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Nour EL Yakine Kouba, Mohamed Menaa, Mourad Hasni and Mohamed Boudour

Laboratory of Electrical Industrial Systems (LSEI),

University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Bab Ezzouar,

Algiers, Algeria,

nkouba@usthb.dz; mmenaa@usthb.dz; mhasni@usthb.dz; mboudour@ieee.org

Abstract— This paper describes an application of Artificial Bee In last decades, a numerous methods, control strategies and

Colony (ABC) to load frequency control (LFC) in single, two and intelligent techniques have been proposed to solve frequency

multi-area interconnected power systems. The proposed ABC regulation problem [3-7]. Nevertheless, the present

algorithm is used to obtain the optimal values of the publications in this field are still showing a continuous interest

proportional-integral-derivation (PID) controller parameters

for designing LFC systems. The most extensively used

based load frequency control (LFC). The principal function of

the LFC loop is to control the frequency and active power. The controls in the industry are based on classical PI or PID

main aim of this work is to suppress all the fluctuations of the controllers. Unfortunately, classical controllers have certain

system due to the disturbance and get back the frequency at problems such as: the undesirable speed overshoot and the

nominal value. In order to analyze the system frequency and the slow response due to sudden load disturbance [6]. In other

tie-line power flow with the varying of the load, the simulation is hand, different methods have been proposed in the aim to

performed under load disturbances. Simulation results showed regulate this problem. However, the difficulties in LFC are not

good performance in terms of settling time and peak overshoot of only to design a robust controller but it also to optimize its

the proposed approach compared to the traditional Ziegler- parameters effectively for optimal solution [7]. To attain this

Nichols, Genetics Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization

objective, many optimization approaches are applied in LFC

(PSO) and Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO) methods, and

the ability of the proposed algorithm to solve load frequency problem and are available in the literature such as: Genetics

control problems under different disturbances is confirmed. Algorithm (GA) [8], Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)

technique [5-9], Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO) [9],

Keywords-Optimal Control; Load Frequency Control (LFC); Differential Evolution Algorithm (DEA) [10], Artificial

PID Controller; Artificial Bee Colony Optimization(ABC). Neural Networks (ANN) [5], Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) [4]

and other intelligent approaches.

I. INTRODUCTION In this paper, the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC)

optimization algorithm based PID type controller is proposed

Electrical power system is a combination of generation,

as a solution to the optimal LFC problem in the aim to

transmission and distribution networks. Over the last century

overcome frequency instability problem. The proposed ABC

power systems are developed significantly [1-2]. Thus, the

approach has been tested on isolated single-area,

different component and products connected to the power

network are sensitive to the continuity and quality of power interconnected two-area and multi-area power systems. To

supply such as frequency and voltage. The frequency has an show the effectiveness of the proposed ABC algorithm, the

observed simulation results are compared with the ones

inverse relationship with the load that is changing continually,

obtained by the classical Ziegler-Nichols method, the meta-

and the change in real power affects the system frequency [3].

heuristics particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetics

The main constraint in an electrical system is to keep the

algorithm (GA) and bacterial foraging optimization (BFO)

deviations of the frequency constant. So as to maintain the

frequency constant, each generating unit is equipped with methods. A comparative study in view of settling time and

speed governor and LFC control loop to regulate the peak overshoot is presented in this paper. The results prove

that the proposed Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) technique has

frequency and real power and hold their values at the

better dynamic response compared to other optimization

scheduled values. The foremost task of load frequency control

techniques.

is to keep the frequency close to the required nominal value

(50Hz or 60 Hz) against the randomly varying active power The present paper is organized as follows: section I

loads, and minimize the tie-line power exchange error. Today, included this introduction, section II describes the power

design a robust load frequency controller is one of the most system modeling, section III present the proposed Artificial

important challenges in control and design of an electrical Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm, section IV is devoted to the

power system [4]. Therefore, LFC of a single area and presentation of the simulation results, finally we conclude this

interconnected power systems has received much attention to paper with a conclusion in section V.

improve quality and reliability of the electrical network [5].

II. POWER SYSTEM MODELING

Automatic Generation Control (AGC) in power systems

operation has been a major issue of concern to power system

operators. The design of a robust frequency controller for a

single, two or multi-area power systems is become one of big

challenges in power system stability and control. In general, a

power generating unit can be modeled as shown in Fig.1.

Fig.1. Controls loops of a synchronous generator. Fig.3. Control area model in interconnected power system.

In isolated single area, interconnected two, three or multi- In the interconnected two, three or multi-area power

area power systems, each plant is controlled based on the systems, different areas are tied with each other by tie-lines,

same AGC philosophy and equipped with the same controls and the power flows between the areas are allowed by these

loops, which is composed of a governor, turbine, load tie-lines. The tie-line power deviation ¨PTij between area i and

frequency control (LFC), automatic voltage regulator (AVR) area j can be expressed [4-7]:

and generator. dΔPTij

For the purpose of frequency control study and analysis in = Tij ( Δfi − Δf j ) (4)

dt

the presence of load disturbances, the single-area dynamic

Frequency control is one of the most profitable auxiliary

model is depicted in Fig.2 [3], and in the case of

services for the power systems through maintaining short term

interconnected power system each control area is presented

balance of frequency and active power of the power systems.

based on this single-area model.

Frequency regulation is usually accomplished through

generator primary frequency regulation (governor) and

secondary LFC control loop [1-4].

The main goal of LFC is to observe the system, take care

of small changes in load demand and reestablish primary

frequency regulation capacity, return the frequency to its

nominal value and minimize unscheduled tie-line power flows

between neighboring control areas in the case of

interconnected power system [5-6].

In order to satisfy the LFC objectives, a control error signal

named the area control error (ACE) is measured. This signal is

a linear combination of net interchange and frequency

deviation and represents the real power unbalance between

Fig.2. Single area power system model.

supply and load of power. The area control error (ACE) is

given by [2]:

Moreover in large interconnected power system with

ACEi = ΔPTij + β i Δf i (5)

several control areas, the modeling of a typical control area-i,

which includes n generating units, from a Z-control area Where: ȕi is the frequency response characteristic for area i.

power system is presented in Fig.3, and the differential

mathematical model of such area can be written [5]: The equivalent frequency bias factor is given by:

d Δ Pvmi 1 i =n 1 i =n

dt

=

TH

(U mi − ( KGmi * Δ fi ) − Δ Pvmi ) (1) βeq = ¦ + ¦ Di (6)

mi i =1 Ri i =1

d Δ PT Each generating unit is equipped with PID controllers to

dt TT

(

mi = 1 Δ Pv − Δ P

mi Tmi ) ; m=1….n (2) improve the LFC control performances, and the control signal

mi inputted in each unit is given by:

d Δ fi 1 § l =n · dACEi

= ¨ ¦ Δ PT − ¦ Δ Ptiei − Δ PD − Deqi * Δ fi ¸

¨ li i ¸

(3) U i = K P .ACEi + K I .³ ACEi .dt + K D . (7)

dt M eq © l =1

i ¹ dt

III. ARTIFICIAL BEE COLONY OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM In this paper, the error function Integral Time of Square

In recent years, swarm intelligence has become a research Error (ITSE) is used as an objective function for the load

interest for many scientists in various areas and topics [10], frequency control. The main objective is to use the ABC

and the nature inspired algorithm has gain popularity because algorithm in order to minimize the error function ITSE given

of the inherent quality of biological systems to adapt to any in Eq. (8) and obtain the optimal PID controller.

kind of changing environment [11]. One of the more recent The general ITSE performance criterion formula is as follows:

standard examples of swarm is bee colony swarming around ∞ ∞

ITSE = ³ t.( x ( t ) − y ( t ) ) .dt = ³ t.( e ( t ) )2 .dt

2

their hive. The artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm also (8)

named swarm optimization is proposed by Karaboga in 0 0

2005[10-11], and the performance of ABC is analyzed in 2007 In the case of single-area:

[12]. Such as any meta-heuristic algorithm, the Artificial Bee t

Colony (ABC) algorithm is a general set of sequentially 2

ITSE = ³ t.( Δ f1 ) .dt (9)

executable operations which are applicable to several

0

optimization problems [13-14]. The ABC algorithm simulates

In the case of interconnected two-area:

the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bee swarms and the

t

basic idea behind this algorithm is to find similarity between 2 2 2

the way bees look for food source and the way an optimization ITSE = ³ t.( ( Δ f1 ) + ( Δ f 2 ) + ( Δ P12 ) ).dt (10)

0

algorithm finds the solution. Compared to other optimization

algorithms, the main advantage of ABC algorithm lays in that In the case of interconnected four-area:

t

it conducts both local search and global search in each 2 2 2 2

iteration and as a result the probability of finding the optimal ITSE = ³ t.( ( Δ f1 ) + ( Δ f2 ) + ( Δ f3 ) + ( Δ f4 ) +

0 (11)

parameters is significantly increased, which efficiently avoid

2 2 2 2

local optimum to a large extent. In ABC algorithm, the colony ( ΔP12 ) + ( ΔP23 ) + ( ΔP34 ) + ( ΔP14 ) ).dt

of artificial bees consists of three categories of bees: employed

bees, onlookers and scout bees. Moreover the solution is IV. SIMULATION RESULTS

determined by the position of the food sources and the amount

of nectar represents to fitness of this respective solution and This section presents the simulation results of the proposed

the foraging strategy is regulated by three processes namely: Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) optimization approach by a

Initialization, Reproduction and Replacement of bee and comparison with the results of the Ziegler-Nichols, genetics

Selection [15]. The flowchart of the artificial bee colony algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO) and

algorithm is given in Fig.4 [11-16]. bacterial foraging optimization (BFO) methods.

The performance of the proposed algorithm, under

Initial Food Source Positions

different disturbances is investigated for three different test

Calculate the Nectar Amounts

systems, which are the single-area, interconnected two-area

and four-area power systems. The values of the different

parameters of the test systems are given in Appendix.

Determine the New Food Positions

for the employed Bees The test systems are simulated for 0.1pu step load

perturbation in one or multi-area. The PID parameters are

Calculate the Nectar Amounts

Determine the Neighbour Food Source

given in Table I.

for the Onlooker

TABLE I. PID CONTROLLER PARAMETERS.

All Onlookers No

Select a Food Source for an Onlooker Parameters

Distributed? Kp Ki Kd

Methods

Yes Ziegler-Nichols 0.4713 2.63 0.6575

Memorize the Position of Best Food Source

GA 0.9971 0.9775 0.8729

PSO 3.1205 2.7821 2.4641

BFO 2.8718 1.7219 1.9680

Find the Abandoned Food Sources ABC 3.8648 5.2572 2.8802

A. Single-Area Results

Exhausted Food Sources The single-area model shown in Fig.2 in section II is

considered for the simulation, which is composed of governor,

turbine, generator, load and LFC based PID controller. This

Is the Termination

Criteria Satisfied? system is simulated for 0.1pu step load disturbance. The

No system frequency is analyzed before (without LFC) and after

Yes

Final Food Source Positions

LFC controller implementation (with LFC) and the

fluctuations in the system frequency are shown in Fig.5.

Fig.4. Flowchart of the proposed ABC algorithm.

0.1

C. Large Interconnected Multi-Area Results

0.05

To show the capability of the proposed ABC approach to

solve LFC problems over several disturbances in large multi-

Frequencydeviation(HZ)inArea-1

-0.05

area power system, the study is extended to a four-area

-0.1

interconnected power system as shown in Fig.10.

-0.15

¨P12

-0.2

Plant 2 Plant 1

-0.25

Withou LFC ¨f2 ¨f1

With ACE

-0.3 Class ical Ziegler-Nichols

GA

Area-2 Area-1

¨P23 ¨P14

PSO

-0.35

BFO

Proposed ABC

-0.4

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

time (s)

Plant 3 Plant 4

¨f2 ¨f4

B. Interconnected Two-Area Results

The interconnected two-area power system shown in Fig.6 Area-3 Area-4

is used for the simulation and the results are given in Figs.7, 8 Fig.10. Proposed multi-area interconnected power system.

and 9 respectively.

The multi-area system is simulated for 0.1pu step load

Plant 2

¨P12

Plant 1

disturbance in area-1 and area-2, and the simulation results of

¨f2 ¨f1 the system frequency in each area are shown in Figs.11, 12, 13

and 14 respectively; and the tie-lines power flows between

Area-2 Area-1 areas are shown in Figs.15, 16, 17 and 18 respectively.

Fig.6. Two-area interconnected power system.

0.15

Frequency deviation (HZ)inArea-1 Classical Ziegler-Nichols

5

GA

0.1

Tie-linepower flowdeviation (MW)

PSO

BFO

0 0.05 Proposed ABC

0

-5

Classical Ziegler-Nichols

GA -0.05

PSO

-10 BFO

Proposed ABC -0.1

-15 -0.15

-0.2

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

-20

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 time (s)

time (s)

Fig.11. Frequency deviation in Area-1.

Fig.7. Tie-line power flow deviation.

0.1

Frequencydeviation(HZ) inArea-2

0.15

0.08 Classical Ziegler-Nichols

Frequencydeviation(HZ)inArea-1

Classical Ziegler-Nichols

GA GA

0.1 0.06

PSO PSO

BFO BFO

0.04

0.05 ProposedABC Proposed ABC

0.02

0

0

-0.02

-0.05

-0.04

-0.1

-0.06

-0.15 -0.08

-0.1

-0.2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

time (s)

time (s)

Fig.8. Frequency deviation in Area-1. Fig.12. Frequency deviation in Area-2.

0.15

0.08

Frequencydeviation(HZ) inArea-3

Frequencydeviation(HZ) inArea-2

0.06 GA 0.1 GA

PSO PSO

BFO BFO

0.04 0.05

Proposed ABC Proposed ABC

0.02

0

0

-0.05

-0.02

-0.1

-0.04

-0.15

-0.06

-0.08 -0.2

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

time (s) time (s)

Fig.9. Frequency deviation in Area-2. Fig.13. Frequency deviation in Area-3.

0.1 14

Frequency deviation (HZ) in Area-4

GA Classical Ziegler-Nichols

0.06 PSO GA

10

BFO PSO

0.04 Proposed ABC BFO

8

Proposed ABC

0.02

6

0

4

-0.02

2

-0.04

0

-0.06

-2

-0.08

-4

-0.1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

time (s)

time (s)

Fig.18. Tie-line power flow deviation between area-4 and area-1.

Fig.14. Frequency deviation in Area-4.

4

D. Comparison and Discussion of results

Tie-line power flow deviation 1-2 (MW)

2

The changes in frequency deviation ¨fi in each area and

the deviation in the tie-lines power flows between the

0

interconnected zones ¨Ptieij under the multi- load disturbances

-2 Classical Ziegler-Nichols

GA

are analyzed. The LFC performance with optimized PID

-4 PSO controller (GA, PSO and BFO) and conventional Ziegler-

BFO

-6 Proposed ABC Nichols tuned PID controller are compared with that of the

proposed ABC method. To demonstrate the superiority of the

-8

proposed algorithm the simulation results are tabulated in

-10

view of peak over shoot and settling time for each simulation

-12 case as presented in Tables II, III and IV.

-14

The system frequency and the tie-line power flow are

0 5 10 15

time (s)

20 25 30

suppressed if both areas adopt LFC. With optimal PID

Fig.15. Tie-line power flow deviation between area-1 and area-2. controller the fluctuations of the system are suppressed most

effectively. Using the proposed ABC algorithm, the time of

14

suppressing the fluctuation is very short compared with the

Tie-line power flow deviation 2-3 (MW)

12

Classical Ziegler-Nichols

time given by the traditional Ziegler-Nichols, genetics

10 GA algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO) and

bacterial foraging optimization (BFO) methods. The

PSO

8 BFO

Proposed ABC

simulation results indicated that the proposed ABC algorithm

6

give better results than others techniques and can grantees the

4

stability of the overall system and achieves good performance

2 even in the presence of multi-disturbances.

0

TABLE II. COMPARATIVE STUDY FOR SINGLE-AREA.

-2

Frequency Without With Z-N GA PSO BFO ABC

-4 LFC ACE

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Peak Over

time (s) shoot [Hz] 0.3746 0.2665 0.1722 0.1493 0.08147 0.08786 0.07339

Fig.16. Tie-line power flow deviation between area-2 and area-3. Settling

Time [s] - - 13.91 6.187 5.093 5.877 4.08

4

Tie-line power flow deviation 3-4 (MW)

0

Tuning PID controller 0.1 pu step load disturbance in area-1

-2

techniques Ziegler- GA PSO BFO ABC

Classical Ziegler-Nichols Nichols

GA

-4 Max

PSO Frequency 0.1633 0.1423 0.08382 0.09356 0.076

BFO

deviation[HZ]

-6 Area-1 Settling time

Proposed ABC

23.03 9.376 7.369 8.629 4.759

-8

[s]

Max

Frequency 0.07375 0.06055 0.02161 0.02667 0.01807

-10 deviation[HZ]

Area-2 Settling time

27.98 9.589 6.155 9.321 3.474

-12 [s]

Max

-14 Tie-line 15.97 13.89 5.48 6.525 4.038

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 deviation[MW]

time (s) 1_2 Settling time

23.17 8.593 6.32 9.619 4.302

Fig.17. Tie-line power flow deviation between area-3 and area-4. [s]

TABLE IV. COMPARATIVE STUDY FOR MULTI-AREA. APPENDIX

Tuning PID controller 0.1 pu step load disturbance in area-1 and area-2 Data of a typical area power system:

techniques Ziegler- GA PSO BFO ABC

Nichols

Reference Frequency: f= 50Hz; Inertia constant: M=10; Load-

Frequency Max

damping constant: D= 0.9 pu; Governor time constant:

0.1536 0.1347 0.07859 0.08803 0.07164 TH=0.3s; Turbine time constant: TT=0.6 s; Speed governor

Area-1 deviation[HZ]

Settling time

18.61 10.83 8.309 9.66 5.12 gain: R=5%.

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