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CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements 1-1

Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1 – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .......... 3  107.1 General ............................................................... 9 
107.2 Definitions .......................................................... 9 
SECTION 101 - TITLE, PURPOSE AND SCOPE ..... 3 
107.3 Inspection Program ........................................... 10 
101.1 Title..................................................................... 3  107.4 Structural Inspector .......................................... 10 
101.2 Purpose ............................................................... 3  107.4.1 Qualifications. ........................................... 10 
101.3 Scope .................................................................. 3  107.4.2 Duties and Responsibilities........................ 10 
101.4 Alternative Systems ............................................ 3  107.5 Types of Work for Inspection ........................... 10 
107.5.1 Concrete. .................................................... 10 
SECTION 102 - DEFINITIONS.................................... 3  107.5.2 Bolts Installed in Concrete......................... 10 
SECTION 103 - CLASSIFICATION OF BUILDINGS 107.5.3 Special Moment-Resisting Concrete Frames.
.......................................................................................... 4  ................................................................................ 10 
107.5.4 Reinforcing Steel and Prestressing Steel
103.1 Nature of Occupancy .......................................... 4  Tendons. ................................................................. 10 
SECTION 104 - DESIGN REQUIREMENTS ............. 5  107.5.4.1 General. .................................................. 10 
107.5.4.2 General. .................................................. 10 
104.1 Strength Requirement ......................................... 5  107.5.5 Structural Welding. .................................... 11 
104.2 Serviceability Requirement................................. 5  107.5.5.1 General. .................................................. 11 
104.2.1 General......................................................... 5  107.5.5.2 Special Moment-Resisting Steel Frames.11 
104.3 Analysis .............................................................. 5  107.5.5.3 Welding of Reinforcing Steel. ................ 11 
104.3.1 Stability Against Overturning. ..................... 6  107.5.6 High-strength Bolting. ............................... 11 
104.3.2 Self-Straining Forces. .................................. 6  107.5.7 Structural Masonry. ................................... 11 
104.3.3 Anchorage. ................................................... 6  107.5.7.1 General. .................................................. 11 
104.4 Foundation Investigation .................................... 6  107.5.7.2 General. .................................................. 11 
104.5 Design Review .................................................... 6  107.5.8 Reinforced Gypsum Concrete.................... 11 
104. 6 Erection of Structural Framing .......................... 6  107.5.9 Insulating Concrete Fill. ............................ 11 
SECTION 105 - POSTING AND 107.5.10 Spray-Applied Fire-Resistive Materials. . 12 
INSTRUMENTATION .................................................. 7  107.5.11 Piling, Drilled Piers and Caissons............ 12 
107.5.12 Shotcrete. ................................................. 12 
105.1 Posting of Live Loads ......................................... 7  107.5.13 Special Grading, Excavation and Filling. 12 
105.2 Earthquake Recording Instrumentation .............. 7  107.5.14 Special Cases. .......................................... 12 
105.2.1 General......................................................... 7  107.5.15 Non-Destructive Testing. ......................... 12 
105.2.2 Location. ...................................................... 7  107.6 Approved Fabricators ....................................... 12 
105.2.3 Maintenance. ................................................ 7  107.7 Prefabricated Construction ............................... 12 
105.2.4 Instrumentation of Selected Buildings. ........ 7  107.7.1 General. ..................................................... 12 
SECTION 106 - SPECIFICATIONS, DRAWINGS 107.7.1.1 Purpose. .................................................. 12 
AND CALCULATIONS ................................................ 7  107.7.1.2 Scope. ..................................................... 12 
107.7.1.3 Definition. ............................................... 12 
106.1 General ............................................................... 7  107.7.2 Tests of Materials. ..................................... 12 
106.2 Specifications...................................................... 7  107.7.3 Tests of Assemblies. .................................. 12 
106.3 Design Drawings ................................................ 7  107.7.4 Connections. .............................................. 13 
106.3.1 General......................................................... 7  107.7.5 Pipes and Conduits. ................................... 13 
106.3.2 Required Information. .................................. 7  107.7.6 Certificate and Inspection. ......................... 13 
106.3.2.1 General Information. ................................. 7  107.7.6.1 Materials. ................................................ 13 
106.3.2.2 Structural Concrete ................................... 8  107.7.6.2 Certificate. .............................................. 13 
106.3.2.3 Structural Steel.......................................... 8  107.7.6.3 Certifying Agency. ................................. 13 
106.4 Calculations ........................................................ 8  107.7.6.4 Field Erection. ........................................ 13 
106.4.1 General......................................................... 8  107.7.6.5 Continuous Inspection. ........................... 13 
106.4.2 Basis of Design Summary............................ 8  107.8 Non-destructive Testing ................................... 13 
106.4.3 Computer Programs. .................................... 8  107.8.1 General. ..................................................... 13 
106.4.4 Model Analysis. ........................................... 9  107.8.2 Testing Program. ....................................... 13 
106.5 As-built Drawings ........................................... 9  107.8.2.1 General. .................................................. 13 
SECTION 107 - STRUCTURAL INSPECTIONS, 107.8.2.2 General. .................................................. 14 
TESTS AND STRUCTURAL OBSERVATIONS ....... 9  107.8.2.3 General. .................................................. 14 

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107.8.3 Others. ...................................................... 14 


107.9 Structural Observation ..................................... 14 
107.9.1 General. ..................................................... 14 
107.9.2 Structural Observer. .................................. 14 
107.9.3 Construction Stages for Observations. ...... 14 
SECTION 108 – EXISTING STRUCTURES ........... 14 
108.1 General ............................................................. 14 
108.2 Maintenance .................................................... 14 
108.3 Additions, Alterations or Repairs ..................... 14 
108.3.1 General. ..................................................... 14 
108.3.2 When Allowed by the Building Official. .. 14 
108.3.3 Nonstructural............................................. 15 
108.3.4 Historic Buildings. .................................... 15 
108.4 Change in Use .................................................. 15 
SECTION 109 - GRADING AND EARTHWORK 15 
109.1 General ............................................................. 15 
109.1.1 Scope. ........................................................ 15 
109.2 Definitions ....................................................... 15 
109.3 Permits Required ............................................. 16 
109.3.1 Permits Required. ...................................... 16 
109.3.2 Exempted Work. ....................................... 16 
109.4 Hazards ............................................................ 17 
109.5 Grading Permit Requirements .......................... 17 
109.5.1 General. ..................................................... 17 
109.5.2 Grading Designation. ................................ 17 
109.5.3 Engineered Grading Requirements. .......... 17 
109.5.4 Geotechnical Engineering Report. ............ 18 
109.5.5 Engineering Geology Report..................... 18 
109.5.6 Regular Grading Requirements. ................ 18 
109.6 Grading Inspection ........................................... 18 
109.6.1 General. ..................................................... 18 
109.6.2 Civil Engineer. .......................................... 18 
109.6.3 Geotechnical Engineer. ............................. 18 
109.6.4 Engineering Geologist............................... 18 
109.6.5 Permittee. .................................................. 19 
109.6.6 Building Official. ...................................... 19 
109.6.7 Notification of Noncompliance. ................ 19 
109.6.8 Transfer of Responsibility. ........................ 19 
109.7 Completion of Work ........................................ 19 
109.7.1 Final Reports. ............................................ 19 
109.7.2 Notification of Completion. ...................... 19 

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CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements 1-3

CHAPTER 1 – GENERAL and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall


be applicable. Wherever in this code reference is made to
REQUIREMENTS an appendix, the provisions in the appendix shall not
apply unless specifically adopted.
SECTION 101 - TITLE, PURPOSE
101.4 Alternative Systems
AND SCOPE
The provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the
use of any material, alternate design or method of
101.1 Title construction not specifically prescribed by this code,
These regulations shall be known as the National provided any alternate has been permitted and its use
Structural Code of the Philippines 6th Edition 2010, authorized by the building official.
may be cited as such and will be referred to herein as “this
code." Sponsors of any system of design or construction within
the scope of this code, the adequacy of which had been
shown by successful use and by analysis and test, but
101.2 Purpose which does not conform to or is not covered by this code,
The purpose of this code is to provide minimum load shall have the right to present the data on which their
requirements for the design of buildings and other design is based to the building official or to a board of
structures and minimum standards and guidelines to examiners appointed by the building official. This board
safeguard life or limb, property and public welfare by shall be composed of competent structural engineers and
regulating and controlling the design, construction, shall have authority to investigate the data so submitted,
quality of materials pertaining to the structural aspects of to require tests, and to formulate rules governing design
all buildings and structures within this jurisdiction. and construction of such systems to meet the intent of this
code. These rules, when approved and promulgated by
the building official, shall be of the same force and effect
101.3 Scope
as the provisions of this code.
The provisions of this code shall apply to the
construction, alteration, moving, demolition, repair,
maintenance and use of any building or structure within SECTION 102 - DEFINITIONS
this jurisdiction, except transmission towers and poles,
hydraulic flood control structures, and indigeneous family For the purpose of this code, certain terms, phrases, words
dwellings. and their derivatives shall be construed as specified in this
chapter and elsewhere in this code where specific
Special structures such as but not limited to storage silos definitions are provided. Terms, phrases and words used
and liquid product tanks should be referred to special in the singular include the plural and vice versa. Terms,
state of practice literature but shall refer to provisions of phrases and words used in the masculine gender include
this code as a minimum wherever applicable. the feminine and vice versa.

Following are the different volumes of this code: The following terms are defined for use in this chapter:

Volume I - Buildings, Towers and Other Vertical ADDITION is an extension or increase in floor area or
Structures height of a building or structure.
Volume II - Bridges
Volume III - Housing ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN is a method of
Volume IV - Railways proportioning structural members such that elastically
Volume V - Ports and Harbors computed stresses produced in the members by nominal
loads do not exceed specified allowable stresses (also
For additions, alterations, maintenance, and change in use called WORKING STRESS DESIGN).
of buildings and structures, see Section 108.
ALTER or ALTERATION is any change, addition or
Where, in any specific case, different sections of this code modification in construction or occupancy.
specify different materials, methods of construction or
other requirements, the most restrictive provisions shall APPROVED as to materials and types of construction,
govern except in the case of single family dwellings. refers to approval by the building official as the result of
Where there is a conflict between a general requirement
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investigation and tests conducted by the building official,


or by reason of accepted principles or tests by recognized
authorities, technical or scientific organizations. SECTION 103 - CLASSIFICATION
OF BUILDINGS
AUTHORITY HAVING JURISDICTION is the
organization, political subdivision, office or individual
charged with the responsibility of administering and 103.1 Nature of Occupancy
enforcing the provisions of this code. Buildings and other structures shall be classified, based
on the nature of occupancy, according to Table 103-1 for
BUILDING is any structure usually enclosed by walls purposes of applying wind and earthquake in Chapter 2.
and a roof, constructed to provide support or shelter for an Each building or other structures shall be assigned to the
intended use or occupancy. highest applicable occupancy category or categories.
Assignment of the same structure to multiple occupancy
BUILDING, EXISTING, is a building erected prior to categories based on use and the type of loading condition
the adoption of this code, or one for which a legal being evaluated (e.g. wind or seismic) shall be
building permit has been issued. permissible.

BUILDING OFFICIAL is the officer or other When buildings or other structures have multiple uses
designated authority charged with the administration and (occupancies), the relationship between the uses of
enforcement of this code, or the building official's duly various parts of the building or other structure and the
authorized representative. independence of the structural system for those various
parts shall be examined. The classification for each
LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN independent structural system of a multiple-use building
(LRFD) METHOD is a method of proportioning or other structure shall be that of the highest usage group
structural elements using load and resistance factors such in any part of the building or other structure that is
that no applicable limit state is reached when the structure dependent on that basic structural system.
is subjected to all appropriate load combinations. The
term "LRFD" is used in the design of steel Table 103-1 - Occupancy Category
OCCUPANCY is the purpose for which a building or
other structures or part thereof, is used or intended to be OCCUPANCY OCCUPANCY OR FUNCTION OF
used. CATEGORY STRUCTURE
Occupancies having surgery and emergency
STRENGTH DESIGN is a method of proportioning treatment areas,
structural members such that the computed forces Fire and police stations,
produced in the members by the factored load do not Garages and shelters for emergency
exceed the member design strength. vehicles and emergency aircraft,
Structures and shelters in
STRUCTURE is that which is built or constructed, an
emergency preparedness centers,
edifice or building of any kind, or any piece of work
artificially built up or composed of parts joined together Aviation control towers,
in some definite manner. Structures and equipment in
I Essential communication centers and other
STRUCTURAL ENGINEER is a registered Civil Facilities facilities required for emergency
response,
Engineer with special qualification in the practice of
Structural Engineering as recognized by the Board of Standby power-generating equipment for
Category I facilities,
Civil Engineering of the Professional Regulation
Commission as endorsed by the Philippine Institute of Tanks or other structures containing
Civil Engineers through the Association of Structural housing or supporting water or other
fire-suppression material or equipment
Engineers of the Philippines, or Specialist Members of
required for the protection of Category I,
the Structural Engineering Specialty Division of the II or III structures.
Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers.
School buildings of more than one storey.
Hospitals and designated evacuation centers

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CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements 1-5

Table 103-1 (continued) - Occupancy Category


OCCUPANCY OCCUPANCY OR FUNCTION OF SECTION 104 - DESIGN
CATEGORY STRUCTURE REQUIREMENTS
Occupancies and structures therein housing
or supporting toxic or explosive
104.1 Strength Requirement
II Hazardous chemicals or substances,
Facilities Non-building structures storing, supporting
Buildings and other structures and all portions thereof
or containing quantities of toxic or shall be designed and constructed to sustain, within the
explosive substances. limitations specified in this code, all loads set forth in
Chapter 2 and elsewhere in this code, combined in
Single storey school buildings accordance with Section 203.
Buildings with an assembly room with an
occupant capacity of 1,000 or more, Design shall be in accordance with Strength Design, Load
Educational buildings such as museums and Resistance Factor Design, or Allowable Stress Design
libraries, auditorium etc with a capacity methods, as permitted by the applicable materials
of 300 or more students, chapters.
III Special
Occupancy Buildings used for college or adult
Structures education with a capacity of 500 or Exception:
more students,
Unless otherwise required by the building official,
Institutional buildings with 50 or more buildings or portions thereof that are constructed in
incapacitated patients, but not included accordance with the conventional light-framing
in Category I,
requirements specified in Chapter 6 and the NSCP
Mental hospitals, sanitariums, jails, prison Volume III on Housing shall be deemed to meet the
and other buildings where personal liberties
requirements of this section.
of inmates are similarly restrained,
All structures with an occupancy 5,000 or
more persons, 104.2 Serviceability Requirement
Structures and equipment in power-
generating stations, and other public
utility facilities not included in Category 104.2.1 General.
I or Category II above, and required for Structural systems and members thereof shall be designed
continued operation. to have adequate stiffness to limit deflections, lateral
IV Standard All structures housing occupancies or drifts, vibration, or any other deformations that adversely
Occupancy having functions not listed in Category affect the intended use and performance of buildings and
Structures I, II or III above and Category V below. other structures. The design shall also consider durability,
resistance to exposure to weather or aggressive
V Miscellaneous Private garages, carports, shed, , and fences environment, crack control, and other conditions that
Structures over 1.8 meters high.
affect the intended use and performance of buildings,
towers and other vertical structures.

104.3 Analysis
Any system or method of construction to be used shall be
based on a rational analysis in accordance with well-
established principles of mechanics that take into account
equilibrium, general stability, geometric compatibility and
both short- and long-term material properties. Members
that tend to accumulate residual deformations under
repeated service loads shall have included in their analysis
the added eccentricities expected to occur during their
service life. Such analysis shall result in a system that
provides a complete load path capable of transferring all
loads and forces from their point of origin to the load-
resisting elements. The analysis shall include, but not be

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limited to, the provisions of Sections 104.3.1 through Detailed requirements for foundation investigations shall
104.3.3. be in accordance with Section 303 of this code.

104.3.1 Stability Against Overturning. 104.5 Design Review


Every structure shall be designed to resist the overturning
effects caused by the lateral forces specified. See Section The design calculations, drawings, specifications, and
206.6 for retaining walls, Section 207 for wind loading other design related documents for buildings, towers and
and Section 208 for earthquake loading. other vertical structures with irregular configuration in
Occupancy Categories I, II or III within Seismic Zone 4
shall be subject to a review by an independent recognized
104.3.2 Self-Straining Forces. structural engineer to be employed by the owner. The
Provisions shall be made for anticipated self-straining structural engineer performing the review shall have
forces arising from differential settlement of foundations comparable qualifications and experience as the structural
and from restrained dimensional changes due to engineer responsible for the design. The reviewer shall
temperature, moisture, shrinkage, heave, creep and similar obtain a professional waiver from the engineer-of-record
effects. who shall be expected to grant such waiver in keeping
with ethical standards of the profession, as adopted in the
104.3.3 Anchorage. ASEP Guidelines for Peer Review.
Anchorage of the roof to walls and columns, and of walls The design review shall, as a minimum, verify the general
and columns to foundations shall be provided and compliance with this code which shall include, but not be
adequately detailed to resist the uplift and sliding forces limited to, the review of the design load criteria, the
that result from the application of the prescribed forces. design concept, mathematical model and techniques.
Concrete and masonry walls shall be anchored to all The following may also be verified, that there are no
floors, roofs and other structural elements that provide major errors in pertinent calculations, drawings and
lateral support for the wall. Such anchorage shall provide specifications and may also ensure that the structure as
a positive direct connection capable of resisting the reviewed, meet minimum standards for safety, adequacy
horizontal forces specified in Chapter 2 but not less than and acceptable standard design practice.
the minimum forces in Section 206.4. In addition, in
Seismic Zone 4, diaphragm to wall anchorage using
The engineer-of-record shall submit the plans and
embedded straps shall have the straps attached to or specifications, a signed and sealed statement by the
hooked around the reinforcing steel or otherwise structural engineer doing the review that the above review
terminated so as to effectively transfer forces to the
has been performed and that minimum standards have
reinforcing steel. Walls shall be designed to resist bending been met.
between anchors where the anchor spacing exceeds 1.2
meters. Required anchors in masonry walls of hollow
See Section 208.6.6.3.2 for design review requirements
units or cavity walls shall be embedded in a reinforced
when nonlinear time-history analysis is used for
grouted structural element of the wall. See Sections 208.7,
earthquake design.
208.8.2.7 and 208.8.2.8 for earthquake design
requirements. Stiffener beams and columns adequately
The design review shall not in any way transfer or
anchord to the main frames, shall be considered as
diminish the responsibility of the engineer-of-record.
necessary to ensure proper basket effect on the masonry
blocks to prevent collapse provided its contribution to the
overall stiffness of the structure is recognized.

104.4 Foundation Investigation 104. 6 Erection of Structural Framing


Soil explorations shall be required for buildings, towers Walls and structural framing shall be erected true and
and other vertical structures, falling under Categories I, II plumb in accordance with the design.
and III in accordance with Table 103-1 or as required by
the building official or if the site- specific conditions
make the foundation investigation necessary.

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CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements 1-7

instruments. Data shall be the property of the authorities


having jurisdiction, but copies of individual records shall
SECTION 105 - POSTING AND be made available to the owner of the building and to the
INSTRUMENTATION public on request and after the payment of an appropriate
fee.

105.1 Posting of Live Loads


The live loads for which each floor or portion thereof of a SECTION 106 - SPECIFICATIONS,
commercial or industrial building has been designed shall DRAWINGS AND CALCULATIONS
have such design live loads conspicuously posted by the
owner in that part of each story in which they apply, using
durable metal signs. It shall be unlawful to remove or 106.1 General
deface such notices. The occupant of the building shall be Copies of design calculations, reports, plans,
responsible for keeping the actual load below the specifications and inspection program for all
allowable limits. constructions shall bear signature and seal of the
engineer-of-record.
105.2 Earthquake Recording Instrumentation
106.2 Specifications
105.2.1 General. The specifications shall contain information covering the
material and construction requirements. The materials and
Unless waived by the building official, every building in construction requirements shall conform to the
Seismic Zone 4 over thirty (30) storeys in height shall be
specifications referred to in Chapters 3 to 7 of this code.
provided with not less than three approved recording
accelerographs. The accelerographs shall be
interconnected for common start and common timing. 106.3 Design Drawings

105.2.2 Location. 106.3.1 General.


The instruments shall be located in the basement, The design drawings shall be drawn to scale upon
midportion, and near the top of the building. Each substantial paper or cloth and shall be of sufficient clarity
instrument shall be located so that access is maintained at to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work
all times and is unobstructed by room contents. A sign proposed. The drawings shall show a complete design
stating “MAINTAIN CLEAR ACCESS TO THIS with sizes, sections, relative locations and connection
INSTRUMENT” shall be posted in a conspicuous details of the various members. Floor levels, column
location. centers and offsets shall be dimensioned. Where available
and feasible, archive copies shall be maintained in durable
medium such as compact disc (CD) and digital versatile
105.2.3 Maintenance. disc (DVD).
Maintenance and service of the instruments shall be
provided by the owner of the building, subject to the
monitoring of the building official. Data produced by the 106.3.2 Required Information.
instruments shall be made available to the building The design drawings shall contain, but not be limited to,
official or the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and the general information listed in Section 106.3.2.1 and
Seismology on request. material specific information listed in Sections 106.3.2.2
and 106.3.2.3, as applicable.
105.2.4 Instrumentation of Selected Buildings.
All owners of existing structures selected by the 106.3.2.1 General Information.
authorities having jurisdiction shall provide accessible 1. Name and date of issue of building code and
space for the installation of appropriate earthquake- supplements, if any, to which the design conforms.
recording instruments. Location of said instruments shall
be determined by the authorities having jurisdiction. 2. Strengths or designations of materials to be used.
3. Design strengths of underlying soil or rock. The soil
The authorities having jurisdiction shall make or rock profile, when available, shall be provided.
arrangements to provide, maintain and service the

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4. Live loads and other loads used in design and clearly 5. Description or explanation of welding and inspection
indicated in the floor plans. symbols used on the design and shop drawings.
5. Seismic design basis including the total base shear 6. Notes for joints in which welding sequence and
coefficient; a description of the lateral load resisting technique of welding are required to be carefully
system; and the fundamental natural period in the controlled to minimize distortion.
design in each direction under consideration.
6. Provisions for dimensional changes resulting from 106.4 Calculations
creep, shrinkage, heave and temperature.
7. Camber of trusses, beams and girders, if required. 106.4.1 General.
8. Explanation or definition of symbols and Calculations pertinent to the structural design of
abbreviations used in the drawings. structures and its component members shall be filed with
the design drawings.
9. Engineer's professional license number and
expiration date of the current Professional Regulation
Commission registration. 106.4.2 Basis of Design Summary.
The calculations shall include a summary of the criteria
and methodologies used in the design. This summary
106.3.2.2 Structural Concrete
shall include, but need not be limited to, the following:
1. Specified compressive strength of concrete at stated
ages or stages of construction for which each part of 1. Name and date of issue of building code and
structure is designed. The 28-day compressive supplements, if any, to which the design conforms.
strength shall be the basis of design in service. 2. Strengths or designations of materials to be used for
2. Anchorage embedment lengths or cutoff points of each component of the structure.
steel reinforcement; and location and length of lap 3. Design strengths and other design parameters of the
splices. underlying soil or rock.
3. Type and location of welded splices and mechanical 4. Live loads and other loads used in design.
connections of reinforcement.
5. The basis of the seismic and wind design forces.
4. Magnitude and location of prestressing forces.
6. A description of the structure's gravity and lateral
5. Minimum concrete compressive strength at time of load resisting systems. A description of the roof,
post-tensioning. floor, foundation and other component systems shall
also be provided.
6. Stressing sequence for post-tensioned tendons.
7. Details and location of all contraction or isolation 7. A description procedures used in the structural
joints specified for plain concrete in Section 422. analysis. This shall include the section and material
properties used, loading combinations considered,
8. Statement if concrete slab is designed as a structural second-order effects considerations, and any
diaphragm, as specified in Section 421.8.3 and simplifying assumptions made.
421.8.4.
106.4.3 Computer Programs.
106.3.2.3 Structural Steel Calculations may include the results from an electronic
1. Type or types of construction as defined in Section digital computer analysis. The following requirements
501.2.2. apply to calculations which include such computer output.
2. Loads and design requirements necessary for 1. A drawing of the complete mathematical model used
preparation of shop drawings including shears, to represent the structure in the computer-generated
moments, and axial forces to be resisted by all analysis shall be provided. Design assumptions shall
members and their connections. be clearly described.
3. The type of connection for joints using high-strength 2. A program description giving the program name, the
bolts. version number, and the company which developed
the program and its address shall be provided as part
4. Stiffener and bracing requirements. of the computation documentation. A program User's

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CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements 1-9

Guide shall also be made available, upon request, and


shall contain the information to determine the nature
and extent of the analysis, verify the input data, SECTION 107 - STRUCTURAL
interpret the result, and determine whether the INSPECTIONS, TESTS AND
computations comply with the requirements of this
code. STRUCTURAL OBSERVATIONS
3. Data provided, as computer input shall be clearly
distinguished from those computed in the program. 107.1 General
The information required in the output shall include All construction or work for which a permit is required
date of processing, program identification, and shall be subject to inspection throughout the various work
identification of structures being analyzed, all input stages. One or more structural inspectors who are
data, units and final results. An archived copy of all registered civil engineers with experience in structural
computer runs shall be stored in CD or DVD. construction, who shall undertake competent inspection
during construction on the types of work listed under
4. The first sheet of each computer run shall be signed
Section 107.5, shall be employed by the owner or the
of the engineer-of-record.
engineer-of- record acting as the owner's agent.
Exception:
106.4.4 Model Analysis.
Results from model analysis and experimental studies The building official may waive the requirement for the
shall be permitted to supplement calculations. The results employment of a structural inspector if the construction is
shall be accompanied by a description of the rational of a minor nature.
basis, set-up, methodology and other information required
for the evaluation of the results. In addition to structural inspections, structural
observations shall be performed when required by Section
107.9.
106.5 As-built Drawings
As-built drawings shall be prepared by the permit holder
107.2 Definitions
or a person retained to provide such services to document
the work as actually constructed. The as-built drawings The following terms are defined for use in this section:
shall be drawn to scale upon substantial paper or cloth and
shall indicate the sizes, sections, relative locations, and CONTINUOUS STRUCTURAL INSPECTION is a
connection details of the various structural members as structural inspection where the structural inspector is on
actually constructed. Strengths of materials, based on the site at all times observing the work requiring
required tests, shall also be indicated. structural inspection.

Work items which requires modifications of or are PERIODIC STRUCTURAL INSPECTION is a


otherwise different from those shown in the design structural inspection where the inspections are made on a
drawings filed with the building official shall be periodic basis and satisfy the requirements of continuous
accordingly marked in the as-built drawings and provided inspection, provided this periodic scheduled inspection is
with notes indicating the basis of such modifications or performed as outlined in the inspection program prepared
changes. The basis of modification or change shall by the structural engineer.
include reference to supplemental design drawings,
construction bulletins, or instructions from the owner, STRUCTURAL INSPECTION is the visual observation
owner's representative or structural engineer authorizing by a structural engineer of a particular type of
such modifications or changes. construction work or operation for the purpose of
ensuring its general compliance to the approved plans and
The signature, seal, name and professional license number specifications and the applicable workmanship provisions
of the structural inspector shall be included in the as-built of this code as well as overall construction safety at
drawings. various stages of construction.

Copies of the as-built drawings shall be provided to the STRUCTURAL OBSERVATION is the visual
owner, constructor, engineer-of-record and the building observation of the structural system by the structural
official. engineer responsible for the design (see Section 107.9.2),
for its general conformance to the approved plans and
specifications, at significant construction stages and at

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
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completion of the structural system. Structural 107.5 Types of Work for Inspection
observation does not include or waive the responsibility Except as provided in Section 107.1, the types of work
for the structural inspections required by section 107.1 or listed below shall be inspected by a structural inspector.
other sections of this code.

107.5.1 Concrete.
107.3 Inspection Program
During the taking of test specimens and placing of
The structural engineer-of-record shall prepare an reinforced concrete. See Section 107.5.12 for shotcrete.
appropriate testing and inspection program that shall be
submitted to the building official. The inspection Exceptions:
program shall designate the portions of the work that 1. Concrete for foundations of residential buildings
require structural inspections and indicate the duties of the accommodating 10 or fewer persons, or buildings
structural inspectors. falling under Category V of Table 103-1, provided
the building official finds that a structural hazard
When structural observation is required by Section 107.9, does not exist.
the inspection program shall describe the stages of
construction at which structural observation is to occur. 2. For foundation concrete, other than cast-in-place
drilled piles or caissons, where the structural design
The inspection program shall include samples of is based on an f’c not greater than 17 MPa.
inspection reports and provide time limits for submission 3. Non-structural slabs on grade, including prestressed
of reports. slabs on grade when effective prestress in concrete is
less than 1.0 MPa.
107.4 Structural Inspector 4. Site work concrete fully supported on earth and
concrete where no special hazard exists.
107.4.1 Qualifications.
The structural inspector shall be a registered civil 107.5.2 Bolts Installed in Concrete.
engineer or a qualified person under the supervision of a Prior to and during the placement of concrete around bolts
registered civil engineer who shall demonstrate when stress increases permitted by Footnote 5 of Section
competence, to the satisfaction of the structural engineer, 423 are utilized.
for inspection of the particular type of construction or
operation requiring structural inspection.
107.5.3 Special Moment-Resisting Concrete Frames.
For moment frames resisting design seismic load in
107.4.2 Duties and Responsibilities. structures within Seismic Zone 4, the structural inspector
The structural inspector shall observe the work assigned shall provide reports to the engineer-of-record and shall
for conformance to the approved design drawings and provide continuous inspection of the placement of the
specifications. reinforcement and concrete.

The structural inspector shall also verify that the as-built


107.5.4 Reinforcing Steel and Prestressing Steel
drawings (see Section 106.5) pertaining to the work
Tendons.
assigned reflect the condition as constructed.
The structural inspector shall furnish inspection reports to
the building official, the structural engineer, and other 107.5.4.1 General.
designated persons. All discrepancies shall be brought to During all stressing and grouting of tendons in prestressed
the immediate attention of the contractor for correction, concrete.
then, if uncorrected, to the proper design authority and to
the building official.
107.5.4.2 General.
The structural inspector shall submit a final report duly During placing of reinforcing steel and prestressing
signed and sealed stating whether the work requiring tendons for all concrete required to have structural
structural inspection was, to the best of the inspector's inspection by Section 107.5.1.
knowledge, in conformance to the approved plans and
specifications and the applicable workmanship provisions
of this code.

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CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements 1-11

recognized standards and the requirements of this section.


Exception:
While the work is in progress, the structural inspector
The structural inspector need not be present continuously shall determine that the requirements for bolts, nuts,
during placing of reinforcing steel and prestressing washers and paint; bolted parts; and installation and
tendons, provided the structural inspector has inspected tightening in such standards are met. Such inspections
for conformance to the approved plans prior to the may be performed on a periodic basis as defined in
closing of forms or the delivery of concrete to the jobsite. Section 107.2. The structural inspector shall observe the
calibration procedures when such procedures are required
by the plans or specifications and shall monitor the
107.5.5 Structural Welding. installation of bolts to determine that all plies of
connected materials have been drawn together and that
107.5.5.1 General. the selected procedure is properly used to tighten all bolts.
During the welding of any member or connection that is
designed to resist loads and forces required by this code. 107.5.7 Structural Masonry.
Exceptions:
1. Welding done in an approved fabricator's shop in 107.5.7.1 General.
accordance with Section 107.6. For masonry, other than fully grouted open-end hollow-
unit masonry, during preparation and taking of any
2. The structural inspector need not be continuously required prisms or test specimens, placing of all masonry
present during welding of the following items, units, placement of reinforcement, inspection of grout
provided the materials, qualifications of welding space, immediately prior to closing of cleanouts, and
procedures and welders are verified prior to the start during all grouting operations.
of work; periodic inspections are made of work in
progress; and a visual inspection of all welds is made Exception:
prior to completion or prior to shipment of shop
For hollow-unit masonry where the fm is no more than 10
welding: MPa for concrete units or 18 MPa for clay units,
a) Single-pass fillet welds not exceeding 8 mm structural inspection may be performed as required for
in size. fully grouted open-end hollow-unit masonry specified in
Section 107.5.7.2.
b) Floor and roof deck welding.
c) Welded studs when used for structural
107.5.7.2 General.
diaphragm or composite systems.
For fully grouted open-end hollow-unit masonry during
d) Welded sheet steel for cold-formed steel preparation and taking of any required prisms or test
framing members such as studs and joists. specimens, at the start of laying units, after the placement
e) Welding of stairs and railing systems. of reinforcing steel, grout space prior to each grouting
operation, and during all grouting operations.

107.5.5.2 Special Moment-Resisting Steel Frames. Exception:


During the non-destructive testing (NDT) of welds Structural inspection as required in Sections 107.5.7.1
specified in Section 107.8 of this code. The use of and 107.5.7.2 need not be provided when design stresses
certified welders shall be required for welding structural have been adjusted as specified in Chapter 7 to permit
steel connections for this type of frame. Critical joint noncontinuous inspection.
connections shall be subjected to non-destructive testing
using certified NDT technicians.
107.5.8 Reinforced Gypsum Concrete.
When cast-in-place Class B gypsum concrete is being
107.5.5.3 Welding of Reinforcing Steel. mixed and placed.
During the non-destructive testing of welds.
107.5.9 Insulating Concrete Fill.
107.5.6 High-strength Bolting. During the application of insulating concrete fill when
The inspection of high-strength A325 and A490 bolts used as part of a structural system.
shall be in accordance with approved nationally

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
1-12 CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements

Exception: performed in accordance with the approved plans and


specifications to the building official and to the engineer
The structural inspections may be limited to an initial
or architect of record. The approved fabricator's
inspection to check the deck surface and placement of
qualifications shall be contingent on compliance with the
reinforcing steel. The structural inspector shall monitor
following:
the preparation of compression test specimens during this
initial inspection. 1. The fabricator has developed and submitted a
detailed fabrication procedural manual reflecting key
quality control procedures that will provide a basis
107.5.10 Spray-Applied Fire-Resistive Materials. for inspection control of workmanship and the
During the application of spray-applied fire-resistive fabricator plant.
materials..
2. Verification of the fabricator's quality control
capabilities, plant and personnel as outlined in the
107.5.11 Piling, Drilled Piers and Caissons. fabrication procedural manual shall be by an
During driving and load testing of piles and construction approved inspection or quality control agency.
of cast-in-place drilled piles or caissons. See Sections 3. Periodic plant inspections shall be conducted by an
107.5.1 and 107.5.4 for concrete and reinforcing steel approved inspection or quality control agency to
inspection. monitor the effectiveness of the quality control
program.
107.5.12 Shotcrete.
During the taking of test specimens and placing of all 107.7 Prefabricated Construction
shotcrete.
Exception: 107.7.1 General.
Shotcrete work fully supported on earth, minor repairs
and when, in the opinion of the building official, no 107.7.1.1 Purpose.
special hazard exists.
The purpose of this section is to regulate materials and
establish methods of safe construction where any
107.5.13 Special Grading, Excavation and Filling. structure or portion thereof is wholly or partially
During earthwork excavations, grading and filling prefabricated.
operations inspection to satisfy requirements of Chapter 3
and Section 109.5. 107.7.1.2 Scope.
Unless otherwise specifically stated in this section, all
107.5.14 Special Cases. prefabricated construction and all materials used therein
Work that, in the opinion of the structural engineer, shall conform to all the requirements of Section 101.4.
involves unusual hazards or conditions.
107.7.1.3 Definition.
107.5.15 Non-Destructive Testing.
PREFABRICATED ASSEMBLY is a structural unit,
In-situ non-destructive testing program, in addition to the the integral parts of which have been built up or
requirements of Section 107.8 that in the opinion of the assembled prior to incorporation in the building.
structural engineer may supplement or replace
conventional tests on concrete or other materials and
assemblies. 107.7.2 Tests of Materials.
Every approval of a material not specifically mentioned in
107.6 Approved Fabricators this code shall incorporate as a proviso the kind and
number of tests to be made during prefabrication.
Structural inspections required by this section and
elsewhere in this code are not required where the work is
done on the premises of a fabricator approved by the 107.7.3 Tests of Assemblies.
structural engineer to perform such work without The building official may require special tests to be made
structural inspection. The approved fabricator shall on assemblies to determine their structural adequacy,
submit a certificate of compliance that the work was durability and weather resistance.

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CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements 1-13

107.7.4 Connections. 107.8 Non-destructive Testing


Every device used to connect prefabricated assemblies
shall be designed as required by this code and shall be 107.8.1 General.
capable of developing the strength of the largest member
connected, except in the case of members forming part of In Seismic Zone 4, welded, fully restrained connections
a structural frame designed as specified in Chapter 2. between the primary members of ordinary moment frames
Connections shall be capable of withstanding uplift forces and special moment-resisting frames shall be tested by
nondestructive methods performed by certified NDT
as specified in Chapter 2.
technicians for compliance with approved standards and
job specifications. This testing shall be a part of the
107.7.5 Pipes and Conduits. structural inspection requirements of Section 107.5. A
In structural design, due allowance shall be made for any program for this testing shall be established by the person
material to be removed for the installation of pipes, responsible for structural design and as shown on plans
conduits or other equipment. and specifications.

107.7.6 Certificate and Inspection. 107.8.2 Testing Program.


As a minimum, the testing program shall include the
following:
107.7.6.1 Materials.
Materials and the assembly thereof shall be inspected to
determine compliance with this code. Every material shall 107.8.2.1 General.
be graded, marked or labeled where required elsewhere in All complete penetration groove welds contained in joints
this code. and splices shall be tested 100 percent either by ultrasonic
testing or by radiography.
107.7.6.2 Certificate. Exceptions:
A certificate of acceptance shall be furnished with every 1. When approved, the nondestructive testing rate for
prefabricated assembly, except where the assembly is an individual welder or welding operator may be
readily accessible to inspection at the site. The certificate reduced to 25 percent, provided the reject rate is
of acceptance shall certify that the assembly in question demonstrated to be 5 percent or less of the welds
has been inspected and meets all the requirements of this tested for the welder or welding operator. A sampling
code. of at least 40 completed welds for a job shall be made
for such reduction evaluation. Reject rate is defined
107.7.6.3 Certifying Agency. as the number of welds containing rejectable defects
divided by the number of welds completed. For
To be acceptable under this code, every certificate of evaluating the reject rate of continuous welds over
approval shall be made by a recognized certifying body or 900 mm in length where the effective throat thickness
agency. is 25 mm or less, each 300 mm increment or fraction
thereof shall be considered as one weld. For
107.7.6.4 Field Erection. evaluating the reject rate on continuous welds over
900 mm in length where the effective throat thickness
Placement of prefabricated assemblies at the building site
shall be inspected to determine compliance with this code. is greater than 25 mm, each 150 mm of length or
fraction thereof shall be considered one weld.
2. For complete penetration groove welds on materials
107.7.6.5 Continuous Inspection.
less than 8-mm thick, nondestructive testing is not
If continuous inspection is required for certain materials required; for this welding, continuous inspection is
where construction takes place on the site, it shall also be required.
required where the same materials are used in
prefabricated construction. 3. When approved by the building official and outlined
in the project plans and specifications, this
Exception: nondestructive ultrasonic testing may be performed
Continuous inspection will not be required during in the shop of an approved fabricator utilizing
prefabrication if the approved agency certifies to the qualified test techniques in the employment of the
construction and furnishes evidence of compliance. fabricator.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
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107.8.2.2 General. identifying any reported deficiencies that, to the best of


Partial penetration groove welds when used in column the structural observer's knowledge, have not been
splices shall be tested either by ultrasonic testing or resolved.
radiography when required by the plans and
specifications. For partial penetration groove welds when 107.9.3 Construction Stages for Observations.
used in column splices, with an effective throat less than
20 mm thick, nondestructive testing is not required; for The structural observations shall be performed at the
construction stages prescribed by the inspection program
this welding, continuous structural inspection is required.
prepared as required by Section 107.3.

107.8.2.3 General. It shall be the duty of the person doing the work
Base metal thicker than 40 mm, when subjected to authorized by the permit to notify the structural observer
through-thickness weld shrinkage strains, shall be that the described construction stages have been reached,
ultrasonically inspected for discontinuities directly behind and to provide access to and means for observing the
such welds after joint completion. components of the structural system.

Any material discontinuities shall be accepted or rejected


on the basis of the defect rating in accordance with the SECTION 108 – EXISTING
(larger reflector) criteria of approved national standards. STRUCTURES

107.8.3 Others. 108.1 General


The structural engineer may accept or require in place Buildings in existence at the time of the adoption of this
non-destructive testing of concrete or other materials and code may have their existing use or occupancy continued,
assemblies to supplement or replace conventional tests. if such use or occupancy was legal at the time of the
adoption of this code, provided such continued use is not
dangerous to life.
107.9 Structural Observation
Any change in the use or occupancy of any existing
107.9.1 General. building or structure shall comply with the provisions of
Structural observation shall be provided in Seismic Zone Sections 108.4 of this code.
4 when one of the following conditions exists:
1. The structure is defined in Table 103-1 as Occupancy 108.2 Maintenance
Category I, II or III; All buildings and structures, both existing and new, and
all parts thereof, shall be maintained in a safe condition.
2. The structure is in Seismic Zone 4, Na as set forth in
The owner or the owner's designated agent shall be
Table 208-4 is greater than 1.0, and a lateral design is
responsible for the maintenance of buildings and
required for the entire structure;
structures. To determine compliance with this subsection,
3. When so designated by the structural engineer, or the building official may cause a structure to be
reinspected.
4. When such observation is specifically required by the
building official.
108.3 Additions, Alterations or Repairs
107.9.2 Structural Observer.
The owner shall employ the engineer responsible for the 108.3.1 General.
structural design, or another engineer designated by the Buildings and structures to which additions, alterations or
engineer responsible for the structural design, to perform repairs are made shall comply with all the requirements of
structural observation as defined in Section 107.2. this code for new facilities except as specifically provided
in this section.
Observed deficiencies shall be reported in writing to the
owner's representative, structural inspector, contractor and 108.3.2 When Allowed by the Building Official.
the building official. The structural observer shall submit Additions, alterations or repairs may be made to any
to the building official a written statement duly signed building or structure without requiring the existing
and sealed, that the site visits have been made and building or structure to comply with all the requirements

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements 1-15

of this code, provided the addition, alteration or repair 108.3.4 Historic Buildings.
conforms to that required for a new building or structure Repairs, alterations and additions necessary for the
and provided further that such approval by the building preservation, restoration, rehabilitation or continued use
official is in writing. of a building or structure may be made without
conformance to all the requirements of this code when
Additions or alterations shall not be made to an existing authorized by the building official, provided:
building or structure that will cause the existing building
or structure to become unsafe. An unsafe condition shall 1. The building or structure has been designated by
be deemed to have been created if an addition or official action of the legally constituted authority of
alteration will cause any structural element of the existing this jurisdiction as having special historical or
building or structure to resist loads in excess of their architectural significance.
capacity or cause a reduction of their load carrying 2. Any structurally unsafe conditions are corrected.
capacity.
3. The restored building or structure will be no more
Additions or alterations shall not be made to an existing hazardous based on life safety than the existing
building or structure when such existing building or building.
structure is not in full compliance with the provisions of
this code except when such addition or alteration will 108.4 Change in Use
result in the existing building or structure being no more
hazardous based on structural safety, than before such No change shall be made in the character of occupancies
or use of any building unless the new or proposed use is
additions or alterations are undertaken.
less hazardous, based on life safety than the existing use.
Exceptions: A change in use or occupancy of any building shall be
allowed only when the change in use or occupancy will
Alterations to existing structural elements or additions of
not cause any structural element of the existing building
new structural elements, which are initiated for the
to resist loads, determined on the basis on this code and
purpose of increasing the strength or stiffness of the
on the proposed use or occupancy, in excess of their
lateral-force-resisting system of an existing structure,
capacity. Alterations to the existing building shall be
need not be designed for forces conforming to these
permitted to satisfy this requirement.
regulations provided that an engineering analysis is
submitted to show that:
No change in the character of occupancy of a building
1. The capacity of existing structural elements required shall be made without a new certificate of occupancy
to resist forces is not reduced; regardless of whether any alterations to the building are
required.
2. The lateral force to required existing structural
elements is not increased beyond their design
strength. SECTION 109 - GRADING AND
3. New structural elements are detailed and connected EARTHWORK
to the existing structural elements as required by
these regulations; and
109.1 General
4. New or relocated non-structural elements are
detailed and connected to existing or new structural
elements as required by these regulations. 109.1.1 Scope.
The provisions of this section apply to grading,
108.3.3 Nonstructural. excavation and earthwork construction, including fills and
enbankments.
Nonstructural alterations or repairs to an existing building
or structure are permitted to be made of the same
materials of which the building or structure is constructed, 109.2 Definitions
provided that they do not adversely affect any structural The following terms are defined for use in this section:
member or the fire-resistance rating of any part of the
building or structure. APPROVAL shall mean that the proposed work or
completed work conforms to this section in the opinion of
the building official.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
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AS GRADED is the extent of surface conditions on FINISH GRADE is the final grade of the site that
completion of grading. conforms to the approved plan.

BEDROCK is in-place solid or altered rock. ROUGH GRADE is the stage at which the grade
approximately conforms to the approved plan.
BENCH is a relatively level step excavated into earth
material on which fill is to be placed. GRADING is an excavator or fill or combination thereof.

BORROW is earth material acquired from an off-site KEY is a designed compacted fill placed in a trench
location for use in grading on a site. excavated in earth material beneath the toe of a slope.

CIVIL ENGINEER is a professional engineer licensed PROFESSIONAL INSPECTION is the inspection


to practice in the field of civil engineering. required by this code to be performed by the civil
engineer, geotechnical engineer or engineering geologist.
CIVIL ENGINEERING is the application of the Such inspections include that performed by persons
knowledge of the forces of nature, principles of supervised by such engineers or geologists and shall be
mechanics and the properties of materials to the sufficient to form an opinion relating to the conduct of the
evaluation, design and construction of civil works. work.

COMPACTION is the densification of a fill by SITE is any lot or parcel of land or contiguous
mechanical or chemical means. combination thereof, under the same ownership, where
grading is performed or permitted.
EARTH MATERIAL is any rock, natural soil or fill or
any combination thereof. SLOPE is an inclined ground surface the inclination of
which is expressed as a ratio of vertical distance to
ENGINEERING GEOLOGIST is a licensed geologist horizontal distance.
experienced and knowledgeable in engineering geology.
SOIL is naturally occurring superficial deposits overlying
ENGINEERING GEOLOGY is the application of bedrock.
geologic knowledge and principles in the investigation
and evaluation of naturally occurring rock and soil for use SOILS ENGINEER. See Geotechnical Engineer.
in the design of civil works.
SOILS ENGINEERING. See Geotechnical Engineering.
EROSION is the wearing away of the ground surface as a
result of the movement of wind, water or ice. TERRACE is a relatively level step constructed in the
face of a graded slope surface for drainage and
EXCAVATION is the mechanical removal of earth maintenance purposes.
material.
109.3 Permits Required
FILL is a deposit of earth material placed by artificial
means.
109.3.1 Permits Required.
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEER is an engineer Except as specified in Section 109.3.2 of this section, no
experienced and knowledgeable in the practice of soil and person shall do any grading without first having obtained
rock mechanics and foundation engineering. a grading permit from the building official.

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING is the application


of the principles of soil and rock mechanics in the 109.3.2 Exempted Work.
investigation, evaluation and design of civil works A grading permit shall not be required for the following:
involving the use of earth materials and foundations and
the inspection or testing of the construction thereof. 1. Grading in an isolated, self-contained area if there is
no danger to private or public property.
GRADE is the vertical location of the ground surface. 2. An excavation below finished grade for basements
and footings of a building, retaining wall or other
EXISTING GRADE is the grade prior to grading. structure authorized by a valid building permit. This

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CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements 1-17

shall not exempt any fill made with the material from 109.5 Grading Permit Requirements
such excavation or exempt any excavation having an
unsupported height greater than 1.5 meters after the
completion of such structure; 109.5.1 General.
Except as exempted in Section 109.3.2 of this code, no
3. Cemetery graves; person shall do any grading without first obtaining a
4. Refuse disposal sites controlled by other regulations; grading permit from the building official. A separate
permit shall be obtained for each site, and may cover both
5. Excavations for wells, or trenches for utilities; excavations and fills.
6. Mining, quarrying, excavating, processing or
stockpiling of rock, sand, gravel, aggregate or clay 109.5.2 Grading Designation.
controlled by other regulations, provided such
Grading in excess of 4,000 m3 shall be performed in
operations do not affect the lateral support of, or
increase stresses in, soil on adjoining properties; accordance with the approved grading plan prepared by a
civil engineer, and shall be designated as "engineered
7. Exploratory excavations performed under the grading." Grading involving less than 4,000 m3 shall be
direction of a registered geotechnical engineer or designated "regular grading" unless the permittee chooses
engineering geologist; to have the grading performed as engineered grading, or
the building official determines that special conditions or
8. An excavation that (1) is less than 600 mm in depth
unusual hazards exist, in which case grading shall
or (2) does not create a cut slope greater than 1.5 m in
conform to the requirements for engineered grading.
height and steeper than 1 unit vertical in 1½ units
horizontal (66.7% slope); and
9. A fill less than 300 mm in depth and placed on 109.5.3 Engineered Grading Requirements.
natural terrain with a slope flatter than 1 unit vertical Application for a grading permit shall be accompanied by
in 5 units horizontal (20% slope), or less than 900 two sets of plans and specifications, and supporting data
mm in depth, not intended to support structures, that consisting of a geotechnical engineering report and
does not exceed 40 m3 on any one lot and does not engineering geology report. Additionally, the application
obstruct a drainage course. shall state the estimated quantities of work involved. The
plans and specifications shall be prepared and signed by
Exemption from the permit requirements of this section the civil engineer licensed to prepare such plans or
shall not be deemed to grant authorization for any work to specifications when required by the building official.
be done in any manner in violation of the provisions of
this code or any other laws or ordinances of this Specifications shall contain information covering
jurisdiction. construction and material requirements. Plans shall be
drawn to scale upon substantial paper or cloth and shall be
of sufficient clarity to indicate the nature and extent of the
109.4 Hazards work proposed and show in detail that they will conform
Whenever the building official determines that any to the provisions of this code and all relevant laws,
existing excavation or embankment or fill on private ordinances, rules and regulations. The first sheet of each
property has become a hazard to life and limb, or set of plans shall give location of the work, the name and
endangers property, or adversely affects the safety, use or address of the owner, and the person by whom they were
stability of a public way or drainage channel, the owner of prepared.
the property upon which the excavation or fill is located,
or other person or agent in control of said property, upon The plans shall include the following information:
receipt of notice in writing from the building official,
shall within the period specified therein repair or 1. General vicinity map of the proposed site.
eliminate such excavation or embankment to eliminate the 2. Property limits and accurate contours of existing
hazard and to be in conformance with the requirements of ground and details of terrain and area drainage.
this code.
3. Limiting dimensions elevations or finish contours to
be achieved by the grading, and proposed drainage
channels and related construction.
4. Detailed plans of all surface and subsurface drainage
devices, walls, cribbing, dams and other protective
devices to be constructed with, or as a part of, the

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
1-18 CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements

proposed work, together with a map showing the of the person who prepared the plan. The plan shall
drainage area and the estimated runoff of the area include the following information:
served by any drains.
1. General vicinity map of the proposed site.
5. Location of any buildings or structures on the
2. Limiting dimensions and depth of cut and fill.
property where the work is to be performed and the
location of any buildings or structures on land of 3. Location of any buildings or structures where work is
adjacent owners that are within 4.5 m of the property to be performed, and the location of any buildings or
or that may be affected by the proposed grading structures within 4.5 m of the proposed grading.
operations.
6. Recommendations included in the geotechnical 109.6 Grading Inspection
engineering report and the engineering geology
report shall be incorporated in the grading plans or
specifications. When approved by the building 109.6.1 General.
official, specific recommendations contained in the Grading operations for which a permit is required shall be
geotechnical engineering report and the engineering subject to inspection by the building official. Professional
geology report, which are applicable to grading, may inspection of grading operations shall be provided by the
be included by reference. civil engineer, geotechnical engineer and the engineering
geologist retained to provide such services in accordance
7. The dates of the geotechnical engineering and with Section 109.5.5 for engineered grading and as
engineering geology reports together with the names, required by the building official for regular grading.
addresses and phone numbers of the firms or
individuals who prepared the reports.
109.6.2 Civil Engineer.
109.5.4 Geotechnical Engineering Report. The civil engineer shall provide professional inspection
within such engineer's area of technical specialty, which
The geotechnical engineering report required by Section shall consist of observation and review as to the
109.5.3 shall include data regarding the nature, establishment of line, grade and surface drainage of the
distribution and strength of existing soil, conclusions and development area. If revised plans are required during the
recommendations for grading procedures and design course of the work, they shall be prepared by the civil
criteria for corrective measures, including buttress fills, engineer.
when necessary, and opinion on adequacy for the
intended use of sites to be developed by the proposed
grading as affected by geotechnical engineering factors, 109.6.3 Geotechnical Engineer.
including the stability of slopes. The geotechnical engineer shall provide professional
Refer to Chapter 3 on Excavations and Foundations for inspection within such engineer's area of technical
detailed requirements and guidelines. specialty, which shall include observation during grading
and testing for required compaction. The geotechnical
engineer shall provide sufficient observation during the
109.5.5 Engineering Geology Report. preparation of the natural ground and placement and
The engineering geology report required by Section compaction of the fill to verify that such work is being
109.5.3 shall include an adequate description of the performed in accordance with the conditions of the
geology of the site, conclusions and recommendations approved plan and the appropriate requirements of this
regarding the effect of geologic conditions on the chapter.
proposed development, and opinion on the adequacy for
the intended use of sites to be developed by the proposed Revised recommendations relating to conditions differing
grading, as affected by geologic factors or hazards. from the approved geotechnical engineering and
engineering geology reports shall be submitted to the
permittee, the building official and the civil engineer.
109.5.6 Regular Grading Requirements.
Each application for a grading permit shall be
accompanied by a plan in sufficient clarity to indicate the 109.6.4 Engineering Geologist.
nature and extent of the work, and state the estimated The engineering geologist shall provide professional
quantities of work involved. The plans shall give the inspection within such geologist's area of technical
location of the work, the name of the owner and the name specialty, which shall include professional inspection of
the bedrock excavation to determine if conditions

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements 1-19

encountered are in conformance with the approved report. 1. An as-built grading plan prepared by the civil
Revised recommendations relating to conditions differing engineer retained to provide such services in
from the approved engineering geology report shall be accordance with Section 109.6.5 showing original
submitted to the geotechnical engineer. ground surface elevations, as-graded ground surface
elevations, lot drainage patterns, and the locations
and elevations of surface drainage facilities and of
109.6.5 Permittee. the outlets of subsurface drains. As-constructed
The permittee shall be responsible for the work to be locations, elevations and details of subsurface drains
performed in accordance with the approved plans and shall be shown as reported by the geotechnical
specifications and in conformance with the provisions of engineer. Civil engineers shall state that to the best
this code, and the permittee shall engage consultants, as of their knowledge the work within their area of
may be necessary, to provide professional inspection on a responsibility was done in accordance with the final
timely basis. The permittee shall act as a coordinator approved grading plan.
between the consultants, the contractor and the building
official. In the event of changed conditions, the permittee 2. A report prepared by the geotechnical engineer
shall be responsible for informing the building official of retained to provide such services in accordance with
such change and shall provide revised plans for approval. Section 109.6.3, including locations and elevations of
field density tests, summaries of field and laboratory
tests, other substantiating data, and comments on any
109.6.6 Building Official. changes made during grading and their effect on the
The building official shall inspect the project at the recommendations made in the approved geotechnical
various stages of work requiring approval to determine engineering investigation report. Geotechnical
that adequate control is being exercised by the engineers shall submit a statement that, to the best of
professional consultants. their knowledge, the work within their area of
responsibilities is in accordance with the approved
geotechnical engineering report and applicable
109.6.7 Notification of Noncompliance. provisions of this section.
If, in the course of fulfilling their respective duties under
this chapter, the civil engineer, the geotechnical engineer 3. A report prepared by the engineering geologist
or the engineering geologist finds that the work is not retained to provide such services in accordance with
being done in conformance with this chapter or the Section 109.6.4, including a final description of the
approved grading plans, the discrepancies shall be geology of the site and any new information
reported immediately in writing to the permittee and to disclosed during the grading and the effect of same
on recommendations incorporated in the approved
the building official.
grading plan. Engineering geologists shall submit a
statement that, to the best of their knowledge, the
109.6.8 Transfer of Responsibility. work within their area of responsibility is in
If the civil engineer, the geotechnical engineer, or the accordance with the approved engineering geologist
engineering geologist of record is changed during report and applicable provisions of this section.
grading, the work shall be stopped until the replacement 4. The grading contractor shall submit in a form
has agreed in writing to accept their responsibility within prescribed by the building official a statement of
the area of technical competence for approval upon conformance to said as-built plan and the
completion of the work. It shall be the duty of the specifications.
permittee to notify the building official in writing of such
change prior to the recommencement of such grading.
109.7.2 Notification of Completion.
The permittee shall notify the building official when the
109.7 Completion of Work
grading operation is ready for final inspection. Final
permission by the building official shall not be given until
109.7.1 Final Reports. all work, including installation of all drainage facilities
Upon completion of the rough grading work and at the and their protective devices, and all erosion-control
final completion of the work, the following reports and measures have been completed in accordance with the
drawings and supplements thereto are required for final approved grading plan, and the required reports have
engineered grading or when professional inspection is been submitted by the engineer of record.
performed for regular grading, as applicable:

th
National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1