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HYDRAULIC CRANE TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

A) SLEWING OPERATION : Rotary Movement of Structure around Vertical Axis of


Crane

Line Diagram :

HYDRAULIC PUMP: MONO BLOCK PRESSURE RELIEF


VALVE

PRESSURE PILOT VALVE SHUTTLE VALVES


REDUCING VALVE BLOCK

BRAKE LIFTING HYDRAULIC SLEW LIMIT SWITCH


VALVE MOTOR

SLEW FREE VALVE

PRELIMINERY CHECKS TO BE PERFORMED AFTER STARTING:

1) Check Slewing Pump Pressure : Indicated on the Gauge connected in the


Cabin by switching the Isolator knob to Slew Pressure.
 Should be around 70 Bar when system idle (Handle in neutral
position).
 Operational pressure around 160 Bar.
 If Pressure observed is LESS then tighten the Relief Valve Grub Screw
on the Monoblock in clockwise direction to increase system pressure
to the desired value. Please ensure that the Lock Nut & Cap of the
Grub Screw is tightened once required pressure setting is done.

2) Check Pilot Line Pressure: Indicated On Pilot Line Pressure Gauge


 Pilot Line pressure to be around 40-50 Bar.
 Check if Oil flow is available in the Pilot lines to Monoblock, Shuttle
Valve and Brake Lifting Valve.

3) Check Limit Switch Positioning.


4) Check for any unusual noise observed from any of the individual
components.
B) LUFFING CIRCUIT: Lifting and Lowering of Crane Boom.
Components Involved:

HYDRAULIC PUMP MONO BLOCK PRESSURE RELIEF


VALVE

PRESSURE PILOT VALVE SHUTTLE VALVES


REDUCING VALVE BLOCK

BRAKE LIFTING HYDRAULIC MOTOR LUFF LIMIT SWITCH


VALVE

LUFF PAWL LUFF OVER RIDE


CYLINDER VALVE

CHECKS TO BE PERFORMED:

1) Check Luffing Pump Pressure :


 Should be around 70 bar when system idle.
 Operational pressure around 200 Bar.
 If less then tighten the Relief Valve Spring on the Monoblock to
increase system pressure to the desired value.

2) Check Pilot Line Pressure:


 Pilot Line pressure to be around 40-50 Bar.
 Check if Oil pressure in Pilot lines to Monoblock and Brake release
valve.

3) Check Limit Switch Positioning.


4) Check if Brake Lifting Cylinder is Operational.
5) Check if Luff Pawl Cylinder is Operational.
6) Check for any unusual noise or heating observed from any of the
individual components.
C) MAIN/ AUXILLARY HOISTING CIRCUIT: Lifting and Lowering of Load
Line Diagram :

HYDRAULIC PUMP MONO BLOCK PRESSURE RELIEF


VALVE

PRESSURE PILOT VALVE SHUTTLE VALVES


REDUCING VALVE BLOCK

BRAKE LIFTING HYDRAULIC MOTOR LUFF LIMIT SWITCH


VALVE

CHECK Q-METER Emergency Load


VALVE Lowering Valve

CHECKS TO BE PERFORMED:

1) Check Hoisting Pump Pressure :


 Should be around 70 bar when system idle.
 Operational pressure around 200 Bar.
 If less then tighten the Relief Valve Spring on the Monoblock to
increase system pressure to the desired value.

2) Check Pilot Line Pressure:


 Pilot Line pressure to be around 40-50 Bar.
 Check if Oil pressure in Pilot lines to Monoblock and Brake release
valve.

3) Check Limit Switch Positioning.


4) Check for any unusual noise or heating observed from any of the
individual components.
Sr No NATURE OF PROBABLE IDENTIFICATION TROUBLESHOOTING STEPS
TROUBLE CAUSES
 Check if Pump receiving
drive from Engine.
 Tighten the Relief Valve
on Monoblock and check
a) Pump Not System Pressure
the System Pressure.
generating Gauge
 Check the alignment of
the Desired
the Pump
Flow.
 Check the maximum
pressure generated in the
system by restricting
motion(Not allowing brake
to be released)

 Check the Hydraulic


No No Pilot for Pressure in Pilot Line
1 Movement b) No fluid flow movement of Indicated by Pilot Line
(Slew/Luff in Hydraulic Mono block Pressure Gauge.
and Hoist) Lines A & B from Direction control If NO Indication on Gauge
Monoblock to spool. – Slightly loosen a fitting
Hydraulic motor. on the line and check if
pressure observed.

Jammed Valve  Arrange for Overhauling


Spool of Monoblock.

 Check if Hydraulic
Brake not Pressure is Indicated by
Opening Pilot Line Pressure Gauge.
c) No drive to  If NO Indication on
No pilot for
Pinion from Pressure Gauge – Slightly
opening of Brake
Hydraulic loosen a fitting on the line
Valve
Motor and and check if pressure
Gear Box Motor not observed.
Operating  Remove hydraulic motor
from gear box assembly
and check if it is operating
satisfactorily when given
pressure.
 Release brake by using
external hand-pump and
checking if motion
observed.

Limit Switch  Move the Crane in


Pressed and Opposite Direction and
d) Limit Indicated by Limit release the OverLimit.
Exceeded Indicator  Check if Limit Switch
Valve is faulty.
 Check the pre-charge
Failure of buildup Reduced pressure on accumulator
NO of desired pilot Accumulator pre-  Recharge the Nitrogen
2 charge pressure
Operation pressure pressure in Accumulator
due to lack  Check if Pilot Pressure
of pilot Faulty Pressure Observe the Pilot reducing valve functioning
pressure reducing Valve Pressure reading properly.
Replace/Overhaul as
required.
 Remove trapped oil in
circuit by opening the
Cavitation due to Observe the highest point in the piping
presence of Air Hydraulic Oil in system.
Bubbles in Level Indicator  Operate the system for
Hydraulic Oil some time to release
Sluggish trapped air in oil.
3 Response of
Drive Jerky Motion of  Check if sufficient
Crane pressure buildup in Brake
line by slightly opening
Overheating of the Line going to Brake on
Faulty Brake
Hydraulic Motor Gearbox.
 Remove hydraulic motor
Increase in from gear box assembly
system pressure
and check if it is
operating satisfactorily
when given pressure.
 Release brake by using
external hand-pump and
checking if sluggish
motion rectified.

Foreign Material Abnormal slewing  Remove the foreign


4 Stick Slip between Pinion motion Material
Motion of and Slew Ring  Clean and Re-grease
Slew Drive Pinion and Slew Ring.
5 No Luffing a)Luff Pawl Visual Inspection  Check if pressure buildup
Movement Cylinder not in Luff Pawl/ Brake
operating Cylinder Opening
b) Luff Brake Hydraulic Line
Band Not  Cylinder internal leakage
releasing to be rectified, if required.
c) Refer Pt#1
6 Boom Inappropriate Observational  Increase pressure setting
Coming pressure setting of Check Q Meter.
down slowly of Check Q Meter  Overhaul or replace check
Check Q meter q-meter.
not holding load
7 Boom Down Inappropriate Observational  Increase pressure setting
Movement pressure setting of Check Q Meter.
too fast of Check Q Meter

8 Load coming Faulty Check Q Observational  Check Pressure setting of


down due to meter on Hoisting Check Q meter.
its own Line  Overhaul replace Check Q
weight Meter if required.

Cavitation Air bubbles in  Check the Oil for signs of


fluid trapped air. Operate for
some time to release air.
9 Vibrations
Low Temperature
and Jerky Temperature  Operate Crane for a few
of Oil (usually
Motions Indicator
observed during minutes to warm up the
first starts) oil.

Insufficient Oil in Oil Level Indicator  Check the source of


the Tank leakage and arrest the
same.
 Refill the tank to desired
level of Hydraulic Oil.

 Check if suction strainer


Pump Not getting Unusual Noise clogged. Clean or replace
suction from Pump as appropriate.
Cavitation High Noise  Check for Clogged Filters/
Abnormal Strainers/ Inlet Line
10 Noise from  Set desired Engine RPM
Pump/ (Too low can cause
Motor or cavitation)
Control  Replace Oil if necessary
Valve
Air In Fluid Bubbles in Oil  Bleed Air from System
Level Indicator  Tighten all connections
and arrest all leakages
 Check Pump Shaft Seal for
any leakages
 Fill Oil to desired level to
avoid air ingress into the
system
Coupling Visual  Re-Align the same
Misaligned Observation
Equipment Worn No Pressure  Overhaul or replace
Out or Damaged Indication on
Gauge / Excessive
heating.
11 Abnormal Pressure setting System Pressure  Reduce Pressure to
Heating of too high Gauge desired value
Hydraulic
Fluid Fluid Dirty or Low Fluid Level  Replace Oil and Change
Level Indicator Filter

PROCEDURE FOR SETTING OF MAXIMUM SYSTEM PRESSURE

1) Check the Hydraulic Oil Level in the Level Indicator .


2) Check the Pressure Gauge of Hydraulic Starter Accumulator.
3) Turn on the Engine and idle run for a few seconds to warm up.
4) Observe any unusual sound or leakages. Arrest the same if found.
5) Turn the Pressure Indicator Knob to Slew Pressure, Operate the Slew Lever and Note the
System Pressure on the Gauge.
Desired Reading –1000-2300 psi (70-160 Bar)
This is pressure set on the Relief Valve provided on the Monoblock
6) If Pressure Reading Shown in the Gauge is below 1000 psi, we need to check if the Pump
is building up the desired pressure to rotate the motor. Follow the below mentioned steps
to check the maximum buildup pressure from the Pump:
a) Remove the Motor Brake Release Line and blank the line to avoid oil spillage.
b) Operate the Lever and note the System Pressure Reading.
7) To SET the System Pressure we need to Adjust the Relief Valve Grub Screw on the
Mono Block by following the below mentioned steps:
a) Place the Operator Lever in Neutral Position.
b) Remove the Cap on Slewing Mono Block Pressure Setting -Grub Screw.
c) Loosen the Lock Nut Provided on the Grub Screw.
d) Tighten the Grub Screw by 2-3 Rounds in Clock wise direction to Increase
Pressure or Anticlock wise Direction to Reduce Pressure. (as required)
e) Operate the Lever and Check the Pressure on the Gauge and Set to as
required.
f) Re-tighten the Lock Nut and Install the Cap.

Note: Increase/Decrease of System Pressure is accompanied by corresponding Increase/Decrease


in speed of the connected drive motor.

No Slewing Operation:

Possible Causes:

1) Pump not giving desired flow :

Check the System Pressure Gauge by turning the indicator knob on Isolator to Slew
position. Slew Pressure should be in range of 140-160 Bar to provide satisfactory
motion.

2) Low System Pressure setting on Main Relief Valve:


If pressure indication on Gauge is low, tighten the Grub Screw on the main relief valve
provided on the Mono Block. Check if system buildup pressure increases on tightening
the Relief Valve.
3) No pressure in Pilot Line:
o Check pressure in Pilot Line indicated on Pilot Pressure Gauge.
o Pilot Pressure should be in the range of 40-50 Bar to provide required pressure for
Shifting of Direction Control Spool in the Mono Block and to Operate the Brake
Lifting Valve for the Slewing Gear Box.

4) Motor not Operating:


a) Brake not operating:
o No pressure from Pilot Line to P – Port of Brake Lifting Valve.
o Release brake using external hand-pump and check if motor operating.
b) Brake Lifting Valve not getting Pilot line from Shuttle Valve.
o Check if the Pilot Pressure Line at X-port of Brake Lifting Valve is getting flow
through Shuttle Valve on operation of the Joystick lever. No oil flow indicates a
faulty Shuttle Valve.
c) Sequence Valve Setting too High :
o Check the setting on the Sequence Valves provided on Hydraulic Motors. Too high
a setting will not allow fluid to pass through return line. Adjust the setting screw
and try to operate.
d) Motor not able to take Load:
o Open and Check the oil flow from the Case Drain Line from Slewing Motor.
Excessive flow in the drain line means that Motor is unable to take the load.
Overhaul/ Replace the Hydraulic Motor.