight in grass
each day. If an average-size grasshopper weighs 2 grams, and 1 blade of grass weighs 0.1grams
(one tenth of a gram), how many blades of grass does the grasshopper need to eat each day?

2. Assume a snake must eat 5 grasshoppers per day, while an eagle must eat 2 snakes per day. Use
this information along with your answer from Question #1 to calculate how many blades of grass
are needed to keep an eagle alive for a day?

3. How many blades of grass are needed to support a family of four eagles for a week?

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Energy through Ecosystems worksheet, continued

4. If only 10% of the energy from one trophic level passes up to the next level, what happens to the
90% energy that is not passed on?

5. Do you think a pyramid is a good shape to represent how matter and energy transfer in an
ecosystem? Why or why not?

6. A full-sized cow needs about 100 square feet of pasture to graze on each day. Assume an
average sized classroom is about 600 square feet. How many classrooms worth of pasture
would be needed to keep a cow alive for a year?

7. Which trophic level do you think is the most important for the ecosystem and why?

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Justification

The 8-week unit plan developed above followed the NSW K-10 Science Syllabus emphasising on the
Living World strand for stage 5, year 9 students. This unit focussed on the big idea that the
interactions within and between systems can determine that systems functionality and survival. This
big idea was implemented through the topic of ecosystems, more specifically, the features of an
ecosystem, how energy flowed through ecosystems using food chains and food webs, how matter
was cycled through ecosystems and ways that Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples conserve and
maintain their environment. Understanding by design, Inquiry based learning, differentiated learning
along with literacy, numeracy and information and communication technology (ICT) skills were the
motivation behind the planning, organisation and selection of the summative assessment and the
activities throughout this unit plan.

The Understanding by Design framework allows teachers to focus on the important aspects of the
curriculum rather than meaningless activity-oriented teaching (McTighe & Wiggins, 2012) and was
used for the planning of this unit. Understanding by Design has a three-step process, step one was to
establish the desired results of the unit, which was the ‘big idea’ that can be applied to multiple
situations (McTighe & Wiggins, 2012). The ‘big idea’ within this unit was that interactions within and
between systems can determine that systems functionality and survival. Step two was determining
assessment evidence (McTighe & Wiggins, 2012), which was the summative assessment where
students had to design and construct an ecosystem and monitoring the biotic and abiotic
interactions within that ecosystem and then present their data to their peers. Step three is the
development and planning of learning experiences and instruction (McTighe & Wiggins, 2012), which
are the teaching and learning strategies, the activities and resources that will be implemented within
the unit to support the main concepts and the summative assessment. Understanding by Design not
only promotes meaningful learning but it also enhances and deepens the students understanding as
the teachers have clear goals for the students and the students can transfer the skills and learning
they acquire to new situations (McTighe & Wiggins, 2012).

Inquiry based learning was a teaching and learning strategy used throughout this unit plan to
enhance and deepen the student’s understanding by linking teaching, learning, research skills and
assessment (Bessinger & Carfora, 2015) and to further implement the Understanding by Design
framework. Inquiry based learning incorporates inquiring about a topic and demonstrates meaning
and makes connections between unit content and skills, particularly literacy, numeracy and ICT, that
will enable students to become life-long learners (Bessinger & Carfora, 2015; Pearson et.al, 2015).

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Inquiry based learning promotes positive relationships amongst peers and teachers and can improve
student’s self-confidence and requires high-order thinking (Pearson et.al, 2015; Gormally et.al,
2009). Inquiry based learning has multiple levels of inquiry that can be implemented throughout the
students learning experiences, with each level offering variances of scaffolding and structure
(Bessinger & Carfora, 2015; Gormally et.al, 2009). Structured inquiry based learning was
predominantly used throughout this unit plan to enable students to participate in inquiry based
learning by providing open ended questions as a platform for the students, while instructional
support is given to guide students.

Differentiated learning and instruction was an important aspect throughout this unit as it provides
equity and equality in the classroom to assist students of all learning capabilities and to improve
students’ academic achievement, skills and minimise disengagement in the classroom (Morgan,
2014; Arzhanik et.al, 2015). Differentiation was achieved throughout this unit plan by providing
students with the same activities, however, the expectations of quality and completion of work is
altered depending on their level of capability, although the students were provided with the same
activity, this allowed the less capable students an opportunity to excel (Arzhanik et.al, 2015).
Differentiation was also achieved by varying the amount of metalanguage used in activities
depending on student capabilities, providing students with individualised feedback to identify
strengths and improvements (Bartlett, 2015), students with low capability were provided with
scaffolded activities and students were predominantly given a choice to complete activities
individually or collaboratively. Students with known disabilities would automatically be catered for
depending on their learning needs (i.e. larger font, different colour background) (Friend & Bursuck,
2002).

Collaborative learning was an important aspect of this unit as group work promotes socialisation and
opportunities to develop greater understanding of content and their peers (Gillies, 2015; Nobile et
al. 2017). Students working collaboratively instead of competitively tend to result in higher
achievement, motivation and productivity within the classroom, especially when groups are formed
based on mixed ability or common interest as there is evidence to suggest that peer tutoring
benefits all students involved (Gillies, 2015; Nobile et.al, 2017). Collaborative learning is evident
within this unit through jigsaw, think-pair-share and practical activities.

Literacy, numeracy and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills were the main focal
points when planning this unit plan, as these are the skills that the students will continually use
regardless of the situation (Pearson et.al, 2015). Literacy skills were embedded throughout this unit
by providing students with comprehension worksheets, expanding student’s vocabulary with

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glossary’s and alphabet challenges at the beginning of the unit, improving student’s speech and
presentation skills as they have mini presentations throughout the unit and with the student’s
summative assessment on their ecosystem. Student’s grammar, punctuation, spelling and reading
skills were also focussed on throughout this unit and were assessed through formative assessment.
Numeracy was incorporated in the unit when calculating the amount of energy flow through each
trophic level in an ecosystem, where students used arithmetic operations to calculate percentages of
energy obtained by species and when students constructed their ecosystems for their summative
assignment as they had to use measurements to accurately create their design. Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) was used throughout the unit plan, incorporating various
technologies to broaden and strengthen the student’s skills in ICT as an increasing number of
occupations require employees with certain technological skills (Livingstone, 2012). Students used
ICT when participating in the online kahoot quiz, creating websites using weebly, researching and
designing their presentations and using ICT to present their assessment. Although ICT is an
important aspect of learning, ICT can create distractions and disruptions to the students learning and
thus should be planned thoroughly and severely monitored during use to minimise and eliminate
disruptions (Salomon & Kolikant, 2016).

This unit plan incorporates the Understanding by Design framework, inquiry based learning and
differentiated learning combined with literacy, numeracy and ICT skills to deepen students
understanding, promote positive relationships and to improve academic success of all students.

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References

Arzhanik, M.B., Chernikova, E.V., Karas, S.I & Lemeshko, E.Y, (2015). Differentiated Approach
to Learning in Higher Education. Procedia- Social and Behavioural Sciences. 166. 287-291. DOI:
10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.12.525

Bartlett, J. (2015). Outstanding differentiation for learning in the Classroom. Taylor and
Francis. Florence.

Bessinger, P., & Carfora, J.M. (Eds) (2015). Inquiry-Based Learning for Science, Technology,
Engineering, and Math (STEM) Programs: A Conceptual and Practical Resource for Educators.
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley.

Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D. (2002). Including students with special needs: A practical guide
for classroom teachers. Allyn & Bacon, A Pearson Education Company, Boston.

Gillies, R.M. (2015). Collaborative Learning: Developments in Research and Practice. Nova
Science Publishers, Inc. New York.

Gormally, C., Brickman, P., Hallar, B., & Armstrong, N. (2009). Effects of inquiry-based learning
on students’ science literacy skills and confidence. International Journal for the Scholarship of
Teaching and Learning. 3(2).

Kempa, R.F., & Ayob, A. (1995). Learning from group work in science. International Journal of
Science Education. 17(6). pp. 743-754. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0950069950170606

Livingstone, S. (2012). Critical reflections on the benefits of ICT in education. Oxford Review of
Education. 30(1), 9-24. DOI: 10.1080/03054985.2011.577938

McTighe, J. & Wiggins, G. (2012). Understanding by Design Framework. Retrieved from:


http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/siteASCD/publications/UbD_WhitePaper0312.pdf

Morgan, H (2014) Maximizing Student Success with Differentiated Learning, The Clearing
House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 87:1, 34-38, DOI:
10.1080/00098655.2013.832130

Pearson, P. D., Moje, E., & Greenleaf, C. (2010). Literacy and science: Each in the service of the
other. Science, 328(5977), 459-463.

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