Sie sind auf Seite 1von 32

TRANSDUCERS AND MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS

(INSTR F312)

BITS Pilani Gautam Bacher


Dept. of EEE
K K Birla Goa Campus
Lecture 2 & 3

Introduction to Measurement system

08/08/18 1 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Methods of Measurement

The methods of measurement may be broadly classified into


two categories:
• Direct Methods.
The unknown quantity (also called the measurand) is directly compared against a
standard. The result is expressed as a numerical number and a units. Direct
methods are quite common for the measurement of physical quantities like length,
mass and time.
Measurements by direct methods are not always possible, feasible and, practicable.
These methods in most of the cases, are inaccurate because they involve human
factors. They are also less sensitive. Hence direct methods are not preferred and
are less commonly used.
• Indirect Methods
We measure a parameter by measuring another parameter which is more
convenient to measure.

08/08/18 2 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Classification of measurement

Measurements may be classified as primary, secondary and tertiary


based upon whether direct or indirect methods are used.

Primary Measurements:- A primary measurement is one that can be


made by direct observation without involving any conversion
(translation) of the measured quantity into length.

Example:-
(i) the matching of two lengths, such as when determining the length of an
object with a metre rod,
(ii) the matching of two colors, such as when judging the color of red hot
metals

08/08/18 3 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Classification of measurement

Secondary Measurements:- A secondary measurement involves


only one translation (conversion) to be done on the quantity under
measurement to convert it into a change of length. The measured
quantity may be pressure of a gas, and therefore, may not be
observable. Therefore, a secondary measurement requires,
(i) an instrument which translates pressure changes into length changes,
and
(ii) a length scale or a standard which is calibrated in length units equivalent
to known changes in pressure.

Tertiary Measurements :- A tertiary measurement involves two


translations. A typical example of such a measurement is the
measurement of temperature of an object by thermocouple. The primary
signal (temperature of object) is transmitted to a translator which
generates a voltage which is a function of the temperature.
08/08/18 4 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Classification of measurement

Therefore, first translation is temperature to voltage. The voltage, in turn, is


applied to a voltmeter through a pair of wires. The second translation is
then voltage into length. The tertiary signal (length change) is
transmitted to the observer's.

08/08/18 5 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Instruments and measurement
systems
Measurements involve the use of instruments as a physical means of
determining quantities or variables. The instrument enables to determine
the value of unknown quantity or variable. A measuring instrument exists
to provide information about the physical value of some variable being
measured.

(i) Mechanical instruments

(ii) Electrical instruments

(iii) Electronic instruments.

08/08/18 6 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Function of Instruments

Transmitting: Instrument conveys information concerning the


measured quantity over some distance to a remote point.

Indicating: Instrument indicate the value of the measured quantity


using a calibrated pointer and scale.

Recording: Instrument keeps a written record of the measured


quantity usually against time.

08/08/18 7 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Functional Descriptions of
Measuring Instruments

08/08/18 8 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Functional Element

Primary sensing element


first receives energy from the measured medium and
produces an output depending , in same way ,on the
measured quantify (measurand).
Variable-conversion element
convert the output signal of the primary sensing
element to another more suitable variable, while
preserving the information content of the original
signal.

08/08/18 9 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Functional Element

Variable-manipulation element
change, in numerical value according to the some definite rule
but a preservation of the physical nature of the variable,
e.g. an electronic amplifier (analog).

Data-transmission element
when the functional elements are separated, it becomes
necessary to transmit the data from one to another.

08/08/18 10 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Functional Element

Data-presentation element
presents the information about the measured quantity to
one of the human senses.

Data-storage

Storage-pen/ink

08/08/18 11 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Examples

08/08/18 12 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Examples

Strain Measurement

08/08/18 13 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Examples

Source: John P Bentley: “Principles of Measurement Systems”

08/08/18 14 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Examples

Thermocouple

Source: John P Bentley: “Principles of Measurement Systems”

08/08/18 15 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Example:
Draw the block diagram showing the functional
elements of the measurement systems depicted in the
figure below.
Solution:
Input-Output Configuration of
Instruments
Input quantities are classified into three categories

Desired Inputs
These are quantities that the instrument is specifically intended to
measure.

Interfering Inputs
These are quantities to which the instrument is unintentionally sensitive.

Modifying Inputs
These are quantities that cause a change in the input-output relations for
the desired and interfering inputs.

08/08/18 16 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


08/08/18 17 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Example of Input Quantities

08/08/18 18 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


U-Tube Mercury Manometer for Differential pressure
Measurement
Desired Inputs: p1 and p2
Interfering Inputs: acceleration, tilt angle
Modifying Inputs: ambient temperature, gravitational force

08/08/18 19 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Methods of Correction for Interfering and
Modifying Inputs

• Method of Inherent Sensitivity

• Method of Calculated Output Corrections

• Method of Signal Filtering

• Method of Opposing Inputs

08/08/18 20 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Method of Inherent Sensitivity

Try to make FI and and FM,D as nearly to zero as


possible.

e.g. using a material that has low temperature coefficient of


resistance for strain gauge.

08/08/18 21 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Input and Output Filtering

08/08/18 22 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Method of Opposing Inputs

• This method consists of intentionally introducing into the


instrument interfering and/or modifying inputs that tend
to cancel the bad effects of the unavoidable spurious
inputs.

08/08/18 23 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Examples of Method of Opposing
Inputs

08/08/18 24 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Performance Characteristics of
Instruments
The performance characteristics of an instrument are mainly
divided into two categories:
i) Static characteristics
ii) Dynamic characteristics

Static Characteristics:- The set of performance criteria that give a


meaningful description of the quality of measurement without becoming
concerned with dynamic description involving differential equation.
These Criteria are called the statics characteristics.

08/08/18 25 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Static Characteristics

08/08/18 26 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Static Characteristics

Range (or span)


It defines the maximum and minimum values of the inputs or the outputs
for which the instrument is recommended to use. For example, for a
temperature measuring instrument the input range may be 100-500 oC
and the output range may be 4-20 mA.
Accuracy:
It is the degree of closeness with which the reading approaches the true
value of the quantity to be measured. The accuracy can be expressed in
following ways:
a) Point accuracy:
Such accuracy is specified at only one particular point of scale. It does not
give any information about the accuracy at any other Point on the scale.

08/08/18 27 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Static Characteristics

b) Accuracy as percentage of scale span:


When an instrument has uniform scale, its accuracy may be expressed in
terms of scale range.
c) Accuracy as percentage of true value:
The best way to conceive the idea of accuracy is to specify it in terms of
the true value of the quantity being measured.

Example: A voltage has a true value of 1.50 V. An analog indicating instrument


with a scale range of 0-2.50 V shows a voltage of 1.46 V. what are values of
absolute error and correction. Express the error as a fraction of the true value
and the full scale deflection.

08/08/18 28 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


04/08/17 29 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus