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Meet the National Geographic Explorers and Adventurers

featured in the new edition of Grammar in Context 3!

Linguist Photographer Oceanographer

K. David Harrison Paul Niclden Sylvia Earle
Lesson 1, p. 18 Lesson 2, p. 36 Lesson 2, p. 54

Glaciologist Climber Crisis Mapper

Lonnie Thompson Alex Honnold Patrick Meier
Lesson 2, p. 61 Lesson 2, pp. 66-67 Lesson 7, pp. 180-181



I ~- <'' C ENGAG E
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LEARNING Learning-

Grammar in Context 3, Sixth Edition Copyright© 2016,2010,2006 National Geographic Learning

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Sandra N. Elbaum ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the
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GRAMMAR Verb Review

CONTEXT Language

READING 1 The Amazing Timothy Doner ............................. 4

1.1 The Present of Be ...... . ..... 5
1.2 The Simple Present . u . ••..•.•..•..••.•.•••..•••••.••••.••• 7
1.3 The Present Continuous . ..... 13
1.4 The Present Continuous vs. The Simple Present-Action and
Non action Verbs . . ................ 16
READING 2 The Enduring Voices Project . 18
1.5 The Future-Form . 19
1.6 Choosing Will or Be Going To, or Present Continuous for Future ......... 22
READING 3 An Unusual Orphan . . .................... 24
1.7 The Simple Past. . .. 25
LESSON SUMMARY. .......... . . 30
WRITING . .............. 32

GRAMMAR The Present Perfect and the Present Perfect Continuous


READING 1 The Mystery of Risk . . ................ 36

2.1 The Present Perfect-Form. . ........ 37
2.2 The Past Participle . . ............ 38
2.3 Placement of Adverbs. . 39
2.4 The Present Perfect-Overview of Uses .. . ......... 41
READING 2 Climbing Mount Everest. . .............. 42
2.5 The Present Perfectwith Indefinite PastTime-Overview . . ..... 43
2.6 The Present Perfect with Ever and Never . . . ............. 45
2.7 The Present Perfect with Yet and Already. . ...... 48
2.8 The Present Perfect with Lately, Recently, and Just. . . 51
2.9 The Present Perfect with No Time Mentioned. ... 53
READING 3 Exploring the Ocean. . .... 54
2.10 The Present Perfect with Repetition from Pastto Present. ... 55
2.11 The Present Perfect with Continuation from Past to Present. . . 58
READING 4 Lonnie Thompson-Ice Investigator. . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.12 The Present Perfect Continuous. ........... ....... . 62
2.13 The Present Perfect, the Present Perfect Continuous, and the Simple Past . 65

Contents iii
LESSON SUMMARY. ............... 68
TEST/REVIEW . . ... 69
WRITING . . 70

GRAMMAR Passive and Active Voice

CONTEXT The Movies

READING 1 Oscar Night in Hollywood . . ........ 74

::L 1 Active and Passive Voice-Introduction . . ........... 75
Comparison of Active and Passive Voice . . .............. 76
3.3 Active and Passive Voice-Use. . 79
3.4 Verbs with Two Objects. . . 82
READING 2 The History of Animation . . . 83
3.:> Transitive and Intransitive Verbs. . ........ 84
3.6 The Passive Voice with Get. .. 88
READING 3 Charlie Chaplin . . ... 90
3.7 Participles Used as Adjectives . . ...... 91
3.3 Other Past Participles Used as Adjectives .. . ........... 94
3.9 Get vs. Be with Past Participles and Other Adjectives . . ... 95
TEST/REVIEW . . .. 97
WRITING ....... 98

GRAMMAR The Past Continuous

The Past Perfect
The Past Perfect Continuous
CONTEXT Travel by Land, Sea, and Air

READING 1 Travel by Land: The Lewis and Clark Expedition 102

4.1 The Past Continuous-Form . 103
4.2 The Past Continuous-Use . 104
4.3 The Past Continuous vs. the Simple Past . 106

READING 2 Travel by Sea: The First and Last Voyage of the Titanic . 109
4.4 The Past Perfect -Form . . ........... . 110
4.5 The Past Perfect -Use (Part 1) .. 112
4.6 When with the Simple Past or the Past Perfect. 114
4.7 The Past Perfect -Use (Part 2) . 115
4.8 The Past Perfect Continuous-Form .............. . 117
4.9 The Past Perfect Continuous-Use. 118
4.10 The Past Perfect (Continuous) vs. the Present Perfect (Continuous) . 120

iv Contents
READING 3 Travel by Air: The DC-3 . 122
4.11 Comparison of PastTenses ......................... . 123

GRAMMAR Modals and Related Expressions

CONTEXT Technology

READING 1 Passwords, Passwords, Passwords. 134

5.1 Modals-An Overvie.w. 135
5.2 Possibility: May,
Might, Could. 136
5.3 Necessity/Obligation: Must, Have to, Have Got to. 137
5.4 Expectation: Be Supposed to 139
5.5 Advice: Should, Ought to, Had Better .. .......... 141
5.6 Suggestion: Can/Could. 144
READING 2 Taking a Break from Technology. 145
5.7 Negative Modals . 146
READING 3 Using Technology to Enforce the Law .. 148
5.8 Ability/Possibility: Can,
Be Able to. 149
5.9 Logical Conclusion: Must . . 150
S.Hl Probability vs. Possibility: Mustvs. May, Might, Could. 152
5.11 Continuous Modals . 154

GRAMMAR Modals in the Past

CONTEXT U.S. Presidents and Elections

READING 1 Lincoln and the Gettysburg Address .. 162

6.1 Modals in the Past-Form. 163
6.2 Past Regrets orMistakes-Should Have. 164
6.3 Past Possibility-May I Might! Could+ Have . 165
6.4 Logical Conclusion about the Past-Must Have . 167
READING 2 The Cuban Missile Crisis .. 169
6.5 Past Direction-Not Taken-Could Have . 170
READING 3 The Media and Presidential Elections . 172
6.6 Must Have+ Past Participle vs. Had to+ Base Form .. 173

Contents V
6.7 Ability and Possibility in the Past . 174
6.8 Modals in the Past: Continuous Forms. 175

GRAMMAR Adjective Clauses

Descriptive Phrases
CONTEXT Online Interactions

READING 1 Pierre Omidyar and eBay. 182

7.1 Adjective Clauses-Introduction . 183
7.2 Relative Pronoun as Subject ....................... . 185
7.3 Relative Pronoun as Object. 187
7.4 Relative Pronoun as Object of Preposition . 190
READING 2 The Freecycle Network'". 192
7.5 Place and Time in Adjective Clauses . 193
7.6 Whose in Adjective Clauses. 195
7.7 Adjective Clauses after Indefinite Pronouns. 197
READING 3 Tim Berners-Lee. 199
7.8 Nonessential Adjective Clauses ........... . 200
7.9 Essential vs. Nonessential Adjective Clauses. 201
7.10 Descriptive Phrases . 203
TEST/REVIEW ....... . 207

GRAMMAR Infinitives and Gerunds

CONTEXT Helping Others

READING 1 Andrew Carnegie, Philanthropist . 212

8.1 Infinitives-Overview . 213
8.2 Verbs Followed by an Infinitive ........ . 214
8.3 Object before Infinitive. 216
8.4 Causative Verbs ...... . 219
8.5 Adjective plus Infinitive . 221
READING 2 One Step at a Time. 223
8.6 Infinitives as Subject .. 224

vi Contents
8.7 Infinitives to Show Purpose. 226
8.8 Infinitives with Too and Enough . 226
READING 3 Helping Others Get an Education. 228
8.9 Gerunds-Overview . 229
8.10 Gerunds as Subjects. 230
8.11 Gerunds after Prepositions and Nouns . 231
8.12 Prepositions after Vefbs, Adjectives, and Nouns . 232
8.13 Verbs Followed by Gerunds. 235
8.'14 Verbs Followed by a Gerund or Infinitive .. 236
8.15 Gerund or Infinitive as Subject. 237
8.16 Gerund or Infinitive after a Verb: Differences in Meaning. 238
READING 4 AIDS Bike Rides . 240
8.17 Used To I Be Used To I Get Used To . 241
8.18 Sense-Perception Verbs . 244

GRAMMAR Adverbial Clauses and Phrases

Sentence Connectors (Conjunctive Adverbs)
So/Such That for Result
CONTEXT Coming to America

READING 1 A Nation of Immigrants. 252

9.1 Adverbial Clauses and Phrases-Introduction . . .......... 253
9.2 Reason and Purpose. 255
READING 2 The Lost Boys of Sudan. 257
9.3 Time Clauses and Phrases . 258
9.4 Using the -ing Form after Time Words. 261
READING 3 Slavery-An American Paradox. 262
9.5 Contrast ............... . 263
READING 4 The Changing Face of the United States . 265
9.6 Condition ... 266
READING 5 Adopting a Baby from Abroad . 269
9.7 Sentence Connectors . 270
9.8 So .. . That I Such ... That. 273

Contents vii
GRAMMAR Noun Clauses
CONTEXT Children

READING 1 Early Child Development. 282

10.1 Noun Clauses . 283
READING 2 The Teenage Brain ....................... . 286
10.2 Noun Clauses as Included Questions. 287
10.3 Question Words Followed by an Infinitive . 291
READING 3 Dr. Benjamin Spock .......... . 293
1 0.4 Exact Quotes. 294
10.5 Exact Quotes vs. Reported Speech . 295
10.6 The Rule of Sequence ofTenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
10.7 Sayvs. Tell. ........................ 298
10.8 Exceptions to the Rule of Sequence ofTenses. 300
10.9 Reporting an Imperative. 301
10.10 Using Reported Speech to Paraphrase 302
READING 4 An Innovation in Kids' TV . 304
10.11 Noun Clauses after Past-Tense Verbs . 305
10.12 Noun Clauses as Reported Questions . 306

GRAMMAR Unreal Conditionals

CONTEXT Science or Science Fiction?

READING 1 Time Travel . 316

11.1 Unreal Conditionals-Present. 317
11.2 Implied Conditionals . 322
READING 2 Exploring Mars .................. 324
11.3 Real Conditionals vs. Unreal Conditionals ..... . 325
READING 3 Life One Hundred Years Ago . 327
1 VI Unreal Conditionals-Past .. 328
READING 4 The Science of Aging . 330
11.5 Wishes . 331
LESSON SUMMARY ..................... . 338

viii Contents

A. Vowel and Consonant Pronunciation Charts ..................... AP1

B. Noncount Nouns. .............. . ... AP2-AP3
C. Uses of Articles . . ...................AP4-AP7
D. Verbs and Adjectiyes Follpwed by a Preposition ................... AP8
E. Direct and Indirect Objects . . .. AP9
1'. Plural Forms of Nouns . . ..................... AP10
G. Metric Conversion Chart. . ................ AP11-AP12
H. Irregular Verb Forms. . .. AP13-AP14
I. Map of the United States of America. . ..................... AP15


.................... G2-G6


.................. 11-18

Contents ix

I am grateful to the team at National Geographic Learning/Cengage Learning for showing

their faith io the Grammar in Context series by putting their best resources and talent into
it. I would especially like to thank Laura Le Drean for driving this series into an exciting,
new direction. Her overall vision of this new edition has been a guiding light. I would also
like to thank my development editor, Claudi Mim6, for managing the difficult day-to-day
task of polishing and refining the manuscript toward its finished product. I would like
to thaulc Dennis Hogan, Sherrise Roehr, and John McHugh for their ongoiog support of
Grammar in Context through its many editions.
I wish to acknowledge the immigrants, refugees, and international students I have
known, both as a teacher and as a volunteer with refugee agencies. These people have
increased my understanding of my own language and taught me to see life from another
point of view. By shariog their observations, questions, and life stories, they have
enriched my life enormously.
This new edition is dedicated to the millions of displaced people in the world. The
Uuited States is the new home of many refugees, who survived unspealcable hardships in
Burundi, Rwanda Iraq, Sudan, Burma, Bhutan, and other countries. Their resiliency in

starting a new life and learniog a new language is a tribute to the human spirit.
-Sandra N. Elbaum
Heinle would like to thaulc the following people for their contributions:

Dorothy S. Avondstondt, Frank DeLeo, Barbara Ineifeld, Stephen Peridore,

Miami Dade College- Broward College; Rutgers University; College of Southern
Wolfson Campus; Nevada;
Jeffrey Diluglio, Barbara Jonckheerc,
:PamelaArfuzone, Rhode Boston University California State Tiffany Probasco, Bunker
Island College; Center for English University, Long Beach; Hill Community
Language and College;
Patricia Bennett, Gursharan Kandola,
Orientation Pro~:,rrams; Elizabeth Seabury,
Grossmont College; University of Houston;
Monique Dobbcrtin Bunker Hill Community
Mariusz Bojarczuk, Rani Lehraue1~
Cleveland, College;
Bunker Hill Community Saddlcback College;
Los Angeles Pierce
College; Natalia Schroeder, Long
College; Dr. Miriam Moore,
Beach City College;
Rodney Barr, Lord Fairfax
Lindsey Donigan,
Glendale Community Community College; Maria Spelleri, State
Fullerton College; College of Florida,
Karen Newbnm Einstein,
Tennifer r. Evans, Manatee-Sarasota;
Nancy Boye1~ Santa Rosa Tunior
University of
Golden West College; College; Susan Stern, Irvine Valley
Charles Brooks, Stephanie Ngom,
Norm Evans, Vincent Tran, University
Norwalk Community Boston University
Brigham Young of Houston;
College; Center for English
Language and Karen Vlaskamp,
Gabriela Cambiasso,
David Gillham, Orientation Programs;
Harold Washington Northern Virginia
Moraine Valley
College; Chari Norloff, Community College-
Community College; International English Annandale;
Tulle Condon,
Martin Guerra, Center, University of
St. Cloud State Christie Ward, Intensive
Mountain View College; Colorado Boulder;
University; English Language
Eric Herrera, Gabriella Nuttall, Program, Central
Anne Damiecka,
Universidad Tecnica Sacramento City Connecticut State
Lone Star College-
Nacional; College; University;
Cora Higgins, Fernanda Ortiz, Colin Ward, Lone Star
Mohammed Debbagh,
Bunker Hill Commtmity Uniwm:ity of Ari:zona; l.ollP-gP--North Harris;
College; Dilcia Perez, Laurie A. Weinberg, T.
University; Los Angeles City Sargeant Reynolds
College; Community College

X Acknowledgments

My parents immigrated to the United States from Poland and

learned English as a second language as adults. My sisters and
I were born in the United States. My parents spoke Yiddish
to us; we answered in English. In that process, my parents'
English improved immeasurably.
Such is the case with many

immigrant parents whose children are fluent in English. They

usually learn English much faster than others; they hear the
language in natural ways, in the context of daily life.

Learning a language in context, whether it be from the home,

from work, or from a textbook, cannot be overestimated. The
challenge for me has been to find a variety of high-interest topics to engage the adult
language learner. I was thrilled to work on this new edition of Grammar in Context for
National Geographic Learning. In so doing, I have been able to combine exciting new
readings with captivating photos to exemplify the grammar.

I have given more than 100 workshops at ESL programs and professional conferences
around the United States, where I have gotten feedback from users of previous editions
of Grammar in Context. Some teachers have expressed concern about trying to cover
long grammar lessons within a limited time. While ESL is not taught in a uniform
number of hours per week, I have heeded my audiences and streamlined the series so
that the grammar and practice covered is more manageable. And in response to the
needs of most ESL programs, I have expanded and enriched the writing component.

Whether you are a new user of Grammar in Context or have used this series before, I
welcome you to this new edition.

Sandra N. Elbaum

For my loves
Gentille, Chimene, Joseph, and Joy

A word from the author xi

Grammar in Context presents grammar in interesting contexts that are relevant to
students' lives and then recycles the language and context throughout every activity.
Learners gain knowledge and sldlls in both grammar structures and topic areas.

New To This Edition

introduce lesson themes and draw learners into
the context.

Adjective Clauses,
Descriptive Phrases

New To This Edition

includes a quote from an artist,
scientist, author, or thinker
that helps students connect to
the theme.

xii Welcome to Grammar in Context

many with National Geographic content,
introduce the target grammar in context
and provide the springboard for practice.

NEW LISTENING EXERCISES E"icl" immi,,.n.,, tho United S!a<eo ""'"in

reinforce the grammar through 1110uson<l< oflfl'u!;ees "l"'"- llop of!l1,dan
wore child«n, livin' in •oulhem ""iliu' in the late
In a hlg<hy, ""nge foo<l~
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natural spoken English. Uni"d State• "'"""-While these'"""" bny> ''"'" an .\mor!can •npcrmorkt
In"' Hel~ oaklng""""""''''"'"'·' tho;,.;ll•&"-' fnrthe fi;_" rim•, '"'Y""'"
were at<a<kcoi Th<= childre,. "'"'~Y boy• l><t~"<tn am«<d by the anwunt ul
the '8'-' nf 4 '"" 12, "'"'"their'"""- Farlh><e fm•i0n•hn)·""''"'"'f'ri'"d
munihs, they ""ll«< bund«d• of miles until <hey by do" quontily uf food in a
r.ached Elhln~ia_ Th•r <un-h·od by oaling loBVe~ ""'''"'"'"k<t that he ••t.d !fit
ruul5,aDdv.ihlln.UL waslloepolao::cofllmkioog
n,.lng I hat time, m•ny di•d "'""""'""''and >send•• holpod 1hel.ost B"'" with money lor
di>ea>e "'""' e>t<n by wild a"lmal>. Un>e wl10 food.,.ol.e"tlorosloortllmeollotiltl"l'fOUl1djubs..
'"""""Ethiopia '"f'd in Ringe<''""" nnlill,.l, While t[u,yn~ro wmlins, "''"t of them enrolled In
"hen a ,.,,Slatted ln Ethiopia and the ""'P' ""'' ~S~<la>oes. Now uoe.o, monr ha•-e ~·•*toted fruw
dmed_ They r.m again, back In Sud;m and then to coll<jl<andbn..,,.ortedprnjcctotohclpilicin·HI•!l"-'
Ken}'a, "'"'" they>lored lme!Ujl€' """'P' fn•almn~ bock loome. Pelet M•~•l BuT, of Cfo!oago, ~elpod
""),.,._Of tho appmDrnotdy L>,IJOO buys whu D<d c"ablis.h • "!mol In his humotowo_ While he was
Sotdan,ouly!I.Oilllsu"·l\~<l. stuOylng for hi• r<lllego <legt.._ ,..,.,.. h•lpe<l to ,.lse
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soto>e seltoollng an<l '"''""" """ Fngl!sh_ In 1••o_
tho Un!l<d NatiDns and tho U.S. "'-"~rnment "-"""'d ~l>h...,h ohcir lo1wc in the United S<oO<• lools

to t<S<nle3-000 '-"" n,_, in the Un!tod "'"""- hlisfot, when""'' ohey 1hlnk about 1h•lr lomnelan<l,
Wh<o thoy aH!vcd In the Uniled Sial.,, many lim} "" ;od bt'GU6o "' =nr of th<iof.,rril}' n<Cmbc"'
challongo• '"""""' th•m- The)" hod to l•om a andfriorul<h•n.-•diod_
compl<tdy now ""Y ofl!le. Many !hh>g> n·ere "'"'

·=··~·~b-=1~<0~ ....",
t o~n""'="'•"M•vfO,.i..;o.oi<>Oot "''"'""•'~l~h""'"

CO~IPREHEN.,ON CHECK B"erl on the ,eodon9- 1<11 of1he '"toment 1> t!oe {f)o1f•l;e (F~
I. The I.o<t ""'" n-e"'!n • "'"'""<amp In Ethlopl• until 11••r "'""' tn the"-"-

2. When ilic-u •ill''"'"""' •ttrl<d, the I.o" n.,., r.m hack borne_
l- Snme olthe l.o'>l Boy>'" h~plng theh people In Sonoh Su..!al1.

9.3 Time Clauses and Phrases NEW REDESIGNED

ll'l"nlheJr•mag~<"'"''""'ked,thoi.Q>I III'To"'loO<OlllS'<IIIo>llll11e'or'!l11meo!!•lcl).>ft<rlhot
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Somel""""Hmen u;n help '"'''~""P'' hart
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In • Mute seoi<O<e, we u;• tl>e pre>e.\1;, the to"'e
straightforward explanations
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and provide contextualized
clear examples of the structure.
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Welcome to Grammar in Context xiii



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Welcome to Grammar in Context XV

Timothy Doner

Read the following article. Pay special attention to the words in bold.
TR2 Timothy Doner looks like an average student Doner spends almost all his time trying to
in his T-shirt and jeans. But there is something learn languages. To learn some languages, he takes
very special about him. He speaks 20 languages. classes. To learn others, he studies on his own. He
He doesn't speak all of them equally well, but he always looks for opportunities to practice with native
is very comfortable in many of them. He feels most speakers. Sometimes he uses video chats to practice
comfortable with Hebrew, 1 Farsi, 2 French, and with native speakers in other countries. He uses
Arabic. At any one time, he is studying three to other methods to improve his language ability: He
four languages. memorizes the lyrics5 of songs or watches tnovies in
Videos of him are going around the Internet. other languages. He really enjoys himself. He thinks
In one video, he is riding in a taxi and talking to a that language helps you connect to other people.
Haitian taxi driver in French. In it, he is telling the When he speaks another language, he feels like a
driver that he wants to learn Creole, a language of different person.
Haiti. In another he is speaking Russian with the Interestingly, he doesn't study Spanish. For him,
owners of a video store in New York, where he lives. Spanish isn't challenging enough.
In another, he is speaking Farsi with the owner of a l Hebrew: an official language spoken in the State of Israel
bookstore. He is asking the Farsi speaker for more 2 Farsi: the official language of Iran
information about that language. In other videos, he 3 Urdu: an official language spoken in Pakistan
4 Swahili: a language spoken in Kenya and other countries of the
is studying Mandarin or discussing the similarities African Great Lakes region
between Hebrew and Arabic with native speakers of 5 lyrics: the words of a song
these languages. He also speaks Urdu, 3 Indonesian,
Swahili, 4 and Ojibwe, an American Indian language.

4 lesson 1