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STALWART BUILDERS INCORPORATED

NAME: YEAR & SECTION :


DEBORAH BARRIATOS BSCE – 4B
GROUP NO.3 DATE SUBMITTED: SEPTEMBER 5, 2018
LABORATORY EXPERIMENT TITLE: NORMAL CONSISTENTCY OF
NO. 7 PORTLAND CEMENT

Discussion:
Concrete remains in its fresh state from the time it is mixed until it sets.
During this time the concrete is handled, transported, placed and compacted.
Properties of concrete in its fresh state are very important because the influence
the quality of the hardened concrete. Consistency of a concrete mix is a measure
of the stiffness or sloppiness or fluidity of the mix. For effective handling,
placing and compacting the concrete, consistency must be the same for each
batch. It is therefore necessary to measure consistency of concrete at regular
intervals. Slump test is commonly used to measure consistency of concrete. The
workability of a concrete mix is the relative ease with which concrete can be
placed, compacted and finished without separation or segregation of the
individual materials. Workability is not the same thing as consistency. Mixes
with the same consistency can have different work abilities, if they are made
with different sizes of stone – the smaller the stone the more workable the
concrete. It is not possible to measure workability but the slump test, together
with an assessment of properties like stone content, cohesiveness and plasticity,
gives a useful indication. Cement and aggregate particles have densities about
three times that of water. In fresh concrete they consequently tend to settle and
displace mixing water which migrates upward and may collect on the top surface
of the concrete. This upward movement of mixing water is known as bleeding;
water that separates from the rest of the concrete is called bleed water. If water is
removed from the compacted concrete before it sets, the volume of the concrete
is reduced by the amount of water removed. This volume reduction is called
plastic shrinkage. Water may be removed from the plastic concrete by
evaporation or by being absorbed by dry surfaces such as soil or old concrete or
by the dry wooden form work. From the time of mixing, fresh concrete gradually
loses consistency. This gives rise to the problems only if the concrete becomes
too stiff to handle, place and compact properly.
Consistent, one property of the fresh concrete is an important
consideration in the securing of workable concrete that can be properly
compacted in the forms. Workability is a relative term referring to the
comparative ease with which concrete can be placed on a given type of work.
The term consistency relates to the state of fluidity of the mix and embraces the
range of fluidity the mix and embraces the range of fluidity from the driest to the
wettest mixtures.
The most common tests to determine consistency:
1. Slump test – is made by measuring the subsidence of a pile of concrete 20mm
(12 in.) high, framed in the mold that has the shape of the frustum of a cone.
2. Ball penetration – is made by measuring the settlement of a 150 mm steel ball
(weighing 13.6 kg with its handle) into the surface of the concrete.
For convenience, various degrees of wetness of a mix may be roughly classified
as dry, stiff, medium, wet, or sloppy. Concrete is said to have medium or plastic
consistency when it is just wet enough to flow sluggishly- not so dry that is
crumbles or so wet that the water or paste runs from the mass.
The principal factors affecting consistency are:
1. The relative proportions of cement to aggregate 2. The water content with the
mix. 3. The size of the aggregate 4. The shape and the surface characteristics of
the aggregate particles. 5. The fineness and type of cement and the kind and
amount of admixture.
Objective:
To determine the normal consistency of Portland cement Vicat apparatus.
Referenced Documents:
ASTM C 187 -56
AASHTO T 129
Apparatus:
1. Balance, sensitive to 0.1 gm.
2. Vical apparatus
3. Spatula
4. Mixing pan
5. Graduated cylinder, capacity 50 ml to 200 ml
Temperature and Humidity:
1. The temperature of the air in vicinity of the mixing slab, the dry cement,
molds, and the base plates shall be maintained between 20°C- 27.5°C (68°C-
81.5°F). The temperature of the mixing water shall not vary from 23°C (73.4°F)
by more than plus or minus 1.7°C (3°F).
2. The relative humidity of the laboratory shall be not less than 50 percent.
Procedure:
1. Weigh accurately 300 gm of neat cement sample and place it on the mixing
pan.
2. Mix about 25% of clean water to the cement by means of spatula for about
one minute.
3. Mixed it thoroughly with hands for at least one minute.
4. The kneaded paste is formed into a ball and tossed six times from one hand to
the other, maintaining the hand about 6 inches apart.
5. The ball is pressed into a conical ring or conical mold completely filling the
ring with paste.
6. Sliced off the excess paste at the top of the ring by a single oblique stroke of a
sharp edge spatula or trowel and the top smoothed, if necessary, with a few light
touches of the toward or spatula. Care shall be taken not to compress the paste.
7. Center paste confined in the ring under the larger end of the rod.
8. The larger end of the rod is brought in contact with the surface of the paste
and tightened the screw.
9. Set the movable indicator to zero marks of the scale and tightened the screw.
10. The rod is then quickly released without any jerk and the penetration noted.
11. If the rod penetrates 33 to 35 mm the paste is said to be normal consistency
12. Trial paste shall be made with varying percentage of water until the normal
consistency is obtained. Each trial shall be made with fresh cement. The amount
of water is expressed as percentage by weight of dry cement usually 30%.
13. The time taken between adding of water to cement and filling of the ring or
mold should be between 3 to 5 minutes.
TEST RESULTS
DATA SHEET

Weight of Cylinder = 143.8 g


Weight of Cement sample = 300 g
Weight of water = 75 g
Weight of Cylinder with added water = 173 g
Initial Penetration = 31 mm
Final Penetration = 34 mm

COMPUTATION

Initial Water = 75 g
Weight of Cement Sample = 300 g
Initial Water/ Wt. of Cement sample = Water Content
75 / 300 x 100 = 25%
Initial Water Content = 25%
Wt. of Cylinder w/ added water = 173 g
Wt. of cylinder = 143.8 g
Wt. of cylinder w/ added water – wt. of cylinder = added water
Added Water / Wt. of Cement Sample = Added Water content
173 – 143.8 =29.2 g
29.2 / 300 x 100 = 9.73%
Added Water Content = 9.73%
Initial + Added = Final Water Content
75 + 29.2 = 104.2 g
25 + 9.73 = 34.73 %
RESULT
Initial Water content = 75 g
Added Water Content = 29.2
Final Water Content = 104.2
Total Percentage = 34.73%
Initial Penetration = 31 mm
Final Penetration = 34 mm

OBSERVATION

The students observed that in the first mixing of pan with 25%
of water the sample was a bit dry in order to obtain a normal
consistency we added water, after adding the water we mold it and
then test its penetration. At first try it didn’t go with its normal
penetration so we decided to mix it along with the excess sample and
after that we tested it and acquired the normal consistency of 34 mm.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION:

Therefore the students conclude that it is important to


test the consistency of cement because it affects the quality of a
hardened concrete. It also able us to know the fluidity of the
cement and how it’s going to work on the concrete. The students
recommend to use this method to determine cement’s consistency
and the proper ratio of mixing it to obtain its normal state.
APPENDICES
This method covers determination of the normal consistency of
hydraulic cement.
is method covers determination of the normal consistency of hydraulic
cement.
Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No
other units of measurement are included in this standard.
This test method is intended to be used to determine the amount
of water required to prepare hydraulic cement pastes with normal
consistency, as required for certain standard tests.
This test method covers the determination of the normal
consistency of hydraulic cement.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety
problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the
user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health
practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior
to use.
This practice is intended for use in the mechanical mixing of
pastes and mortars for the testing of hydraulic cements.
This practice covers the mechanical mixing of hydraulic cement
pastes and mortars of plastic consistency.
The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No
other units of measurement are included in this standard.
STALWART BUILDERS INCORPORATED

NAME: YEAR & SECTION :


JOHN MARVIN ABELARDE BSCE – 4B
GROUP NO.3 DATE SUBMITTED: SEPTEMBER 5, 2018
LABORATORY EXPERIMENT TITLE: NORMAL CONSISTENT OF
NO. 7 PORTLAND CEMENT

Discussion:
Concrete remains in its fresh state from the time it is mixed until it sets.
During this time the concrete is handled, transported, placed and compacted.
Properties of concrete in its fresh state are very important because the influence
the quality of the hardened concrete. Consistency of a concrete mix is a measure
of the stiffness or sloppiness or fluidity of the mix. For effective handling,
placing and compacting the concrete, consistency must be the same for each
batch. It is therefore necessary to measure consistency of concrete at regular
intervals. Slump test is commonly used to measure consistency of concrete. The
workability of a concrete mix is the relative ease with which concrete can be
placed, compacted and finished without separation or segregation of the
individual materials. Workability is not the same thing as consistency. Mixes
with the same consistency can have different work abilities, if they are made
with different sizes of stone – the smaller the stone the more workable the
concrete. It is not possible to measure workability but the slump test, together
with an assessment of properties like stone content, cohesiveness and plasticity,
gives a useful indication. Cement and aggregate particles have densities about
three times that of water. In fresh concrete they consequently tend to settle and
displace mixing water which migrates upward and may collect on the top surface
of the concrete. This upward movement of mixing water is known as bleeding;
water that separates from the rest of the concrete is called bleed water. If water is
removed from the compacted concrete before it sets, the volume of the concrete
is reduced by the amount of water removed. This volume reduction is called
plastic shrinkage. Water may be removed from the plastic concrete by
evaporation or by being absorbed by dry surfaces such as soil or old concrete or
by the dry wooden form work. From the time of mixing, fresh concrete gradually
loses consistency. This gives rise to the problems only if the concrete becomes
too stiff to handle, place and compact properly.
Consistent, one property of the fresh concrete is an important
consideration in the securing of workable concrete that can be properly
compacted in the forms. Workability is a relative term referring to the
comparative ease with which concrete can be placed on a given type of work.
The term consistency relates to the state of fluidity of the mix and embraces the
range of fluidity the mix and embraces the range of fluidity from the driest to the
wettest mixtures.
The most common tests to determine consistency:
1. Slump test – is made by measuring the subsidence of a pile of concrete 20mm
(12 in.) high, framed in the mold that has the shape of the frustum of a cone.
2. Ball penetration – is made by measuring the settlement of a 150 mm steel ball
(weighing 13.6 kg with its handle) into the surface of the concrete.
For convenience, various degrees of wetness of a mix may be roughly classified
as dry, stiff, medium, wet, or sloppy. Concrete is said to have medium or plastic
consistency when it is just wet enough to flow sluggishly- not so dry that is
crumbles or so wet that the water or paste runs from the mass.
The principal factors affecting consistency are:
1. The relative proportions of cement to aggregate 2. The water content with the
mix. 3. The size of the aggregate 4. The shape and the surface characteristics of
the aggregate particles. 5. The fineness and type of cement and the kind and
amount of admixture.
Objective:
To determine the normal consistency of Portland cement Vicat apparatus.
Referenced Documents:
ASTM C 187 -56
AASHTO T 129
Apparatus:
1. Balance, sensitive to 0.1 gm.
2. Vical apparatus
3. Spatula
4. Mixing pan
5. Graduated cylinder, capacity 50 ml to 200 ml
Temperature and Humidity:
1. The temperature of the air in vicinity of the mixing slab, the dry cement,
molds, and the base plates shall be maintained between 20°C- 27.5°C (68°C-
81.5°F). The temperature of the mixing water shall not vary from 23°C (73.4°F)
by more than plus or minus 1.7°C (3°F).
2. The relative humidity of the laboratory shall be not less than 50 percent.
Procedure:
1. Weigh accurately 300 gm of neat cement sample and place it on the mixing
pan.
2. Mix about 25% of clean water to the cement by means of spatula for about
one minute.
3. Mixed it thoroughly with hands for at least one minute.
4. The kneaded paste is formed into a ball and tossed six times from one hand to
the other, maintaining the hand about 6 inches apart.
5. The ball is pressed into a conical ring or conical mold completely filling the
ring with paste.
6. Sliced off the excess paste at the top of the ring by a single oblique stroke of a
sharp edge spatula or trowel and the top smoothed, if necessary, with a few light
touches of the toward or spatula. Care shall be taken not to compress the paste.
7. Center paste confined in the ring under the larger end of the rod.
8. The larger end of the rod is brought in contact with the surface of the paste
and tightened the screw.
9. Set the movable indicator to zero marks of the scale and tightened the screw.
10. The rod is then quickly released without any jerk and the penetration noted.
11. If the rod penetrates 33 to 35 mm the paste is said to be normal consistency
12. Trial paste shall be made with varying percentage of water until the normal
consistency is obtained. Each trial shall be made with fresh cement. The amount
of water is expressed as percentage by weight of dry cement usually 30%.
13. The time taken between adding of water to cement and filling of the ring or
mold should be between 3 to 5 minutes.
TEST RESULTS
DATA SHEET

Weight of Cylinder = 143.8 g


Weight of Cement sample = 300 g
Weight of water = 75 g
Weight of Cylinder with added water = 173 g
Initial Penetration = 31 mm
Final Penetration = 34 mm

COMPUTATION

Initial Water = 75 g
Weight of Cement Sample = 300 g
Initial Water/ Wt. of Cement sample = Water Content
75 / 300 x 100 = 25%
Initial Water Content = 25%
Wt. of Cylinder w/ added water = 173 g
Wt. of cylinder = 143.8 g
Wt. of cylinder w/ added water – wt. of cylinder = added water
Added Water / Wt. of Cement Sample = Added Water content
173 – 143.8 =29.2 g
29.2 / 300 x 100 = 9.73%
Added Water Content = 9.73%
Initial + Added = Final Water Content
75 + 29.2 = 104.2 g
25 + 9.73 = 34.73 %
RESULT
Initial Water content = 75 g
Added Water Content = 29.2
Final Water Content = 104.2
Total Percentage = 34.73%
Initial Penetration = 31 mm
Final Penetration = 34 mm

OBSERVATION

The students observed that in the first mixing of pan with 25%
of water the sample was a bit dry in order to obtain a normal
consistency we added water, after adding the water we mold it and
then test its penetration. At first try it didn’t go with its normal
penetration so we decided to mix it along with the excess sample and
after that we tested it and acquired the normal consistency of 34 mm.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION:


APPENDICES
This method covers determination of the normal consistency of
hydraulic cement.
is method covers determination of the normal consistency of hydraulic
cement.
Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No
other units of measurement are included in this standard.
This test method is intended to be used to determine the amount
of water required to prepare hydraulic cement pastes with normal
consistency, as required for certain standard tests.
This test method covers the determination of the normal
consistency of hydraulic cement.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety
problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the
user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health
practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior
to use.
This practice is intended for use in the mechanical mixing of
pastes and mortars for the testing of hydraulic cements.
This practice covers the mechanical mixing of hydraulic cement
pastes and mortars of plastic consistency.
The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No
other units of measurement are included in this standard.
STALWART BUILDERS INCORPORATED

NAME: YEAR & SECTION :


BON ARJEE AGUPITAN BSCE – 4B
GROUP NO.3 DATE SUBMITTED: SEPTEMBER 5, 2018
LABORATORY EXPERIMENT TITLE: NORMAL CONSISTENT OF
NO. 7 PORTLAND CEMENT

Discussion:
Concrete remains in its fresh state from the time it is mixed until it sets.
During this time the concrete is handled, transported, placed and compacted.
Properties of concrete in its fresh state are very important because the influence
the quality of the hardened concrete. Consistency of a concrete mix is a measure
of the stiffness or sloppiness or fluidity of the mix. For effective handling,
placing and compacting the concrete, consistency must be the same for each
batch. It is therefore necessary to measure consistency of concrete at regular
intervals. Slump test is commonly used to measure consistency of concrete. The
workability of a concrete mix is the relative ease with which concrete can be
placed, compacted and finished without separation or segregation of the
individual materials. Workability is not the same thing as consistency. Mixes
with the same consistency can have different work abilities, if they are made
with different sizes of stone – the smaller the stone the more workable the
concrete. It is not possible to measure workability but the slump test, together
with an assessment of properties like stone content, cohesiveness and plasticity,
gives a useful indication. Cement and aggregate particles have densities about
three times that of water. In fresh concrete they consequently tend to settle and
displace mixing water which migrates upward and may collect on the top surface
of the concrete. This upward movement of mixing water is known as bleeding;
water that separates from the rest of the concrete is called bleed water. If water is
removed from the compacted concrete before it sets, the volume of the concrete
is reduced by the amount of water removed. This volume reduction is called
plastic shrinkage. Water may be removed from the plastic concrete by
evaporation or by being absorbed by dry surfaces such as soil or old concrete or
by the dry wooden form work. From the time of mixing, fresh concrete gradually
loses consistency. This gives rise to the problems only if the concrete becomes
too stiff to handle, place and compact properly.
Consistent, one property of the fresh concrete is an important
consideration in the securing of workable concrete that can be properly
compacted in the forms. Workability is a relative term referring to the
comparative ease with which concrete can be placed on a given type of work.
The term consistency relates to the state of fluidity of the mix and embraces the
range of fluidity the mix and embraces the range of fluidity from the driest to the
wettest mixtures.
The most common tests to determine consistency:
1. Slump test – is made by measuring the subsidence of a pile of concrete 20mm
(12 in.) high, framed in the mold that has the shape of the frustum of a cone.
2. Ball penetration – is made by measuring the settlement of a 150 mm steel ball
(weighing 13.6 kg with its handle) into the surface of the concrete.
For convenience, various degrees of wetness of a mix may be roughly classified
as dry, stiff, medium, wet, or sloppy. Concrete is said to have medium or plastic
consistency when it is just wet enough to flow sluggishly- not so dry that is
crumbles or so wet that the water or paste runs from the mass.
The principal factors affecting consistency are:
1. The relative proportions of cement to aggregate 2. The water content with the
mix. 3. The size of the aggregate 4. The shape and the surface characteristics of
the aggregate particles. 5. The fineness and type of cement and the kind and
amount of admixture.
Objective:
To determine the normal consistency of Portland cement Vicat apparatus.
Referenced Documents:
ASTM C 187 -56
AASHTO T 129
Apparatus:
1. Balance, sensitive to 0.1 gm.
2. Vical apparatus
3. Spatula
4. Mixing pan
5. Graduated cylinder, capacity 50 ml to 200 ml
Temperature and Humidity:
1. The temperature of the air in vicinity of the mixing slab, the dry cement,
molds, and the base plates shall be maintained between 20°C- 27.5°C (68°C-
81.5°F). The temperature of the mixing water shall not vary from 23°C (73.4°F)
by more than plus or minus 1.7°C (3°F).
2. The relative humidity of the laboratory shall be not less than 50 percent.
Procedure:
1. Weigh accurately 300 gm of neat cement sample and place it on the mixing
pan.
2. Mix about 25% of clean water to the cement by means of spatula for about
one minute.
3. Mixed it thoroughly with hands for at least one minute.
4. The kneaded paste is formed into a ball and tossed six times from one hand to
the other, maintaining the hand about 6 inches apart.
5. The ball is pressed into a conical ring or conical mold completely filling the
ring with paste.
6. Sliced off the excess paste at the top of the ring by a single oblique stroke of a
sharp edge spatula or trowel and the top smoothed, if necessary, with a few light
touches of the toward or spatula. Care shall be taken not to compress the paste.
7. Center paste confined in the ring under the larger end of the rod.
8. The larger end of the rod is brought in contact with the surface of the paste
and tightened the screw.
9. Set the movable indicator to zero marks of the scale and tightened the screw.
10. The rod is then quickly released without any jerk and the penetration noted.
11. If the rod penetrates 33 to 35 mm the paste is said to be normal consistency
12. Trial paste shall be made with varying percentage of water until the normal
consistency is obtained. Each trial shall be made with fresh cement. The amount
of water is expressed as percentage by weight of dry cement usually 30%.
13. The time taken between adding of water to cement and filling of the ring or
mold should be between 3 to 5 minutes.
TEST RESULTS
DATA SHEET

Weight of Cylinder = 143.8 g


Weight of Cement sample = 300 g
Weight of water = 75 g
Weight of Cylinder with added water = 173 g
Initial Penetration = 31 mm
Final Penetration = 34 mm

COMPUTATION

Initial Water = 75 g
Weight of Cement Sample = 300 g
Initial Water/ Wt. of Cement sample = Water Content
75 / 300 x 100 = 25%
Initial Water Content = 25%
Wt. of Cylinder w/ added water = 173 g
Wt. of cylinder = 143.8 g
Wt. of cylinder w/ added water – wt. of cylinder = added water
Added Water / Wt. of Cement Sample = Added Water content
173 – 143.8 =29.2 g
29.2 / 300 x 100 = 9.73%
Added Water Content = 9.73%
Initial + Added = Final Water Content
75 + 29.2 = 104.2 g
25 + 9.73 = 34.73 %
RESULT
Initial Water content = 75 g
Added Water Content = 29.2
Final Water Content = 104.2
Total Percentage = 34.73%
Initial Penetration = 31 mm
Final Penetration = 34 mm

OBSERVATION

The students observed that in the first mixing of pan with 25%
of water the sample was a bit dry in order to obtain a normal
consistency we added water, after adding the water we mold it and
then test its penetration. At first try it didn’t go with its normal
penetration so we decided to mix it along with the excess sample and
after that we tested it and acquired the normal consistency of 34 mm.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION:


APPENDICES
This method covers determination of the normal consistency of
hydraulic cement.
is method covers determination of the normal consistency of hydraulic
cement.
Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No
other units of measurement are included in this standard.
This test method is intended to be used to determine the amount
of water required to prepare hydraulic cement pastes with normal
consistency, as required for certain standard tests.
This test method covers the determination of the normal
consistency of hydraulic cement.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety
problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the
user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health
practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior
to use.
This practice is intended for use in the mechanical mixing of
pastes and mortars for the testing of hydraulic cements.
This practice covers the mechanical mixing of hydraulic cement
pastes and mortars of plastic consistency.
The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No
other units of measurement are included in this standard.
STALWART BUILDERS INCORPORATED

NAME: YEAR & SECTION :


AUBREY MATA BSCE – 4B
GROUP NO.3 DATE SUBMITTED: SEPTEMBER 5, 2018
LABORATORY EXPERIMENT TITLE: NORMAL CONSISTENT OF
NO. 7 PORTLAND CEMENT

Discussion:
Concrete remains in its fresh state from the time it is mixed until it sets.
During this time the concrete is handled, transported, placed and compacted.
Properties of concrete in its fresh state are very important because the influence
the quality of the hardened concrete. Consistency of a concrete mix is a measure
of the stiffness or sloppiness or fluidity of the mix. For effective handling,
placing and compacting the concrete, consistency must be the same for each
batch. It is therefore necessary to measure consistency of concrete at regular
intervals. Slump test is commonly used to measure consistency of concrete. The
workability of a concrete mix is the relative ease with which concrete can be
placed, compacted and finished without separation or segregation of the
individual materials. Workability is not the same thing as consistency. Mixes
with the same consistency can have different work abilities, if they are made
with different sizes of stone – the smaller the stone the more workable the
concrete. It is not possible to measure workability but the slump test, together
with an assessment of properties like stone content, cohesiveness and plasticity,
gives a useful indication. Cement and aggregate particles have densities about
three times that of water. In fresh concrete they consequently tend to settle and
displace mixing water which migrates upward and may collect on the top surface
of the concrete. This upward movement of mixing water is known as bleeding;
water that separates from the rest of the concrete is called bleed water. If water is
removed from the compacted concrete before it sets, the volume of the concrete
is reduced by the amount of water removed. This volume reduction is called
plastic shrinkage. Water may be removed from the plastic concrete by
evaporation or by being absorbed by dry surfaces such as soil or old concrete or
by the dry wooden form work. From the time of mixing, fresh concrete gradually
loses consistency. This gives rise to the problems only if the concrete becomes
too stiff to handle, place and compact properly.
Consistent, one property of the fresh concrete is an important
consideration in the securing of workable concrete that can be properly
compacted in the forms. Workability is a relative term referring to the
comparative ease with which concrete can be placed on a given type of work.
The term consistency relates to the state of fluidity of the mix and embraces the
range of fluidity the mix and embraces the range of fluidity from the driest to the
wettest mixtures.
The most common tests to determine consistency:
1. Slump test – is made by measuring the subsidence of a pile of concrete 20mm
(12 in.) high, framed in the mold that has the shape of the frustum of a cone.
2. Ball penetration – is made by measuring the settlement of a 150 mm steel ball
(weighing 13.6 kg with its handle) into the surface of the concrete.
For convenience, various degrees of wetness of a mix may be roughly classified
as dry, stiff, medium, wet, or sloppy. Concrete is said to have medium or plastic
consistency when it is just wet enough to flow sluggishly- not so dry that is
crumbles or so wet that the water or paste runs from the mass.
The principal factors affecting consistency are:
1. The relative proportions of cement to aggregate 2. The water content with the
mix. 3. The size of the aggregate 4. The shape and the surface characteristics of
the aggregate particles. 5. The fineness and type of cement and the kind and
amount of admixture.
Objective:
To determine the normal consistency of Portland cement Vicat apparatus.
Referenced Documents:
ASTM C 187 -56
AASHTO T 129
Apparatus:
1. Balance, sensitive to 0.1 gm.
2. Vical apparatus
3. Spatula
4. Mixing pan
5. Graduated cylinder, capacity 50 ml to 200 ml
Temperature and Humidity:
1. The temperature of the air in vicinity of the mixing slab, the dry cement,
molds, and the base plates shall be maintained between 20°C- 27.5°C (68°C-
81.5°F). The temperature of the mixing water shall not vary from 23°C (73.4°F)
by more than plus or minus 1.7°C (3°F).
2. The relative humidity of the laboratory shall be not less than 50 percent.
Procedure:
1. Weigh accurately 300 gm of neat cement sample and place it on the mixing
pan.
2. Mix about 25% of clean water to the cement by means of spatula for about
one minute.
3. Mixed it thoroughly with hands for at least one minute.
4. The kneaded paste is formed into a ball and tossed six times from one hand to
the other, maintaining the hand about 6 inches apart.
5. The ball is pressed into a conical ring or conical mold completely filling the
ring with paste.
6. Sliced off the excess paste at the top of the ring by a single oblique stroke of a
sharp edge spatula or trowel and the top smoothed, if necessary, with a few light
touches of the toward or spatula. Care shall be taken not to compress the paste.
7. Center paste confined in the ring under the larger end of the rod.
8. The larger end of the rod is brought in contact with the surface of the paste
and tightened the screw.
9. Set the movable indicator to zero marks of the scale and tightened the screw.
10. The rod is then quickly released without any jerk and the penetration noted.
11. If the rod penetrates 33 to 35 mm the paste is said to be normal consistency
12. Trial paste shall be made with varying percentage of water until the normal
consistency is obtained. Each trial shall be made with fresh cement. The amount
of water is expressed as percentage by weight of dry cement usually 30%.
13. The time taken between adding of water to cement and filling of the ring or
mold should be between 3 to 5 minutes.
TEST RESULTS
DATA SHEET

Weight of Cylinder = 143.8 g


Weight of Cement sample = 300 g
Weight of water = 75 g
Weight of Cylinder with added water = 173 g
Initial Penetration = 31 mm
Final Penetration = 34 mm

COMPUTATION

Initial Water = 75 g
Weight of Cement Sample = 300 g
Initial Water/ Wt. of Cement sample = Water Content
75 / 300 x 100 = 25%
Initial Water Content = 25%
Wt. of Cylinder w/ added water = 173 g
Wt. of cylinder = 143.8 g
Wt. of cylinder w/ added water – wt. of cylinder = added water
Added Water / Wt. of Cement Sample = Added Water content
173 – 143.8 =29.2 g
29.2 / 300 x 100 = 9.73%
Added Water Content = 9.73%
Initial + Added = Final Water Content
75 + 29.2 = 104.2 g
25 + 9.73 = 34.73 %
RESULT
Initial Water content = 75 g
Added Water Content = 29.2
Final Water Content = 104.2
Total Percentage = 34.73%
Initial Penetration = 31 mm
Final Penetration = 34 mm

OBSERVATION

The students observed that in the first mixing of pan with 25%
of water the sample was a bit dry in order to obtain a normal
consistency we added water, after adding the water we mold it and
then test its penetration. At first try it didn’t go with its normal
penetration so we decided to mix it along with the excess sample and
after that we tested it and acquired the normal consistency of 34 mm.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION:


APPENDICES
This method covers determination of the normal consistency of
hydraulic cement.
is method covers determination of the normal consistency of hydraulic
cement.
Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No
other units of measurement are included in this standard.
This test method is intended to be used to determine the amount
of water required to prepare hydraulic cement pastes with normal
consistency, as required for certain standard tests.
This test method covers the determination of the normal
consistency of hydraulic cement.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety
problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the
user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health
practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior
to use.
This practice is intended for use in the mechanical mixing of
pastes and mortars for the testing of hydraulic cements.
This practice covers the mechanical mixing of hydraulic cement
pastes and mortars of plastic consistency.
The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No
other units of measurement are included in this standard.
STALWART BUILDERS INCORPORATED

NAME: YEAR & SECTION :


IRAH MAE DERAFERA BSCE – 4B
GROUP NO.3 DATE SUBMITTED: SEPTEMBER 5, 2018
LABORATORY EXPERIMENT TITLE: NORMAL CONSISTENT OF
NO. 7 PORTLAND CEMENT

Discussion:
Concrete remains in its fresh state from the time it is mixed until it sets.
During this time the concrete is handled, transported, placed and compacted.
Properties of concrete in its fresh state are very important because the influence
the quality of the hardened concrete. Consistency of a concrete mix is a measure
of the stiffness or sloppiness or fluidity of the mix. For effective handling,
placing and compacting the concrete, consistency must be the same for each
batch. It is therefore necessary to measure consistency of concrete at regular
intervals. Slump test is commonly used to measure consistency of concrete. The
workability of a concrete mix is the relative ease with which concrete can be
placed, compacted and finished without separation or segregation of the
individual materials. Workability is not the same thing as consistency. Mixes
with the same consistency can have different work abilities, if they are made
with different sizes of stone – the smaller the stone the more workable the
concrete. It is not possible to measure workability but the slump test, together
with an assessment of properties like stone content, cohesiveness and plasticity,
gives a useful indication. Cement and aggregate particles have densities about
three times that of water. In fresh concrete they consequently tend to settle and
displace mixing water which migrates upward and may collect on the top surface
of the concrete. This upward movement of mixing water is known as bleeding;
water that separates from the rest of the concrete is called bleed water. If water is
removed from the compacted concrete before it sets, the volume of the concrete
is reduced by the amount of water removed. This volume reduction is called
plastic shrinkage. Water may be removed from the plastic concrete by
evaporation or by being absorbed by dry surfaces such as soil or old concrete or
by the dry wooden form work. From the time of mixing, fresh concrete gradually
loses consistency. This gives rise to the problems only if the concrete becomes
too stiff to handle, place and compact properly.
Consistent, one property of the fresh concrete is an important
consideration in the securing of workable concrete that can be properly
compacted in the forms. Workability is a relative term referring to the
comparative ease with which concrete can be placed on a given type of work.
The term consistency relates to the state of fluidity of the mix and embraces the
range of fluidity the mix and embraces the range of fluidity from the driest to the
wettest mixtures.
The most common tests to determine consistency:
1. Slump test – is made by measuring the subsidence of a pile of concrete 20mm
(12 in.) high, framed in the mold that has the shape of the frustum of a cone.
2. Ball penetration – is made by measuring the settlement of a 150 mm steel ball
(weighing 13.6 kg with its handle) into the surface of the concrete.
For convenience, various degrees of wetness of a mix may be roughly classified
as dry, stiff, medium, wet, or sloppy. Concrete is said to have medium or plastic
consistency when it is just wet enough to flow sluggishly- not so dry that is
crumbles or so wet that the water or paste runs from the mass.
The principal factors affecting consistency are:
1. The relative proportions of cement to aggregate 2. The water content with the
mix. 3. The size of the aggregate 4. The shape and the surface characteristics of
the aggregate particles. 5. The fineness and type of cement and the kind and
amount of admixture.
Objective:
To determine the normal consistency of Portland cement Vicat apparatus.
Referenced Documents:
ASTM C 187 -56
AASHTO T 129
Apparatus:
1. Balance, sensitive to 0.1 gm.
2. Vical apparatus
3. Spatula
4. Mixing pan
5. Graduated cylinder, capacity 50 ml to 200 ml
Temperature and Humidity:
1. The temperature of the air in vicinity of the mixing slab, the dry cement,
molds, and the base plates shall be maintained between 20°C- 27.5°C (68°C-
81.5°F). The temperature of the mixing water shall not vary from 23°C (73.4°F)
by more than plus or minus 1.7°C (3°F).
2. The relative humidity of the laboratory shall be not less than 50 percent.
Procedure:
1. Weigh accurately 300 gm of neat cement sample and place it on the mixing
pan.
2. Mix about 25% of clean water to the cement by means of spatula for about
one minute.
3. Mixed it thoroughly with hands for at least one minute.
4. The kneaded paste is formed into a ball and tossed six times from one hand to
the other, maintaining the hand about 6 inches apart.
5. The ball is pressed into a conical ring or conical mold completely filling the
ring with paste.
6. Sliced off the excess paste at the top of the ring by a single oblique stroke of a
sharp edge spatula or trowel and the top smoothed, if necessary, with a few light
touches of the toward or spatula. Care shall be taken not to compress the paste.
7. Center paste confined in the ring under the larger end of the rod.
8. The larger end of the rod is brought in contact with the surface of the paste
and tightened the screw.
9. Set the movable indicator to zero marks of the scale and tightened the screw.
10. The rod is then quickly released without any jerk and the penetration noted.
11. If the rod penetrates 33 to 35 mm the paste is said to be normal consistency
12. Trial paste shall be made with varying percentage of water until the normal
consistency is obtained. Each trial shall be made with fresh cement. The amount
of water is expressed as percentage by weight of dry cement usually 30%.
13. The time taken between adding of water to cement and filling of the ring or
mold should be between 3 to 5 minutes.
TEST RESULTS
DATA SHEET

Weight of Cylinder = 143.8 g


Weight of Cement sample = 300 g
Weight of water = 75 g
Weight of Cylinder with added water = 173 g
Initial Penetration = 31 mm
Final Penetration = 34 mm

COMPUTATION

Initial Water = 75 g
Weight of Cement Sample = 300 g
Initial Water/ Wt. of Cement sample = Water Content
75 / 300 x 100 = 25%
Initial Water Content = 25%
Wt. of Cylinder w/ added water = 173 g
Wt. of cylinder = 143.8 g
Wt. of cylinder w/ added water – wt. of cylinder = added water
Added Water / Wt. of Cement Sample = Added Water content
173 – 143.8 =29.2 g
29.2 / 300 x 100 = 9.73%
Added Water Content = 9.73%
Initial + Added = Final Water Content
75 + 29.2 = 104.2 g
25 + 9.73 = 34.73 %
RESULT
Initial Water content = 75 g
Added Water Content = 29.2
Final Water Content = 104.2
Total Percentage = 34.73%
Initial Penetration = 31 mm
Final Penetration = 34 mm

OBSERVATION

The students observed that in the first mixing of pan with 25%
of water the sample was a bit dry in order to obtain a normal
consistency we added water, after adding the water we mold it and
then test its penetration. At first try it didn’t go with its normal
penetration so we decided to mix it along with the excess sample and
after that we tested it and acquired the normal consistency of 34 mm.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION:


APPENDICES
This method covers determination of the normal consistency of
hydraulic cement.
is method covers determination of the normal consistency of hydraulic
cement.
Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No
other units of measurement are included in this standard.
This test method is intended to be used to determine the amount
of water required to prepare hydraulic cement pastes with normal
consistency, as required for certain standard tests.
This test method covers the determination of the normal
consistency of hydraulic cement.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety
problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the
user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health
practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior
to use.
This practice is intended for use in the mechanical mixing of
pastes and mortars for the testing of hydraulic cements.
This practice covers the mechanical mixing of hydraulic cement
pastes and mortars of plastic consistency.
The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No
other units of measurement are included in this standard.