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Issue 2







The issue and use of this Standard is

authorized for use in MOD Contracts

by Controller of the Navy and the

Chief of Fleet Support

Published by:

Director of Naval Architecture and Future Projects

Procurement Executive, Ash 0, MOD Abbey Wood
#95 PO Box 702 Bristol BS12 7DU
Issue 2

Issue 2



This Naval Engineering Standard (NES) has been prepared for the use of the Crown and of its
contractors in the execution of contracts for the Crown and, subject to the Unfair Contract Terms
Act 1977, the Crown will not be liable in any way whatever where the Standard is used for any
other purpose.

2. This document is Crown Copyright and the information therein may be subject to Crown
or third party rights. It is not to be released, reproduced or published without written
permission of the MOD.

3. The Crown reserves the right to amend or modify the contents of this NES without
consulting or informing any holder.

MOD Tender or Contract Process

4. This NES is the property of the Crown and unless otherwise authorized in writing by the
MOD must be returned on completion of the contract, or submission of the tender, in
connection with which it is issued.

When this NES is used in connection with a tender or contract the user is to ensure that he is in
possession of the appropriate version of each document, including related documents, relevant to
each particular tender or contract.

6. When NES are incorporated into contracts, users are responsible for their correct
application and for complying with contracts and any other statutory requirements.
Compliance with an NES does not of itself confer immunity from legal obligations.
Issue 2



Issue 2


Page Clause





SECTION 1. SCOPE 1 0101.


Warning 1 0201.


Damage Control Organization (DCO) 5 0501.
NBCD Headquarters and Ship Control Centre (SCC) 5 0506.
Section Bases 6 0511.
Section Bases in Ships with Between-Deck Hangars 6 0512.
Fire and Repair Party Posts 6 0513.
Upper Deck Re-entry Fire Party Post (Locker) 7 0517.
Zone Damage Control Box 7 0520.
Machinery Space Damage Control Boxes 7 0521.
Central Damage Control Stores 7 0523.
Keys and Key Safes 8 0524.
Weapons Repair Organization 8 0529.
Task Analysis of Damage Control and Firefighting 8 0530.


Fire Protection 9 0601.
Limitation of Combustible Material 9 0604.
Preventing the Spread of Fires 9 0605.
Provision of Fire Detectors 10 0606.
Firefighting Systems and Equipments 10 0607.
Damage Control 10 0608.
_ Location Markings 10 0610.
Zones 10 0613.
Issue 2

Page Clause -
Zoning and Sub-division of surface Ships 13 0701.
Zoning Principles 13 0702.
System Redundancy and Separation 14 0705.
The Design Requiremetns for Zoning 14 0708.
Grouping of Sub-systems and Services to Reduce 16 0710.
Vulnerability Assessment 16 0711.
Structural Considerations and the Spread of Fire 16 0712.
Fire Burden of Compartments 16 . 0713.
Compartment classification 17 0715.
Siting of Compartments 18 0716.
Fire Barrier Insulation 18 0720.
Fire Resistant Closures 19 0722.
Hazards of Machinery Systems 19 0723.
Vertical Trunks 20 0732.
Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems 20 0733.
Fire Flaps 21 0739.
Smoke Clearance 22 0743.
Fire Curtains 22 0747.
Smoke Curtains 22 0748.
Jettisonable Stowages 23 0750.
Gas Cylinders 23 0751.
Magazine Viewing Devices 23 0752.
Disposal of Firefighting Water 23 0753.
Fixed Hatch Water Wall Device 24 0763.
General 25 0801.
Eductors 25 0803.
Control of Eductors 25 0806.
Operating Positions for Eductors 25 0807.
Flood Warning System 26 0808.
Heel Indicators 26 0813.
Draught Indicators 27 0814.
Indicator Test Plugs 27 0815.
Introduction 28 0901.
Watertight condition - Red Risk Zone 28 0905.
Gastight Condition 29 0908.
NBCD Markings 29 0909.
Risk and Control Markings 29 0913.
Location Markings 30 0922.
Miscellaneous Markings 32 0929.
May Be Left Open (MBLO) Tallies 33 0931.
Escape Markings 33 0936.


Issue 2

Page Clause
Radiation Warning Markings 34 0942.
Electrical System Markings 34 0943.
Ventilation Systems - Location and Identification 34 0945.


General 35 1001.
Firefighting Pumps 36 1004.
Damage Control Pumps 36 1008.
Air Driven Pumps 36 1009.
Portable Eductors 36 1010.
Overboard Discharges 37 1012.
Sea Suction Standpipes 37 1017.
Compartment Standpipes 38 1020.
Power Sockets 38 1021.
Pump Stowages 38 1023.
Pump and Accessories Details 38 1024.
Table 1: Emergency and Portable Pumps and 39
Eductors-Standard Allowances
Surface Ships 40
Purpose 40 1101.
Emergency Fire Pumps 40 1103.
Isolation 40 1104.
Remote Control 40 1107.
System Pressure Monitoring 41 1110.
System Control 41 1111.
System Redundancy 41 1113.
General 41 1114.
Shore Connections 42 1119.
Prevention from Freezing 42 1120.
Principle Service 42 1121.
Hydrants 42
Siting of Hydrants 42 1123.
Centre Feed Hose Reels , 43 1124.
Flight Deck Monitors 43 1126.
Identification of Firefighting Systems 44 1130.
Pressure Gauges 45 1139.
Emergency Bulkhead Connections 45 1140.
Figure 1: Identification and marking of HPSW 46
System Typical Arrangement
Issue 2

Page Clause


Classification of Fires 50 1301.
Combustion 50 1302.
Induction Period 50 1303.
Figure 2: The Circle and Triangle of Combustion 51
Principles of Extinguishment 51 1304.
Starvation 51 1305.
Cooling 52 1306.
Smothering 52 1307.
Selection of an Extinguishing Agent 52 . 1310.
Acceptable Extinguishing Agents 53
Water 53 1313.
Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) 53 1316.
Halon Gases 54 1320.
Carbon Dioxide 55 1325.
Steam 55 1326.
Dry Powder 55 1327.
Alternative Gaseous Agents 56 1330.
Inert Gases (Argon, Nitrogen) 56 1333.
Halocarbon Agents 56 1336.
Table 2: Acceptable New Fire Extinguishing Agents 57
Dangers of Ignited Materials 59 1401.
Fire Tests 59 1402.
Structural Materials 60 1406.
Non-Structural Items 61 1410.
Materials used to Improve Habitability 61 1413.
Cable 61 1414.
General 62 1501.
High Risk Compartments 62 1504.
Magazines 64 1507.
Aircraft Hangars and Vehicle Spaces 64 1508.
High Value Compartments 65 1509.
Galleys 65 1512.
Small Ships 65 1515.
Audit of the General Arrangement 66 1516.
Table 3: Table of values for Fire Protection Audit 67
Fire Detection Systems 68 1601.
Hazardous Areas 68 1607.
Heat Sensitive Detector Systems 68
Boiler Combustion Air Spaces 68 1608.
Gas Turbine Modules 68 1609.


Issue 2

Page Clause
Electronic Equipment 69 1610.


Introduction 70 1701.
System Operation 70 1702.
Total Gas Requirements 70 1703.
Fire Protection of Cylinders 70 1708.
System Arrangements 71 1801.
Automatic Spray Systems 71 1802.
Rapid Reaction Spray Systems (RRSS) 72 1805.
Metron Activated Spray System (MASS) 72 1806
Thermal Bulb Spray System 72 1807
Manually Operated Spray systems 72 1808
Hangar Spray Systems 72 1809
Minor Spaces 73 1810
Control of Valves and Associated Keys 73 1811
Foam Liquid 74 1901.
Foam Spray Systems 74
Foam Spray Systems - Minor Spaces 74 1918
Limber Holes 74
Fixed Foam Installation for Enclosed Boiler Boxes 74
Foam Making Requirements at VERTREP Position 74
Foam Making Equipment 75
Portable Firefighting Equipment 76 2001.
Types of Apparatus 77 2101.
Allowances 77 2103.
Charging Arrangements 78 2106.
Introduction 79 2201.
Escape Facilities 79
Surface Ships 79 2202.
Access Requirements 80 2203.
Automatic Emergency Lanterns 80 2208.
Emergency Life Support Apparatus 81 2209.
Escape Markings 81 2214.
General 82 2301.
Issue 2

Page Clause
High Pressure Sea Water Systems 82 2306.
Fire Extinguishing Agents 82 2307.
Fire Detection 82 2308.
Fire Protection of Compartments 83 2309.
Breathing Apparatus 83 2310.
Escape Facilities 83 2311.
Emergency Lighting 83 2312.
Information Boards 83 2313.
Equipment Inspections 84 . 2401.
Firefighting Equipment Trials and Tests 84 2405.
High Pressure Sea Water System Tests and Trials 85 2412.
Flooding and Salvage Arrangement Trials 85 2413.


Issue 2


1. This Naval Engineering Standard (NES) is sponsored by the Naval Support Command, Ships
Support Agency, Section ME225.

2. This NES comprises of three parts:

Part 1 Policy for Surface Ships

Part 2 Policy for Submarines

Part 3 Surface Ship and Submarine Equipment

3. If it is found to be unsuitable for any particular requirement the Sponsor is to be informed

in writing.

4. Any user of this NES either within MOD or in industry may propose an amendment to it.
Proposals for amendments which are not directly applicable to a particular contract are to
be made to the Sponsor of the NES and those directly applicable to a particular contract are
to be dealt with as specified in the contract.
5. No alteration is to be made to this NES except by the issue of a formal amendment.

6. Unless otherwise stated, reference in this NES to approval, approved, authorized or similar
terms, means by the Ministry of Defence in writing.

7. Any significant amendments that may be made to this NES at a later date will be indicated
by a vertical sideline. Deletions will be indicated by 000 appearing at the end of the line

TI) T10TT1Tl1= T !l/1X.f11lTTlllTA T
Issue 2


Issue 2


0101. This NES defines the requirements for Damage Control and Fire Protection for the safety of
Surface Ships (including RFAs)'and Submarines and is applicable to both new design and
existing vessels.

0102. The requirements and general principles apply in full to submarines, frigates, destroyers and
_ larger vessels except where specific rules take precedence (Clauses 0103 and 0104 refer). They
also apply to minor war vessels where detailed requirements are to be modified according to
the vessels size and function.

0103. Specific requirements for submarines are specified in Part 2.

0104. Special requirements for RFAs to meet DTp regulations are specified in Part 1 Section 23.

0105. The requirements following a nuclear reactor accident are not covered. Details of these
requirements are specified in BR 3019 (Nuclear Reactor Accidents).



0201. This NES calls for the use of processes, substances and/or procedures that may in injurious to
health if adequate precautions are not taken. It refers only to technical suitability and in no way
absolves either the supplier or the user from statutory obligations relating to health and safety
at any stage of manufacture or use. Where attention is drawn to hazards, those quoted may not
necessarily be exhaustive.


0301. The following documents, publications and drawings are referred to in this NES:

See Section
BS 336 Specification for fire hose couplings and ancillary 10, 18
_ equipment
BS 381C Specification for colours for identification coding and 11
special purposes
BS 476, Part 6 Method of test for fire propagation for products 14
BS 2782, Part 1 Determination of the Oxygen Index of the Products of
Combustion from Small Specimens of Material
BS 4001, Part 1 Recommendations for the compressed air open circuit 21
BS 4547 Classification of fires 13
DEF STAN 05-34 Marking of Service Materials 9
. NES 102 Requirements for Air Conditioning & Ventilation Design 6, 7, 9, 15, 17
NES 109 Weight and Stability Control Manual 6
NES 112 Requirements for Windows and Wipers, Surface Ships 15
NES 118 Material Requirements for the NBC Defence of Surface 7, 9
Ships including RFAs
Issue 2
See Section
NES 121 Requirements for Galleys and Associated Spaces in 15
Surface Ships
NES 126 Storerooms 9
NES 127 Access Fittings and Equipment 14, 22
NES 149 Access Policy in Surface Ships 22
NES 155, Parts 1 & 2 Requirements for Structural Practices in Steel Surface 4, 8
NES 179 Requirements for Lockers (Magazine, RU Magazine and 18
Detonator) used for the Stowage of Explosive Stores in
HM Surface Ships and HM Submarines .
NES 183, Parts 1 & 2 Requirements for the construction and System 7, 13, 14, 15, 18
Arrangements in Magazines and Weapon Storage
NES 314 Compressed Air Systems 21
NES 320 Fuel Systems for Gas Turbines and Diesel Engines in 8, 14
Surface Ships
NES 349 Depth Dependent Sea Water Systems, Submarines
NES 35? Requirements for Gaseous Fire Fighting Systems for 15, 17
Machinery Compartments in Surface Ships
NES 360 Standard Valves, Metric (Low Pressure)
NES 502 Requirements for Electrical Installations 14, 15
NES 518 Requirements for limited Fire Hazard (LFH) Sheathing 14
for Electric Cables
NES 525 Requirements for Electric Cables, Thin Wall Insulated, 14
Limited Fire Hazard
NES 526 Requirements for Cables, Electric Rubber Insulated, 14
Limited Fire Hazard Sheathed for General Service
NES 587, Parts 1 & 2 Requirements for Lighting Systems 22
NES 603 Guide to the Policy, Design and Installation of Fire 6, 16
Detection Systems in HM Ships
NES 703 Thermal and Acoustic Insulation of Hull and Machinery 7
NES 705 Selection of Materials on Basis of Fire Characteristics 6, 7, 14
NES 710 Fluid Systems, General Requirements 7, 18
NES 711 Determination of the Smoke Index of the Products of 14
Combustion from Small Specimens of Materials
NES 712 Requirements for Sewage and Grey Water Systems for ?
Surface Ships
NES 713 Determination of the Toxicity Index of the Products of 14
Combustion from Small Specimens of Material
NES 717 Requirements for Bilge Sullage and Drain Tank System 7,8
for Surface Ships
NES 719 Sea Water Systems for Surface Ships 8, 11, 18, 24
NES 723 Requirements for Marker Plates 8, 9, 11

Issue 2

See Section
NES 748 Strainers Preferred Range 10
NES 763 Preservation and Painting of Compartments in Surface 14
NES 764 Flame Metal Spraying and Hot Dip Galvanizing
NES 784 Requirements for Safety Signs and Colours
NES 853 Colour Coding and Marking for Systems & Handwheels
NES 858 Escape and Rescue Facilities
NES 868 Requirements for Centre Feed Hose Reels Requirements
NES 1032 for Aviation Arrangements. Surface Flotilla Naval
BR 300 Engineering Manual Naval Magazine and Explosive
BR 862 Regulations (HM Ships and Fleet Establishments)
Safety Regulations for the Storing and Handling of
Petroleum, etc
BR 1754 Procedure for Supervision of Ships and Vessels Building 7, 18
by Contract
BR 1921 Ship NBCD Manual - Damage Control & Fire Fighting 24
Catalogue of NBCD Stores for HM Surface Ships, RFAs
BR 2170 (1) Various
and Fleet Shore Establishments
BR 2170(3) Various
Marine Engineering Manual
Nuclear Reactor Accidents
BR 3000 18
International Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus
BR 3019 1
Grinnell Flow Alarm System
BR 3024 21
Olympus TM3B and Tyne RM1A Marine Gas Turbine
BR 4543 Propulsion Module 18
BR 6560(001)(1) 16

BR 6560(002)(1) 16
BR 8223 Breathing Apparatus, Self Contained, Compressed Air 21
(DC and FF)
BR 8414 Emergency Life Support Apparatus (ELSA)
BR 8470 and Annex Naval Shock Standards Various
SOLAS 1992 IMO Safety of Life at Sea 7
STANAG 1169 Firefighting Equipment & Principles for Harmonization 10
of Present and Future Equipment and Materials
BFPSA 051005 Code of Practice for Gaseous Firefighting Systems 13
Service Drawing Nos.

SDN 001-005-833 Foam Liquid Container Stowage

SDN 002-541-281 Heated Locker at In-Line Inductor Positions
003-500-887-896 Indicator Plugs 9
SDN 003-504-101 Control Markings, Details 19
Issue 2

0302. In the tender and procurement processes documents can be obtained as follows:

a. British Standards - British Standards Institution,

389 Chiswick High Road
London W4 4AL
b. Defence Standards - Directorate of Standardization
and Safety Policy, Stan 1,
Kentigern House, 65 Brown
Street, Glasgow G2 8EX c.
d. Other Documents - Tender or contract sponsor to advise

0303. All applications to Ministry establishments for related documents are to quote the relevant
MOD Invitation to Tender or Contract number and date, together with the Sponsoring
Directorate and the Tender or Contract sponsor.


0401. For the purpose of this NES the following definitions apply:

a. General

Air Test Applied to compartments which contribute to buoyancy

or reserve of buoyancy. The normal ambient pressure is
138 mbar with a subsequent test of 150 mm of water with
no more than a 13 mm loss in 10 minutes.
Airtight Structure that is airtight must withstand an over
' pressure test of 15 millibars in accordance with the
requirements specified in NES 155.
Citadel Is defined as the main group, or groups, of
interconnecting meeting compartments which can be
included together with unbroken gastight boundaries
and in which air can be recirculated. Movement must be
possible throughout the citadel without the need to leave
its confines.
Damage Control The means, passive and active, of controlling the effects
of damage sustained by enemy action, collision,
grounding, fire, flood and accident that could, if not
controlled, lead to the loss of the vessel.
Main Watertight Compartment Is a section formed by main transverse watertight
bulkheads and the ships side or pressure hull.
Smoke Containment Boundary Is a boundary which can be sealed to prevent the spread
of smoke. It is not required to be subject to a pressure test
but is to be tested by the use of a smoke generating device
to prove it's effectiveness.
Issue 2


Damage Control Organization(DCO)

0501. The task of the DC organization is detailed in BR 2170(1). It is briefly:

a. to limit the extent of damage and injury to personnel by pre-action preparations;
_ b. to control damage, as it occurs, be effective countermeasures to prevent its spread;
c. to effect emergency repairs with the utmost speed and efficiency.
0502. The need for this is greatest in war, or under war conditions, but if ships are prepared to meet
any wartime threat they will also be able to cope with accidents and emergencies at any time.
Therefore, an effective organization must be maintained at all times and all Damage Control
activity must be properly controlled and co-ordinated.

0503. Large major warships are to be divided for Damage Control purposes into sections, each
extending from keel to the upper most weatherdeck between certain main transverse bulkheads
and including those parts of the ships superstructures within the ship's citadel. Section
boundaries are to coincide with zones boundaries described in Section 7. In aircraft carriers the
hangars and flight deck are classed as separate sections, with Damage Control controlled from
Hangar Control Room and Aircraft Control Room respectively. The detailed work of Damage
Control is dealt with in the sections, each controlled from its own Section Base.
0504. For Damage Control purposes, all ships classified as frigates/destroyers and smaller are to be
regarded as "one section" ships with a Fire and Repair Party Post situated in each zone and
controlled from HQ1.

0505. Overall assessment and control in all ships is exercised from NBCD Headquarters (generally
called HQ1/SCC) which is to be sited as nearly central in the ship as possible. Large major
warships are to be fitted with a second NBCD Headquarters (HQ2) in accordance with clause
0509. HQ2 is to be a separate compartment.

NBCD Headquarters and Ship Control Centre (SCC)

0506. NBCD Headquarters (HQ1) is to be co-located with the electrical distribution and machinery
control centres in a combined Ship Control Centre (SCC). The Damage Control element is to
be designed to enable the display and dissemination of Damage Control information to be
co-ordinated with that from the electrical and machinery systems and must enable the
co-ordinator in charge of the SCC to control the various functions of the centre from a single
position. An intermediate level of control via NBCD, Propulsion and Electrical supervisors or
co-ordinators is required. The arrangement is to include a Damage Surveillance and Control
stem (DSAC) which will:
a. Display and monitor the Damage Control State and Condition of a ship and relevant
systems. The State concerns availability of men, materials and machinery; the
Condition covers watertight and gastight integrity (including smoke and fire
boundaries). All States and Conditions must be covered.
b. Indicate the nature and extent of damage incidents in peacetime or action at the time
of occurrence and subsequently in the post damage situation.
c. Enable containment of incidents, systems reconfiguration, repair activities and
restoration of fighting and seakeeping capability to be maintained and controlled.
Communications are an inherent feature of this requirement.
Issue 2

d. The rudimentary ability to use a chinamarker in extreme cases is an essential


0507. NBCD Headquarters (HQ1), as part of the SCC complex, is to be sited in a well shielded
position within the citadel. The compartment is to be situated away from the ship's side and
machinery spaces and sited on or with quick access to the communications deck. The
equipment and facilities to be provided in HQ1 are shown in Part 3.

0508. The SCC/NBCD HQ 1 is to be provided with smoke tight boundaries and a secondary fresh air
supply from within the citadel for use should the primary air supply become contaminated by
smoke or toxic fumes.

0509. In multiple NBCD section ships the second NBCD Headquarters (HQ2) is to be fitted out as a
replica of HQ 1. It is to be in a separate zone and separated from HQ 1 by at least two main
transverse bulkheads. If space is not available for a separate compartment HQ2 may be
combined with a Section Base which must then be increased in size to accommodate the
equipment and personnel necessary. In designing the compartment care is to be taken to
minimize the conflict between the two roles.

0510. In single NBCD section ships an Alternative NBCD Headquarters position (AHQ) for use
when HQ 1 is put out of action, is to be provided at a suitable Fire and Repair Party Post. It is
to be in a separate zone from HQ 1 and where possible separated from HQ 1 by at least one
zone. It is to be provided with the equipment listed in Part 3 as a minimum.

Section Bases

0511. Section Bases are to be sited on the deck which affords fire and repair parties the easiest fore
and aft movements. They are to be well protected by the ship's structure and be remote from
the ship's side. They are to be in communication with all their own outstations and with HQ 1
and HQ2 in accordance with NES 542. Each Section Base is to contain the equipment
specified in Part 3.

Section Bases in Ships with Between-Deck Hangar


0512. In ships with between-deck hangars, the Aircraft Control Room (ACR) and Hangar Control
Position (HCP) are to be designated as Section Bases in control of firefighting and damage
control on the Flight Deck and in the Hangar respectively (see BR 2170(1)).
The extension of responsibility of the ACR as a Section Base for the Island is to be considered
in conjunction with access and citadel requirements for this area but this is only to be
considered as a last resort.

Fire and Repair P r Posts

0513. In multiple NBCD Section Ships, each NBCD Section Base is normally to control two Fire and
Repair Party Posts. Ships regarded as "one section" ships will not have Section Bases and
control will be exercised by HQ 1. These ships are to befitted with a Fire and Repair Party Post
in each zone.

0514. The Posts will be manned in NBCD State 1 and require whole ship information as well as that
relative to their designated area of the ship, encompassing an Incident display, Ventilation and
HP Sea Water system information display (status, configuration, pressure, etc) plus an ability to
call up additional whole ship information including electrical supply and repair data.

NES 119 Part 1
Issue 2

0515. Posts are to be sited in each zone on the communications deck in single section ships and similarly
in each NBCD section of larger ships, except the ACR Section Base controlling the Flight Deck
section which is not provided with posts. The posts are to be purpose built, incorporating the
requirements shown in Part 3 and utilizing, where possible, space in messes, dining halls or other
areas not normally congested in NBCD State 1.

0516. The Fire and Repair Party Posts are to have combined built-in stowages fitted and are to be provided
with communications with HQ1, HQ2, AHQ or Section Bases as appropriate and a manometer for
citadel pressure, in one watertight space.

Upper Deck Re-entry Fire Party Post (Locker)

0517. The Upper Deck Re-entry Fire Party Post is dedicated to the purpose of gaining re-entry to the ship
when the ship's company has been driven out by untenable conditions. The Post is therefore to be
fitted to all Warships that do not have an alternative re-entry route with access to the FF/DC
equipment at another Fire and Repair Party Post (FRPP). Minor War vessels and RFA's are to be
fitted as defined in the Staff Requirement or as agreed with DG Ships/ME225.

0518. The Post is to be in the form of either a dedicated compartment with direct access to the
weatherdeck, or, where such a compartment is not available, a suitable weatherproof GRP locker is
to be sited in a readily accessible position on the weatherdeck. Details of the locker are shown in
NES 119 Part 3.

0519. The list of equipment required to be stowed in the locker is given in BR 2170(3)..

Zone Damage Control Bog

0520. Each DC zone not containing a fire and repair party post is to be fitted with a damage control bog
containing sufficient equipment to carry out first aid repairs within the zone. (For contents see Part
3 ). This will enable the zone boundaries to be kept intact until the situation permits more permanent
repairs to be carried out by the damage repair team from the relevant fire and repair party post.

Machinery Space Damage Control Boxes

0521. Each main machinery space is to be provided with a range of damage repair stores to enable speedy
first aid action to be taken without recourse to equipment from other sources.

0522. For details of the Machinery Space Damage Control Boxes see Part 3. The list of equipment required
to be stowed in the locker is given in BR 2170(3).

Central Damage Control Stores

0523. In addition to Fire and Repair Party lockers, a built-in locker, for the stowage of Central DC Stores
available to all NBCD Sections is to be sited adjacent to HQ1 in multiple NBCD Section Ships. See
NES 119 Part 3 for details of the locker and the contents.


Issue 2

Kys and Key Safes

0524. In large ships fitted with a separate NBCD HQ, or a SCC which includes NBCD HQ, two
cabinets are to be provided. In these cabinets, all keys, except for Category A Security Keys, are
to be stowed in sequence of the compartment location markings, ie deck number and watertight
sub-division letter. The main (user) cabinet is to be sited in NBCD HQ 1 under the charge of the
NBCD HQ Watchkeeper, and the duplicate cabinet in a widely separated position preferably
outside the Captain's cabin or in NBCD HQ2 (in ships so fitted). All key issues are to be made
from the main cabinet in NBCD HQ1. The duplicate set is to be kept complete so as to be
available in an emergency and for distribution if necessary to the NBCD Section Base or Fire and
Repair Party Post. The duplicate key of the main cabinet and both keys to the duplicate cabinet
are to be kept in safe custody as directed by the Captain.

0525. In those ships not fitted with a separate NBCD HQ or a SCC which includes NBCD HQ 1, two
keyboards are to be provided; one for Important and Armament Keys and the other for General
Keys. The former is to be sited in a suitably secure position such as in the vicinity of the
Wardroom or Captain's cabin. The duplicate set of Important and Armament Keys is to be kept in
a secure place remote from the Important and Armament Keyboard (but available for emergency
access) as directed by the Captain. The General Keyboard is to be provided with a Sea position
and a Harbour position, and the duplicate set of General Keys is to be kept as directed by the

0526. See Part 3 for details of the Key Cabinet.

0527. Key stowages are also to be provided at Section Bases (where fitted) in order to carry out the key
routine in various NBCD states listed in BR 2170(1).

0528. Locks and keys are generally to be selected from the range shown in BR 320, the Naval Stores
catalogue, the variety, size and numbers of keys being kept to a minimum. A single master key is
to be used where acceptable. A schedule is to be prepared listing the types of locks fitted in the
access doors and various compartments of the ship with a copy being held in HQ 1 and HQ2.

Weapons Repair Organization

0529. Instructions on the requirements and organization of the weapons repair facilities are given in BR

Task Analysis of Damage Control and Firefighting Personnel

0530. Against a background of reduced manning, it is important that designers validate as far as possible
the Damage Control and Firefighting complement allocated to the ship. The principal aims should
be to balance manpower against the need for automation in order to achieve an effective NBCD
organization. At the design stage, a properly conducted Task Analysis can be invaluable in
determining the extent to which planned resources will actually meet the demands which a given
fire scenario will place upon the ship. It is recommended that the Task Analysis draws upon the
widest available range of experience, including serving Naval officers.

Issue 2


Fire Protection

0601. The majority of fires occurring in ships and submarines have been small and have been promptly
extinguished with only very minor damage. The potential for a major fire is, however, obvious, and
from time to time this has resulted in fires causing extensive damage. Clearly the danger in wartime
is greater.
0602. The risk of fire in peacetime is greater in a submarine than in a surface ship due to:

a. The more extensive use of hydraulics, eg for the remote operation of valves.

b. The proximity of flammable materials to heat sources, eg the juxtaposition of oil

fittings and steam pipes.
c. The proximity of one potential fire source to another, eg oxygen generator adjacent to
HP Air Compressor Sump.
Similarly the consequences of fire are greater due to:

d. The increased machinery density, coupled with lack of space to provide fire boundaries.

e. The congestion, which complicates the use of portable extinguishers.

f. The completely enclosed nature of a submarine which increases the hazard from
smoke and the toxic products of combustion.
g. Buoyancy considerations limiting the quantity of water which may be used for
firefighting and boundary cooling.
h. The closeness of potential fire starters to Class D fuels (see Clause 1301) eg oxygen
generators, CO/HZ Burners and hydraulics in the same compartment as weapons,
pyrotechnics or oxygen candles.
j. The vulnerable location of many electric and electronic equipments and their cabling
without which a submarine cannot be effectively controlled.

0603. There are four main approaches to providing fire protection measures and these are outlined in
Section 15 and form the basis of other sections in this NES.

Limitation of Combustible Material

0604. The major contribution which the designer can make is in the choice of materials to be used and
consideration is always to be given to the fire characteristics of the materials being specified (see
NES 705), advice on their properties being sought, as necessary, from MOD(PE).

Preventing the Spread of Fires

0605. Since fire will occur despite all the precautions that are taken for their prevention there is a need for
prompt detection, containment of the fire and rapid extinguishment. Ship design must include the
vessel being divided into effective self contained zones, each zone being fitted with sufficient fire
barriers to limit the spread of fires, particularly from and to high risk areas.

Issue 2

Provision of Fire Detectors --

0606. Early detection of a fire is essential to prevent escalation. All vessels subject to this NES are to
be fitted with detection systems in accordance with NES 603.

Firefighting Systems and Equipment

0607. Fixed firefighting systems and portable equipment are to be fitted as necessary in order to.
restrict and control any credible outbreak of fire. The type of fire and the need to minimize
damage will determine the firefighting agent and equipment that is to be provided.

Damage Control

0608. The incidence of physical damage to surface ships in peacetime, other than by fire, is rare.
Damage by collision and other accidents does, however, occur and Damage Control
arrangements have a peacetime as well as wartime function. Peacetime hazards vary little and
the requirements for Damage Control are readily defined but because of the continued
escalation in weapon effect the wartime situation is more obscure and arbitrary limits are set for
assumed damage.

0609. The first step in Damage Control is to ensure adequate watertight subdivision to limit any
flooding. Essentially the limits of damage that can be sustained and remain afloat are set in the
early design stages. Sufficient stability is to be designed into surface ships to meet the
maximum credible incident as defined in NES 109 and the means must be provided to enable
the crew to control damage, restore essential services and fighting capability.

Location Marking

0610. In order that the position of any fire or damage can be accurately identified and located most
compartments in a ship are to be given a logical system of markings. This system is to be used
to refer to all watertight compartments, trunks, doors and hatches, to many fittings which affect
watertight or gastight integrity and to some compartments which, though not watertight are
important or in frequent use.

0611. For details of NBCD markings see Section 9.

0612. The subdivision of a ship, as described in BR 2170(1) , is to be achieved by the use of decks to
divide the ship horizontally from the weatherdeck to inner bottom and in superstructure. Main
transverse bulkheads are to divide the ship lengthwise into main sections. Minor transverse
bulkheads are to further divide these main sections. Longitudinal bulkheads also divide the
main sections. All main transverse bulkheads are to be continuous from the keel to the
underside of the weatherdeck.


0613. Zoning is to be employed to avoid catastrophic loss of an important system's capability caused
a. the spread of fire and/or toxic gases;

b. the effects of flooding;

c. the effects of blast damage;

Issue 2

d. high velocity fragments;

e. terrorist attack.
in any combination resulting from a single incident and is to encompass the following design aspects:
(1) redundancy;
(2) sub-division of functions and systems;
(3) separation of duplicated equipment and systems;
(4) division of the ship into protected zones;
(5) concentration of all necessary sub-systems and services into local area

0614. Zoning is to be achieved by selecting certain main transverse bulkheads which are to continue up
beyond the weatherdeck to the uppermost deck in the superstructure. These bulkheads are to be
designated zone boundaries. For details of zones see Section 7.


0615. The ventilation system is to be designed and fitted in accordance with the requirements of NES
102. It is to be autonomous within each zone and be supplied with filtered fresh air from its own
NBC air filter units (AFUs). In order to prevent the spread of smoke and toxic fumes produced by
any fire, facilities are to be provided for crash stopping all the fans fitted in the system including
AFUs. See Section 7.

Smoke Control

0616. The spread of smoke is a major hazard to personnel and a significant factor in preventing a clear
appreciation of the source and extent of a fire and in preventing the adoption of effective
firefighting measures. It is vital that, in the earliest stages of a fire, efforts are made to isolate
' the smoke into the smallest area consistent with the need to gain access to the fire.

0617. Since the ventilation system is the fastest way of spreading smoke through the ship, immediate
action is to be taken by HQ1 or AHQ to crash stop all fans and AFUs upon
_ detection of a fire.

0618. It is essential to maintain intact zone boundaries by ensuring that all doors and hatches are shut and
properly clipped. However, in order to permit the passage of firefighting teams through the ship,
between zones and still impede the progress of smoke between zones, air locks are to be fitted at
each zone boundary. Where this is not feasible flame retardant curtains are to be fitted at each zone
boundary and at watertight doors in main bulkheads on the communications deck to form effective
smoke barriers.
0619. For smoke clearance see Section 7.

Flood Control

0620. The need to contain and control flooding and ultimately remove the flood water is of paramount
importance if the stability and fighting capability of the ship is to be maintained.

0621. Flooding may be caused by damage to the hull as a result of collision, grounding or action damage,
by a broken system or by firefighting water. Whatever the cause the effect must be quickly
recognized and controlled before the stability of the ship is impaired.
Issue 2

0622. Any system that may cause extensive flooding when ruptured, eg HPSW system, is to be fitted with
adequate isolating valves that can rapidly be closed (See Section 11). Control of such valves is to be
from a remote position, eg SCC or HQ1, and locally at the valve.

0623. The extent of flooding can be limited by the closure of WT doors, hatches and valves, either before an
incident by means of ordered NBCD conditions or by rapid closure after an incident in accordance with
emergency procedures to form an effective flooding boundary. Any weakened structure within this
boundary is to be supported by shoring (see BR 2170(1)). Any leak stopping found necessary in adjacent
compartments must be promptly carried out using equipment listed in Part 3.

0624. When flooding has been contained and immediate repairs carried out, pumping can proceed. The
equipment listed in Part 3 is to be provided for that purpose.

0625. Compartments sited high up in the ship affected by flood water are to be drained as soon as possible
either by fixed drain systems directly overboard, portable pump suctions or by drainage into the bilges
where the water will have less effect on stability and can be removed by fixed bilge suction systems.


0626. Many of the various leak stopping devices used on ships depend upon shoring for their efficiency.
Shores may be either steel or wood (see Part 3) and also have other very important functions in a
damaged ship eg
a. Support of straining bulkheads, decks, doors, hatches against abnormal pressures.

b. Support for damaged and weakened structure and fittings. In both cases, the shoring
is used to distribute the stress loading of straining or weakened members to sound
parts of the structure. For details of use of shoring see BR 2170(1) Chapter 22.

Issue 2


Zoning and Sub-division of Surface Ships

0701. 7b minimise the consequences of an attack, ships and RFAs are to be divided into blocks or
zones using protective barriers to resist the spread of primary and secondary weapon effects
between them.

Zoning Principles

0702. Zoning is to be planned at an early stage taking cognisance of the desirability of maximising
zone autonomy. Major features which ought to be addressed include: self sufficiency, access,
escape and inter-zone dependency of major systems, as well, as the distribution of high value
compartments and the need for inter-zone transits during states of high alert. It is recommended
that a methodical evaluation of zoning proposals is conducted, taking account of locations of
fire pumps, access to upper decks and to neighbouring zones, ventilation, juxtaposition of
operational spaces, high value compartments, feeding, sleeping and toilet facilities etc. The
zone arrangement is to be tested against various `what if' scenarios, eg smoke logging of one
deck of a zone, fire in a passageway, or on a stairway, jamming of a watertight door; to ensure
that no circumstances arise which would be operationally unacceptable. Practical demands on
the zoning arrangement are of prime importance, eg is there sufficient access for firefighters ?
There should be a read-across to the General Arrangement audit to consider the distribution of
high risk compartments between zones and to the Task Analysis. The possibility of long term
operation in condition Zulu Alpha is to be addressed. The policy on zone autonomy is to be
consistently applied. The complexity of the problem is such that compromise will be inevitable,
therefore a highly structured approach using checklists and a common set of priorities is
recommended. Where appropriate the use of computer modelling is to be considered.


The study could be carried out in parallel with the General Arrangement audit (see Section 15)
and at the same stage of development.

0703. Ideally these zones are to be sufficiently self-contained to operate for continuous periods of up
to 12 hours with the zone boundaries shut. Each zone should have autonomous systems for:

a. Electrical power generation (with fuel supply).

b. Electrical power distribution.

c. Chilled water for essential equipments.

d. Weapon cooling systems.

e. Fire pumps and firefighting arrangements.

f. Flood and firefighting water removal and draining down into bilges.

g. Internal communications.

h. Machinery and damage surveillance and control.

j. Smoke containment and removal.

Issue 2

k. Ventilation and air conditioning. -

1. Collective NBC protection and air filtration.
m. Emergency support for the crew.
n. Compressed air distribution and compressor.

0704. The number, autonomy, size and arrangement of zones in any ship will be dependent on
operational, technical and financial constraints. The operational value of a greater degree of
protection provided by a larger number of zones must be balanced against the cost of the
additional sub-division required to support them, or the need for more personnel and systems to
cross zone boundaries. The constraints on zoning for a mechanically propelled ship will lead to
different solutions than will those arising for an electrically propelled ship. This latter ship will
allow a closer integration of zoning within the overall design. The overall survivability
assessment will need to consider the balance of assets afforded to Susceptibility and
Vulnerability in relation to the Operational Capability.

System Redundancy and Separation

0705. When designing systems which provide essential ship services, care is to be taken to separate
the system's primary supply plant and to provide a degree of over capacity in order to reduce
the Action State Vulnerability. Such redundancy and separation is normal for main electrical
generators, chilled water plant, high pressure sea water pumps and other support systems.
Consideration is to be given to some "high level" systems which provide a specific operational
capability eg major weapon sensors and delivery systems, although it is normally provided for
main propulsion and internal communication equipment. This redundancy and separation can
provide a capability to sustain action damage without total loss so long as loss of part of the
system does not itself initiate downstream losses of the remainder.

0706. Wide separation of duplicated equipment and system runs, preferably fore and aft, can
considerably increase the probability of retaining some system capability following a single
incident of accident or battle damage.

0707. The separation and position of high value and high risk compartments and systems is to be
considered in ship design studies (see Clause 0716 to 0719).

The Design Requirements for Zoning

0708. The requirements for the reduction of Vulnerability of ships by zoning and systems layout are
as follows:
a. As far as possible, each major system together with its support equipment and
services is to be arranged as a compact stand alone unit.
b. The stand alone units referred to above are to be placed at locations which are widely
distributed throughout the vessel.
c. Where a function can be performed by duplicate or multiple small units rather than
a single large unit (eg propulsion, power generation) then this is to be arranged, and
the units separated as widely as possible both port and starboard and fore-and-aft.
d. Where interconnecting services (eg power cabling, data highways, communications
controls, etc) are necessary, these should be carried in heat insulated armoured ducts
and duplicated or triplicated (port, starboard and centreline) where possible.
Issue 2

e. Systems which provide emergency alternatives in the event of battle damage are to
be widely separated fore-and-aft and self contained as in a. In unconventional
designs such as Small Water Plane Area Twin Hull (SWATH) alternative
arrangements may be necessary to provide a satisfactory degree of separation.
f. The vessel is to be divided lengthwise into zones, each with a maximum length of 30
m. The combined length of any two adjacent zones is to be not less than 30 per cent
nor more than 50 per cent of the waterline length of the ship. In conventional surface
ships zone end boundaries are to coincide with main watertight bulkheads and are
to be continuous from the keel to the highest superstructure deck, but in
unconventional vessels such as SWATH, alternative main structural members may
be used.
g. Manning implications are to be considered in relation to the design for zoning,
particularly with regard to Action State conditions whilst undertaking firefighting,
and or damage recovery or whilst in a Nuclear, Biological or Chemical environment.
h. Except for essential links, primary systems are to be self contained within a
particular zone. Each zone is to have its own air filtration and air conditioning
system. Main machinery spaces sited within a zone are to be fitted with separate air
filtration units (AFUs) for pressurization independent of the parent
j. Each zone is to be self contained to provide emergency support for the crew.
k. Zone boundaries are to be fire resistant, airtight and watertight. If emergency cross
connections are provided between zones, fireproof closing arrangements operable
from both sides are to be provided at zone boundaries and are normally to be kept
m. Boundaries, including doors and hatches, are to be resistant to blast and high velocity
fragments to the levels specified in the SR(s).
', n.Particular attention is to be given to personnel access and system design in order to
minimize zone boundary penetration. In particular, ventilation and sir conditioning
franking must not cross zone boundaries. The passage of pipes and cables through
zone boundaries must also be kept to an absolute minimum. Main transverse
_ bulkheads on the communications deck, which are nominated as zone boundaries are
to have the means for rapid closure of all openings. On the communications deck the
access doors through zone boundaries are to be fitted with suitable sized sir locks.
The watertight doors in the main transverse bulkheads so nominated are to be of an
approved quick-action type. There are to be at least two accesses opening onto the
upper deck within each zone,,one port, one starboard.
p. Magazines and high risk compartments (as defined in Clause 0715) are to be
separated from high value compartments (as defined in Clause 0715) and systems
q. Where equipment and systems cannot be easily duplicated, concentrated or
separated, then increased emphasis is to be placed on enhancing their damage
protection, eg by localized armouring, shock hardening, etc.
0709. These principles are to be incorporated into relevant system and equipment NESs and into the
technical requirements for all future Surface Warships and RFAs (where applicable) including
their weapons systems. Where no mandatory requirements are stipulated in the ST(S) or (SR(S)
the extent to which the principles of zoning can be applied in any specified design are to be
investigated during Feasibility.
Issue 2

Grouping of Sub-systems and Services to Reduce Vulnerability

0710. The vulnerability of specific primary functions can be reduced by minimizing the target
presented to the threat. This can be achieved by grouping all the sub-systems or services
supporting a high level operational system (Operating Critical or Essential) into the smallest
practical volume within the ship. Where this cannot be achieved alternative supplies are to be
provided from separate zones, located to minimize vulnerability of these supplies to weapons

vulnerability Assessment

0? 11. A Vulnerability Assessment is to be carried out on the whole ship firefighting and surveillance
systems using a reputable ship vulnerability program. This assessment is to be undertaken
during the earlier stages of the design so that there is sufficient time available to cater for repeat
assessments should they be necessary. It is recommended that the Vulnerability Assessment is
carried out on the first firm proposal for the routing of the main sensor circuit, the HPSW
system and the location of the fixed firefighting arrangements. It is also to take into account
likely signal routes to remote valves. It is recommended that the program is used as an
optimising tool , with dependency diagrams being modified at vulnerable points and further
iterations being executed.

Structural Considerations and the Spread of Fire

0712. The structural subdivision of a ship provides a material system of fire barriers. The
effectiveness of these barriers will depend on the materials and thickness of decks and
bulkheads and the capability to rapidly close openings to prevent the spread of fire and smoke.
It is essential in the early stage of the design of a vessel that sources of fire risk and the threat
that they pose to operationally important compartments are recognized, ie high fire risk areas
are to be separated from explosive, dangerous and high value compartments. Compartments
with installed gaseous firefighting systems (eg C02) are to be air tight and designed to
withstand an overpressure of 50 kPa.

Fire Burden of Compartments

0713. The fire burden of a compartment is determined by computing the products of the mass of each
type of material used in the compartment and its respective calorific value. It indicates the
amount of heat which that compartment can contribute if involved in a fire.

0714. As a minimum the designer is to: .

a. Minimize the fire burden of each compartment eg by use of metal rather than wood
for furniture; low flammability and low toxicity bedding, curtains, carpets, bulkhead
coverings, adhesives, paints, etc. All materials are to comply with the requirements
of NES 705.

b. Consider the total burden of each compartment together with its neighbour in each
direction (unless separated by an adequate fire barrier) with the aim of physically
separating high fire burden compartments, eg when deciding the type of
compartment to site adjacent to a diesel generator space it is necessary to avoid other
oily areas, wire stores, offices containing books and papers, etc in favour of water
tanks, bathrooms and similar low burden spaces.
Issue 2

Compartment Classification

0715. Compartments and spaces are to be classified according to the risk inherent in their function,
a. High Fire Risk

Diesel Generator Compartments

Fuel Pump Spaces


Gas 7hrbine Compartments

LOX Compartments, Hangars

Machinery removal and escape trunks to the above Compartments

Main and Auxiliary Machinery Spaces

Uptakes and Downtakes

Ventilation trunks from Machinery Spaces up to the close down flaps.

b. Explosive Risk

Magazines, Magazine Lockers, RU Magazines and Magazine Lockers and designated

danger areas as defined in NES 183 Part 1.

Gasoline Compartments

c. Electronic and Operational Spaces of High Value

Computer Rooms

Conversion Equipment Rooms

- Designated Communications and Weapon Equipment Compartments

Electrical Distribution Centers

EW Spaces

Main Cable and Wiring Spaces

Navigational Equipment Compartments

Operations Room

Ship Control Centres

Sonar Instrument Spaces

Special Weapons Compartments in consultation with the Weapons Group

Issue 2

Telephone Exchanges

d. Dangerous Areas

The definition of dangerous areas and the safety regulations for storing and handling
petroleum oils, lubricants and certain other hazardous stores are contained in BR 1754.

e. Accommodation Spaces

These spaces generally present a low fire risk since such fires that occur usually start as
a result of carelessness. In these circumstances the compartments are occupied and the
outbreak is quickly dealt with. However, should fire gain a hold, eg by spreading from
a high risk area, or as a result of action damage, then the accommodation spaces
present a considerable hazard because of the Class A fire burden, toxicity and smoke
production of the materials with which they are furnished.

Siting of Compartments

0716. The regulations governing the separation of magazines and dangerous areas from other
specified compartments are contained in NES 183 Part 1.

0717. Similarly, wherever possible, Electronic and Operational Spaces of High Value are not to be
placed so as to have a common boundary with a High Fire Risk area, also High Fire Risk areas
are not to have common boundaries. Where this cannot be avoided fire barriers are to be
provided as stated in Clause 0712.

0718. Flammable Stores are not to be sited such that their boundaries are subjected to direct sunlight
which would then result in dangerously high temperatures under tropical conditions. Where
re-siting the store is not possible, arrangements are to be made for a supply from a convenient
air conditioning system for use in tropical conditions.

0719. New designs are to separate high fire risk areas from all other categorized areas wherever

Fire Barrier Insulation

0720. Common boundaries between compartments throughout new design ships are to be protected
both horizontally and vertically, by the fitting of fire barrier insulation in accordance with the
requirements of SOLAS 1992 Chapter II-2. The fire barrier insulation to be used and its
method of fixing is to be in accordance with NES 703.

0721. The requirement to form a fire barrier is to take precedence over requirements for other forms
of insulation. The fire protection slab (FPS) specified in the Fire Barrier Insulation section of
NES 703 has been shown to have adequate acoustic properties to make it an acceptable
alternative to acoustic treatment currently being used. It should not be necessary to use Fire
Barrier Insulation in thicknesses greater than 75 mm for acoustic purposes. It also provides
thermal insulation acceptable to NES 102 for bulkheads, deckheads and ventilation trunks.

Issue 2

Fire Resistant Closures

0722. Ventilation trunks leading from High Fire Risk compartments are to be fitted with fire resistant
closures at the compartment boundary. This is particularly important in trunks to machinery
spaces in order to avoid the possibility of heat from a severe fire within the machinery space
spreading to other compartments having common boundaries with the trunks. The closures are
to be mechanically operated and be capable of readily accessible operation from outside the
compartment. Operating arrangements are to be sited close to
` the deck to avoid difficulties in location when in a smoke filled environment. In small ships,
or where the run of trunking is such that the threat of spread of fire is minimal, then the
above requirement may be waived and the normal NBC terminal closures can be used to
close down the compartment. In this latter case care must be taken that the closures are
readily accessible, and can be quickly operated with a major fire developing within the
machinery space. Flash tight butterfly valves are to be fitted to ventilation trunks where
they enter and leave magazines, in accordance with the requirements of NES 183 Part 1.

Hazards of Machinery Systems

0723. The use of oil for fuel, lubrication and for control systems results in a complex system of
pressurized pipework in which joints, flanges and valves provide potential leak sources. When
such systems are fitted adjacent to equipments which may have a surface temperature above
that of the ignition temperature of the oil, then there is a high risk of fire occurring. These
conditions exist within the majority of machinery spaces.

0724. The general arrangement and detailed pipe systems are to embody the need to reduce potential
fire sources to a minimum. Defective pipe couplings are probably the commonest cause of fires
in machinery spaces. They can result in spray or mists of oil which ignite on contact with
exposed high temperature surfaces, or which soak into insulation on hot areas and ignite when
the temperature is sufficiently high. This phenomenon may even occur when the temperature of
the surface that is lagged is below the flash point of the oil. This is because the oil spreads over
the fibres of the lagging, developing a large surface area and with the addition of heat oxidizes
and releases more heat. Smouldering may even break out. See NES 710 for the required
disposition of pipes and joints to avoid their proximity to sources of heat.

0725. Where possible, mechanical joints in high pressure oil pipework systems are to be avoided in
- favour of welded connections. Where joints have to be accepted adjacent to sources of heat,
muffs are to be provided over the joints. Consideration is also to be given to cladding with
steel sheet such lagged equipment as may be exposed to oil leaks so as to avoid a potential
fire hazard.

0726. Where hydraulic pipework is fitted with couplings in areas where a coupling failure may result
in hydraulic oil coming into contact with hot surfaces, muff couplings are to be fitted as

a. fit "drain-line" muffs where leakage could fall on very hot surfaces;

b. fit "simple" muffs elsewhere in high fire risk areas.

c. otherwise no muffs are required.

0727. A "simple" muffis a couplingwhich prevents the formation of an oil spray. Because hydraulic
oil is relatively difficult to ignite except when heated or in a spray, the muff is used in Weapon
Stowage Compartments, for instance, to avoid providing fuel for a fire to start. This muff will
drip when the joint leaks.
Issue 2

0728. A "drain-line" muff incorporates a drain line where leakage is led away to some form of
collector or drain tank. This is to be used to prevent oil leakage coming into contact with hot
surfaces and igniting.

0729. Unnecessary "through- systems"which could contribute to a fire or be damaged by fire are to
be excluded from high fire risk compartments.

0730. Major fires have resulted from the overflow of fuel oil tanks through their vent pipes. To
restrict the spread and splash caused by such overflow the vents are to be taken either to the
weatherdeck and be fitted with a flame arrestor (surface ships only) or to a tank drain below
the valve so that inadvertent discharge is made low in the compartment. Any oil spillage is to
be treated in accordance with NES 717.

0731. Facilities are to be provided at a suitable, permanently manned, location to enable (in the event
of an overflow or oil spray fire) the rapid and remote isolation of the hydraulic systems by:
a. stopping of hydraulic pumps;

b. depressurization of hydraulic accumulators;

c. isolation of the hydraulic system from the hydraulic plant;

d. depressurization of sir pressurized oil holding tanks.

Vertical Trunks

0732. Vertical trunks, eg food lifts, machinery removal trunks, which pass through one or more decks
can act as ideal 'chimneys' which can easily spread fire from one deck to another. All such
trunks are to be constructed of steel or similar fire resistant material to A60 standards (wood or
aluminium is not to be used under any circumstances) and are to be capable of being sealed at
the top and bottom by fire resistant doors or hatches, with a capacity of resisting fire for at least
one hour duration. All such trunks are to be fitted with a fire detector and manually operated
spray systems to cool the trunk sides and prevent the passage of smoke or flame through the
trunk. Ventilation trunks passing through decks are to be fitted with smoke tight closures at
each deck above the RED waterline and watertight closures below the RED waterline.

Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems

0733. Air conditioning and ventilation systems are to be grouped within autonomous zones, each
being self-sufficient in NBC Filtration (AFU) capacity. Zone boundaries are co-incident with
main watertight transverse bulkheads and are not to be penetrated by any ventilation systems
other than emergency valves. Emergency valves are to be operable from both sides of the
bulkhead and are to remain closed in all normal circumstances. Subdivision and isolation
within zones at intermediate watertight bulkheads is to be controlled by valves in trunking or in
doors. Systems are to be designed and balanced for optimum performance in the zoned

0734. AFUs, ATUs, Machinery Space Fans and other miscellaneous compartment fans, other than
those on closed circuit compartment systems, are to be capable of being crash stopped from HQ
1. Remote starting of AFUs, Smoke Control and Machinery Space Fans from HQ 1, all on a
zone basis, is to be provided in addition to the normal local starting arrangements. Other fans
are to be started locally at the fan starter position (see NES 118).

Issue 2

0735. Main passageways which are used as part of the ships ventilation or air conditioning system
can lead to rapid spread of smoke and fumes, therefore such use is to be kept to an absolute
minimum. Watertight doors and hatches are to be shut in high NBCD conditions and under no
circumstances are these to be used for the circulation of air. Where the passageways are
adjacent to main machinery compartments the exhaust fans to these compartments may be used
to clear the ship of smoke. Supply fans may also be used to create pressure within the
passageway to prevent ingress of smoke where circumstances warrant this action (see Clause

0736. When the above circumstances do not apply dedicated large capacity fans are to be provided in
accordance with NES 102 and shown on the ventilation board as the fans to be used for smoke
clearance (see Clause 0743).

0737. Jumper trunks used in ventilation systems are to be fitted with closures to prevent the spread of
heat and smoke. Where closures are required for WT subdivision these may also be used for
fire protection purposes.

0738. All ventilation trunking fitted in high fire risk areas is to be constructed of steel. All ventilation
trunking which is specified to be fitted with acoustic absorption treatment is to use fire resistant
materials (see NES 102). Ventilation trunking fitted to magazines is to be manufactured and
fitted in accordance with the requirements of NES 183 Part 1.

Fire Flaps

0739. Group ventilation between main transverse bulkheads is to be fitted with fire flaps in the trunks
passing through WT bulkheads. Bulkheads which have been designated as zone boundaries are
to be in accordance with Clause 0733.

0740. Wherever practical fire flaps are to be fitted in all trunks passing into electronic and operational
spaces designated in Clause 0715c and for galley ventilation in accordance with Clause 0714.
See Clause 0722 for fire resistant closures to high fire risk compartments.

0741. Fire flaps are to be constructed so that they can be operated from each side of the deck or
bulkhead except as required by Clause 0740. Consideration is to be given to the need to operate
the flap by a fusible link or other heat sensitive device within the range 702 C - 802 C.

0742. Fire flaps in trunking to electronic and operational spaces passingthrough minor bulkheads are
to be operable from one side of the bulkhead only as follows:

a. From outside the compartment in a readily accessible position in an adjacent access

lobby, passageway or unlocked compartment.

b. From inside the compartment when separate access or escape is available.

NOTE: Adjacent high value compartments, when the common boundary is a minor


Issue 2

Smoke Clearance

0743. Smoke clearance is only undertaken when a fire is extinguished since all but small fires will
have a virtually inexhaustible supply of smoke, any attempt to clear smoke before a fire is
extinguished will risk the introduction of more sir to the fire. Smoke clearance is therefore a
secondary action with less priority than smoke containment and control. Smoke control is
affected by the correct use of doors, hatches and smoke curtains and where appropriate, by
maintaining a small positive pressure in the smoke free areas of the ship (see also Clause

0744. Whilst a fire detection system containing smoke detectors will indicate the presence of smoke
in the relevant compartments (see Section 16) it will not give information required for smoke
clearance activities. These detectors are set to a fairly low threshold so cannot be used to
determine when smoke clearance is necessary. Separate high threshold detectors are to be
fitted to indicate when smoke clearance fans are to be started. These detectors are to report
back to the HQ1 operations console.

0745. The Fire Detection System mainly indicates the presence of smoke or fire on a geographical
basis. Judicious use of ventilation outside a smoke containment area can do much to enhance
that containment. Therefore, the ability to start dedicated smoke removal fans and re-start AFU
and ACU fans as required is to be provided in HQ1 and HQ2.

0746. Zone smoke clearance is to be facilitated by dedicated exhaust fans of not less than 4000 m3/hr
capacity at 150 mm water gauge, interlocked with a remotely actuated butterfly valved trunk to
atmosphere. Ideally the fan is to be sited in the highest suitable deck of the zone with a
compensating trunked air supply, from atmosphere, to the lowest part of the zone to create
sufficient air movement to facilitate smoke removal. The trunk inlet is to be sited well clear of
the exhaust fan discharge to prevent the re-introduction of the smoke. The trunk is to be
watertight throughout its length with valves fitted at the RED waterline and provided with
facilities for the remote shutting of the inlet. The zone which contains main machinery spaces
may utilize their exhaust fans provided that they are of adequate capacity and are capable of
discharging direct to atmosphere. Valve status and fan power-on, running or stopped
indications and fan stop and start facilities are required in HQ1 and HQ2. Door and hatch and
other ventilation status all have an impact since fresh air routes need to be identified.

Fire Curtains

0747. Between-deck hangars are to be conveniently subdivided by means of fire curtains, as

specified in NES 1032. The curtains are to extend the full width and height of the hangar
without impeding the movement of aircraft when not in use.

Smoke Curtains

0748. In order to permit controlled access by personnel whilst maintaining zone boundaries and to
subdivide long passageways to impede the spread of smoke and toxic gases, curtains made
from a flame retardant fabric are to be fitted where specified below. Details of the Smoke
Curtains are shown in NES 119 Part 3.
Issue 2

c. At intervals of 10 to 15 metres along long passageways eg to coincide with arched

openings, care being taken to ensure that the bulkhead at either end of the curtain is
made of steel.

Jettisonable Stowages

0750. Jettisonable stowages as described in NES 119 Part 3 are to be provided on the
. weatherdecks of Surface Ships for dangerous fluids, eg petroleum oils and lubricants, as
required by BR 1754 Part 2.

Gas cylinders

0751. Gas cylinders containing flammable gases for welding and hydrogen for water chemistry are
not to be stowed in high fire risk areas. Where a ready use bottle needs to be permanently
rigged in a high fire risk area, thermal insulation and adequate fire protection measures (ideally
a manually operated cooling water spray system) are to be fitted. Hydrogen cylinders are to be
earthed in accordance with the requirements of BR 1754.

Magazine Viewing Devices

0752. Fish eye viewing devices are to be fitted to certain magazines for security to allow damage
control parties to assess a damage situation before opening a magazine door. See NES 183 Part

Disposal of Firefighting Water

0753. It is essential that adequate subdivision and drainage facilities be provided in compartments
and passageways above the waterline to limit the effects on stability of free surface flood water
arising from firefighting and boundary cooling in the event of a fire.

0754. Drains are to be fitted to all decks on the basis of one port and one starboard per watertight
section, with due regard to trim and local subdivision. Siting drains in compartments normally
kept locked is to be avoided.

0755. The deck drains are to be fitted generally in accordance with NES 712 and are to be of
sufficient size to allow for the rapid drainage of flood water from the affected section.

0756. Drains fitted in sections on 1 deck and above are to be led directly to the ship or superstructure
side to discharge overboard. All such drains are to be fitted with 150 mm deep water seals to
preserve the integrity of the gastight citadel.

0757. The deck drains fitted in watertight sections below 1 deck are to be led down to the lowest part
of the bilge or bilge drain tank.

0758. All drains fitted to or passing through the RED deck are to be fitted with valves, operable from
the SCC or communications deck, to preserve the watertight integrity of that deck. The valves
so fitted are to be provided with open and shut indication but are not to be capable of being
locked in either position.

0759. The bilge or bilge tank in each WT section is to be fitted with an eductor of sufficient capacity
to facilitate the rapid removal of the flood water by discharge overboard.
Issue 2

0760. Where existing compartment drains are utilized for the removal of flood water they are to be
treated as specified in Clauses 0755 and 0756. Flood water is not to be passed to the sewage
treatment or holding tanks which would soon become overloaded and lead to the discharge of
raw effluent overboard. Compartment drains nominated for the removal of flood water are to
be of a sufficient capacity so as to comply with the requirements of Clause 0755.

0761. Care is to be taken when positioning the deck drains that there is a clear route for the flood
water to flow to the drains. Where savealls, door comings, etc lie on the drainage route
consideration is to be given to the fitting of removable sections or drainage plugs to allow the
free passage of the flood water. Consideration is to be given when positioning the deck drains
to ensure that they run clear of electrical equipment sited in compartments under.

0762. An appropriate label or tally plate system is to be provided to indicate the position of the flood
water deck drains and associated valves during dark, smoke, flooding and other hazardous

Fixed Hatch Water Wall Device

0763. A device for the spraying of a horizontal curtain of water across hatch openings is to be fitted
to the hatches which give access to:
a. All Machinery Spaces.

b. Routes to Mess decks.

c. Routes leading to compartments containing flammable materials.

d. Routes leading to compartments containing electronic equipment.

The curtain of water is to provide an effective barrier across an open hatch to a

compartment in which there is (or has been) a fire, thus denying the fire a supply of free
oxygen, reducing the spread of smoke and cooling the ladder below, thus allowing
passage for firefighters. See NES 119 Part 3 for details.

Issue 2



0801. In order to maintain adequate stability in the event of accidental or action damage and facilitate
subsequent recovery, pumping out arrangements are to be provided in the main machinery
spaces and the remainder of the ship as follows:

a. Main Machinery Spaces Fixed salvage eductors powered from the HP sea water main
are to be provided for pumping out main machinery compartments. A pumping
capacity of 100-200 tonnes/hour is to be provided in each machinery space, with a
minimum of two eductors.

b. Outside Machinery Spaces Portable pumps and standpipes are to be fitted in

accordance with Section 10.

0802. In ships over 4000 tonne, rapid flood arrangements, via sea cocks, are to be arranged for trim
tanks and other WT compartments as may be required by the Ship Procurement Specification.


0803. In addition to the eductors in the machinery spaces other smaller capacity eductors are to be
fitted at intervals through the length of the ship for the removal of oil free water from bilges
and drain tanks as specified in NES 717 which also specifies the method of collection and
treatment of oil polluted water. Compartments concerned will be fully listed in the Ship
Procurement Specification.

0804. Portable eductors for the clearance of surface water are to be supplied in accordance with
Section 10.

0805. De-ballastingof compensated fuel tanks and the emptying of ballast tanks is to be arranged by
utilizing machinery space eductors. See NES 719 and NES 320. Large capacity ballast
- tanks in ships such as the LPDs are to be emptied by large capacity motor driven pumps as
specified in the Procurement Specification.

Control of Eductors

0806. All eductors are powered from the HPSW system and therefore create a demand on the same
source as that which supplies water for firefighting and pre-wetting. Use of all eductors is
therefore to be controlled from the NBCD HQ, HQ2 or AHQ.

Operating Positions for Eductors

0807. Operation of small capacity service eductors is to be local to the eductor. Main salvage
eductors in machinery spaces are to be operated locally and from a general position above the
red risk zone. This applies to the eductor motive water control valve and the suction valve (see
NES 719). Discharges are to be directed overboard via hull valves and non-return valves. A
notice, in accordance with NES 723, is to be secured adjacent to each operating position
detailing the safe sequence of valve operation.
Issue 2

Flood Warning System

0808. Flood warning sensors are to be fitted in ALL watertight compartments or sections within the
RED RISK ZONE (RRZ). They are to be capable of indicating spec depths of flooding,
whether caused by hull or system rupture, and relaying the information to the NBCD damage
control display in HQ1, HQ2, or AHQ. Audible and visual indication is to be given when
limiting conditions are being approached.

0809. High value compartments above the RRZ through which pipes containing fluids pass are also
to be fitted with flood warning sensors which are set to give warning that flood levels are
approaching the height of the lowest component above deck level. These sensors will
invariably need to be fitted with the lower end of the sensor tubes terminating in a pocket
fitted in the deck.

0810. The first priority of all flood sensors is to indicate the presence of flooding, since in some
cases free surface effects from relatively small volumes of fluids high in the ship could be very
significant. Indication of specific depths) of flooding is to be transmitted to the SCC (HQ 1)
where volumes or mass can be obtained from the Incident display or by interrogating a
Damage Control Data Retrieval System and is to provide an interface for stability assessment.

0811. Repeat visual and audible indication is to be made available at the Alternative HQ and FRP
Posts, but HQ1 must remain the primary acceptance and control position. Alternative HQ and
the FRP Posts are to act as acceptance and control positions, either by delegation or
non-acceptance by HQ1 after a prescribed time.

0812. Knowledge of the cause of flooding is very important ie damaged hull, damaged systems or
both. A damaged system might be indicated by pressure or flow loss but in the final analysis
information may only be possible on potential causes by the display of affected compartments)
details on a Damage Control Data Retrieval System VDU. HQ 1 will use the information to
examine how best to stop the flooding, reduce its effect and then remove it.

Heel Indicators

0813. Heel indicators are to be provided and fitted in the following positions:

a. NBCD HQ )

or SCC

b. MCR )

c. HQ2 or AHQ

d. Engineers Office

e. Bridge

f. Section Bases
Issue 2

Draught Indicators

0814. Draught indicators of an approved type to indicate the trim of the ship are to be provided and
fitted in the following positions:

b. MCR,
c. SCC

d. HQ2 or AHQ

Indicator Test Pluas

0815. Indicator test plugs (to SDN 003 500 887-896 inc) which enable tests for flooding are to be
fitted on surface ships to all WT compartments within the RED zone except those normally
containing liquid in bulk, as detailed in BR 2170(1). Indicator test plug type A, short type, is to
be fitted for normal use. Indicator test plug type B, long type, NSN 0244/5340-99-525-1965,is
to be used in Magazines, Inflammable Stores and Spirit Rooms. The type B plug has a longer
threaded section which is drilled and fitted with a nut and split pin to prevent withdrawal of the

0816. Plugs are to be fitted to the crown of each compartment in the hatch or manhole giving access,
compartments fitted with WT doors are to be fitted with plugs in the upper part of the door at
approximately 1.6 m to 1.7 m above the deck.

0817. Test plugs are not required in WT doors fitted on the communications decks) where access is
available from both sides of the door unless they are within the Red Risk zone, in which case
they are to be fitted in the side from which access will usually be gained.

0818. Adaptors for the air testing of compartments are to be provided in accordance with NES 155
Parts 1 and 2.

Issue 2



0901. Resistance to flooding depends on watertight integrity; protection against NBC contamination
inside the ship depends on the maintenance of integrity of the gastight citadel. Both, in turn,
depend on:

a. Continuous maintenance and routine checks to ensure the integrity of bulkheads and
decks and the fittings that pierce them.

b. Disciplinary control of all doors, hatches, ventilation valves and other openings.

0902. Although it is vital to maintain the watertight structure and fittings in an efficient condition,
experience has shown that progressive flooding has almost always been due to inadequate
control of openings. The system of markings described herein has been designed to make this
control effective, both for watertight or gastight integrity.

0903. Risk Markings are to be applied to all openings within the red risk zone, which are deemed to
be, when open, of immediate risk to watertight integrity. All such openings are known as `red
openings' which, in an emergency can be rapidly shut by order.

0904. Control Markings are to be applied to doors, hatches, valves, ventilation fans and openings
affecting watertight and gastight integrity as a means of control for achieving and maintaining
the various watertight and gastight conditions required when operating the ship. The gastight
condition ALFA is superimposed on watertight conditions `X', `Y' or `Z' as required and it is
imperative that systems are designed with due regard to watertight integrity, particularly where
joint gastight and watertight control are involved. Additionally WT Control Markings (mainly
`Z') are to be applied to doors and hatches outside the red risk zone for the purpose of blast
protection, fire and smoke control and

further division of sub-citadels.

Watertight Condition - Red Risk Zone

0905. Survival after severe damage to a surface ship depends on its stability, watertight subdivision
and on the damage control organization of the ship. The design procedure for examining
stability after damage is outlined in NES 109. Zb ensure the efficiency of the watertight
subdivision a red risk zone is designated extending from the keel to above the deep waterline,
rising at the ends of the ship to take account of trim and rising towards the ships side as the
beam increases to take account of heel. The red risk zone therefore takes account of the
increase in draught, heel and trim due to damage. For the efficient operation of the damage
control organization all openings within the zone are to bear red risk markings, and control
markings `X' or `Y' and exceptionally `Z', as defined herein and BR 2170(1).

0906. The red risk zone is to be designated from the calculations made for survival after damage as
defined in NES 109. The zone is to be developed from the following criteria:

a. The worst case damage.

b. Initial condition - deep plus growth.

c. A heel angle of 15° in addition to any static heel angle due to a.

Issue 2

0907. With a few exceptions listed in BR 2170(1), `X' openings are kept closed in peacetime, `X' and
`Y' openings are kept closed in wartime and `X', `Y' and `Z' openings are kept closed in action
(see BR 2170 for full details). It is imperative that this is taken fully into account in designing
the ship for movement of personnel, ship ventilation and maintenance of citadel pressures in
the closed down conditions.

Gastight Condition

0908. Gastight and pressurized citadel and sub-citadels are to be provided, tested and maintained in
accordance with the requirements detailed in NES 118 and BR 2170(1).

NBCD Markings

0909. BR 2170(1) is the mandatory document for all NBCD markings and contains the general
information and detailed application for these markings.

0910. NBCD markings fall into four main categories:

a. Risk and Control Markings.

b. Location Markings.

c. Miscellaneous Markings.

d. May Be Left Open (MBLO) discs.

0911. NESs 723 and 784 are to be used for guidance in the manufacture and fixing of all tallies
where this does not conflict with the mandatory requirements of BR 2170.

0912. Reference is to be made to Def Stan 05-34 for standard requirements of markings not specified
in BR 2170.

Risk tend Control Markings

0913. Watertight and gastight risk and control markings are decided by DG Ships / ME225 and are
mandatory. Guidance will be given to the Shipbuilder for new construction and for ships
undergoing modernization or long refit.

0914. Where seagoing experience indicates that a change of certain watertight or gastight control
markings is considered essential, details of the proposed change together with supporting
evidence are to be forwarded to DG-Ships / ME225 for prior approval before authorizing
implementation by the ships concerned.

0915. Embossed aluminium tallies for control markings A, M, R, X, Y, Z, in 75 mm letters for

application to doors and hatches and 40 mm letters for other applications an the gastight
qualifying symbol `OPEN IN ALFA' in 20 mm letters, are available as Naval Store items as
listed in BR 2170(3) Part 1. These tallies are detailed in SDN 003 504101/01 and are applied
direct to structure or fittings by an impact adhesive.

Issue 2

0916. Embossed aluminium tallies, in 40 mm letters, for other gastight qualifying symbols are
required for the following applications:



d. SHELTER ----->






0917. Control markings are to be applied to both sides of doors and hatches. The gastight control
marking, or qualifying symbol, is to be positioned in the upper centre of the door or hatch
immediately below the watertight control marking. The gastight risk is implicit in the
ORANGE colour of the control markings (see Clause 0935).

0918. The watertight qualifying symbol `2 CLIPS' in 40 mm letters and the associated parallel lines
for application to doors and hatches are available as TRANSFLEX waterslide transfers. Other
watertight qualifying symbols `VENT 2 CLIPS' and `VENT NO CLIPS' when required, are to
be painted in 40 mm BLACK letters and figures.

0919. RED risk markings are to be applied as RED painted triangles with equal 250 mm sides on
' the uppermost corners of doors and hatches remote from the hinges. Risk markings are to be
applied to both sides of doors and hatches.

0920. RED risk markings are to be applied as RED discs (with or without an arrow) on or near
valves, scuttles, ventilation closures, etc and are available as TRANSFLEX waterslide

0921. TR,ANSFLEX waterslide transfers are available as Naval Stores items as listed in BR 2170(3)
Part 1.

Location Markings

0922. Location markings are to be provided and fitted in accordance with the Ship or Class drawing
and approved by MOD(PE). Guidance will be given to the shipbuilders for new construction
and for ships undergoing refits.

Issue 2

0923. Embossed aluminium tallies for location markings are required for the following applications:
a. Zone Boundaries.
b. Compartments and Openings.
c. Ventilation Systems. (Fan and Natural)
d. Seacocks for direct flood (Seacocks that admit sea water into closed systems are not
0924. Location markings are to be as follows:
a. ZONE BOUNDARY 75 mm capitals for all the characters. Note: the words are not
to be abbreviated).
b. COMPARTMENTS 75 mm figures and capitals for the first two characters ie deck
number and section letter and 50 mm capitals and figures for the remainder.
c. DOORS HATCHES, MANHOLES AND SEACOCKS 25 mm figures and capitals for
the first two characters ie deck number and section letter and 20 mm capitals and
figures for the remainder. The words PORT, AFT, etc, when needed, are to be 25 mm
capitals. Doors and hatches are to be marked on both sides, doors near the upper
corner of the hinged edge and hatches near a corner of the hinged edge.
d. VENTILATION FITTINGS AND FAN STARTERS All fan starters are to be fitted
with tallies to provide the fan location marking in 25 mm figures and capitals with
the words SUPPLY or EXHAUST added in 20 mm capitals. Ventilation fittings are
to have 25 mm figures and capitals for the first two characters ie deck number and
section letter and 20 mm capitals for the remainder. The words PORT, AFT, etc, when
needed, are to be 25 mm capitals.

0925. Markings qualified by the words STARBOARD, PORT, FORWARD and AFT are to be
abbreviated to STBD, PORT, FWD and AFT respectively.

0926. Embossed aluminium tallies for location markings are to be applied direct to structure or
fittings with impact adhesive.

0927. Embossed letters and figures on standard location marking tallies, including those for
ventilation systems, are painted BLACK with the background the same colour as the surface on
which they are sited. Letters and figures on location marking tallies for main machinery space
fan starters are to be painted RED.

0928. In addition to location markings, ventilation systems are also to be tallied to indicate the
following information detailed in BR 2170(1) Chapter 2.
a. The position of the starter, when remote from the fan, to be indicated at the fan.
b. The location and identification of all main machinery space fan starters, closures and
flaps to be indicated at their control position and outside the compartment in which
they are sited.
c. The controls are not to be sited in compartments which are normally required to be
Issue 2

Miscellaneous Markinas

0929. Miscellaneous markings are to be applied at ship as detailed in BR 2170(1). Markings are to be
produced from TRANSFLEX waterslide transfers, photolabel system (on self adhesive
aluminium foil) or are to be painted on the bulkhead or fitting in the appropriate colour.

0930. Miscellaneous markings include:

a. Station Numbers 'lb be on all main transverse bulkheads at each deck level in 75 mm
BLACK figures.
b. Other Side Markings 7b be in BLACK on bulkheads forming the perimeters of
dangerous compartments eg magazines, in flammable stores, spirit rooms etc. For
multiple NBCD Section Ships they are applied to all main transverse and
longitudinal watertight bulkheads below the lowest communication deck in addition
to dangerous compartments.

c. OS Clear Markings To be applied to boundaries of certain compartments, on both

sides of bulkhead, where holes may be cut to allow introduction of a firefighting -
nozzle (see also BR 2170(1) Chapter 4). Waterslide transfer available in RED on
d. Compartment Below Markings 7b be in BLACK on bulkheads above hatches
indicating the names of compartment to which a hatchway gives access.
e. Contents Circles 7b be applied to bulkheads indicating, within the RED zone, the
number and types of all openings within the compartment to which a WT door or
hatch gives access. Waterslide transfers available in BLACK.
f. Suction Strainers 7b be indicated in BLACK high up on bulkheads above suction
strainers to enable repair parties to locate blocked strainers.
g. Deck Tubes The cap of deck tubes for passage of emergency cables to be painted
WHITE with GREEN cross.

h. Traffic Routes BLACK arrows to be positioned where needed to indicate routes in

passageways or through doors or hatches. ,J

j. Cleansing Posts (see NES 118) The position of these posts is to be indicated by the
words CLEANSING POST in ORANGE, an arrow being added where necessary to
indicate direction. The designation of the post eg its number, section letter or FWD
or AFT may be added as requisite. The cleansing post locker is to be painted WHITE
with an ORANGE cross.
k. Pipe Systems Colour and Identification Markings Adhesive plastic tapes and paint
colours are to be used for the identification of pipes, direction of fluid flow, ventilation
systems, manholes and rod gearing and are to be in accordance with NES 853. Where
an identifying system colour is not specified by NES 853, these are to be painted to
the colour of the background surface.

Issue 2

May Be Left Open (MBLO Tallies

0931. Three types of MBLO tallies as may be required for use in conjunction with WT control
markings, are to be provided as detailed in BR 2170(1). These are:

a. may be left open;

b. may be left open in action;

c. may be left open - man below.

0932. An additional OPEN FOR PASSAGE ONLY disc, as may be required for use in conjunction
with GT control markings, for passage between sub-citadels, is to be provided as detailed in
BR 2170(1).

0933. These tallies, 150 mm sq, are to hang over or adjacent to normal control markings as
appropriate for the purpose indicated on the disc. To be painted with RED letters on a WHITE
background, OPEN in 40 mm capitals and the remainder in 15 mm and 25 mm capitals and
figures as appropriate to the content.

0934. Specific requirements for these discs are to be included with the drawings of Risk and Control
markings (see NES 119 Part 3) and are to be stowed in the NBCD HQ when not in use.

NBCD Tally Plates

0935. All embossed aluminium NBCD tally plates are to be painted the same colour as the surface to
which they are attached, but the letters and numbers used thereon are to be coloured as

a. Location Markings BLACK

b. Watertight Control Markings BLACK (X, Y, Z)

c. Gastight Control Markings ORANGE (A, M, R, OPEN IN

and Qualifying Symbols ALFA, CLEANSING STATION, ETC)
Escape Markin:

0936. Emergency escape hatches and scuttles are to be painted GREEN on both sides, with the
permissible exception of flush deck scuttles fitted in areas with decorative deck coverings,
where the underside of the cover only is to be painted GREEN. The upper side of such scuttles
is to be finished with the appropriate deck coveringmaterial such that the operation of the
scuttle is not impaired and it can be clearly seen. The area on the underside of the hatches and
scuttles immediately adjacent to the operating levers or handwheels is to be painted with
photoluminescent paint, NSN 8010-99-747-4346,in order to emphasize their presence in poor
or no light conditions. Attached and detached handles are to be painted in accordance with BR

0937. In all cases the presence of the escape hatches and scuttles must be clearly indicated on
adjacent structure, in the compartments from which, and to which escape is intended to be
made by the application of the 0461/769-9559 photoluminescent ESCAPE marking. The
0461/769-9558 photoluminescent ARROW marking is to be added adjacent to the ESCAPE
marking to indicate the direction of escape.
Issue 2

0938. Escape routes are to be marked by photoluminescent arrows only, applied at prominent positions
on bulkheads and decks adjacent to all hatches, except where only a single route is possible, to
indicate the direction of escape. Arrows are also to be applied at intermediate positions high on
bulkheads in lobbies and passageways and on the deck in the centre of passageways leading to the
point of escape, particularly where changes in direction occur.

0939. The arrows, NSN 0461/769-9558, are to be positioned at a nominal height of 1500 mm above the
deck in order to remain visible in the event of flooding. 90 mm floor dot ARROW markings, NSN
0461/251-6851, are to be sited on the deck in the centre of passageways adjacent to bulkhead
mounted markings to guide persons when crawling through smoke. Escape route markings are not
to be obscured by doors or hatches in the open position.

0940. Escape recess markings are to be applied to ships where this type of escape is provided in way of
lifts which carry aircraft or ammunition. Escape recesses are to be clearly indicated by the
application of the 0461/769-9559 photoluminescent ESCAPE markings at prominent positions on
bulkheads within the recess.

0941. The position of all Escape Breathing Apparatus (Emergency Life Support Apparatus (ELSA) - see
Section 21) is to be clearly indicated on stowage containers by the letters ESCAPE BA in 40 mm
WHITE letters on a GREEN background.

Radiation Warning Markings

0942. Ionizing radiation warning markings (0461/774-7265) comprising of a BLACK trefoil on a

YELLOW background, in a triangular black band, are required to be painted on the door of the
cupboard containing radioactive sources and to each door or hatch giving access to the NBC
Storeroom in which the locker is sited (see also NES 126).

Electrical System Markings

0943. A modified system of markings, based on the location markings of compartments, is to be used for
electrical systems markings as detailed in BR 2170(1).

0944. The colours to be used for the painting of electrical switches, fuse boxes, etc are detailed in BR

Ventilation Systems - Location and Identification Markings

0945. Additional location and identification markings are to be applied to ventilation systems as detailed
in NES 102 and BR 2170 (1).

Issue 2




1001. The requirements of STANAG 1169 are to be taken into account when selecting portable
pumps for use on firefighting and damage control duties (ie drainage and salvage).

1002. STANAG 1169 defines a portable pump as pump which can easily and quickly be moved
without mechanical aids, between compartments and decks of a ship and not having an
appreciably greater weight than 100 Kg.

1003. Pumps are to be provided to the scale shown in Table 1 to meet the following requirements:

a. Firefightina

-- (1) Multiple NBCD Section Ships - Four 100 m3/hr installed emergency diesel
driven pumps to be sited in the ship (except a hangar section). In addition four
portable diesel driven pumps per ship are to be provided for flexibility in
(2) Single NBCD Section Ships - Two 100 m3/hr installed emergency diesel driven
pumps, to be sited one forward and one aft. In addition, two portable diesel
driven pumps per ship are to be provided for flexibility in firefighting.
(3) Minor War Vessels - One or two installed emergency and / or one portable
diesel driven pump per vessel. See Table 1.
NOTE: The MCMV diesel driven pump is to have a low magnetic signature.

b. Damage Control

(1) Ships with 3 or more FRPP's - 2 submersible high capacity portable electric
driven pumps are to be sited at or in the vicinity of each Fire and Repair Party

(2) Frigates/Destroyers with 2 FRPP's - 3 submersible high capacity portable electric

driven pumps are to be sited at each Fire and Repair Party Post.

(3) Minor War Vessels - One or two high capacity electric driven pump per vessel.
Small vessels below 1000 tonnes may be fitted with one medium capacity
electric driven pump. Where vessels are considered too small or are limited by
their electrical supplies they are to utilize the portable diesel driven pump
supplied for firefighting.

c. $nillaee of Flammable Liquids

All single NBCD Section Ships and above fitted with an LP air main are to carry one
air driven pump to deal with pumping operations where flammable liquids or AVCAT
fumes are involved and for day to day spillages. Suitable connections are to be
provided on the LP air main above the deep waterline.

Issue 2

Firefighting Pumps

1004. Emergency and portable independently driven diesel pumps are provided for firefighting
duties when normal water and power supplies are damaged or destroyed. The emergency
pumps will also provide emergency standby firefighting capabilities for ships in dock or
alongside where ships generating capacity is dead or shore facilities limited. However, these
pumps do not provide adequate capacity for the protection of magazines when ammunition is

1005. The emergency diesel pump is to be installed in its working position, adjacent to and
connected by flexible hoses to a sea suction standpipe and exhaust outlet. The two pump
discharges are to be connected by flexible hoses to the HPSW system via two isolating valves
and non-return valves sited in close proximity to the pumps position. Facilities are to be
provided to allow the pump to discharge directly overboard during routine testing.

1006. The portable pumps are to be stowed in readily accessible and sheltered position off the
weatherdeck and used for onboard firefighting duties anywhere in the ship. They can also be
utilized for salvage duties and for assistance of other ships or services in distress.

1007. When the portable diesel pumps are used outside the ship, suction hoses are to be fitted with a
suction strainer at the end. When used inside the ship the suction hose is to be coupled to a sea
suction standpipe and flexible exhaust hose (maximum 4 x 3 m lengths) are to be provided to
carry exhaust fumes to the open air through doors, hatches or special exhaust outlets plumbed
into the ship's structure.

Damage Control Pumps

1008. Portable independently driven pumps are to be provided for damage control duties (drainage
and salvage). Under the terms of STANAG 1169 they are normally classified as drainage
pumps, rather than salvage pumps, to differentiate between the damage control pumps used
onboard combat ships for de-watering and the pumps used by specialized operators for large
salvage operations. The submersible electric driven pumps are provided primarily for damage
control duties but may, if required, be used for firefighting subject to availability of power

Air Driven Pumas

1009. Portable sir driven pumps are to be provided for general purpose duties associated with the safe
handling of sea water, lubricants, fuels and mixtures thereof. Such pumps are also to be used in
the presence of a heavy fuel vapour where the use of an electric or diesel driven pump may
lead to an explosion.
Issue 2

Overboard Discharges

1012. Overboard discharges are to be provided for use with portable pumps, in conjunction with
collecting head adaptors to enable a single or twin run of discharge hoses to be connected.
Overboard discharges are to be fitted at readily accessible positions, a minimum of one in each
watertight subdivision along the lowest communications deck and sited alternately on port and
starboard sides of the ship. In larger ships or where access is not readily available across the
ship, two discharges are to be fitted in each WT subdivision, one port and one starboard.
Electrical compartments, eg switchboard rooms, are to be avoided.

1013. The overboard discharges are to consist of a 108 mm nominal size pipe spigot, terminating
within the ship approximately 150 mm from the ship side and fitted with a 100 mm nominal
bore male round thread connector to BS 336. A lockable watertight screwed cap with female
round thread to BS 336 is to be fitted to each overboard discharge.

1014. Where discharges are sited in enclosed compartments, a tally plate worded `OVERBOARD
DISCHARGE INSIDE' in black letters on a white background, is to be sited on or adjacent to
the door of the compartment.

1015. All overboard discharges are to be painted black. They are to have a red risk marking together
with an ALFA marking as appropriate.

1016. Minor war vessels not provided with portable pumps requiring twin discharge hoses are to be
provided with overboard discharges terminating in a standard male instantaneous coupling to
BS 336 fitted with a lockable watertight female blanking cap.

Sea Suction Standpipes

1017. Sea suction standpipes, 108 mm nominal bore, are to be provided for use with the diesel driven
firefighting pumps and are to be fitted at the rate of one per Zone (which is to include any
requirements for fixed independent pumps). Every effort is to be made to ensure that the
vertical lift demanded by the sea suction standpipe does not exceed 5 m. The sea suction
standpipes are each to be fitted with a ball valve and with a strainer fitted between the valve
and the pump connection (see NES 748). The standpipe is to terminate within the ship, above
the deep waterline, approximately 150 mm above deck level, with a 100 mm nominal bore
male screwed connector to BS 336. A lockable watertight female screwed cap to BS 336 is to
be fitted to each standpipe.

1018. The standpipes are to be led from sea tube or sea inlet boxes fitted for the main HPSW pumps
or as may be approved. Suction pipes are to be arranged with the minimum number of bends.
Under no circumstances are they to be fitted inboard of any other sea inlet hull valve otherwise
their immediate availability may be jeopardized.

1019. Each sea suction standpipe is to be fitted with a suction elbow piece. The elbow piece is to be
fitted with a 100 mm nominal bore female screwed swivel connection with locking ring) to BS
336 on the base, to connect onto the sea suction standpipe. The free end is to be fitted with a
100 mm nominal size male ribbed tail end to BS 336 for connecting the suction hose.

Issue 2

Compartment Standpipes

1020. Compartment standpipes are only to be provided in spaces normally closed in action and into
which it is not practical to introduce a suction hose or submersible pump, egwhere entry is by
a door. Such compartments are to be provided with sounding arrangements. Compartment
standpipes are to be fitted with strainers in accordance with the requirement of NES 748.
Standpipes are to consist of a short vertical length of 76.1 mm nominal size piping,
terminating outside the compartment in a 75 mm nominal size male ribbed tail connector to
BS 336 which is to be fitted with a lockable watertight female screwed cap. This is to enable
the suction hose to be connected directly onto the standpipe with the aid of a 75 mm nominal
size hose clamp.

Power Sockets.

1021. Power sockets for portable pumps are to be sited on the lowest communications deck in a
readily accessible position adjacent to each hatch leading to a machinery space, mess deck or
giving access to storerooms and compartments containing hazardous or flammable material.
Power sockets are to be fitted on the basis of a minimum of one per watertight subdivision in
Minor War Vessels and a minimum of two per watertight subdivision in larger ships.

1022. Ships fitted with between deck hangars or vehicle decks are to ensure that at least one socket is
fitted on the port side and one socket on the starboard side of the ship. In addition one power
socket is to be fitted inside and adjacent to the access to each main machinery space. Power
sockets are to be selected in accordance with NES 538 and painted yellow.

Pump Stowages

1023. Stowages for portable pumps and accessories are to be provided. The pumps are to be
distributed throughout the ship on the lowest communication deck in or adjacent to the Fire
and Repair Party Lockers. All necessary fittings, delivery hoses, etc for working the pumps
from various compartments in the ship, and for lowering them through hatches, are to be
provided and stowed by the shipbuilder. Covers are to be provided for pumps when they are
not stowed within a locker. Securing arrangements are to be provided for all pumps.

Pump and Accessories Details

1024. Details of the current in-service pumps and lists of their accessories are shown in NES 119 Part

Issue 2


100 50 100 35 EDUCTOR
m3/hr m3/hr m3/hr m3/hr


VESSELS 6 FRP POSTS 4 4 12 - 6
4 FRP POSTS 4 4 8. - 4
D 3 FRP POSTS 2 2 6 3
OVER 2000 TONNE 2 1 2 - 1
WAR BETWEEN 1 1 1 - 1
BELOW 1000 TONNE - 1 - 1 1
TANKERS 2 1 4 - 2 !,
AOR SHIPS 2 1 4 - 2
LANDING SHIP 2 1 4 - 2



NOTE: 1. Specific requirements, particularly for minor war vessels, to be decided in

conjunction with SSA / ME225.

An allowance of one air driven pump is to be provided for ships fitted with an
LP air main when required to deal with spillages of flammable liquids.
3. All pumps fitted in mine clearance vessels must have a zero or very low
magnetic signature ie not to exceed 1.05.

Issue 2


Surface Shims


1101. The primary function of the High Pressure Sea Water (HPSW) system is to provide water for
firefighting in any part of the vessel and is to conform to the sea water design requirements of
NES 719 and the damage control (vulnerability) design requirements of NES 119, Part 1,
Section 7.

1102. The system is to be supplied by dedicated submersible motor driven pumps, sited throughout
the ship, which deliver water to a ring main. Care is to be taken to ensure that at least one
pump is sited in each zone. In ships with multi-spot flight decks the system is to comprise two
ring mains, one supplying the flight deck and hangar, the other supplying the rest of the ship.
Each main is to be cross-connected and each main is to be connected to the riser from each
HPSW pump. Valves are to be fitted in order to isolate damaged sections without prejudicing
the rest of the system.

Emergency Fire Pumas

1103. On surface ships in addition to the motor driven pumps, emergency independent diesel driven
pumps are to be installed, forward and aft, in positions remote from the other HPSW pumps
and to be rated with a minimum output of 100 m3/hr at 7 bar pressure. They are to be sited in
positions above the deep WL and which are readily accessible from the weatherdeck. Details
of the emergency fire pumps are shown in NES 119 Part 3.


1104. In all ships the HPSW main is to be capable of rapid isolation and de-isolation either as an
NBCD State 1 preparation or for system reconfiguration.

1105. Where the main is sited on the communications deck it is to be fitted with isolating valves at
each zone boundary. In order to save unnecessary duplication and weight the valves may also
meet the requirements of NES 719 by combining the function of main transverse WT bulkhead
isolation. The valves are to be quick-acting, remotely controlled from the NBCD HQ or SCC
Damage Surveillance and Control (DSAC) position and provided with manual override for
local control in a readily accessible position and with tactile and visual indication.

1106. Where the main is sited below the communications deck (ie below the waterline) it is to be
capable of being isolated at every watertight bulkhead and to be remotely controlled from the
NBCD HQ or SCC DSAC position (see also NES 719).

Remote Control

1107. Remote control of isolating valves from the SCC (HQ1) DSAC position is to be carried out
using hydraulic, pneumatic or electro-pneumatic systems which are dedicated solely to the
operation of the HPSW system. Where hydraulic systems are used in the control systems the
hydraulic fluid is to be non-flammable. Rod gearing is to be avoided wherever possible due to
its vulnerability to damage and additional weight. Where it is necessary to use rod gearing
the length of run is to be kept to an absolute minimum (eg control of valve from either side of
bulkhead). All valves are to be remotely controlled from HQ 1, HQ2 or the SCC at the DSAC
position and locally for use in an emergency.
Issue 2

1108. Remote control of supply valves for the pre-wetting system is to be similarly arranged in order
to have effective sector control during helicopter and weapons system operations. Remote
control is also to be from in the SCC (HQ 1) DSAC position.

System Pressure Monitoring

1110. The pressure in each section of the main when isolated into zones is to be monitored at:

a. Multi-section Ships - SCC DSAC position, HQ2 and each Section Base.

b. Single Section Ships - SCC DSAC position, AHQ and each Fire and Repair Party Post.

Flow information L 20%) at each isolating valve is also to be provided to the SCC DSAC

System Control

1111. The following functions are to be available by remote control from the SCC:

a. implementing normal and backup system line-ups;

b. starting pumps;

c. pumping out bilges;

d. system monitoring.

1112. Requirements for the remote operation of fixed firefighting and flooding systems are detailed

System Redundancy

1113. The system is to be capable of meeting its full operating specification with:

a. any one pump not available;

b. any one primary power source not available;

or c. any one switchboard or electrical ring main section not available.


1114. Pump suctions are to be filtered.

1115. All electrical equipment associated with the system pumps is to be sited above the level of the
pump motors.

1116. When configured for firefighting, the system is to be capable of maintaining pressure in a zero
flow condition.

1117. All pump motors are to be watertight.

1118. Zb avoid confusion with fire hydrants, the hose connections for flushing and draining of spray
and pre-wet systems are to be instantaneous males with the valve locked shut.


Issue 2

Shore Connections

1119. Shore connections for water are to be fitted to allow the system to meet its full operating
specification without using the ship's pumps.

Prevention from Freezing

1120. All mains and branches which are exposed to the weather or which supply hydrant valves in
exposed positions are to be fitted with drain down arrangements (see NES 719).

Principle Services

1121. The principle firefighting services to be supplied from the HPSW system are:
a. Hydrants.

b. Hose reels.
c. Flight deck monitors.

d. Firefighting Duties
(1) Automatic Spray systems (see Section 18)
(2) Manual spray systems (see Section 18)
e. Flooding systems (see Section 18)

1122. For details of the equipment for the above services see NES 119 Part 3.


' Siting of Hydrants

1123. Hydrants are to be sited on communication and weatherdecks of surface vessels and in
compartments on the basis of providing at least two hydrants to deal with a fire anywhere on
the deck or in any compartment. Hydrants are to be sited in readily accessible positions and
subject to overriding layout considerations the general disposition of hydrants are to be as

a. On the communication deck with each main watertight section at readily accessible
intervals of 12 m to 15 m.
b. In passageways and lobbies convenient to a number of storerooms and compartments
containing flammable liquid.
c. In passageways convenient to cabin accommodation.

d. As required to cover compartments in Island structure and fitted on risers from the
e. In each main and auxiliary machinery space other than those fitted with hose reel
(1) one near each access at the upper level;
Issue 2

(2) one or two at the lower level according to size and layout of compartment.

See Section 23 for RFA requirements.

f. On multi-spot flight decks at a maximum of 20 m apart, on port and starboard sides.

Each hydrant is to be fitted with an inline inductor for use with foam branchpipe

g. About 12 m to 15 m apart on each side of large between-deck hangars or vehicle

decks. Fitted for use with an FB10(10).

h. One port and one starboard, for use with an FB10(10), adjacent to single spot
helicopter hangars and flight decks. .

j. On the weatherdeck of surface vessels but not greater than 20 m apart and as may
be dictated by structural arrangements.

__ k. At least one hydrant on the forecastle deck is to be sited so as to be suitable for

washing down anchors and cables. Similarly, a hydrant or hydrants are to be sited
on the cable deck where this is not the forecastle.

m. Two sited in close proximity to each emergency fire pump or mobile diesel pump.

Centre Feed Hose Reels

1124. Centre Feed Hose Reels are fitted for use as first aid appliances. They are to be used in
instances where the potential fire is likely to be too large for extinguishment by portable
extinguishers and where the rigging of lay flat hoses and branchpipes would cause a significant
delay in attacking the fire. The performance of the hose reel is enhanced by the facility to
introduce AFFF into the delivery water.

1125. Centre Feed Hose Reel assemblies are to be fitted in passageways or lobbies in readily
accessible positions throughout the length of the Communications Deck at the rate of one per
watertight subdivision. (Where passageways are fitted on the port and starboard sides of the
ship they are to be treated as separate subdivisions with a hose reel fitted in each). They are
also to be fitted in each main and large auxiliary machinery compartment, the number being
selected according to the compartment size and layout eg a frigate or destroyer is to be fitted
with two hose reels per machinery space, one at the low level and one at the high level,
adjacent to the main access routes. Details of Centre Feed Hose Reels are shown in NES 119
Part 3.

Flight Deck Monitors

1126. On every deck from which aircraft are to be operated there is to be provided a suitable foam
application system consisting of monitors or foam making branchpipes, capable of delivering
1% foam solution at a rate of not less than 6 litres per minute per square metre of the area
contained within a circle of diameter D for not less than 5 minutes. The distance D is the
distance across the main rotor and tail rotor measured in the fore and aft line of a helicopter
with a single main rotor and across both rotors for a tandem rotor helicopter.

1127. In the case of multi-spot through deck ships the requirements of Clause 1126 can be met by
the use of the foam making branchpipes FB10/10 fitted to the flight deck hydrants.
Issue 2

1128. For single spot or twin spot ships fitted with flight decks with limited or restricted access, eg
where the flight deck is at the stern of the ship with access only from the fore side, or where
there are insufficient crew members available to form an adequate flight deck firefighting
party, the fitting of monitors is to be undertaken.

1129. A minimum of two monitors are to be fitted which are to be sited above the level of the flight
deck, either on the hangar roof or on a sponson attached to the hangar or adjacent
superstructure in order that foam solution can be delivered down onto the aircraft and flight

Identification of Firefghting_Systems

1130. Branches from the sea water main for firefighting services are to be painted SIGNAL RED to
BS 381C Shade No 537 throughout their length within the ship and GREY on the
weatherdecks. Nozzles and hose connections ARE NOT to be painted. Identification tapes, as
listed in NES 853 Parts 1 and 2, are to be applied to the piping at intervals, to readily identify
the systems in all compartments through which they pass. Rod gearing, hydraulic or pneumatic
piping controlling the valves in these systems is to be similarly painted and identified by tapes.

1131. The hose connections for flushing and draining are to be identified with tape marked FLUSH
DRAIN, fixed adjacent to the control valve. All valves are to be 'identified by standard marker
plates in accordance with NES 723. They are to show the space and system served and where
appropriate whether locked open or shut, as well as the function of the valve. The lettering is to
be RED on a WHITE background. On the weatherdeck systems are to be identified by RED
non-luminescent lettering on a grey background.

1132. In order to rapidly and accurately identify High Pressure Sea Water (HPSW) system isolating
valves and hydrants to assist damage control personnel in its operation following action
damage, a system of marking valves and hydrants based on Clauses 1132 to 1137 is to be

1133. The marking of valves and hydrants involves the complete HPSW main but excludes all other
parts of the system, ie spray, doling and domestic lines, etc. The system of marking is to be
simple, involve as few numbers and letters as possible, but be capable of fulfilling the task of
numbering every isolating valve and hydrant on the HPSW main, but is to exclude marking
magazine and machinery cooling systems valves and hydrants.

1134. Numbering of the main isolating valves is to begin on the isolating valve closest to the end of
the main on the forward-most spur with the isolating valves numbered consecutively from
forward to aft along the ship (see Figure 1). Where the spur meets a ring main, the conventional
NBCD numbering of even numbers to port side and odd numbers to starboard side is to be
used, counting on from the last number of the spur. When the spur is in the middle of a port or
starboard leg, the numbering of the ring main is to recommence from the last number of the
spur. This means that two adjacent isolating valves may not necessarily have consecutive

1135. Numbers are only repeated when the main system exists on more than one deck, eg CVSs. In
these instances the higher and lower ring mains will have either a suffix `H' or `L' meaning
higher or lower respectively. Whether at the aft end or in the middle of a port or starboard leg,
the numbering of the valves along that spur is to be consecutive forward to aft.
Issue 2

1136. All hydrants are to be numbered with the number of the isolating valve either side of the
hydrant take-off. The lower number is first and higher number is separated with a dash. When
the hydrant comes off at a lower or higher main the two numbers are followed by the relevant
suffix, eg 18-20L. Where more than one hydrant comes off the main between the same two
isolating valves, they are to have exactly the same number. This defines exactly which hydrants
are `unavailable' when the isolating valves are shut. Figure 1 shows a simplified schematic,
giving a typical arrangement identifying each valve.

1137. The actual marking of the isolating valves are to be reflected on the main system information
display in NBCD HQ1 and AHQ (or HQ2) and FRPs as appropriate.

1138. Red self adhesive tool marking tape, NATO Stock No 0461/9390-99-894-0571is to be used and
cut into 50 mm x 50 mm squares for hydrants and 75 min x 75 mm squares for isolating valves.
The markings are to be applied on the tape by black permanent marker using a 12 mm helix
stencil for the isolating valves. The marking tape for the hydrant is to be positioned on the boss
of the instantaneous coupling so that it is visible from the passageway. Where the operating
positions are flush to the deck the marking tape is to be applied to the nearest bulkhead.

Pressure Gauges

1139. Direct reading pressure gauges are to be fitted in the sea water main adjacent to each riser. For
single spot helicopter decks a direct reading gauge is to be fitted in the branch from the main
immediately upstream of the monitors and hangar spray system. In ships with between-deck
hangars pressure gauges are to be fitted in each hangar access lobby to indicate upper main
pressure. The remote pressure information in each zone is to be displayed in the Ship Control
Centre (NBCD HQ1), HQ2, AHQ and Section Bases (see Section 5). Where the main is fitted
on port and starboard sides of the ship, as part of a ring main, they are to be treated as separate
mains and each fitted with pressure gauges. For additional requirements for the fitting of
pressure gauges and remote pressure information for the HPSW systems see NES 719.

Emergency Bulkhead Connections

1140. Emergency bulkhead connections are to be fitted 0.5 m to 1 m above the deck, in all
- watertight bulkheads on the communications deck(s) to allow a run of hoses between
hydrants in adjoining WT subdivisions, without comprising watertight integrity should the
high pressure sea water main be damaged. (See BR 2170 Volume 1). The connections can be
used in a secondary mode to allow the running of hose, for firefighting, through a watertight
bulkhead in order to maintain a smoke boundary. Details of the connections are shown in
NES 119 Part 3.


8-12 ~ 6


23 18

24 22


19 17 13
Issue 2



Requirements for Boards

1201. As aids to NBCD control, the following information boards and check cards are to be supplied
and fitted either in Manual or Electronic format in addition to the DC Surveillance System
specified in Clause 0506 (See also BR 2170(1));

a. Multiple NBCD Section Ships (HQ1 and HO2)

Information Boards:

(1) Whole Ship Incident

(2) Pumping and Flooding

(3) Main Systems

(4) Fuel and Fresh Water State

(5) NBCD Door and Hatch

(6) NBCD Ventilation

(7) NBCD Protection Officers Incident

(8) NBCD Electrical Information

(9) Total Dose Record

(10) Command State Board

(11) Damage Control Equipment Whereabouts

(12) Personnel Whereabouts

Check Cards:

(13) Firefighting Kill Cards

(14) Closing Down Route

b. Multiple NBCD Section Ships (Section Base)

Information Boards:

(1) Section Incident and Secondary Whole Ship Incident

(2) Section Main Systems

(3) Section NBCD Door and Hatch

(4) Section NBCD Ventilation

Issue 2
(6) Section Firefighting and Damage Control Whereabouts Diagrams (an
appropriate section diagram is also to be fitted at Fire and Repair Party Posts
in these ships).

Check Cards:

(7) Section Firefighting Kill Cards

(8) Closing Down Route

c. Single NBCD Section Ships (HO1)

Information Boards:

(1) Whole Ship Incident

(2) Main Systems

(3) NBCD Door and Hatch

(4) NBCD Ventilation

(5) NBCD Protection Officers Incident

(6) NBCD Electrical Information

(7) Total Dose Record

(8) Command State Board

(9) Damage Control Equipment Whereabouts

(10) Personnel Whereabouts

Check Cards:

(11) Firefighting Kill Cards

(12) Closing Down Route

d. Single NBCD Section Shin (Alternative HQPosition)

Information Boards:

(1) Half size Whole Ship Incident

(2) Command Priority (to include Machinery State)

(3) NBCD Ventilation

(4) NBCD Electrical Information

(5) Main Systems

Check Cards:
Issue 2

e. Fire and Repair Party Posts (single and multi-sectioned ships)

Information Boards:
(1) `Whole Ship' Incident (scale 1:200)
(2) `Whole Ship' Electrical Information
(3) `Whole Ship' Main System (HPSW System)
(4) Safety Plan (RFAs only)

f. Command Position in all Shins

Information Boards:
(1) Command Incident Board
(2) Command State Board
`, g.Weapon Section Base
(1) Weapon and Sensors Stateboard
(2) DC Incident Board
(3) Command State Board
(4) Personnel Board

Requirements for Drawings

1202. The following drawings covering NBCD aspects are required to be prepared by the
Shipbuilder. The drawings are to be submitted to MOD(N) for approval prior to the preparation
of the information boards:
a. NBC Arrangement.
b. Location Markings.
c. Risk and Control Markings (other than Ventilation).
d. Location, Risk and Control Markings of Ventilation Systems.
e. NBC Citadel Check List.
f. Firefighting and Damage Control Equipment.
g. Whereabouts Diagram.
h. Layouts of NBCD HQs, Section Bases, Fire and Repair Party Posts.
j. Tabular Statement of Watertight Compartments.
k. Tabular Statement of Fuel and Water.
1. Escape Routes (see Section 22).
1203. The description and contents of all Drawings and Boards are shown in NES 119 Part 3.
Issue 2


Classification of Fires

1301. Fires can be classified in four categories, the categories are defined in terms of the nature of the
fuel. The classification of fires as defined in BS 4547 are:
C1assA Fires involving solid material, usually of an organic nature, in which

ccombustion normally takes place with the formation of embers.

C1assB Fires involving liquids or liquefiable solids.

C1assC Fires involving gases.

C1assD Fires involving metals.


1302. Three factors are necessary for combustion to occur:

a. heat;

b. oxygen and

c. a combustible substance or fuel.

Given an adequate quantity of oxygen a sufficiently high temperature and the presence
of fuel an exothermic chemical reaction will set in which we know as combustion. This
is represented in Figure 2 showing the triangle and circle of combustion. Remove any
side of the triangle and combustion will cease; alternatively break the chemical chain
reaction by chemical interference and combustion will also cease.

Induction Period

1303. If the parameters of fire such as flame spread, heat intensity or fire damage against time are
plotted on a graph, the slope of the curve is initially shallow until a point is reached at which it
increases significantly as the fire takes hold. The phase represented by the shallow slope is
known as the Induction Period. It is the aim of the firefighter to "knock down" the fire during
this period and that of the designer firstly to extend the induction period and secondly to
provide suitable fire detection and firefighting equipment to improve the firefighters chance of

Issue 2



Principles of Extinguis,-hmenl

1304. The principles of fire extinction are generally known as:

a. Starvation or the limitation of fuel.
b. Cooling or the limitation of temperature.
c. Smothering or the limitation of oxygen.
d. Chemical interference with the chain reaction of combustion.
e. More than one of these principles is likely to be used in any firefighting agent.


1305. Extinguishing a fire by fuel starvation, ie cutting off the fuel, is an essential part of the
firefighting activity and is always to be attempted. In siting valves in fuel lines their
accessibility in case of fire, and the provision of remote control if necessary, must always be
considered. The choice of materials within a compartment is also a design function which can
be exercised to reduce the overall fuel content within that space. Similarly all combustible
materials in the immediate vicinity of a fire are to be removed. In practice this is difficult to
achieve under shipboard conditions, but every effort is to be made at the design stage to avoid
siting combustible materials adjacent to areas of high risk of ignition.
NES 119 Part 1
Issue 2

oolin -

1306. This is the most effective way of extinguishing fires in almost all shipboard materials, and water
is the obvious and plentiful agent. Portable extinguishers and hydrants with hoses providing jet
and spray, and fixed spray systems, are consequently the most common firefighting appliances.
The use of other agents, however, is specified where the possibility of damage by water to
important equipment outweighs the loss of the cooling facility.


1307. This method of extinguishment can be achieved by sealing the affected compartment to exclude
the ingress of air to the fire or by blanketing the fire with a foam, steam, or an inert gas such as
C02 or N2. Other agents, eg dry powder, have a partial smothering action with added physical
and chemical effect. Clearly smothering is ineffective for Class D fires.

1308. In an emergency when no other firefighting methods are available a fire may be extinguished
by oxygen starvation brought about by closing all doors, hatches, ventilation and other
openings. Considerable damage may result and there is a chance of re-ignition when the
compartment is opened up for re-entry. There is an additional danger that air from damaged
pneumatic lines or ruptured air bottles can sustain a fire despite closure of the compartment.
This procedure alone, therefore, is consequently one of emergency and emphasises the need for
early attack of small fires for which the proper siting and accessibility of portable extinguishers
(Section 20) is most important. An oil or liquid fuel fire may rapidly develop beyond the
capability of the firefighters within the space and de-energizing and shutting the system in
conjunction with the activation of the installed systems becomes necessary to control the fire
and to prevent the spread of fire and smoke beyond the compartments.

,1309. Due to their self oxidising nature, isolation and smothering of fires involving explosives is not
only ineffective, but the interference with the venting of the products of combustion could
rapidly increase their temperature and thus rate of burning to explosion point.

Selection of an Extinguishing tent

1310. The responsibility for the selection of a suitable fire extinguishing agent lies with the Design
Authority, with guidance where necessary from DG Ships/ME225. Selection is to be made from
the traditional agents already in use that are itemised below and the new agents listed in Table 2.

1311. The traditional extinguishing agents are to be assessed initially for their suitability for the
application concerned. The acceptable new alternatives listed in Table 2, include caveats on
their use imposed by the Surgeon General and AUS(IL). These are only to be considered if the
traditional agents are not suitable, or if the alternatives offer significant advantages in terms of
performance and safety.

1312. The environmental implications of using any extinguishing agent or fire protection system is to
be considered when selecting a suitable option. If a range of options is available which meet
other performance requirements, safety and compatibility, the most environmentally friendly
agent is to be chosen. The agents listed in Table 2 are shown in order of acceptability.
Issue 2

Acceptable Extinguishing Agents

ate r

1313. Because of its high specific and latent heat, ability to form a smothering steam blanket,
freedom from toxicity, relative non-corrosiveness, ease of storage and abundance, water will
remain the most common agent for extinguishingfires. Applied at the correct position, spray
pattern and particle size it is an excellent extinguishant with the additional bonus of being able
to partially cleanse the air of smoke and soluble toxic gases. On submarines, to reduce the
clean-up task and electrical hazard, fresh water is preferred. Water may be applied as:

a. A jet which is mainly used for fires in combustible solids (Class A fires). It will pass
through hot zones better than spray to reach the fire. A jet is not to be used to
extinguish fires in flammable liquids since it penetrates the surface and leads to
rapid evolution of steam causing the hot liquid to erupt and spread the fire.

b. A spray is effective in rapidly cooling large surfaces and is thus applicable to

boundary cooling to prevent the spread of fire, and to the protection of compartments
whose contents present a relatively high risk of fire or explosion. Used on oil fires
(Class B fires) its success depends on its accessibility as a spray to the entire surface
of the oil, otherwise re-ignition is likely.

1314. In an environment such as a machinery space which can be closed down, the use of spray from
an installed system of sprinklers can be effective in controlling an oil fire by the smothering
effects of sir exclusion and the conversion of water to steam, and by the continuous cooling
provided. Areas of oil masked from the spray by installations, and oil spray fires caused by
defective pipes, may require local attack by firefighters, but the rapid cooling by the sprays will
probably enable early re-entry for this purpose. The addition of AFFF (Clause 1313) to the
water spray will markedly improve the firefighting capability and enable re-entry to be made
earlier and more safely.

1315. The prevention of an explosion due to a fire in or near a magazine requires the means for rapid
cooling, and automatic spray systems are to be incorporated for this purpose. Water is
- unlikely to quench a fire in propellant which burns with great rapidity, and the aim can only
be to cool adjacent explosives to prevent their involvement. See Section 9 which gives
requirements for the systems and NES 183 Parts 1 and 2 for associated regulations.

Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF)

1316. The extinguishing properties of water are improved by the addition of AFFF which, in solution,
readily forms a blanket without the need for directing the jet at a bulkhead as is the case for
protein based foams. The blanket provides a layer of water which floats on oil so screeningthe
surface of the liquid from the heat of the flames and radiant heat from structure, so reducing the
rate of vaporization. It also has a smothering action by excluding air. The surface layer is
replenished as the foam slowly collapses thereby ensuring complete sealing of the spill and
prevention of burn back. By the same mechanism, ie by reducing the surface tension of water,
the surfactant properties of AFFF increase the adhesion of water when sprayed at equipment
and thus its cooling ability. AFFF is to be used for all fires involving liquid fuels such as would
be found in machinery spaces, flight decks, hangars and galleys. It may also be used for
weapons cooling on submarines where water only is not available.

Issue 2

1317. AFFF is marketed indifferent concentrations requiring correspondingly different dilutions.

Surface ships are to use 6% concentrate in all machinery space fixed spray systems, CFHR's
AFFF extinguishers and FB5(X) portable foam branchpipes. Flightdeck monitors and Hangars
are to use 1% concentrate (These concentrates are not applicable to RFA's; see Section 23).

1318. AFFF is mildly corrosive to certain materials, eg mild steel, when in concentrated form,
therefore materials for its stowage and fittings on fixed systems are to be selected as advised in
Section 19.

1319. AFFF may be used with either aspirating or non- aspiratingnozzles and is equally efficient
when mixed with sea water or fresh water.

Halon Gases

1320. Halon gases are compounds of halogens (bromine, chlorine and fluorine) which extinguish fire
by interfering chemically with the exothermic chain reaction involved in combustion ie they
break the circle shown in Figure 2. They are not smothering agents. These gases are now
limited in their use by the Montreal Protocol because of their environmental effect. Halon
systems are not to be included in a design without the prior approval of SSA / ME225.

1321. Two compounds, Halon 1211- BROMOCHLORODIFLUOROMETHA.NE (BCF) and Halon

1301- BROMOTRIFLUOROMETHANE (BTM) have particular merits in terms of efficient
and low level toxicity. In comparison with C02, a fire may be extinguished with much lower
concentrations and correspondingly less demands on space and weight for the gas storage
containers. For BTMBCF a concentration of 5% of the gross volume of the compartment
compared with 40% of the same volume for C02.

1322. Although the gas itself has relatively low toxicity it should be appreciated that on exposure
' to a flame or hot surface at about 482°C (900°F) it breaks down to form toxic by-products,
including the gaseous acids hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen bromide which have low MPCs
but are recognized immediately by their acid smell. Thus the installation is to be designed to
achieve the inerting concentration very quickly (less than 10 seconds) so that the fire is
extinguished before large quantities of these gases can be produced. When considering the
use of Halon it should be recognized that the hazard of the gas and its break down products
will generally be outweighed by the hazard from smoke, heat, oxygen depletion and toxic
gases were the fire not to be so readily extinguished by a less efficient agent.

1323. By virtue of chain breaking mechanism, it is effective at much lower concentration than those
agents which rely on simple smothering. For example 2% is sufficient to extinguish a methane
fire, 4% for petrol and 20% for hydrogen (the worst type of gaseous fire). 5% is sufficient to
extinguish most fires and is the minimum concentration normally employed on surface ships.

1324. It is supplied in liquid form in cylinders superpressurized to 25 bar or 42 bar, with dry nitrogen.
For the machinery spaces of HM Ships (General Service) 42 bar cylinders are standard. At
ambient temperatures it is a colourless, odourless, stable and non-corrosive gas three times
heavier than air. Halon 1301 is safe for use in the presence of reactor systems as the risk of
cracking of austenitic stainless steel due to the degradation of Halon 1301 is not measurably
greater than that present for existing components having surface contamination at the
specification limit.
Issue 2

Carbon Dioxide

1325. Carbon dioxide is a smothering agent. It is colourless, odourless, electrically non-conductive

gas, heavier than air which acts by displacing the air which is sustaining a fire. It has little
cooling effect and it may be impracticable using portable equipment to maintain the blanket of
gas long enough to allow carbonaceous materials to cool below the temperature of
self-ignition. It is, however, effective when used in a total drench system in a closed
compartment provided a concentration of no less than 33% by volume can be
` maintained. The need to provide effective and sustained dilution of the air in a large
compartment may present problems in the stowage of sufficient gas cylinders. Evacuation of
all personnel from the compartment is essential before releasing the C02 as it has a lethal
concentration of approximately 16% by volume.
1326. Steam is a smothering agent which reduces the concentration of oxygen and the vapour phase
of the fuel to the position where combustion stops. It is primarily suitable for compartment
drench systems and clearly an adequate supply of steam must be continuously available. It is an
efficient agent for certain Class A fires and is generally being superseded by other methods for
extinguishing Class B fires even where steam is used for propulsion of the vessel. Complete
evacuation of all personnel from the compartment is essential before releasing the steam.
Where steam is not provided on board for propulsion purposes, it is not to be used as a fire
extinguishing medium.

Dry Powder
1327. Dry powder for fire extinguishing is generally sodium or potassium based compounds in a
finely divided state. These are expelled as a powder cloud by a compressed gas. The method of
extinguishment is partly physical and partly chemical, ie

a. The powder cloud acts as a radiation barrier and cuts down the evaporation rate of
b. The cloud acts as a smothering agent by reducing the volume of air and fuel vapour
present in the fire zone.
c. The most significant effect is produced when the particles of powder are less than the
- quenching distance apart (the quenching distance is the minimum distance between
incombustible solids through which a flame will pass). The cloud therefore acts as an
omnidirectionalflame trap.
d. There is also a chemical effect, ie breaking the exothermic chain reaction of combustion.
The effectiveness of this property depends on the surface area of the powder present
which is related in turn to particle size and the ballistic or `throw' properties of the

1328. Dry powders have good performance against the flames of most fires. They will readily
suppress the flames of a Class A fire but are ineffective against smouldering combustion. The
most common use of dry powders is in the machinery spaces where the ignited mist from a
pressurized mineral oil system leak produces a`flash' fire with a rapid moving flame front. If
the particle size is sufficiently small and the mist spread throughout the compartment the oil
behaves like an explosive vapour. Dry powder is the only agent in portable extinguishers
suitable for combating this type of fire. It is also effective against petrol spill fires and for
_ cutting a path through flame above an oil surface.

Issue 2

1329. The dry powder provided for use on all ships and submarines is non-toxic, foam compatible
and has good anti-clogging properties and is based on sodium bicarbonate. However, in the
enclosed submarine environment particularly, dry powder can create an inhalation hazard,
(sneezing, choking, etc - not to be confused with toxicity); therefore it is only to be supplied in
small units for first aid action (see Section 20).

Alternative Gaseous Agents

1330. The alternative gaseous agents listed in Table 1 are considered suitable for use in unmanned
compartments or in manned compartments provided the personnel are not exposed to
concentration levels in excess of those shown without adequate protection. The maximum
permitted concentrations stated are not to be regarded as suitable for prolonged exposure.

1331. Clearance for use does not imply that the use of the agent in a fire scenario will result in an
atmosphere that is safe for personnel to breathe. The clearance relates specifically to the
toxicity of the agent itself or, in the case of the inert gases, to the reduced level of oxygen
induced by the agents.

1332. Alternative Gaseous Agents fall into two categories, inert gases and halocarbons.

Inert Gases (ArgcL. Nitrogen)

1333. Argon and Nitrogen, like C02, are effective smothering agents but have the advantage over
C02 that they may be used in the total flooding mode (without creating a poisonous
atmosphere), if the compartment served can contain the added gas without leaking (an
overpressure of between 0.5 bar and 0.8 bar); the partial pressure of oxygen will be maintained
and will continue to support life while the percentage oxygen will fall and the fire will be
extinguished. The requirement for the compartment to withstand an overpressure of between
0.5 bar and 0.8 bar will limit the scope for the use of inert gases

'1334. After a fire has been extinguished by inert gas pressurization, venting of the compartment will
reduce the partial pressure of oxygen to a level which would not support life. Therefore, where
an inert gas firefighting system is fitted, an adequate breathing system is also to be provided
within all compartments served.

1335. Inert gases may also be effectively used as displacement estinguishants when the action is to
sweep oxygen out of the compartment and replace it with the inert gas. It is however lethal
when used this way and is not to be initiated until compartment evacuation is complete.

Halocarbon Agents

1336. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) work by inhibiting the chemical
mechanism of a fire and by heat absorption. They are less effective than the halons they are
intended to replace, consequently at least twice as much agent is required for similar
performance, and none can be considered as a drop-in replacement for halon. The halocarbon
agents listed in Table 2 are suitable only for fixed system applications. Heptafluoropropane and
perfluorobutane can utilise cylinders and distribution pipework similar to those used in halon
systems, but more and/or larger cylinders will be required if comparable protection is required.
Trifluoromethane has a higher vapour and will require a system sufficiently robust to withstand
it, more akin to a carbon dioxide system than to halon.


Category Agent Mradename Composition Maximum Other Restrictions

(Supplier) Conc. (Note
Inert Gases Nitrogen Cereberus 100%N2 62% (Note 2) In normally manned enclosures,
system must be designed so that
Oxygen concentration does not fall
below 10% at any time.
Argon Preussag 100%Ar If Oxygen concentration is 12-16%,
personnel must evacuate within 10
Nitrogen/Argon Blends Argonite 60% Ar If Oxygen concentration is 10-12%,
(Ginge Kerr) 60%N2 personnel must evacuate within 1
Nitrogen/Argon/Carbon Inergen 40% Ar Evacuation must be within 20 wins
Dioxide Blend (Wormald) 62%N2 12-16% Oxygen or 2 mina 10-12%
2%C02 Oxygen and final Carbon Dioxide
' concentration is to be within 2.6 and
Hydrofluorocarbons Heptafluoropropane PM200 CF3CHFCF3 9% All precautions to be taken to
(Great Lakes) minimise emissions to atmosphere
Trifluoromethane FE13 CHF3 17% These agents can only be used if all
(Du Pont) other alternatives have been
discounted. All precautions to be taken
to minimise emissions to atmosphere
Perfluorocarbon Perfluorobutane CEA410 C4F10 29%



1. Quoted values are the maximum allowed system design concentration (ie final concentration of agent by volume when
system is
fully discharged) as permitted by the Surgeon General, when installed in normally manned enclosures. If higher
concentrations are
considered, the system is to be locked off prior to access for personnel. Higher concentrations can be used in
unoccupied enclosures
provided risk assessment indicates minimal hazard to nearby personnel.
2. A design concentration of 52% for the inert gases will produce a final Oxygen concentration of 10%. Ideally, design

concentration is to
be less than this if personnel are present. For example, a design concentration of 43% will result in a final oxygen
concentration of
3. May be suitable for use against Class A fires.

4. May be suitable for use against Class B fires.

5. May be suitable for use against Class C fires.

6. May be suitable for use against Class D fires.

( ( t
Issue 2


Dangers of Ignited Materials

1401. Given the right conditions, most of the non-metallic materials used in ships can be ignited.
Thereafter they will contribute heat to extend the fire. In particular the plastics and other
polymeric materials introduced in the last few decades for furnishing decor and certain
_ electrical components can be dangerous according to type, form and extent of their
application. In a fire and in some cases merely at an elevated temperature, many of these
evolve gases which are toxic to personnel and corrosive to equipment. Additionally they emit
smoke to the detriment of firefighting and control.

Fire 'bests

1402. The tests required to quantify the fire characteristics of materials, such as ignitability, flame
propagation, smoke production etc, are detailed in NES 705,'Selection of Materials on the
Basis of the Fire Characteristics'. When proposing to introduce a new material or equipment
into ships, the sponsor section is to check the fire characteristics of the material or component
materials with the Materials Specialist Section NA114. When a choice between materials
having similar fire characteristics has to be made, preference is to be given to the material with
the lowest smoke number and toxicity index as specified in NES 705. If tests have not already
been conducted on the materials (and in the form) in question, they will be arranged. The
results are to be assessed before accepting the material or equipment.

1403. It is to be noted that frequently in commercial practice, fire retardance of materials is achieved
at the expense of increased fire toxicity and/or smoke production. Therefore when choosing
materials no single characteristic should be considered in isolation. If the only materials
suitable for a particular application (in terms of their engineering properties) all have some fire
characteristics outside the limit, the best compromise should be selected taking account of the
location in which the material is to be used.

1404. The following gives an indication of some of the more common fire tests and acceptance

_ a. Oxygen Index This test is defined in BS 2782 Part 1. A specimen is supported

vertically in a glass chamber through which is passed a metered mixture of oxygen
and nitrogen. The oxygen content is reduced progressively until the specimen is just
able to continue burningwith a steady candle-like flame. This concentration is taken
as the Oxygen Index. Many materials will support glowing combustion at lower
oxygen levels. ,

b. Toxicity Index This test is defined in NES 713. A specimen is burned in a fume
cupboard and the quantity of each gas evolved is measured. The Toxicity Index is
derived by summing the products of these quantities by the respective toxicity (taken
as the human 30 minute fatal concentration).

NOTE: Toxicity Index is not abbreviated to TI for fear of confusion with Temperature

c. Smoke Number This test is defined in AMEE 14/73 - 6762. A specimen is burned in
a smoke chamber fitted with a photo-electric cell. The percentage light
transmittance and optical density are measured at 1 minute intervals and used to
_ compute the Smoke Number, a number from 1 to 20.
Issue 2

d. Smoke Index This test is defined in NES 711. The method is an alternative to that
shown in c. The test is carried out in a National Bureau of Standards Smoke
Chamber. A specimen is exposed to an electrical radiant heat source and then a gas
flame. The percentage light transmittance and optical density are measured
continuously during the test and are used to compute the Smoke Index.

e. Fire Propagation This test is defined in BS 476 Part 6. A specimen is ignited in a

combustion chamber. The amount of heat the specimen evolves is assessed by
measuring the funnel temperature. An index of performance I together with
sub-indices ii, i2, i3 are reported. I indicates the total heat contributed by the
specimen and is a summation of the sub-indices determined at progressively later
times during the test.

1405. Additional tests may need to be conducted depending on the results of the tests listed above and
the configuration and application of the material, eg Surface Spread of Flame Test, Flame
Resistance of Coated Fabrics, Effect of Underfloor Fire on Deck Coverings etc - see NES 705.
The advice of DNA/ NA114 is to be sought as to their applicability and the acceptability of the
results. Likewise if it is proposed to use a material or combination of materials extensively, eg
hull linings, the advice of the Specialist Section is to be sought in case it may be necessary to
conduct full scale tests.

Structural Materials

1406. Of the materials currently used in surface ship construction, steel is the most acceptable for
providing a barrier to fire. Its acceptability arises from the retention of a high percentage of its
strength at temperatures encountered in fires eg at 400°C (ie considerably less than the
maximum temperatures reached in many fires) the UTS of aluminium is reduced to 13% but
mild steel still maintains 93% nominal. Steel, however, is a good conductor of heat and hence
the need to fit fire protection slab in the instances detailed in Section ?.

1407. Aluminium alloys rapidly lose their strength in the temperatures encountered in ships fires.
Experience of ship fires show that steel structures may distort but are generally repairable
whereas aluminium alloys collapse thereby spreading the fire. It is recommended, therefore,
that aluminium alloys are not used for main structures, nor in minor structures where the
compartment concerned is at special risk because of its contents.

1408. Where overriding design requirements necessitate the use of aluminium alloy for main
structure, then fire barrier insulation is to be fitted in way of high risk areas: Consideration is
also to be given to fitting extra fire protection including fire detectors and fixed water spray
systems to cool the structure.

1409. GRP provides good fire containment in the approved all - woven roving reinforcement form
adopted in the construction of specialized hulls such as the MCMV 7lests have shown that
small fire sources, eg oil rags, do not readily promote serious burning of woven roving GRP.
The burning of the surface resin does, however, produce dense black acrid smoke, Breathing
apparatus BA) is necessary in order to fight fires involving areas of exposed resin and
MOD(PE) is to be consulted regarding allowances of BA to be provided per ship and their
distribution throughout the ship (see Section 21). Surface resin fires can be quenched with
Issue 2

Non-Structural Items

1410. The fire characteristics of all metals are to be considered prior to their adoption for any
particular use. Attention is drawn to the mistaken use of aluminium for cable hangers. These
have been used in both steel and aluminium ships. In ship fires it has been shown that early
collapse of aluminium hangars will occur with cable runs blocking passageways and other
spaces. Firefighting has been seriously impeded with consequent considerable increase in
damage. Cables are to be secured by steel banding in accordance with NES 502.

1411. In main and auxiliary machinery spaces all ladders, walkways, platforms, floorplates,
guardrails, stanchions and their supporting structures, together with all ladders on access and
escape routes throughout the ship, are to be made of galvanized steel (See NES 127).
Aluminium alloy is not to be used since collapse of vital access routes in a fire could lead to
delay or failure of the firefighting operation. Ships with a low magnetic signature are to use a
material compatible with their design requirements.

1412. The use of wood is to be kept to an absolute minimum and apart from that which is exposed to
the weather, is fitted in magazines or is in contact with foodstuffs, is to be rendered
fire-retardant by a pressure impregnated process in accordance with NES 763. For use of wood
in magazines see NES 183 Part 1.

Materials used to Improve Habitabiliy

1413. In peacetime, accommodation and recreation spaces are not in themselves high fire risk areas.
However, once involved in a fire spread from other areas, or as a result of action damage,
serious hazards can be created by the smoke and toxic fumes produced from the contents. The
dangerous contents include polyether foam mattresses, PVC deck coverings, plastic furniture
and furnishings, cable insulation, etc. For these reasons when selecting a material careful
consideration is to be given to the situation in which it is to be used, the quantity involved, its
fire characteristics and the fire risk posed by the surrounding spaces. It is the responsibility of
the designer to ensure that all materials specified have acceptable
", fire characteristics in accordance with NES 705.


1414. The selection of cabling will depending on service requirements as defined in NES 502.
Wherever possible cabling of limited fire hazard (LFH) construction is to be used for power,
lighting, control, communication and instrumentation circuits throughout the ship. ( See NES
518). LFH cables produce limited levels of noxious fumes, smoke and corrosive products when
burnt or subjected to very high temperatures. LFH cables may be selected from NES 525 for
core conductor sizes up to 2.5 mm and NES 526 for sizes greater than 2.5 mm2.

1415. Where cables are carried in ducts, C02 injection nozzles are to be fitted in the ducting at
accessible positions.

Issue 2



1501. In Machinery spaces that are likely to be unmanned except for maintenance or watchkeeping
rounds, a small fire could escalate very quickly. Automatic fire and smoke detectors will
provide early warning and fixed firefighting systems, eg water spray, 6% AFFF or gaseous
systems will allow rapid and effective means of extinguishment or control. Centre Feed Hose
Reels and portable extinguishers within the compartment will allow for rapid local action if
compartment is manned when the fire starts.

1502. The fixed firefighting systems may consist of water spray, 6% AFFF or gaseous drench
systems, or a combination of more than one, as specified below:

1503. Systems are detailed in the following sections of this NES:

a. Fire detection systems Section 16
b. Gaseous Firefighting system Section 17
c. Spraying and Flooding systems Section 18
d. Foam making system Section 19
e. Portable Firefighting Equipment Section 20

High Risk Compartments

1504. High fire risk compartments (as defined in Section 7) are to be provided with:
a. A fixed 2 shot gaseous firefighting system in accordance with NES 357 Parts 1, 2
and 3.
b. A separate gas drench system is also to be installed within each gas turbine and
diesel generator module enclosure in accordance with NES 357 Parts 2 and 3..
c. In the event that the compartment is breached, or that a rapid re-entry to the
compartment is required, the gas drench system becomes ineffective. Therefore a
fixed water spray system with 6% AFFF induction (by volume) is also to be provided.
The system is to comprise:
(1) A high level pipework system fitted with non-aspirating nozzles.
(2) An additional separate low level AFFF distribution system fitted with aspirating
nozzles to protect against an oil fire in the bilges.
(3) Upward spraying nozzles fitted to the high level system to spray the deckhead
where cables and pipework containing flammable liquids are fitted above the
high level system.
(4) The high level system is to be extended upwards to provide an effective water
seal around the engine exhaust uptakes to prevent the ingress of smoke and fire
into the uptake space and to provide boundary cooling to the uptakes.
d. Centre FeedHose Reel Units in accordance with NES 868.
e. Portable 9 litre AFFF stored pressure extinguishers are to be sited in convenient
positions. The minimum requirements is one at the lower level and one at the higher
level at each access. The final number will be dependent on the size of the
f. Portable 2kg C02 extinguishers are to be sited in convenient positions. Numbers will
depend on the size of the compartment.

Issue 2

g. Dry powder stored pressure extinguishers are to be fitted within main machinery
spaces, hangar complexes, on flight decks and other areas where large volumes of oil
under pressure may be found, to combat liquid fuel fires or pressure spray fires.
They are to be fitted within main machinery spaces adjacent to each access, as near
to the particular access as practical, preferably at the top level. This will also apply
to other compartments which contain large quantities of oil under pressure. On flight
decks and within hangar complexes one extinguisher is to be sited in a readily
accessible position adjacent to each aircraft fuelling point to deal with any AVCAT
spills. On large multi spot flight decks provision is to be made in the AFFF heated
locker for the stowage of one extinguisher.

1505. For those high ~ risk compartments containing Internal Combustion machinery, the following
is to be applied: .
(1) The quantity of fuel and lubricating oil in the compartment is to be minimized
and provision made for rapid bulkhead isolation of incoming supplies from
outside the compartment. If it is considered essential to provide a gravity fed
fuel tank inside the compartment, it is to be fitted with an approved `fire-safe'
isolation valve in the supply line to the engines and be operable from outside
the compartment for isolating the fuel. Any gauge glass fitted to this tank is
to be made of high temperature borosilicate glass and be fitted with spring
loaded cocks in accordance with the requirements of NES 320.
(2) Fuel and lubricating oil pipework is to be all welded or brazed. Fuel lines which
are subject to high pressure are to be sheathed.
(3) After stopping, the high temperature of diesel engines continues to be a fire
risk. Therefore, consideration is to be given to the provision of a non-engine
driven cooling system.
(4) Hot surfaces are to be lagged or water jacketed to ensure that no exposed
surface has a temperature exceeding the flash point of the fuel and oils used
in the compartment.
(5) The shutdown system associated with the engine auto watchkeeper is to:
(a) Return the fuel rack to zero.
(b) Shut off air to the engine at the induction manifold.
- (c) Shut one of the exhaust trunk valves, eg the Group Exhaust.

NOTE: The design of the mechanism to override these functions for starting is to
be fail safe.

(6) In addition to the shutdown arrangements listed in (5), an isolation valve of an

approved `fire-safe' design is to be fitted in the fuel supply line immediately
before each engine such that, on failure of the shutdown arrangements, the
engine can be stopped by fuel starvation. The valves are to be operable from
outside the compartment. The location of these valves is to be such that engine
run down commences within 15 seconds of valve closure.

(7) The auto-protection emergency shutdown and fuel isolation valves are to be
designed and positioned with a view to minimizing damage to external
supplies when called upon to operate.

(8) The controls outside the compartment for isolating fuel, stopping fans and
,- sealing ventilation are to be grouped for rapid operation.

Issue 2
(9) Apart from the main accesses, escape hatches and ventilation trunking there
are to be no apertures in the DG Compartment boundary capable of providing
air to support fire or permitting the escape of gaseous extinguishants. Fire
flaps fitted to supply and exhaust in accordance with the requirements of
Section 7 are to allow rapid closing and are to be operable from outside the
compartment. Where easy access to these flaps is not possible, remote
operation is to be provided.
(10) If recirculation fans are fitted inside the compartment, provision is to be made
for them to be stopped from outside the compartment.
(11) If a fixed gas firefighting system is fitted, the air intakes to the engines) are
to be separately trunked to avoid difficulties in starting the diesel after the
halon system has been discharged.

1506. Where internal combustion engines are contained within compartments fitted with a
compartment gas drench, the engine unit cannot readily be re-started after the release of the gas
unless the unit is fitted with a separate trunked air supply. Where trunked air supplies are not
fitted, exhaust fans and the necessary electrical supply to run them must be available to clear the
gas from the compartment to ensure prompt re-start of the engines.


1507. Compartments such as magazines (see Section 7) are to be provided with firefighting
arrangements as specified in NES 183 Part 1. These will consist generally of:
a. Automatic fire detection system.

b. Rapid Reaction Spray System (RRSS), or

__ Metron activated Spray System (MASS), or

d. Thermal bulb spray system, or

e. Manually operated spray system.

f. Portable extinguishers.

Aircraft Hangars and Vehicle Spaces

1508. Aircraft hangars and vehicle spaces are to be provided with:

a. Automatic fire detection system.

b. Manually operated spray system.

c. SF 90 AFFF Unit.

d. Portable extinguishers.

e. Also in the larger between-deck hangars and vehicle spaces Centre Feed Hose Reels
and hydrants complete with hoses and foam branchpipes.
Issue 2

High Value Compartments

1509. High value compartments (see Section 7) are to be provided with:

a. Automatic fire detection system.

b. Portable C02 extinguishers.

1510. In addition to Clause 1509 electronic equipments are to be fitted with cabinet heat or fire
detectors. Enclosed electronic cabinets are to be fitted with C02 injection sockets. Large suites
of integrated cabinets maybe fitted with a self-contained fire suppression systems eg C02,
Argon or Nitrogen permanently connected to the cabinet.

1511. In view of the limited accessibility for firefighters with portable equipment, UAAI Bearing
Head Compartments are to be protected by a fixed C02 system. Individual ship's systems are to
be designed in consultation with DG Ships, Section ME225.


1512. The higher than average risk of fire in these compartments justifies the incorporation of built-in
safeguards. Deep and shallow fryers are potentially the greatest risk, with deep fryers being
protected by a safety thermostat giving audible and visual warning of overheating. the warnings
are to operate both locally and remotely in HQ1.

1513. A breach of the ventilation trunking by fire within the galley may increase the general hazard
by spreading fire and smoke to other compartments and also sustain the fire by release of air
from ventilation systems in the galley other than the galley systems. The general details of
construction of ventilation trunking and canopies in galleys, including the siting and means of
control of the fire flaps fitted in exhaust trunking serving fryers and ranges, are to be in
accordance with the requirements of NES 102.

1514. Additional precautions to be taken within the galley area are:

a. Where practicable, all electric cabling is to be sited away from risk areas.
b. Master switches for all cooking equipment and galley ventilation stop and re-start
_ switches are to be fitted in a readily accessible position outside the main entrance to
the galley and clearly identified. A clear mechanical indication is to be provided with
a locking device in the `OFF' position only. NES 121 and NES 502 refer.

c. A 150 mm viewing port in accordance with NES 112 is to be fitted in the door to each
galley or in the adjacent minor bulkhead to enable the equipment within the galley
to be observed from the area outside the galley without the need to open the door
when the compartment is unmanned. Mirrors are to be fitted where necessary.

d. 9 litre portable AFFF extinguishers are to be sited inside near the entrance in a
readily accessible position. One is required for a small galley and two for a large
galley and for galleys with two entrances.

Small Ships

1515. For smaller ships the overall fit of firefighting equipment will be reduced according to the size
of the ship. Every effort is to be made to incorporate a gas drench system and water spray
system with AFFF induction in the machinery spaces. 9 litre AFFF portable extinguishers and
C02 extinguishers are to be fitted.
Issue 2

Audit of the General Arrangement --

1516. Once the GA has been sufficiently developed it is to be subjected, on a compartment by

compartment basis, to an audit in order to assess in a quantitive manner:
a. The risk of fire occuring
b. The risk of fire spreading

for each compartment. It is suggested that a simple numeric scoring system is adopted, so
that compartments can be graded by risk, function and importance to Command and an
early assessment can be made of those which may require a fixed firefighting system.
Table 3 illustrates a typical scoring system. Factors which are to be considered in making
such an assessment are:
i. Whether the compartment is continuously manned or not.
ii. The type of detection system to be fitted.
iii. The nature of the fire risk.
iv. The difficulties which may confront a manual firefighting team if a fire did

1517. This work is to be programmed to commence as soon as it is considered that the location of
80% of compartments is firm. As well as assigning a numeric value to the risks pertaining
to each compartment, the analysis is also to highlight any instances in which a local
rearrangement would improve particular risk values.

Issue 2


1 Minimal Risk No adjacent High
Risk/High Value
2 Minimal effect on Accommodation Potential HR/HV Below
float, fight,move Category A Fire
3 Potential HRJFiV 1 side
Category B Fire
4 Desirable to Float Stores Potential HR/HV 2 sides
Category C Fire
5 Minor lobbies A+B HR/HV 3 sides
6 Desirable to Move Significant A+C HR/HV 4 sides
7 B+C HRJHV above
8 Desirable to fight Services, supplies, A+B+C HR/HV Below +1
catering, hotel side
services etc.
g A+M, Below +2 sides
10 Essential to Float Communications/N B +M Below +3 sides
11 C+M Below +4 sides
12 Essential to Move Systems A+B+M HRJHV Above+l
13 A+C+M Above+2 sides
14 Critical to Float Propulsion B+C+M Above+3 sides
15 A+B+C+M Above+4 sides
16 Essential to Fight Command and Flammable Stores BY44W Above and
Control Below
10 17 HR/HV Above and
Below + 1 side
18 Critical to Move Power HRJHV Above and
Below + 2 sides
lg HRJHV Above and
Below + 3 sides
20 Critical to Fight ' Fight Explosives HI'I/FiV all round



NOTE: M=Significant rotating


1. If there is redundancy of compartment function, subtract 2 from

the index

2. Spaces which communicate directly with a parent space (eg. uptake spaces)
Issue 2


Fire Detection Systems

1601. Autonomous fire detection systems may be fitted to any class of vessel. Where a policy of
integrated damage surveillance and control has been established, those elements peculiar to
fire detection are to follow the principles of NES 603.

1602. The fire detection system is to cover all compartments.

1603. A guide to the policy, design and installation of autonomous fire detection systems is given in
NES 603.

1604. Any vessels built to merchant ship standards are to comply with the Statutory Regulations for
Fire Detection specified by the Independent Certification organisation responsible for
classifying the vessel. Lloyds Register of Shipping is such an organisation and its' requirements
are published as Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Ships, Part 6, Control,
Electrical, Refrigeration and Fire.

1605. Fire or overheat detectors fitted specifically for equipment protection, eg electronic cabinets,
are not part of the compartment space monitoring system and are to be on a separate dedicated
warning system. Consideration may be given however, for such a system to provide an output
to the whole ship fire detection system particularly if the ship fire detection system is an
addressable system.

1606. Drawings of the arrangement of fire detection equipment within compartments is to form part
of the drawings required for Firefighting and Damage Control (see Section 12).

Hazardous Areas

1607. In areas where explosive gas-airmixtures are or may be expected to be present in quantities
such as to require special precautions for the construction and use of electrical apparatus, the
fire detection equipment to be fitted in these areas must be capable of meeting the necessary
Intrinsically Safe Standards. Fire indication is to be relayed to the Damage Control position in
the NBCD HQ1/HQ2 as individual compartments and presented in visual and audible form.

Heat Sensitive Detector Systems

Boiler Combustion Air Spaces

1608. A line heat detector system is to be fitted to the underside of furnace and furnace gas casings.
The basic components are a sensing loop, control unit, visual and audible alarms and a system
test switch. The sensing loop is to consist of one or more pliable sensing elements, which being
pliable can be shaped to match the contours of the installation concerned and to cover all
vulnerable points. See NES 603.

Gas Turbine Modules

1609. The system fitted within gas turbine engine enclosures is to consist of a number of Graviner
heat detector units set to operate at an ambient temperature above 120°C. Fire indication is to
be given by visual and audible alarms locally, at the machinery control position and the
Damage Control Position in the Ship Control Centre. BR 6560(001)(1) and BR 6560(002)(1)
also refer.

Issue 2

Electronic Equipment

1610. Thermal detector units are to be fitted in weapon equipment cabinets as determined by the
Weapon Project Group. Alarms are to be relayed to the Damage Control position in NBCD HQ
1/FiQ2 either individually or by grouped signals and may be repeated in the Operations Room
and Weapon Control Centre.

Issue 2



1701. This section specifies the requirement for gaseous firefighting systems. The systems are to be
fitted in Main and Auxiliary Machinery Spaces and such other spaces as may be designated in
this NES and specified in the ship procurement specification.

System Operation

1702. Gaseous Firefighting Systems are to be designed and installed for manual release only.
Pneumatic release is to be the preferred method of operation.
Total Gas Requirements

1703. The gas required for typical compartments is to be as follows:

a. One Machinery Space Sufficient gas is to be provided for two shots. (Initial and
b. More than one Machinery Space: Sufficient gas is to be provided for two shots into the
largest space.

1704. For details of various gas systems see NES 357 Parts 1, 2 and 3 for C02, , BTM and BCF

1705. Compartments protected by a gaseous firefighting system are to be airtight to 5 mbar (pressure
tested to 5 mbar with a maximum of 1 mbar drop in 10 minutes). Any difficulties in achieving
airtightness are to be discussed with DG. Ships/ME225. The requirement for airtightness is
necessary in order to:
a. retain the inert atmosphere within the compartment until any means of re-ignition has
been eliminated;
b. prevent smoke, toxic or corrosive by products of the fire and gas being carried to other
parts of the ship.

1706. Zlo achieve the requirements of Clause 1705, suitable closures are to be fitted to all ventilation
openings to the compartment. Compartment access is to be provided via gastight doors and/or
hatches. Sliding doors are to be avoided. Cable and pipe penetrations in the boundaries of the
compartment are to be gastight. Notices are to be provided to draw attention to the openings
and the need to close them in the event of fire. Remote closing arrangements of all ventilation
openings and means of automatically stopping all ventilation fans serving the spaces, are to be
provided in the Damage Control position of NBCD HQ1.

1707. Zb remove smoke, toxic and corrosive by-products of the fire and gas exhaust ventilation is to
be fitted in accordance with NES 102.

Fire Protection of cylinders

1708. A manually operated sea water spraying system is to be fitted within the cylinder store
allowing spraying over the cylinders. Compressed gas cylinder stowage compartments are to
be protected in accordance with Section 19. For small systems eg single sprinkler head
systems, these requirements may be related subject to approval by DG. Ships/ME225.

Issue 2


System Arrangements

1801. The arrangement of the spraying and flooding systems are to meet the regulations laid down in
NES 183 Parts 1 and 2 and BR 1754. They are to be applied to the following compartments but
reference must be made to the respective NES or BR for specific requirements:

a. Automatic Spra 'yng Fitted generally in magazines and compartments containing

explosives, gasoline compartments, LOX compartments.

b. Semi-Automatic Spra3rina Fitted to magazines and compartments containing

explosives. .

c. Manual Spra3ring Fitted generally in magazines, magazine lockers that contain

water activated stores, ammunition transfer spaces, upper deck launchers and
containers, hangars, compressed gas cylinder stowages (eg oxygen, acetylene,
hydrogen, LPG and BTM), highly flammable and flammable stores, balloon filling
stations, dope storerooms, paint stores and rooms, avcat compartments. See also BR
1754 and BR 3000 .

d. Flooding Systems Fitted into lockers and Cofferdams as detailed below:

(1) Lockers Magazine lockers and Ready-Use Magazine lockers in accordance with
NES 179 and as specified in the Ship or Class Procurement Specification.

(2) Cofferdams Cofferdams adjoining gasoline tanks built into the ship's structure
and to the double bottom compartments under gasoline tanks.

Automatic Spray Systems

1802. Automatic spray systems are to be fitted in such compartments as specified in Section 7 and
NES 183 Part 1.

1803. The automatic spray systems can be one of:

a. Rapid Reaction Spray System (RR,SS).

b. Metron Activated Spray System (MASS).

c. Thermal Bulb Spray System.

1804. In magazines supplied initially from pressurized water reservoirs, the reservoirs are to provide
an automatic spraying system constantly charged with fresh water under pressure, with
sufficient capacity to allow time for the required rate of water supply to be taken over and
maintained by the ship's sea water main. The magazine system is to be capable of diverting
supplies to selected magazines within the time limit of the reservoirs even when the system is

Issue 2

Rapid Reaction Spray Systems (RRSS) _

1805. Rapid Reaction Spray Systems (RRSS) are to be fitted in magazines on surface ships, such as:
a. Seawolf Magazine.
b. Air Weapons Magazine.
c. 4.5" and 30 mm Magazine.
d. 4.5" Gunbay.

For details of the RRSS see Part 3 Section 11.

Metron Activated Spray gystem (MASS)

1806. Compartments classed as magazines not fitted with the rapid reaction spray system are to be
fitted with a bulb sprinkler system capable of a high rate of reaction in the event of an incident.
The frangible glass bulb sprinklers are to be fitted with thereto-electric piston protractors. This
sprinkler is a conventional frangible glass bulb sprinkler which includes a suitable electrically
operated thereto-electric piston protractor fitted on one half of the sprinkler yoke. Application
of an electric current ignites a pyrotechnic charge within the protractor which ejects a short
piston and shatters the frangible glass bulb.
For details of the MASS see Part 3 Section 11.

Thermal Bulb Spry System

1807. For areas that do not require such quick reaction times a Thermal bulb spray system is to be
fitted. These Thermal Bulbs have no piston protractors fitted to them, instead they utilise only
the frangible glass bulb that is designed to fracture at 68°C and above The fracturing of the
glass bulb allows immediate flow of water from that sprinkler head.
' For details of the thermal bulb sprinkler system see Part 3 section 11.

Manually Operated Spray Systems

1808. Manual operated spraying systems are to be fitted in such compartments as specified in Section
7 and NES 183 Part 1.
For details of Manually Operated Spray Systems see Part 3 Section 11.

Hangar Spray Systems

1809. Hangar spraying systems are to be fitted in all ships operating fixed wing aircraft and/or
For details of Hangar Spray Systems see Part 3 section 11.

Minor Spaces

1810. In spaces where a water spray would be the most effective means of firefighting but the cost of
a fully connected system to the HPSW main cannot be justified, a basic pipework system with
sprinkler nozzles can be fitted. This system is to terminate at a bulkhead connection fitted with
a male instantaneous hose coupling and female blank cap. When required to be used the system
is to be supplied from outside the compartment by a hose from the nearest convenient hydrant.
Issue 2

Control of Valves and Associated Keys

1811. The control of valves to the various types of spray systems are as follows:

a. For magazines, gasoline and LOX compartments the control valves and associated
keys are to be in accordance with NES183 Parts 1 and 2.

b. For manually operated spray systems the control valve position and keys are to be
sited as follows:

(1) One position to be sited adjacent and immediately outside the access to the
protected compartment.

(2) The remote position is to be sited on the weatherdeck or in a position readily

accessible from the weatherdeck and separated in the fore and aft direction form
the protected compartment by a main watertight bulkhead.

(3) Between-deck hangars, for each separately operated section, the remote
position is to be from the hangar access lobby

c. -Keys The control valves are to be lockable with duplicate keys, one of which is to be
stowed in a glass fronted key bog, painted signal red, sited adjacent to the control
valve. The duplicate key is to be held by the ship's NBCD organization (probably in
HQ 1).

Issue 2


Foam Liquid

1901. Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) is the agent provided to combat fires involving Class A
and Class B fires. The areas of most probable use (ie high risk areas) are in the machinery
spaces, hangars, flight decks and vehicle decks and in any other area where large quantities of
hydro-carbon fuels may be stowed or worked.

Foam Spray systems

1902. Fixed systems are to be fitted in Main and Auxiliary Machinery Spaces, Hangars and other
high risk compartments as specified in Section 7.
For details of Foam Spray Systems see Part 3.

1903. Foam liquid for fixed systems is to be 6% by volume (3% for RFAs) and supplied from tanks
having a capacity sufficient to allow a minimum of 10 minutes continuous spraying.

1904. The time taken to discharge foam from the system nozzles, starting from the commencement
of induction should, ideally, not be greater than 10 seconds but is not to exceed 20 seconds.
This is to achieve rapid knockdown of the fire

Foam Spray Systems - Minor spaces

1905. In small machinery spaces and other areas where the provision of a foam spray system is
required but the full requirements of Clause 1902 cannot be justified, a simple pipework
system can be fitted and supplied with foam from outside the compartment by a hose and
portable inductor connected to the system by an instantaneous hose connection. The inductor is
to be designed to match the individual system and pick-up foam liquid at the rate of 6% by

Limber Holes

1906. Limber holes are to be provided in longitudinal and transverse structure in all compartments
fitted with fixed foam spray systems to ensure a rapid spread of foam throughout the bilges.
Conversely, the limber holes will also assist with the removal of the spray water during the
cleaning up process after a fire has owed.

Fixed foam Installation for Enclosed Boiler Boxe,§( LPD surface Ships only)

1907. Enclosed boiler boxes are to be protected by mechanical foam generator (MFG). For details of
the MFG see Part 3.

Foam Making Requirements at VERTR,EP Position

1908. Although the provision of major foam making equipment, as used on flight decks, is not
required in areas where VERTREP is undertaken, provision for air crew rescue, in the event of
an accident, is to be provided by the fitting of a foam making branchpipe FB5(X) and portable
inline inductor to a convenient hydrant adjacent to the dropping zone. When not required for
VERTREP duties the branchpipe and inductor is to be stowed in a readily accessible position
within the ship, eg adjacent to the machinery space access, ready for use.
Issue 2

Foam Making Equipment

1909. Foam making equipment is to be supplied for use in machinery spaces and in other positions
where a risk of burning liquid fires e3dsts or where there is a need to lay down a foam
Details of this equipment can be found in NES 119, Part 3, Chapter 13.

Issue 2


Portable Firefighting Equipment

2001. The portable firefighting equipment in a ship consists of hoses with nozzles and portable hand
held extinguishers which contain AFFF, C02 or dry powder as the agent according to the nature
of the materials involved in the fire, but in specific cases according to the particular equipment
involved. Descriptions of the various firefighting agents are given in Section 13. The
disposition of the equipment is to be as described in the Firefighting and Damage Control
Equipment Drawing. Information (ie, sizes, weights, stock numbers, etc) on accessories (eg
hoses, charges, brackets, etc) for all the units is given in the Equipment Lists in Part 3.

2002. Hoses and nozzles are to be sited adjacent to the hydrants specified in Section 11. Additional
hoses and nozzles are to be stowed in Fire and Repair Party Lockers and Upper Deck Re-entry
Fire Party Lockers (see Part 3).

2003. The general requirements for siting portable extinguishers are as follows:
a. Between decks, spaced throughout the length of the ship.

b. Inside the compartment for which they are provided other than cabin flats, etc where
they are sited in lobbies.
c. Near the access or accesses to the compartments. In certain instances, eg operational
spaces, extinguishers for specific purposes may be sited in selected positions
elsewhere in the compartment.
d. Remote from heat sources such as boilers, hot machinery, hot pipes and electric
e. In readily seen accessible positions clear of open doors.

£ Stowed in standard bulkhead mounted brackets so that the extinguisher handle is

about 1 m above the deck and is rattle free.
g. The position of all portable extinguishers is to be identified and marked in accordance
with BR 2170(1).

Issue 2


1~roes of Apparatus

2101. The two types of apparatus used on board Surface Ships are:

a. Breathing Apparatus Self Contained Compressed Air - BASCCA (DCFF) is the normal
equipment worn by firefighters working in an unbreathable atmosphere.

b. Escape Breathing Apparatus - Emergency Life Support Apparatus (ELSA) is worn by

personnel for escape purposes only. (See Section 22).

2102. In ships designated as having a low magnetic signature,, the appropriate non-magnetic
BASSCA (DCFF) equipment is to be fitted. For variations between BASSCA (DCFF) and
non-magnetic BASSCA (DCFF) see BR 8223.


2103. Surface Ships will be provided with an approved allowance of BASCCA (DCFF) to the scales
shown in BR 2170, Volume 3 which, in Frigates and above are to be stowed on the basis of four
in the immediate vicinity of each Fire and Repair party Post for use by the Immediate Reaction
7bam and four in close proximity for use by the Relief 71eam. An additional number of sets
(between a minimum of 50% and a maximum of 100% of the total FRP Posts allowance) are to
be arranged in pairs positioned, as far as practicable, in lobbies or sir locks off the weatherdeck
to facilitate firefighting when the ship is alongside. Four of the additional sets are to be stowed
in close proximity of the Upper Deck Re-entry Fire Party Post for use by the Re-entry Team.
Minor and miscellaneous vessels not provided with standard FRP Posts will be provided with a
total ship allowance of four, six or eight BASCCA (DCFF) sets.

2104. Allowances of the items comprising BASCCA (DCFF), and the scale of associated spares and
tools are determined from the scales given in BR 8223, BR 3024, BR 2170 Volume 3 and the
Establishment List for BASCCA (DCFF) - W3079. Arrangements for the stowage of spares,
tools and test equipment is to be provided in the Diving Gear Store.

-- 2105. Eight spare BASCCA (DCFF) cylinder assemblies are to be stowed at each Fire and Repair
Party Post equal to the number of BASCCA (DCFF) sets provided for use at these positions
plus an additional four at the Upper Deck Re-entry Fire Party Post. The remainder of the
allowance is to be distributed throughout the ship in the vicinity of the BASCCA (DCFF)
sets. Minor and miscellaneous ships provided with charging facilities are to be provided
with an allowance of one spare BASCCA (DCFF) cylinder assembly per set; those not
provided with charging facilities are to be provided with two spare BASCCA cylinder
assemblies per set. RFA vessels are to be provided with two spare BASCCA cylinders per

Issue 2

Charging Arrangements

2106. Charging and Re-charging for BASCCA (DCFF) cylinders to the recommended pressure of 207
bar is to be provided from the HP air main via the main BA charging panel, usually sited in the
Diving Gear Store. In addition to the main BA charging panel, auxiliary BASCCA (DCFF)
charging panels are to be sited throughout the ship. In a Frigate or Destroyer a total of four
positions are to be provided, one forward, one amidships, one aft and one in the superstructure.
Main and auxiliary charging panels are not to be sited in or adjacent to Main Machinery Spaces
and Fire and Repair Party Posts (ie in congested areas). Each charging panel is to be capable of
supplying approximately 22000 litres of free sir at 207 bar for continuous periods of up to 24
hours duration.

2107. Zb ensure the availability of HP air supplies and charging points during an emergency, the
following conditions are to be met:

a. Siting of Compressors Where more than one HP sir compressor is fitted, they are not
to be sited within the same compartment and, if possible, their siting in `high fire risk'
spaces, eg Machinery Spaces, is to be avoided. The compressors are to be sited remote
from each other and preferably on opposite sides of the ship. In surface ships fitted
with only one compressor, this is to be, if possible, sited outside `high fire risk' spaces.

b. Air Supply to Compressors The air intakes) for the compressors) must not be in the
machinery spaces but in an area free from exhaust gases and other contamination
within the citadel in a position which ensures a free flow of air, eg passageways. An
additional intake, drawing air direct from atmosphere via a changeover valve, is to
be fitted for use when the passageways have become smoke logged.

c. HP Air Systems The HP air ring main is to be provided with sufficient isolatingvalves
to preserve system integrity in the event of fire damage. If possible, HP air stowage
bottles are to be sited outside `high fire risk' spaces and so positioned to provide
complete system duplication.

2108. Air purity for BASCCA (DCFF) and ELSA air is to conform to the requirements of BS 4001
Part 1. Details of filters, reservoirs, etc and purification equipment for compressed air systems
are contained in NES 314. Information on charging and control procedures for BA is contained
in BR 8223 (BASCCA - DCFF) and BR 2170(1) (Ship NBCD Manual).

2109. In minor vessels not fitted with charging arrangements, a portable self contained compressor is
to be provided and stowed in a suitably sheltered weatherdeck position free from sir
contaminants. (See Part 3).

Issue 2



On Submarines the term ESCAPE usually
refers to SUBMARINE ESCAPE in which
men ascend to the Surface from a bottomed
submarine, but in this NES the term ESCAPE
is used to refer to the arrangements for
evacuating from casualty compartments into
safe ones.
2201. The need for escape facilities because of the danger of flooding or fire will depend on such
factors as location of compartments, length of escape routes, degree of risk, and whether or not
trunked access is provided. Escape arrangements and facilities need to be investigated at a very
early stage in the design of a new ship. A drawing is to be provided, with deck plans to scales
of 1:100 or 1:200, showing escape routes with positions for related escape markings, Automatic
Emergency Lanterns (AEL) and Emergency Life Support Apparatus (ELSA).
Escape Facilities
Surface Ships

2202. The following is to be the basis for the provision of escape facilities in Surface Ships:
a. Escape routes are defined as the exit route to the weatherdeck from any
compartment, or group of compartments, manned for a watch period or more at sea
or in harbour.
b. Compartments, or groups of compartments, containing 5 or more men for long
periods during normal cruising or NBCD action states, including all messing and
accommodation areas, are to be provided with emergency escape facilities giving exit
where practicable to separate escape routes. This can be achieved by 2 normal
accesses or one normal and one emergency access.
c. Compartments containing large numbers of men (40 or more) are to be provided with
2 normal means of access arranged to provide separate escape routes. Where
separate escape routes cannot be provided care is to be taken to ensure that escape
scuttles do not exit into compartments which may normally be locked eg galley,
storerooms etc.
d. Escape trunks provide a low level route for escape and re-entry for firefighting
purposes and their use is to be considered as part of the fire protection arrangements
in a new vessel. Compartments, or groups of compartments, including those
containing less than 5 men, manned in action and located low in the ship, ie where
the crown of the compartment is at or below the deep waterline, are to be provided,
wherever practicable, with a fire resistant A-60 trunked access to a position higher
in the ship with a defined exit route to and from the trunk. 7b prevent trunks acting
as heat funnels in the event of a fire they are to be closed with a QAWT door access
at the base and exits particularly in compartments extending over more than 1 deck
height eg: machinery spaces.
e. The design of the escape trunks from the main machinery spaces and the SCC is to
be developed and integrated into the ships structure prior to finalising the main
machinery layout. Detailed consideration is required of the dimensioning and
facilities appropriate to the escape trunks when used as low level re-entry routes.
Issue 2

f. For compartments above the waterline, and those containing less than.5 men below
the waterline not manned in action, the provision of separate escape facilities cannot
in general be justified.

g. Where an escape route through the deck over is not practicable, escape to
compartments which are adjacent or below the compartment in question is to be
considered, provided that watertight integrity is not prejudiced. Escape through
secure compartments and medical spaces containing drugs is to be avoided.

h. Where normal exits lead to the same compartment or passageway the emergency
escape facilities, are, wherever practicable, to lead to a compartment or
passageway which does not contain the normal means of exit. Where possible this
space is also to be independent of ventilation serving the normal exit

j. Although second accesses may not necessarily provide exits to separate

compartments, they are, nevertheless, of value in providing speedier exit in the event
of emergency and also provide emergency access when one access is jammed or

k. All hatches on escape routes must be spring assisted and operable from above and
below by one man. Where this is impracticable, hatches on escape routes must be
fitted with an escape manhole which must be operable from both sides. Deck escape
scuttles are to be operable within the compartment from which escape is desired and
additionally an "above opening" facility is to be incorporated where security permits
to allow entry of rescue teams wearing breathing apparatus.

1. Hatches on escape routes are to be sized in accordance with NES 127 and NES 149.
To meet the requirements of Clause j all such accesses are to have a minimum clear
opening area of 550 mm z 550 mm and escape scuttles are to be not less than 600 mm

` Access Requirement

2203. Hatches and scuttles on escape routes are to be unobstructed by any fittings likely to interfere
with the speed of escape.

2204. Fire resistant emergency escape ladders, except where permanent steel ladders are fitted, are to
be provided to all escape accesses. The escape ladders are to be attached to eyeplates at their
upper and lower ends when in use. They are to be stowed in the rolled-up position, until
required, and secured by line and slip knot for quick release. Ladders are to be positioned so as
not to impede normal access. See NES 127.

2205. Doors fitted to operational and secure compartments are to be in accordance with NES 127.

2206. Unless security reasons require otherwise, non-watertight doors to living and working spaces
are to be fitted with escape panels.

2207. For further information on access see NES 127, NES 149 and NES 784.

Automatic Emerg~cy Lanterns

2208. Automatic Emergency Lanterns (AELs) are to be provided on all escape routes to provide a
general low level lighting system. For further information see NES 587.

Issue 2

EmergenCy Life Support Apes

2209. The Emergency Life Support Apparatus (ELSA) is a short duration compressed air breathing set
which provides a lightweight easily operated system of respiratory protection for the wearer during
emergency escape from an area of toxic or smoke-filled atmosphere. The apparatus is not suitable
for heavy duty use such as firefighting, rescue or repair work. Full details of the equipment are
shown BR 8414.

2210. The approved scale of allowance for all surface warships (including RFAs) is 150 per cent of
complement with 100 per cent allocated to personnel positions at action stations and 50 per cent
allocated for defence watch needs in accommodation areas eg: mess decks.

2211. Other surface ships, eg RMAS vessels, RAF and Army craft, are to be provided with nominal
allowances of ELSA (minimum 6) which are to be sited in high fire risk compartments and other
areas of the ship where there is a particular danger of entrapment (eg: main machinery spaces).

.. _ 2212. The ELSA sets are to be stowed in positions that are easily accessible to personnel in a
smoke filled environment, ie. closer to the deck than the deckhead.

2213. In general no person should expect to be more than one door or hatch away from fresh air without
the provision of an ELSA.

Escape Markings

2214. For escape markings see Section 9.

Issue 2



2301. The foregoing Clauses are applicable to RFAs and are to be applied in all aspects subject to the
variations or exclusions that follow.

NBCD Organization

2302. Section 5 of this NES will apply with the exception of the requirements for an Upper Deck
Re-entry Fire Party Post which is not to be fitted unless specified in the Staff Requirement or
agreed by SSA / ME225.

2303. The full facilities called for at a Fire and Repair Party Post are generally not required on RFAs
due to their operational requirements. Instead Fire and Damage Control Posts are to be fitted
out as shown in Figure 2 in Part 3. Where space permits, lockers 1, 2 and 3 may be built into
the ship's structure.

2304. The contents of the Fire and Damage Control Lockers are to be as specified in BR 2170
Volume 3. Small Fire Lockers (NSN 0281-7827) may be fitted in superstructure areas where
the Damage Control equipment is not required. Additional Damage Control stores, as listed in
BR 2170 Volume 3, are to be stowed in suitable positions adjacent or convenient to the Fire
and Damage Control Posts.

NBCD Markings

2305. Section 9 of this NES will apply with the exception of the Risk and Control markings which
are to be marked in accordance with the standard system of risk markings used in ships of the
Merchant Fleet, but modified to allow better compliance with RN states and conditions. The
Risk markings used for watertight and gastight integrity are specified in BR 2170 Volume 1.

High Pressure Sea Water Systems

2306. In addition to the requirements of Section 11, any main or auxiliary machinery space fitted
with oil-fired boilers or internal combustion propulsion machinery, is to be fitted with at least
two fire hydrants in each space containing such boilers or machinery, one on the port side and
one on the starboard side. In addition, in any such ship in which there is access to the
machinery space by way of a shaft tunnel, a fire hydrant is to be provided in the tunnel at the
end adjacent to that space.

Fire Extinguishing Agents

2307. For RFA vessels, a 3% AFFF concentrate is to be provided for machinery fixed spray systems
and flight deck monitors. Application rates remain as specified in Sections 11 and 19.

Fire Detection

2308. In addition to the requirements of Section 16, any vessel built to merchant ship standards shall
comply with the Statutary Regulations for fire detection specified by the independent
certification organisation responsible for classifying the vessel. Lloyds Register of Shipping is
such an organisation, and its requirements are published as Rules and Regulations for the
Classification of Ships, Part 6, Control, Electrical, Refrigeration and Fire.

Issue 2

Fire Protection of Compartments

2309. For RFAs the following additional requirements are to be provided for the protection of specific

a. The fixed water spray systems fitted in machinery spaces as described in Section 15
is to be zoned so that the water or foam solution can be applied in the area of the fire
to facilitate cooling and not to cause excess water damage to unaffected machinery.

b. The dry powder stored pressure extinguisher arrangements are to be in accordance

with Section 15 except that a minimum of four dry powder extinguishers are to be
fitted on the flight decks to satisfy DTp and Lloyds Regulations.

c. For the protection of galleys, a C02 drench system is to be fitted in galley exhaust
trunking to satisfy DTp Regulations.

d. Machinery spaces are to be fitted with fixed SFU 90 Foam Extinguishers to satisfy
DTp Regulations.

Breathing Apparatus

2310. BASCCA (DCFF) is to be fitted in accordance with Section 21. In addition to the safety control
equipment, each set is to be provided with:

a. A fireproof life-and-signalling-lineat least 3 m longer than is required to reach from

the open deck in clean air, well clear of any hatch or doorway to any part of the
accommodation, service, cargo or machinery spaces. The line is to be made of copper
or flexible galvanized steel wire rope having a breaking strain of at least 500 Kg and
is to be overlaid up to at least 32 mm in circumference by hemp or other covering to
provide a surface which can be firmly gripped when wet.

b. An adjustable safety belt or harness to which such a line may be securely attached
and detached by the wearer by means of a snaplock.

c. Plates of suitable non-flammable material bearing a clearly legible code of signals

_ to be used between the wearer and his attendant, one of which is to be attached to
the safety belt or harness and another to the free end of the life line.

Escape Facilities

2311. All escape facilities are to comply with DTp and Lloyds Regulations.

Emergengy Lighting

. 2312. Emergency lighting is to be supplied from an emergency generator which is to comply with
DTp and Lloyds Regulations.

Information Boards

2313. In the event that HQ1 becomes untenable there is a requirement to transport Information
Boards from HQ1 to HQ2. Due to the lack of bulkhead space in some RFA AHfls, it may be
necessary to reduce the size of the Information Boards from those shown in NES 119, Part 3,
_ Chapter 12.

Issue 2


Equipment Inspections

2401. Inspections of firefighting equipment and NBCD arrangements are to be carried out
concurrently in accordance with BR 1921.

2402. The Preliminary Inspection of the firefighting arrangements requires that all stowages and
installations are 60% complete. This inspection is conducted primarily to give guidance on the
application of the drawing of the general arrangement of firefighting equipment and other
drawings depicting layouts of fixed systems.

2403. The Final Inspection requires that work on stowages and installations is virtually complete
with all equipment in place and fully operational and is intended to ensure that Inspecting
Officers are able to undertake a complete check.

2404. Inspections are not to be requested until these stages of completion are reached.

Firefighting Equipment Trials and 7lests

2405. A firefighting equipment trial is to be carried out in the following ships and is to be included in
the programme of trials:
a. New construction ships.
b. Ships completing modernization, reconstruction or special refit.
c. Ships that have undergone extensive repairs to the sea water system.

2406. The trial is to be conducted to the satisfaction of Ship's Officers and carried out by Ship's Staff
in conjunction with Shipbuilder's Staff and MOD QARs. The trial is to ensure that all
firefighting equipment is available on board when the control of the ship passes to Ship's
Officers; that the equipment is in good working order; and that the Ship's Staff is fully
acquainted with its position and use.

2407. The trials generally are to be carried out as close to the commissioning date as possible, either
before or after it. Those trials concerned with the sea water main may be carried out in
accordance with the programme of trials laid down in BR 1921. For all ships operating aircraft
it is essential that the portion of the trial relating to the installation and efficient operation of
the flight deck foam equipment be completed before any flying operations are carried out.

2408. The trials are to be divided into the following phases:

a. Check of equipment and stowage sites.
b. Operation of portable and mobile pumps and associated equipment.
c. 71est of sea water main.
d. Operation of main foam making equipment.
e. Operation of water spray systems.
f. Functional test of the fire alarm system.
Issue 2

2409. The detailed procedures for each phase of the trials is laid down in BR 2170(1).

2410. In addition to the foregoing, First-of-Class trials will be undertaken by, SSA / ME 225, to determine
the actual concentrations and distribution of gases from the systems fitted to main and auxiliary
machinery spaces.

2411. Other trials, tests, or inspections of a specific nature may be required and these will be specified
individually for each ship as appropriate.

High Pressure Sea Water System Tests and Trials

2412. HPSW system tests and trials are to be carried out in accordance with NES 719.

Flooding and Salvage Arrangement Trials

2413. Design times for flooding trim and ballast tanks, and their subsequent pumping out, are to be
confirmed by trials prior to the acceptance of the vessel. Times, power consumption, angle of heel
and trim are to be recorded. Operations are to be controlled from NBCD HQ in order to test the
communication system at the same time.

2414. Service and salvage eductors are also to be tested and the rates of consumption and of delivery of
water are to be measured.

Issue 2