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Liceo Bicentenario Diego Portales P.

English department


Electric current- Electric Instruments and Apparatus

Name: Frank A. Machaca Mamani

Course: 4th A

Year: 2018

The electric current is there, in everything that surrounds us, it is in the morning
in the cell phone alarm that surrounds us, in the washing machine for our
clothes, in our television, and in the cell phones that we carry everywhere; Life
is illuminated by the light that comes from the power plants to our homes with
the light energy produced by the light bulbs.

Its origin goes back to the Greek age, where Thales of Miletus discovered that
the amber had properties to attract or repulse by means of rubbing and was
denominated Elektron in Greek, and another Greek Theophrastus let it know
that other materials also have these properties.

The electric current has its own formula and there are also other formulas for
other cases that have relation to the electric current or have relation with this
subject; the electric current is divided into two groups: direct current and
alternating current. We must also take into account the effects it can produce,
such as Calorific, chemical and electromagnetic effects.


 The birth of electricity comes from the Greeks, by rubbing amber with a
piece of leather this was able to attract small pieces of lighter materials.
The experiments of Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) showed the
existence of two types of electric charges, one positive and one negative;
Today we know that the origin of the charge is the atom, which is
constituted by protons, neutrons and electrons, protons have a positive
charge and next to neutrons that have no electric charge are found in the
nucleus of the atom, electrons by their Some of them have a negative
charge and move around the nucleus. The charging phenomena can be
demonstrated with objects such as the electroscope and the electric
pendulum. We must also consider the materials Conductors and
Insulators, the conductors are those that have electrons weakly charged
and therefore can move with freedom, instead in the insulators the
electrons are heavily charged and there are also semiconductors in
which their conductivity varies according to the temperature.

The factors on which depends the magnitude of the electric force between two
charged particles at rest were investigated by Charles Coulomb in 1785 using
the Torsion balance that the invention.

The electrical current is all around us, the electric current has intensity that is
what is defined by the electrical resistance, which serves to define a certain
voltage for a respective use. Speaking of electrical intensity, this is measured by
Ohm's law that was discovered by Georg Simon Ohm.

The electric current is divided into two: Continuous and Alternate, Continuous is
where the direction of circulation is always the same, was discovered by
Alessandro Volta; is Alternating when the direction of the loads is changing,
periodically, it was devised by Nikola Tesla and is the one we use today
because of its easy handling and how efficient it is with respect to the power
that is not lost at a distance.


The electric battery: Created by Alessandro Volta in 1800, based on

experiments by Galvani and conducting experiments, I conclude that some
materials when they undergo a certain chemical reaction produce electrical
discharge, that is, they have an internal chemical energy that can be
transformed into electrical energy.

Formed by a liquid solution conductive water and sulfuric acid that acts as an
electrolyte, which are submerged two metal plates of lead and lead peroxide
that are connected to terminals called positive and negative, which forms a cell.
When the cell works, the acid reacts and converts the energy, in the plates
positive charges (+) and negative charges (-) are generated. The current
circulates through the system from one terminal to another and activates the

There are also Dry Batteries, which have a wet paste before a liquid enters the
two plates

As we already know Electric current is the movement of electric charges (free

electrons) in a conductor. The CURRENT is defined as the electric charge Q
that passes through a section of area A of the conductor per unit of time t:


The current is measured in Ampere (A) which equals an electric charge of one
Columb per second (1C / s)

-Resistance Electric (R): is the opposition of current as it passes through a

conductor braking the free circulation of electric charges or free electrons It also
depends on its shape, has been found to be directly proportional to its length L
and inversely proportional to the area of its cross section A. The nature of the
material also influences what is known as electrical resistivity, therefore it is
determined by the relation:

Resistance and temperature: The resistance also depends on the temperature

-When raising the temperature of the driver, increases its resistance.

-When the temperature of a conductor decreases, its resistance decreases.

-in insulating materials tend to decrease the resistance with the increase in

The resistance for the final temperature T is:

𝑅 = 𝑅𝑖 [1 + α(T − Ti)]


Ri is the resistance of the material to the initial temperature Ti.

The constant α is called the temperature coefficient.

Distribution of the Electric Current: The transport network is the part of the
system constituted by the necessary elements to carry to the points of
consumption and over great distances the energy generated in the power

For this, the volumes of electrical energy produced must be transformed, raising
their level of tension. This is done considering that for a certain level of power to
transmit, raising the voltage reduces the intensity of electric current that will
circulate, reducing losses due to Joule effect. For this purpose, overhead
substations are used with electrical equipment called transformers.
Transport lines are a fundamental part of the network. An electric power line or
high voltage line is the physical medium through which energy is transmitted
over long distances. It consists of both the conductor element, usually copper or
aluminum cables, and its support elements, known as high voltage towers.

The basic quantities that are used in electricity (voltage, current intensity and
electrical resistance) are measured with devices that are essential for any
technician of electricity or electronics. Let's see what they are:

1. To measure the voltage (V) (also called voltage) the voltmeter is used.
Remember that the unit of measurement of the voltage is the volt.

2. To measure the intensity of the electric current (I) the ammeter is used.
Remember that the unit of measurement of the current is the ampere.

3. To measure the electrical resistance (R) the ohmmeter is used. Remember

that the unit of measurement of the electrical resistance is the ohm.

Actually, the technicians do not use three different devices, since it would be an
inconvenience. They employ a single device that includes all three. It is called a
tester or tester.

The multimeter is an apparatus that includes two cables (red and black), which
are placed in the two points of the circuit where you want to make the
measurement. It also has a wheel that, depending on the position, we measure
the voltage, intensity or resistance. For example, as is the polymeter of the
image, we can measure the voltage that exists between two points of a circuit.

The electric current is the result of a multitude of experiments and discoveries
that lead to an easier life thanks to the fact that eta provides life to electronic
elements with which we live comfortably. Its excessive consumption has made
companies look for a faster way to obtain it that with the overpopulation is
increasing demand for this indispensable element. What brings as
consequences a high price and pollution of the planet, through the obtaining of
this resource by the different methods of obtaining. As you can see in the
graphs below, the little use of renewable energy and the high demand of the
country is remarkable.

Throughout time there have been many renowned people whose names have
managed to prevail over time. It was thanks to their discoveries that together
they came to do something bigger, that today they have an enormous influence
on our lives, and have favored technological advancement, Electric current has
so many uses, without it we would not be where we are Now, apart from history,
it has more to give in the future.


For what we have seen at least the country of Chile requires an abundant
consumption of electricity, for companies to work as well as our daily lives, Latin
American level is the most developed, and its demand has brought
consequences such as the use of energy in the extraction of copper, which is
also a good conductor and is the largest source of income in the country today.
But this and multiple uses of energy have caused pollution, and not only at the
country level, but also many countries contribute to this problem that can end up
as a species, the solutions are very expensive, with renewable energies, which
are obtained by medium of nature, if affect ecosystems, if not taking advantage
of their climatic phenomena. Electric current is not only limited to a history of
many discoveries, it is also used and will be used for more technologies and

I thank my parents for the time provided to carry out this work, as well as the
library managers for allowing me to read physics books that contributed to the
details of this Paper.



-Física II, editorial Santilla