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Teacher-Related Aspect

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1. When it comes to teacher experience, most studies find a link to effectiveness, but it’s
not necessarily a linear relationship. That is, the relationship can’t be depicted with a
straight line on a graph. The Dutch team concluded that “most studies find significant
learning gains for the first couple of years of experience, but hardly any later on in the
teacher’s career,” although there are a few counterexamples in the literature. (2017,
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2. The current study applied an ecological perspective to explore the extent to which
teachers’ perceptions of school and classroom factors are associated with their
perceptions of student problem behavior. This work has important implications for
school-based mental health practitioners working to improve the climate and
management of classrooms, which in turn have considerable influence over students’
behavioral and mental health functioning (Weist, Lever, Bradshaw, & Owens, 2014).
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3. A recent study by Shim, Kiefer, & Wang (2013) revealed teachers’ encouragement of
cooperative learning and skill mastery was directly related to students’ help seeking
behavior and positive interactions with peers. Student behavior evolves within the
context of their educational environment, thus it is important for research to take into
account teachers’ perceptions of student behavior class-wide in addition to individual
student functioning.
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4. A recent study by Reinke, Herman, and Stormont (2013) found that in addition to
having rules and expectations clearly visible in the classroom, teachers’ use of general
praise positively related to their self-efficacy with classroom management. Conversely,
the use of harsh reprimands was related to educator’s emotional exhaustion.
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5. School climate is a product of social interactions among students and teachers, is
influenced by educational and social values, and has been shown to relate to social
situations in classrooms and within the school as a whole (CDC, 2009; Thapa, Cohen,
Guffey, & Higgins- D’Alessandro, 2013).
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6. Furthermore, teachers with low teacher efficacy, or negative beliefs about their ability
to educate students, demonstrate less effective teaching practices, which result in poorer
student achievement and increased likelihood for disruptive behavior (Reinke et al.,
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7. Thus, school-based prevention work may want to focus on reducing antisocial
normative beliefs class-wide and promoting helping behavior. Likewise, educators
aiming to reduce problem behavior may want to employ a tiered approach, such that
class-wide social skills programs are utilized in combination with individual referrals
for one-on-one mental health treatment for high-risk youth (Bradshaw, Bottiani, Osher,
& Sugai, 2014).
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8. School climate appears to be a salient factor in how teachers perceive their students
behavior. Other studies have found that teachers who characterize their school as having
trust, cooperation, and openness among staff, students, and administrators tend to also
view their students behavior more positively (Thapa et al., 2013).
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9. Students enter into the school setting with a combination of both internal and
interpersonal strengths and weaknesses that influence their academic success and
behavioral functioning. Schools are required to provide equal learning opportunities for
all types of students, no matter their gender, race, or social-emotional competencies.
Yet, researchers have not pinpointed classroom and school climate factors relating to
teachers’ perceptions of student behavior problems. From an individual standpoint,
variability in teacher perceptions of disruptive behavior can be attributed to differences
from student to student. However, based on the current study, student demographic
variables do not function alone. In fact, the average behavior in the classroom was found
to relate to how teachers perceive individual student behavior. These results highlight
the importance of classroom-based programs that enhance students’ social
competencies and social-emotional skills, while decreasing undesirable behaviors such
as physical aggression and harassment (Bradshaw et al., 2014)
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10. In recent years, two research traditions have emerged to test this theory using empirical
evidence. The first tradition has focused on observations of classrooms as a means of
identifying unique domains of teaching practice (Blazar, Braslow, Charalambous, &
Hill, 2015; Hamre et al.,
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11. Several of these domains, including teachers’ interactions with students, classroom
organization, and emphasis on critical thinking within specific content areas, aim to
support students’ development in areas beyond their core academic skill. The second
research tradition has focused on estimating teachers’ contribution to student outcomes,
often referred to as “teacher effects” (Chetty Friedman, & Rockoff,
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12. Similarly, regular school attendance is positively associated with academic
achievement (Gottfried 2009; Aucejo and Romano 2013; Gershenson, Jacknowitz, and
Brannegan 2015)
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13. A similar critique applies to the large literature on teacher effectiveness, despite
widespread agreement that teachers are the most important school-provided educational
input and the fact that teachers likely affect students’ development in numerous areas
outside the reading and math skills measured by standardized tests (Ladd and
Sorensen 2014).The current study contributes to this gap in the literature by estimating
teacher effects on primary school students’ absences in a value-added (VA) framework.
This work complements research by Jackson (2013) on ninth-grade teachers’ effects on
an index of noncognitive skills, as at least some of the mechanisms through which
teachers affect primary school attendance likely differ from the ways that teachers
affect secondary school attendance.
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14. Improving the character skills and attendance habits of disadvantaged children will
likely foster socioeconomic mobility and social inclusion, and increase the returns to
subsequent educational attainment (Heckman and Kautz 2013).
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15. One interpretation of these seemingly contradictory results is that teachers affect long-
run outcomes by building students’ noncognitive skills (Jackson 2013). Indeed, Jackson
(2013) develops a formal latent factor model in which both student and teacher ability
are two-dimensional (i.e., cognitive and noncognitive), and shows that teachers who
affect students’ noncognitive development but not cognitive development can
substantively affect students’ long-run outcomes. It is generally believed that
instruction can improve character skills and there is a long history of using observed
behaviors as proxies for character skills (Almlund et al. 2011; Heckman and
Kautz 2013). Attendance is one such proxy, which is both objective and easily
observable, that previous researchers have utilized (e.g., Jacob 2002; Jackson 2013).
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16. Teachers potentially increase student attendance through some combination of
fostering a passion for learning, increasing student engagement, creating a strong sense
of community in the classroom, and stressing the importance of regular attendance
(Monk and Ibrahim 1984; Baker et al. 2010; Kelly 2012; Ladd and Sorensen 2014).
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17. Third, Ladd and Sorensen (2014) investigated the relationship between North Carolina
middle school teachers’ experience and student absences, time spent reading for
pleasure, time spent on homework, and disruptive behavior in the classroom. The
authors found significant effects of teacher experience on student absences. Finally,
using administrative data from North Carolina, Jackson (2013) found that ninth-grade
teachers have significant effects on students’ noncognitive skills, as measured by an
index of student absences, suspensions, grade promotion, and grade point averages.
Like Jennings and DiPrete, Jackson finds that many of the teachers who most
effectively develop students’ noncognitive skills have only average effects on test
scores, suggesting that focusing on test scores alone will fail to identify some effective
teachers. These findings are consistent with the robust result in the VA literature that
rankings of teacher effectiveness are not perfectly correlated across academic subjects
(e.g., Koedel and Betts 2007; Lockwood et al. 2007; Loeb and Candelaria 2012; Loeb,
Kalogrides, and Béteille 2012; Goldhaber, Cowan, and Walch 2013), though cross-
subject rank correlations tend to be significantly more stable than the cross-domain rank
correlations identified in the current study.
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18. The general lack of attention paid to teachers’ impacts on students’ character skills is
therefore surprising, as identifying effective teachers is hugely important and there is a
growing consensus that providing high-quality teachers to all students must play a
prominent role in closing achievement gaps between students of different demographic
and socioeconomic backgrounds (Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain 2005; Harris 2011). VA
models that attempt to identify individual teachers’ contributions to gains in student
achievement are gaining popularity and acceptance as useful measures of teacher
effectiveness, though such measures remain controversial (Baker et al. 2010;
Harris 2011; Chetty, Friedman, and Rockoff 2014). Specifically, critics of VA
measures of teacher effectiveness question whether policies that incentivize schools and
teachers to increase test scores displace beneficial classroom activities that develop
character skills and learning in nontested academic subjects. In addition to identifying
primary-school teachers’ effects on student attendance, the current study also
contributes to the general VA literature by speaking to the practical significance of this
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19. improves with teaching experience (Ladd and Sorensen 2014). For example, more
experienced teachers might converse with parents and teach character skills more
effectively than their less-experienced counterparts. Evidence of an “experience
gradient” in teachers’ effects on student attendance would lend additional empirical
support to the claim that teachers affect student attendance. Accordingly, I estimate the
effect of teachers’ experience on student absences using the nonparametric
specification and estimation framework advocated by Wiswall
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20. First, teachers effort and the number of days of class (before the day of the exam)
determined by the school principal are negatively related to the performance of the
students in the preceding year. Second, removal of the financial incentives leads to a
decrease in teacher effort and fewer days of class (before the exam). Consistent with
these conclusions, the empirical evidence shows that low performing schools are more
likely to make extensive use of the testing window when monetary bonuses are in place;
this behavior disappears after changes to the scheme of incentives (e.g. elimination of
monetary bonuses). Overall, these results suggest that different institutional settings
will affect how educators make use of available school time. (Aucejo, E. & Romano
T.F. 2013)
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21. Professional attitude of a teacher during teaching in class-room can judged from his
personality, knowledge, communication and management skills (Chek, & Pandey,
2016). Academics success or achievement of students depends upon their teacher.
Students’ academics affect the different aspects of professional attitudes of teachers.
Personality is also among the aspects or perspectives of teachers’ professional attitude
affecting the students’ academics.
STUDENTS. Available from:
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22. It is concluded that majority of the population opined that personality of teacher is one
of the key component effecting student’s academics as well as their social life.
(Kheruniah, 2013) indicate in his research study that teacher personality has
significant contribution to student’s academic achievement. He further stated that there
is significance co-relation of student’s academics and teacher personality
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23. Therefore, to improve and promote a student’s study motivation and interest and
discipline can be reached by the good quality of a teacher’s personality skill
(Kheruniah, 2013; Hirota, Anjos, Ferreira, & DeMarco, 2016).) Personal qualification
of teacher effects students’ academics. Students learn more from those teachers who
has a good personal qualification and experience. It is necessary and important
for physical education teacher to clarify all the topics for students, remain patient with
students and promote the confidence level of the students.
STUDENTS. Available from:
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24. According to David (2013 ) citing Rusell (1971) There are four motivational bases for
attitude formation. These include utilitarian, value expressive, ego-defensive, and
knowledge. Attitude formed on utilitarian base is associated with survival, safety and
other social needs of individuals. This means that one’s attitude towards teaching and
learning of a subject is bound to be favorable if it improves one’s survival needs.
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25. According to Agnes (2013) teachers with good professional competent and
interpersonal skills are more effective in their classrooms in terms of students’ behavior,
better understanding of concept by students and disposition of positive and mental
alertness by learners.
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26. Lack of teaching materials like textbooks and workbooks for both teachers and students
is also affecting teachers’ attitudes towards teaching of the subject in secondary schools.
The teachers do not have access to appropriate textbooks and the available ones are not
even relevant to new curriculum. Also, most social studies textbooks have been written
by people with superficial knowledge of the subject, and hence sub-standard, a situation
which seriously undermines the effective teaching and learning of social studies
concepts (David, 2013).
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27. The teachers turn to be ego-defensive in their attitude to defend their dignity. This is
because they feel being looked down upon and consequently get dissatisfied with their
job. These types of teachers are likely to express negative attitude towards teaching and
learning of their students (David, 2013).
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28. Students’ attitudes towards learning Social Studies were not encouraging. It is very
obvious that only bad teachers will not help serious students who are ready to learn.
Nonchalant attitudes of the learners towards learning of social studies in secondary
school could result into poor teacher’s attitudes towards teaching as well. Students
enjoy classes when teachers are enthusiastic and excited about their subjects. Moreover,
enthusiasm and excitement motivate students to have a strong desire to learn a subject
(Alazzi, 2013).
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29. Current research on the interactive whiteboards’ use in educational settings reflects
several advantages for students. For instance, they develop students’ autonomy
(Harlow, Cowie, & Heazlewood, 2010; Minor, LosikeSedimo, Reglin & Royster, 2013)
and it has been discussed that they increase student enthusiasm and motivation possess
the capacity to ease teaching and learning, enhance the degree of understanding and
enable students to participate in the lessons being conducted and provide collaboration
in the classroom (Gray et al., 2005; Minor, Losike-Sedimo, Reglin & Royster, 2013).
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30. Principals and other observers should provide timely feedback as close to the time when
the observation happens as possible. It should also be specific and tied to aspects of
effective teaching. Useful feedback often focuses on evidence about an individual
teacher’s pedagogy, curriculum and materials, and ways they can improve their
practices and student learning outcomes. Furthermore, the tone of the conversations
between principals and a
teacher should be constructive by inviting the teacher to share her thoughts, with a goal
of developing a common understanding about high-quality teaching. (Goe, 2013)
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31. School supports, including professional development, principal feedback, and collegial
supports, were found to be related to teachers’ use of evaluation for improvement. This
is not surprising, given that prior studies have provided similar evidence that school
supports positively contribute to teacher improvement. Here we underscore three
additional observations. First, professional development had a stronger effect on
teachers at the upper-middle range of prior ratings than on the top-performing teachers.
Second, the frequency of principal feedback had little impact on teachers’ reported use
of evaluation for improvement, while teachers’ perceived usefulness of this feedback
really mattered, particularly for early-career teachers. Third, except for the above two
heterogeneous effects, the school supports had relatively homogenous influences
regardless of teachers’ employment status and prior ratings. (Kraft & Papay, 2014; Sun
et al., 2013)
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32. There are a number of sources of evidence about the skills, knowledge, behaviours,
qualities and competences required to be an excellent teacher. A key feature of the
current review is that we try to limit our attention to well-defined, operationalisable
behaviours, skills or knowledge that have been found to be related, with at least some
justification for a causal relationship, to measureable, enhanced student outcomes.
(Mujis et al (2014)).
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33. Teachers may need to have clear understanding of why, when and how each of these
practices can be effective, and exactly what it means to demonstrate them in a way that
is optimal to promote students’ learning. Good summaries of the wider evidence about
effective practices can be found in Muijs et al (2014) and in Ko et al (2013).