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Proc.Schl.Eng.Tokai Univ.,Ser.

E
26 (2001), pp. -

Theoretical Analysis on Hydraulic Transportation of


Solids Using the Jet Pump
by

Chamlong PRABKEAO *1 and Katsumi AOKI*2


(Received on Mar.31 & Accepted on May 23,2001 )

Abstract
The characteristics of solid handling jet pump are affected by many factors, for instance, nozzle-throat area ratio, flow rate
ratio, head ratio, concentration of slurry by volume for suction side, loss factors for suction and delivery side, slip velocity
between water and solid, velocity etc. In design of jet pump with solids, it is very important to clear the problem by using
many factors. This paper describes the theoretical analysis for hydraulic transportation characteristics of solids using to the jet
pump by changing the main factor in the solid handling jet pump can be predict the characteristics.

Keywords: Hydraulic transportation, Solids, Jet pump, Characteristics, Efficiency

1.Introduction 2.Nomenclature

As jet pump is simple construction, no moving parts and easy A : area α : Coefficient of velocity
β : area ratio (d D ) γ

working, it has been used widly for draw water from a well : specific weight
recirculating pump of a rector and a drain pump of civil C :concentration by volume ε : specific grabity
constructions etc. C' : concentration by weight µ : slip factor
Study on the characteristics of center drive type jet pump, many H : total head φ : flow rate ratio
studies has done theoretically and experimentally by Gasline , (1)
He : effective head ψ : head ratio
Ichikawa(2), Cunningkam(3) , Muller(4) , Reddy(5) and Ueda (6) etc. Since Hd : discharge head η : efficiency
the J.Thomson(7) reported in 1852. But these papers study of the Hp : drive head Subscript
characteristies for the water-jet pump, when both suction and motive Hs : suction head D : discharge side
fluid are the same. h : loss of head dif : diffuser
In recent years, a jet pump which has a 90゜bend connected K : loss factor j : nozzle
directly to a water-jet nozzle along the centerline is P : pressure mc : mixing chamber
discussed theoretically and experimentally for transporting solid Q : volumetic flow rate s : suction side
materials (8),(9)
and the performance of annular jet pump is published V : velocity s : solid
the expertimentally(10),(11). W : weight flow rate ss : solid in suctionside
The characteristics of jet pump with solid are affected by many su : slurry
factors, for instance, nozzle-throat area ratio, flow rate ratio, head sw : water in suctionside
ratio, concentration of slurry by volume for suction side, loss factors w : water
for suction and delivery side, slip velocity between water and solid
velocity etc. Therefore, in design of jet pump with solids, it is very
important to clear the effect for the many factors. 3.Calculation for Predicting the Performance of
In this study, it has been predicted the theoretical characteristics a Solids Handling Jet Pump.
of jet pump by changing of main factors in the center drive jet pump
with solids. Figuer1.shows the principle of jet pump for hydraulics
transportation of solids and the efficiency is given the following
*1 Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty equation
of Engineering, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology,
Ladkrabang (KMITL),Bangkok, Thailand. γ su Qsu H
η= ⋅ ⋅ (1)
* 2 Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of γ w Qj He
Engineering, Tokai University.

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Chamlong Prabkeao and Katsumi Aoki

Qd = Qj + Qsu (2)
Ad = Aj + As (3)
Qsu= Qss + Qsw (4)
Qss = µ s・ vs・ As・ Cs (5)
Qsw = vs・ As・ (1-Cs) (6)
γ dQss = γ su ・ Qsu + γ w ・ Qj (7)
Wd = Wsu + Wsj (8)

Wsu = Wss + Wsw (9)

Wss = γ s・ Qss =γ s・ µ s・ vs・ As・ Cs (10)

Wsw = γ ・ Qsw =γ ・ vs・ As・ (1-Cs) (11)


w w

Wsu =γ ・ Qsu (12)


su

Fig.1 Schematic diagram for hydraulic transportation of


Solid used jet pump Combining continuity equations (6), (9), (10), (11) and (12), the
specific weight of slurry can be expressed as follows
Here, as in Fig.1, H = H d − H s , H e = H p − H d ,H is total
head, H e is effective head. The construction of jet pump is Wsu C s ( µ・s γ s − γ w ) + γ w (13)
γ su = =
radically different from the centrifugal pump in that it contains no Qsu (1 − C s ) + µ ・s C s

moving parts as in Fig.2 and its power supply is high pressure jet of
water. The apparatus functions as a pumping device in the following and the specific weight γ d and concentration by volume Cd of
manner. discharge line at section “d” may be defined as

γ su・ γ w (φ + 1)
γd = (14)
γ w・ φ + γ su
Qsu・ γ su Wsu
φ= =
(15)
Q・j γ w Wj
Qss µ・s C・s φ・ γ w
Cd = =
Q j + Qsu {(1 − C s ) + µ ・s C s }(γ su + φ・ γ w ) (16)

Here, φ is flow rate ratio.


Average velocity in pipe at point “b” and “e” are given as
follows equations.
φ・ Q・j γ w
vs =
Fig.2 Fundamentals of the structure for jet pump γ su・ As {µ ・s C s + (1 − C s )} (17)

B(1 + φ ・) v・j γ w
vd =
The drive nozzle converts the pressure zone at the tip of the γ d {µ d・ C d + (1 − C d )} (18)
nozzle. The low pressure zone induces flow of the suction fluid in
the direction of driving jet. The high speed driving jet which exits Here, coefficient of slip velocity in the suction and discharge side
from the tip of nozzle entrains and exchanges momentum with the are µ s = Vss/Vsw and µ d = Vds/Vdw.
suction fluid and accelerates it throughout the mixing chamber. Substitute equations (17) and (18) into the momentum equation
The kinetic energy of the mixed fluid is converted pressure energy in between points “c” and “d” and if we divide by γ w, Ad together and
the diffuser which follows the mixing. rearrange them, it becomes the following equation.
This pressure creates flow in the discharge line. There are four r r

independent equations that can be developed due to momentum and ∫


0
Pd 2πrdr

∫ 0
Pc 2πrdr
γ w Ad γ w Ad
energy considerations.
Referring to Fig.2, there equations are:
=
v 2j  γ
2 B + 2φ 2  w
2
{ (
 1 − C s 1 − µ s2γ s γ w

)}
1) the momentum equation between points “c” and “d”,
2g 
  γ su  {
1 − C s (1 − µ s )}2


2) the energy equation between points “a” and “c”,


B(1 + φ ) γw  γ {1 − C s (1 − µ s µ d γ s γ w )}
− 2 B + 2 Bφ w
3) the energy equation between points “b” and “c” and the
{1 − C d (1 − µ d )} γ d  γ su {1 − C s (1 − µ s )} 
energy equation between points “d” and “e”.

γw K mc
− B 2 (1 + φ )
2
These four equations will now be developed before further step {
γ d 1 − C d (1 − µ d )2 }
in the solution are taken. At the first, general continuity equations (19)
are presented as follows.

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Theoretical Analysis on Hydraulic Transportation of Solids Acording to Jet pump

By Substitute equations (23), (25) and (26) into equations


Energy equation between “a” and “c”, the drive head (Hp ) is (13), (14) and (21) and if rearranged them, total head “H” and
presented as follows equation. effective head “He” can be expressed the equation as follows.


r
Pa 2πrdr v2 H=
v 2j 
2 B + 2φ
2 B
2
{ ( )
1 − 1 − µ s2γ s γ w C ' s γ su γ s }
Hp = 0
+αd a
γ w Aa 2g 2 g  1 − B {(µ s γ s γ w − 1)C’ γ su γ s + 1}2

r
B  {1 − (1 − µ s )C’ s γ su γ s }φ 
∫ Pc 2πrdr v 2j
(20) − × + 1
= + (α j + K j )  (φC’ s γ su γ s ) {( ) }
0
µ γ
 s s w γ − 1 C ’ γ γ + 1 
γ w Ac 2g 1−  (1 − µ d )
su s

 (φ + γ su γ w ) 

By the energy equation between points “b” and “c”,the suction 


× 2 B + 2 Bφ
{1 − (1 − µ s µ d γ s γ w )C’ s γ su γ s }
head He is presented as follows.  {C’ γ su γ s − (µ sγ s γ w − 1) + 1} 

 {1 − (1 − µ s )C’ s γ su γ s }φ 
r
− B 2 (1 + φ ) + 1
∫ Pc 2πrdr 2

Hs = 0
+
φ 2B2  γ w


 {( µ
 s s wγ γ − 1)C ’ γ su γ s + 1} 
γ w Ac (1 − B )2  γ su 
K mc B 2 (1 + φ )
× −
ε su {α s (1 − C’s +C’s µ s2 ) + K s } v  (φC’ s γ su γ s )  (φC’ s γ su γ s )
2 2
 
2

×
j
(21) 1 − (1 − µ d ) 1 − (1 − µ d )
{1 − Cs (1 − µs )}2 2g  (φ + γ su γ w )   (φ + γ su γ w ) 

 {1 − (1 − µ s )C’ s γ su γ s }φ 
× + 1
 {(µ s γ s γ w − 1)C’ γ su γ s + 1}
2
And also, the energy equation between points “d” and “e” 
suction head Hd is become as follow equation.
  φ  φ 2B2
×  K dif − α d 1 − C’ s
(1 + φ )
(
1 − v d2  + )
 (1 − B )
2
r  
∫ Pd 2πrdr 2
B (1 + φ ) ε d
2 2
γ w 
 
α s {1 − C’ s (1 − µ s2 )}+ K s
Hd = 0

γ w Ad {1 − C d (1 − µ d )}2  γ d  
× 
{1 − (1 − µ s )C’ γ su γ s }{(µ sγ s γ w − 1)C’ γ su γ s + 1}2 + 1 
2

{ (
× K dif − α d 1 − C’ d + C’ d µ d2 )}2vg j
(22) (27)

v 2j  B 2 (1 + φ )
He = (α j + K j ) +
The relation between concentration by volume “c” and weight 2 g  {1 − (φC’ s γ su γ s ) (φ + γ su γ w ・) (1 − µ d )}2
“ C’ ” is expressed as follows.
 {1 − (1 − µ s )C’ s γ su γ s }φ 
× + 1
γ
C s = C 's su {(µ γ
 s s w γ − 1)C ’ γ su γ s + 1} 
γs (23)
  φ 
γ
×  K dif − α d 1 − C’ s
(1 + φ )
(
1 − v d2  )
Cd = C 'd d   
γs (24)

− 2 B + 2φ 2
{ (
B 2 1 − 1 − µ s2γ s γ w C ' s γ su γ s ) 
+ 1
}
Where, as the average velocity of slurry in suction pipe is slow,  1 − B {(µ s γ s γ w − 1)C 'γ su γ s + 1}2

the relative velocity of water and particle of solids can consider as
velocity very small. Therefore, the coefficient of slip velocity “µ s” B  {1 − (1 − µ s )C’ s γ su γ s }φ 
− × + 1
 (φC’ s γ su γ s )  {( µ γ γ − 1)C’ γ γ + 1} 
(1 − µ d )
in suction side can consider as “µ s” ≒ 1, and substitute equation 1−  s s w su s

(23) into equation (16) and if rearranged with “ µ s” ≒ 1, it  (φ + γ su γ w ) 


becomes the following equation

× 2 B + 2 Bφ
{1 − (1 − µ s µ d γ s γ w )C’ s γ su γ s }
γ su  {C’ s γ su γ s − (µ sγ s γ w − 1) + 1} 
C's φ
γs
Cd =
γ su  {1 − (1 − µ s )C’ s γ su γ s }φ 
+φ (25) − B 2 (1 + φ ) + 1
γw {( µ
 s s wγ γ − 1 )C’ γ
s su γ s + 1} 

Substitute equation (24) for equations (25) and (26) K mc 


× 
γs φ {1 − (1 − µ d )(φC’ s γ su γ s ) (φ + γ su γ w )}
2

C 'd = C d = C 's (26) (28)
γd φ +1

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Chamlong Prabkeao and Katsumi Aoki

The four equation just written will be supplemented with two Fig.3 shows the relation between the efficiency η and
other independent equations which will be used in order to flow rate ratio (Qsu/Qj) for the changing at nozzle-throat ratio.
nondimensionalize the five variables.
These two other equations will define two new parameters φ
and ψ , φ will be written as the weight rate of flow ratio and its
Exp.(13)
form will be the following.

γ su Qsu Wsu
φ= = (29)
γ wQ j Wj

The head ratio ψ will be defined as the head gained by the


suction fluid. divided by the drive fluid. It is written as follows.

H Eq.(27)
ϕ= = (30)
H e Eq.(28)

The two nondimentional parameters, which define the weight


ratio of flow equation (29) and the head ratio, equation (30) will
now be used in conjunction with equations (19), (20), (21) and (22)
to obtain the solution to the problem. This can be done since there
are now six equations and seven unknowns when φ and ψ are Fig.3 Efficiency and flow ratio versus-nozzle throat area ratio
included.
Equation (30) will be examined as to its ability to predict the
performance of solids handling jet pumps. Although it is seen to be a The various coefficients used in these equations quote in
rather complicated expression, “H” is basically a function of the based on various reference. It is known that the efficiency is
following variables ①flow rate ratio φ ②loss factors, Kj, Ks, changing with flow rate ratio for the each of d/D and it shows the
Kmc, Kd ③velocity defect terms α s, α d ④slip velocity terms maximum values in the almost d/D = 0.6.
µ s, µ d ⑤concentration Cs, C s’, Cd , Cd ’ ⑥specific weight γ s, It is known that the maximum efficiency is moving the
γ w, γ su, γ d direction to become smaller of flow rate ratio (Q su/Qj ) with nozzle
In this relationship φ is always taken to be the independent throat ratio (d/D) become larger and the results of calculation agree
variable. well with the experimental values.
It is calculated by multiplaying the average velocity of water by
the coefficient “µ s ” or “µ d ” which is between 0 and 1.
At the present time there is no sure way of quantifying these
coefficients, especially in this case since the particles experience
instead flow in all sections of the pump.
The parametric analysis was slip velocity in the suction and
discharge sides of the pump. That is the average velocity of the
particles was taken to be 10% less than the average velocity of the
water.
From the studies of Zandi and Yen, slip velocity in this case has
been taken to be an average slip velocity.

4.Calculating Results and Consideration

4.1 Pump Performance in Case of Same Fluid Fig.4 Head ratio and flow rate ratio for nozzle-throat area ratio
In this case, as we need not consider about the concentrations
of solids etc, the concentrations are zero, the equations (27), (28)
and (29) become the equation for performance of water-jet pump. Fig.4 shows the relation between head ratio (H/He) and flow
Therefore, in the equation (1) for efficiency Gosline and O’Brien’s rate ratio (Q su/Qj) for the same condition. And from its results, as
flow ratio is equal to the weight rate of flow ratio used in the present ( d/D) become smaller, it is known to increase with flow rate ratio
study, equation (1) may be written as. (Qsu/Qj) and decrease with head ratio (H/He).

Qsu H
η= ⋅
Qj He

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Theoretical Analysis on Hydraulic Transportation of Solids Acording to Jet pump

(13)

Fig.5 Nozzle-throat area ratio and flow rate ratio for Fig.7 Show the relationship between the flow rate ratio
maximum efficiency and the efficiency for the changing α s, Ks

Fig.5 Shows the relation between (d/D)2 and (Qsu/Qj) in


maximum efficiency and it shows the tendency to agree with another
papers (4), (5). But for the difference of absolute value, it is seem to
be the different of construction in jet pump.

4.1.1 Effects of Various Factors in Jet Pump


Fig.6~8 is shown the relation between the flow rate ratio and
the efficiency for the changing an example of each factor in d/D =
0.6.

Fig.8 Show the relationship between the flow ratio and the
efficiency for the changing Kmc

4.2 Prediction of the Performance and the Effect of Main Factors


for the Solids Handling Jet Pump.
Although the center drive jet pump has been widely studied in
the literature, there appears no date or equations for predicting
performance when pumping a sand slurry.
Fig.6 Shows the effect of factors in driving side (α j, Kj) Here, it shows the performance in case of the water
transportation of a solids used center drive type jet pump and main
Fig.6 shows the effect of factors in driving side (α j , Kj ). From variables which affect the performance of the pump are investigated
this figure, it is known that the efficiency shows the tendency to in order to obtain information concerning optimum combinations of
decrease as the factors (α j , Kj ) become larger. but the flow rate ratio variables. Therefore, in this paper, it is investigated by calculating
in the maximum efficiency is not change. And it is investigated the the performance for the changing of the main factors in the
effect of factors in suction side (α s, Ks) used in Fig.7. It knows to following the pump conditions.
decrease the flow rate ratio in the maximum efficiency as the factors
(α s, Ks) become larger. As the effect of factors in the delivery side,
it is know to decrease the efficiency as the loss of mixing chamber
become larger and the maximum efficiency is moving the direction
to become smaller of flow rate ratio.

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Chamlong Prabkeao and Katsumi Aoki

Pumping Conditions
Driving fluid : water
Suction fluid : Slurry(solids+water)
Concentration by weight in suction side
C s ´: 0.65
Specific weight of water
γ w : 1000 kgf/m3
Specific weight of slurry in suction side
γ su : 1650 kgf/m3
Specific weight of solid
γ s: 2650 kgf/m3

4.2 Pump Performance


Figure.9 shows the relation between the efficiency and flow
rate ratio with solids-handling jet pump for the changing of nozzle Fig.10 Show the relationship between head ratio and flow rate
throat ratio (d/D). ratio with solids-handling jet pump for the changing of
nozzle-throat ratio (d/D)

Exp. (13)
4.2.2 Effect of Main Factors for Pump Performance
Figure.11~15 shows the relation of efficiency for flow rate
ratio when the each factors are changed in d/D = 0.6.

Fig.9 Show the relationship between the efficiency and flow


ratio with solids-handling jet pump for the changing of
nozzle-throat ratio (d/D)

It is known that the performance shows the tendency to the


water jet pump as same as Fig.3. But it knows that the efficiency and Fig.11 Effects of loss and velocity defect terms in drive
flow rate ratio in maximum efficiency is fallen from the about 65%
for the efficiency of water jet pump. It knows that the head ratio
(H/He) and flow rate ratio of Fig.10 show the tendency to same as 1) The Effect of Factors (α j , Kj ) in Driving Side
compared with Fig.4, but the flow rate ratio decrease as compared Fig.11 shows the effect of loss factor (Kj ) and velocity defect
with the water jet pump. And the flow rate ratio (γ su Q su /γ j Q j ) is term (α j ) in driving side for the changing of the flow rate ratio. It
shown the tendency to become gradually larger as head ratio (H/He) is known that the efficiency η decrease as well as water jet pump
become smaller but, as shown in Fig.10, when the head ratio arrive with the loss factors or velocity defect term in driving side become
at same value, flow rate ratio become a constant, then it can be larger, but it knows that the flow rate ratio in the maximum
predict the limitation of flow rate ratio. efficiency is kept the constant values in spite of the changing of the
efficiency.
2) The Effective of Factors (α s , Ks ) in Suction Side
Fig.12, 13 show the effect of loss factor (K s ) and velocity
defect term (α s ) in suction side become larger and η max is
moved in the direction of flow rate ratio become smaller.

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Theoretical Analysis on Hydraulic Transportation of Solids Acording to Jet pump

4) The Effective of Slip Velocity Factor (µ d).


(12)
From the studies of Zandi and Yen , it is known that
prediction of slip velocity or even the affirmation of its existence is
very difficult problem. Slip velocity in this case has been taken to be
an average slip velocity. It is calculated by multiplying the average
velocity of water by the coefficient µ s or µ d which is between 0.0
and 1.0.
At the present time there is no sure way of quantifying these
coefficients, especially in this case since the particles experience
unsteady flow in all sections of the pump.
The parametric analysis is carried out by assuming from 0.1 to
0.5 slip velocity in discharge side of the pump.

Fig.12 The effect of loss factor (Ks) in suction side


5.Conclusion

The fundamental equations for prediction of performance in


hydraulic transportation of solids by jet pump was derived. And
from this equation, it clarified the effect of each factors for the
efficiency of jet pump.
The performance of solids handling jet pump as same as
water-jet pump are affected the larger by nozzle-throat ratio and it
knew that the maximum efficiency is the almost d/D = 0.5~0.6.

6.Reference

1 Gasoline,J,E. and O ´ Brien,M,P.,Univ.Pub.Engg.Vol.3.No3,


Fig.13 Show the effect of loss factor (S) in suction side 1934,167.
2 Ichikawa.,etal,Trans.Japan
3) The Effective of Factors (Kmc, Kdif ) in Discharge Side, Soc.Mech.Eng.Vol.18,No.69.(1932), 57.
Fig.14 is shown the relation of the efficiency for loss factor 3 Cunningham,R.G.,Trans.ASME,Nov,1957.
(Kmc) in mixing chamber. The efficiency show the all over decrease 4 Mueller,N.H.G.,J. of Hydr.Div.ASCE,Vol.90.No.HY3
with the loss factor (K mc) in mixing chamber become larger, and the May,1964.
maximum efficiency is moved in the direction of flow rate ratio 5 Reddy.Y.R.,J. of Hydr.Div.ASCE,Vol.80.No.HY5,
become smaller. Sep.1968.1261
6 Ueda.,Trans.Japan Soc.Mech.Eng.Vol.20,No.89.(1954),25.
7 Thomson,J.,Rep.Brit. Association,Lond.1852,130.
8 Kumagaya.,et al,Trans.Japan Soc.Mech.Eng.Vol.54-B,No.502.
(1988),1385.
9 Kumagaya.,et al,Trans.Japan Soc.Mech.Eng.Vol.56-B,No.527.
(1990),2014.
10 Kuzuhara.,et al,Trans.Japan Soc.Mech.Eng.Vol.48-B,No.436.
(1982),2510.
11 Simizu.,et al,Trans.Japan Soc.Mech.Eng.Vol.49-B,No.448.
(1983),2746.
12 Zandi, I, “Decreased Head Losses in Raw water Conduit” J.
Amer. Water works Assn. Vol.48 No.2 1967.
13 Aoki・ Okitsu,Pump Engineering,Vol.8,No.11(1972 ),749.

Fig.14 The relation of the efficiency for loss factor (K mc) in


mixing chamber

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