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PAPER I: PHYSICS

deductive and problem-solving skills.

1. To acquire knowledge and understanding of the

terms, facts, concepts, definitions, laws, 4. To discover that there is a living and growing

principles and processes of Physics. physics relevant to the modern age in which we

live.

2. To develop skills in practical aspects of handling

apparatus, recording observations and in

drawing diagrams, graphs, etc.

CLASS IX

There will be one paper of one and half-hours straight line; errors; identifying proportional

duration carrying 80 marks and Internal Assessment relationships using straight line graphs.

of practical work carrying 20 marks.

2. Fluids

The paper will be divided into two sections, Section I

(i) Change of pressure with depth (including the

(40 marks) and Section II (40 marks).

formula p=hρg); transmission of pressure in

Section I (compulsory) will contain short answer liquids; atmospheric pressure.

questions on the entire syllabus.

(ii) Archimedes’ Principle; upthrust (buoyancy);

Section II will contain six questions. Candidates will floatation; relationship with density; relative

be required to answer any four of these six questions. density; determination of relative density of a

Note: Unless otherwise specified, only S. I. Units are solid; qualitative description of a hydrometer.

to be used while teaching and learning, as well as for 3. Motion in one dimension

answering questions.

Distance, speed, velocity, acceleration; graphs of

1. Measurements and Experimentation distance-time and speed-time; equations of motion

v = u + at; S = ut + ½at2; S = ½(u+v)t; v2 = u2 +

(i) Estimation by orders of magnitude of size

(length, area and volume), mass and time. 2as.

(ii) International System of Units (the required SI 4. Newton’s Laws of Motion

units are given at the end of this syllabus) and (i) Newton’s First Law of Motion (qualitative

other commonly used units of the relevant discussion) to introduce the idea of inertia:

physical quantities. mass and force.

(iii) Measurements using common instruments (ii) Newton’s Second Law of Motion (elementary

(metre rule, Vernier calipers and micrometer qualitative discussion) in terms of rate of

screw gauge for length, volume by change of momentum with time, definition of

displacement using a measuring cylinder, stop force.

watch and simple pendulum for time, equal (iii) Newton’s Third Law of Motion (qualitative

arm beam balance for comparison of masses); discussion only); simple examples.

least count of measuring instruments.

5. Forces

Significant figures; percentage error

associated with a measurement. (i) Contact and non-contact forces; Names of cgs

& SI units.

(iv) Presentation of data in tabular and graphical

form (straight line graphs only); labelling of (ii) Turning forces concept; moment of a force;

axes; scale and accuracy of plots; best-fit forces in equilibrium; centre of gravity;

61

(discussions using simple examples and 9. Electricity and Magnetism

simple direct problems).

(i) Static electricity – electric charge; charging

(iii) Uniform circular motion as example of by friction; simple orbital model of the atom;

constant speed, though force is present. Basic detection of charge (pith ball and

idea of centrifugal and centripetal force electroscope); sparking; lightning conductors.

(qualitatively only). (ii) Simple electric circuit using an electric cell

and a bulb to introduce the idea of current

6. Heat (including its relationship to charge); potential

(i) Concepts of heat and temperature. difference; insulators and conductors; closed

and open circuits; direction of current

(ii) Expansion of solids, liquids and gases (electron flow and conventional); resistance

(qualitative discussion only); uses and introduced through bulbs in series and

consequences of expansion (simple parallel.

examples); anomalous expansion of water.

(iii) Properties of a bar magnet; induced

(iii) Mercury thermometers, brief introduction; magnetism; lines of magnetic force; neutral

higher and lower fixed points of a points.

thermometer; special case of the clinical

thermometer; temperature scales - Celsius and

Fahrenheit only. Problems on inter-conversion INTERNAL ASSESSMENT OF

between the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales. PRACTICAL WORK

(iv) Transfer of heat (simple treatment) by Candidates will be asked to carry out experiments for

conduction, convection and radiation; thermal which instructions are given. The experiments may be

insulation; keeping warm and keeping cool; based on topics that are not included in the syllabus

vacuum flask; ventilation. but theoretical knowledge will not be required. A

candidate will be expected to be able to follow simple

7. Light instructions, to take suitable readings and to present

these readings in a systematic form. He/she may be

(i) Rectilinear propagation of light; shadows. required to exhibit his/her data graphically.

Candidates will be expected to appreciate and use the

(ii) Reflection of light; image formed by a plane concepts of least count, significant figures and

mirror (characteristics of the image by simple elementary error handling.

ray diagrams); regular and irregular reflection; A set of 6 to 10 experiments may be designed as given

images formed by a pair of parallel and below or as found most suitable by the teacher.

perpendicular plane mirrors; simple periscope. Students should be encouraged to record their

observations systematically in a neat tabular form - in

(iii) Spherical mirrors; characteristics of image columns with column heads including units or in

formed by these mirrors and their uses numbered rows as necessary. The final result or

(only simple direct ray diagrams are required; conclusion may be recorded for each experiment.

sign convention, magnification, focal length Some of the experiments may be demonstrated (with

and associated problems are not required). the help of students) if these cannot be given to each

student as lab experiments.

8. Wave Motion 1. Determine the least count of the Vernier callipers

and measure the length and diameter of a small

(i) Demonstrating that a medium is required for cylinder (average of three sets) - may be a metal

sound waves to travel; nature of sound, its rod of length 2 to 3 cm and diameter 1 to 2 cm.

propagation and speed in different media; 2. Determine the zero error, zero correction, pitch

comparison with speed of light. and least count of the given screw gauge and

(ii) Range of hearing; ultrasound, a few measure the mean radius of the given wire, taking

applications. three sets of readings in perpendicular directions.

62

3. Measure the length, breadth and thickness of a the lines representing reflected rays. Measure the

glass block using a metre rule (each reading object distances and image distances in the three

correct to a mm), taking the mean of three cases. Tabulate. Are they equal? Generalize the

readings in each case. Calculate the volume of the result.

block in cm3 and m3. Determine the mass

10. Obtain the focal length of a concave mirror

(not weight) of the block using any convenient

(a) by distant object method, focusing its real

balance in g and kg. Calculate the density of glass

image on a screen or wall and (b) by one needle

in cgs and SI units using mass and volume in the

method removing parallax or focusing the image

respective units. Obtain the relation between the

of the illuminated wire gauze attached to a ray

two density units.

box. One could also improvise with a candle and

4. Measure the volume of a metal bob (the one used a screen. Enter your observations in numbered

in simple pendulum experiments) from the rows.

readings of water level in a measuring cylinder

using displacement method. Also calculate the 11. Connect a suitable dc source (two dry cells or an

same volume from the radius measured using acid cell), a key and a bulb (may be a small one

Vernier callipers. Comment on the accuracies. used in torches) in series. Close the circuit by

inserting the plug in the key. Observe the bulb as

5. Obtain five sets of readings of the time taken for it lights up. Now open the circuit, connect

20 oscillations of a simple pendulum of lengths another identical bulb in between the first bulb

about 70, 80, 90, 100 and 110 cm; calculate the and the cell so that the two bulbs are in series.

time periods (T) and their squares (T2) for each Close the key. Observe the lighted bulbs. How

length (l). Plot a graph of l vs. T2. Draw the best does the light from any one bulb compare with

- fit straight - line graph. Also, obtain its slope. that in the first case when you had only one bulb?

Calculate the value of g in the laboratory. Disconnect the second bulb. Reconnect the circuit

It is 4π2 x slope. as in the first experiment. Now connect the

6. Make a test tube hydrometer using a test tube, second bulb across the first bulb. The two bulbs

lead shots, and a strip of graph paper. Determine are connected in parallel. Observe the brightness

the RD of any two liquids. of any one bulb. Compare with previous results.

7. Take a beaker of water. Place it on the wire gauze Draw your own conclusions regarding the current

on a tripod stand. Suspend two thermometers - and resistance in the three cases.

one with Celsius and the other with Fahrenheit 12. Plot the magnetic field lines of earth (without any

scale. Record the thermometer readings at 5 to 7 magnet nearby) using a small compass needle. On

different temperatures. You may start with ice- another sheet of paper place a bar magnet with its

cold water, then allow it to warm up and then heat axis parallel to the magnetic lines of the earth, i.e.

it slowly taking temperature (at regular intervals) along the magnetic meridian or magnetic north

as high as possible. Plot a graph of TF vs. TC. south. Plot the magnetic field in the region around

Obtain the slope. Compare with the theoretical the magnet. Identify the regions where the

value. Read the intercept on TF axis for TC = 0. combined magnetic field of the magnet and the

8. Using a plane mirror strip mounted vertically on a earth is (a) strongest, (b) very weak but not zero,

board, obtain the reflected rays for three rays and (c) zero. Why is null point, so called?

incident at different angles. Measure the angles of 13. Using a spring balance obtain the weight

incidence and angles of reflection. See if these (in N) of a metal ball in air and then completely

angles are equal. immersed in water in a measuring cylinder. Note

9. Place three object pins at different distances on a the volume of the ball from the volume of the

line perpendicular to a plane mirror fixed water displaced. Calculate the upthrust from the

vertically on a board. Obtain two reflected first two weights. Also calculate the mass and

rays(for each pin) fixing two pins in line with the then weight of the water displaced by the bob

image. Obtain the positions of the images in each M=V.ρ, W=mg). Use the above result to verify

case by extending backwards (using dashed lines), Archimedes principle.

63

CLASS X

There will be one paper of one and half-hours (using ray diagrams only); magnifying glass;

duration carrying 80 marks and Internal Assessment location of images using ray diagrams and

of practical work carrying 20 marks. thereby determining magnification

The paper will be divided into two sections, Section I (sign convention and problems using the lens

(40 marks) and Section II (40 marks). formulae are excluded).

Section I (compulsory) will contain short answer (iv) Using a triangular prism to produce a

questions on the entire syllabus. spectrum from white light; simple treatment

of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Section II will contain six questions. Candidates will

be required to answer any four of these six questions. 3. Sound

Note: Unless otherwise specified, only S. I. Units are (i) Reflection of Sound Waves; echoes: their use;

to be used while teaching and learning, as well as for simple numerical problems on echoes.

answering questions.

(ii) Forced and natural vibrations and resonance

(through examples).

1. Force, Work, Energy and Power

(iii) Loudness, pitch and quality of sound;

(i) Newton’s Second Law of Motion (including difference between music and noise

F=ma); weight and mass. (overtones, harmonics, nodes and anti-nodes

(ii) Machines as force multipliers; load, effort, are excluded).

mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and

efficiency; simple treatment of levers, 4. Electricity and Magnetism

inclined plane and pulley systems showing the (i) Ohm’s Law; concepts of emf, potential

utility of each type of machine. difference, resistance; resistances in series and

parallel; simple direct problems using

(iii) Work, energy, power, and their relation with

combinations of resistors in circuits.

force (simple numerical problems included).

(ii) Electrical power and energy; household

(iv) Different types of energy (e.g., chemical

consumption of electrical energy (simple

energy, gravitational potential energy, kinetic

problems based on electricity bill

energy, heat energy, elastic energy, electrical

calculations).

energy, nuclear energy, sound energy, light

energy). (iii) Household circuits – main circuit; switches;

(v) Principle of Conservation of energy. fuses; earthing; safety precautions; three-pin

plugs; colour coding of wires.

2. Light (iv) Magnetic effect of a current (principles only,

(i) Refraction of light through a glass block and a laws not required); electromagnet; dc electric

triangular prism (no calculations but bell; dc motor; electromagnetic induction

approximate ray diagrams required); (elementary); ac generator; transformer

qualitative treatment of simple applications (only qualitative description of the devices is

required).

such as real and apparent depth of objects in

water and apparent bending of sticks in water.

5. Heat

(ii) Total internal reflection: Critical angle; (i) Specific heat capacities; Principle of method

examples in triangular glass prisms; of mixtures; problems on specific heat

comparison with reflection from a plane capacity using heat loss and gain and the

mirror (qualitative only). method of mixtures.

(iii) Lenses (converging and diverging) including (ii) Latent heat; loss & gain of heat involving

characteristics of the images formed change of state for fusion only (including

64

simple problems); common phenomenon MA=L/E and VR = effort arm/load arm. It

involving specific heat capacity and latent will be found that MA <VR in one case, MA=VR

heat of fusion. in another and MA>VR in the third case. Try to

explain why this is so. Also try to calculate the

6. Modern Physics real load and real effort in these cases.

(i) Thermionic emission; simple qualitative 2. Inclined Plane - Use a roller (to minimize friction)

treatment of a hot cathode ray tube. as the load. Determine the effort required to roll it

(ii) Radioactivity and changes in the nucleus; the up an inclined plane with uniform speed. Apply

nature of alpha and beta particles and gamma effort at the end of a string tied to the roller,

rays (problems on half life excluded); passing over a pulley and a scale pan attached.

background radiation and safety precautions. Calculate the MA=L/E and VR=1/sinθ = l/h

Special Note: As mentioned above, numerical obtained from measurements of the inclined

plane. Repeat for two other angles of inclination.

problems will be only from sub-units 1(i), 1(ii),

Why is MA<VR?

1(iii), 1(iv), 1(v), 3(i), 4(i), 4(ii), 5(i) & 5(ii) for

Class X examination of 2009. 3. Determine the VR and MA of a given pulley

system.

INTERNAL ASSESSMENT OF 4. Trace the course of different rays of light

PRACTICAL WORK refracting through a rectangular glass prism at

different angles of incidence, measure the angles

Candidates will be asked to carry out experiments for of incidence, refraction and emergence. Also

which instructions will be given. The experiments measure the lateral displacement.

may be based on topics that are not included in the 5. Determine the focal length of a concave mirror by

syllabus but theoretical knowledge will not be (a) the distant object method and (b) one needle

required. A candidate will be expected to be able to method removing parallax or using a ray box or

follow simple instructions, to take suitable readings candle and screen.

and to present these readings in a systematic form. 6. Do the same as above for a convex lens.

He/she may be required to exhibit his/her data

7. For a triangular prism, trace the course of rays

graphically. Candidates will be expected to appreciate

passing through it, measure angles i1, i2, A and

and use the concepts of least count, significant figures δ.Repeat for four different angles of incidence

and elementary error handling. (say i1=400 , 500, 600 and 700). Verify i1+ i2=A+δ.

Note: Teachers may design their own set of 8. For a ray of light incident normally (i1=0) on one

experiments, preferably related to the theory face of a prism, trace course of the ray. Measure

syllabus. A comprehensive list is suggested the angle δ. Explain briefly. Do this for prisms

below. with A=600, 450 and 900.

1. Lever - There are many possibilities with a meter 9. Calculate the sp. heat of the material of the given

rule as a lever with a load (known or unknown) calorimeter, from the temperature readings and

suspended from a point near one end (say left), the masses of cold water, warm water and its mixture

lever itself pivoted on a knife edge, use slotted taken in the calorimeter.

weights suspended from the other (right) side for 10. Determination of sp.heat of a metal by method of

effort. mixtures.

Determine the mass of a metre rule using a spring 11. Determination of specific latent heat of ice.

balance or by balancing it on a knife edge at some 12. Using as simple electric circuit, verify Ohm’s law.

point away from the middle and a 50g weight on Draw a graph, and obtain the slope.

the other side. Next pivot (F) the metre rule at the

40cm, 50cm and 60cm mark, each time 13. Set up model of household wiring including ring

suspending a load L or the left end and effort main circuit. Study the function of switches and

E near the right end. Adjust E and or its position fuses.

so that the rule is balanced. Tabulate the position Teachers may feel free to alter or add to the above list.

of L, F and E and the magnitudes of L and E and The students may perform about 10 experiments.

the distances of load arm and effort arm. Calculate Some experiments may be demonstrated.

65

A NOTE ON SI UNITS Derived quantity Unit

Name Symbol

SI units (Systeme International d’Unites) were

adopted internationally in 1968. Electric charge coulomb C

Electric resistance ohm Ω

Fundamental units

Electromotive force volt V

The system has seven fundamental (or basic) units,

one for each of the fundamental quantities. When the unit is named after a person, the symbol has

a capital letter.

Fundamental quantity Unit

Name Symbol Standard prefixes

Mass kilogram kg Decimal multiples and submultiples are attached to

Length metre m units when appropriate, as below:

Time second s Multiple Prefix Symbol

Electric current ampere A 109 giga G

Temperature kelvin K 106 mega M

Luminous intensity candela cd 103 kilo k

Amount of substance mole mol 10-1 deci d

10-2 centi c

Derived units 10-3 milli m

These are obtained from the fundamental units by

multiplication or division; no numerical factors are 10-6 micro µ

involved. Some derived units with complex names 10-9 nano n

are: 10-12 pico p

Derived Unit 10-15 femto f

quantity Name Symbol

Volume cubic metre m3 EVALUATION

-3

Density kilogram per cubic metre kg.m The practical work/project work are to be evaluated

Velocity metre per second m.s-1 by the subject teacher and by an External Examiner.

(The External Examiner may be a teacher nominated

Acceleration metre per second squared m. s-2 by the Principal, who could be from the faculty, but

not teaching the subject in the relevant

Momentum kilogram metre per kg.m.s-1 section/class. For example, a teacher of Physics of

second Class VIII may be deputed to be an External Examiner

for Class X, Physics projects.)

Some derived units are given special names due to

their complexity when expressed in terms of the The Internal Examiner and the External Examiner will

fundamental units, as below: assess the practical work/project work independently.

Name Symbol Subject Teacher (Internal Examiner) 10 marks

External Examiner 10 marks

Force newton N

The total marks obtained out of 20 are to be sent to the

Pressure pascal Pa

Council by the Principal of the school.

Energy, Work joule J

The Head of the school will be responsible for the

Power watt W entry of marks on the mark sheets provided by the

Frequency hertz Hz Council.

66

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