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A STUDY ON INVENTORY MANAGEMENT IN

RAYALASEEMA THERMAL POWER PLANT (APGENCO)

NAME OF THE COMPANY : RAYALASEEMA THERMAL POWER PLANT

(ANDHRA PRADESH POWER GENERATION CORPORATION LTD.)

V.V REDDY NAGAR,

KADAPA (dist.)

ANDHRA PRADESH.

NAME OF THE INTERNSHIP: INVENTORY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Under Guidance Given By ADE—Sri N.Sanjeevaiah.

PARTICULARS OF THE COMPANY GUIDE:

 NAME : MR.N.SANJEEVAIAH
 MOBILE NO : 09493121578
 DESIGNATION : ASST.DIVISIONAL ENGINEER

BRIEF PARTICULARS OF THE INTERNSHIP PROGRAM:

OBJECTIVES:

 To study the Inventory Management System followed by the organization.


 To study necessary information regarding Coal Handling Plant of Power Generation.
 To identify the Scope of Store Management System of the Organization.
 To find out the Various Departments and Factors that involved in handling the Inventory.
SCOPE:

 Identifying and highlighting features that are involved in Inventory Management System
of the Organization.
 Seeking the information from different departments based on their Purpose and Material
Requirement planning.
 The study would be attempting to review and critically examine the collected data from
the Organizations Inventory Maintenance and Store Management Department that are
involved.

LIMITATION:

 Getting all the information based on company restrictions.


 Time constraint because the project has to be done within 40 days.
 The Collection of Information is constrained to only particular departments which are
involved in material handling.

TYPES OF DATA:

PRIMARY DATA:

Primary data is the data, which is collected for the first time specifically for the research.
Collecting the information from various departments that are involved or focused on the
Inventory Management System and Store Management of the Organization. Here the information
is collected from the officials that are heading the Inventory departments.

SECONDARY DATA:

Secondary data are those data, which were collected already for some other purpose. The
secondary data method of collection is done through the company journals, magazines and
internet.
COMPANY PROFILE

Rayalaseema Thermal Power Plant Stage-I comprising 2 Units of 210 MW each has an
installed capacity of 420 MW with an estimated cost of Rs.860.30 Crores (Expenditure up to
31.03.2003 was Rs.854.21 Crores). The first 210 MW Unit was commissioned on 31.03.1994.
The Unit was taken into service on coal firing from 25.11.94. Due to fire accident, Unit was
under shutdown from 15.12.94. After repairs, the unit was re-commissioned on 22.11.95. The
second Unit was commissioned on 25.02.1995.

The Station is performing well in recent years by achieving the highest Plant Load
Factor. It stood First in the country during 1998-99, 2000-01, 2002-03, 2003-04 and stood
Second during 1999-2000 and 2001-02.

The Station has been the recipient of Meritorious Awards instituted by the Government
of India. The Station has received Meritorious Productivity Awards for Six Consecutive Years. It
also got the Incentive Award for Seven Consecutive Years. The station has bagged Bronze
Medal for the year 1997-98 and Gold Medal for Five Consecutive Years during 1998-99, 1999-
2000, 2000-01, 2001-02 and 2002-03. With its exceptional performance during 2003-04, it has
qualified to receive 6th Gold Medal and 7th Meritorious Productivity Award in a row. The Station
has been receiving specific oil consumption award for every year from 1998 onwards. The
Station bagged less auxiliary consumption award for the years-1996, 1998, 1998.
STAGE / UNITS CAPACITY DATE OF
STATIONS (MW) COMMISSIONING
NAME & ADDRESS
Stage I Unit 1 210 31-03-1994
RTPP,
Stage I Unit 2 210 25-02-1995
Kadapa
V V Reddy Nagar-516 312
Stage II Unit 1 210 25-01-2007

Kadapa (dt.)
Phone : 08563-232103 Stage II Unit 2 210 20-11-2007
Fax : 08563-232102
840

GENERAL: Rayalaseema Thermal Power Project is one of the major power generating
facilities in Andhra Pradesh to meet the growing demand for power in the Southern part of the
state. The project envisaged the installation of 2x210 MW of Thermal Generation units under
Stage -1.

LOCATION: The Project is located at a distance of 8 KM from Muddanur Railway station


of South Central Railway on the Chennai – Mumbai Railway line. The site selected is at an
adequate distance from the populous Town and the land belonged to the Government and was
not in use. It is quite near to existing Railway line and Transmission line of AP TRANSCO.

The water requirement for the project is met from Mylavaram Reservoir, which is
at 20 KM from Project through two dedicated pipelines.

COAL LINKAGE: The main Coal Linkage to RTPP is M/s SCCL and is transported
through rail. Occasionally RTPP gets the coal requirements from M/s MCL, Orissa and this is
transported through ‘Rail-Sea-Rail’ Method.

Year Capacity Generation Plant Load Factor Rank in India


(MW) (MU) RTPP All India

(200/210 MW Group)

2000 – 01 840 3475 94.46 --- I

2001 – 02 840 3401 92.4 75.8 II

2002 – 03 840 3489 94.8 78.3 I

2003 – 04 840 3401.58 92.2 79.4 I

2004 – 05 840 3353.8 91.2 79.8 I

OBJECTIVE OF THE POWER PROJECT: The Rayalaseema region is in the


Southern part of the state and most of the generation facilities are in the Northern part of the
state, except for two major Hydel Stations in the Central part of the state. The Rayalaseema
region thus used to get power through long EHT line and frequently it is used to face the low
voltage problem particularly during the summer when the Hydel stations generations goes down.
The region is a drought prone area and has to depend on industrial growth for its economic
development power bring basic need, RTPP has ensured the proper and quality supply the
objective also improved the base load Thermal generating capacity of the AP Grid.

PROJECT COST: The original cost of the3 project as approved by Planning Commissioner
is Rs. 503.71 Crores and the revised cost of the project based on actual expenditure is Rs. 860.30
Crores and the increase over general cost is 70%.
Special Features at Rayalaseema Thermal Power Project:

 At RTPP, the Coal Bunkers and Mills are located. Boiler House and ESPS unlike usual
arrangement elsewhere in the country placing the Bunkers and Mills in between the
Turbine House and Boiler thus, Turbine House is totally isolated from the Mills and it
will ensure the dust free atmosphere in the Turbine House and also ensure the easy
accessibility of Mills for maintenance.
 Multiple fuels Chimney are also a new feature of this Power Station.
 Tower type Boiler of single pass design manufactured by M/s BHEL limited under
collaboration M/s Stein Industries [France]. This type of

Boiler will have less erosion and will be better than two pass Boiler for high ash content
coal also maintenance of Super Heaters and Economizers.

 Turbo-Generator was supplied by M/s BHEL and is maintained by M/s KWC, West
Germany.
 Tubular Mills in place of Bowl Mills are employed which can run for a very long
durations without stopping as the Grinding Media can be fed in to Running Mill. Another
advantage is more fineness of coal can be achieved and smoother control over the varying
loads.
 Distributed digital and M/s BHEL (DDS System) by M/s Yakogowa Blue Star Limited
and M/s BHEL (PROCONTROL) is employed for effective and efficient control of
Boiler, Turbine and Generator and their auxiliaries.
 A new system called Dry ash system, which stores the Dry ash in SILOS and is being
issued to cement and brick Industries around Rayalaseema region.
 Approximately Rs. 5 lakhs per annum is being invested to improve the Green Belt in the
Power House and Colony premises
RAYALASEEMA THERMAL POWER PROJECT STAGE-I:

Rayalaseema comprises of four districts Kadapa, Kurnool, Anantapur and Chitoor which
are considered to be in backward region and region and the area lags behind in all aspects such as
Agriculture, Industry and education prior to the Industrial development, Agriculture is purely
dependent on rainfall. People used to live on Agriculture sector owing to the advancement of
Science and Technology some of barites and Mine Industries were started subsequently and
more Industries were established in this region. Added to this, the region is considered to be
hottest region and temperature often goes up to 50 degrees centigrade in summer. Therefore the
need for Electricity to meet the necessity of the inhabitants and the Industrial belt of this region
was felt, as the supply that was generated by the Agencies was found insufficient. Hence the
Government established Rayalaseema Thermal Power Project in 1994. Rayalaseema Thermal
Power Project is one of the major power generation facilities began developed in Andhra Pradesh
to meet the growing demand for power. The project envisages the installation of 210 MW power
generation units under Stage -1.

The first 210 MW under commissioned on 31-3-1994 and second unit on 25-2-1995.
Rayalaseema region is in the Southern part of the state and most of the generating facilities are in
the Northern part of the-state for except two Hydel stations in the central part. The Rayalaseema
region therefore gets in power therefore gets power needs through long EHT lines and frequently
face low voltage problem particularly during summer when the Hydro stations generations goes
down. Priority is therefore given for Industrial development and power being the basic
infrastructure; it is necessary to ensure proper power supplies. In this context the RTPP is taken
up not only to improve the base load capacity of the Grid but also to ensure proper voltage
profile in the area under all conditions.
RAYALASEEMA THERMAL POWER PROJECT STAGE – II:

SAILENT FEATURES:

Installed Capacity 420 MW (2x210 MW)

Estimated Cost Rs. 1640 Cr.

Location V.V Reddy Nagar-516 312, Kadapa (dt.)

Coal Source Singareni Coal Collieries Limited

Water Source Mylavaram Dam

Units Commissioning Unit – III : January, 2007

Schedule Unit – IV : July, 2007

Financial Assistance Power Finance Corporation, Rural Electrification Corporation,

Central Bank & Indian Overseas Bank.

STATUS AS ON 04.06.2007:

 All Statutory Clearances/ Approvals obtained.

 Total Project cost including IDC is about Rs. 1640 Crores (Rs. 3.90 Cr per MW).

 Contract for Main Plant and balance of plant except coal & ash plants and civil works
was awarded to BHEL on 27.12.2003 at Rs. 1125 Cr.

 Contracts for major civil works like Foundations, Structures, Cooling Towers, Chimney,
C.W.Pump House and Railway siding were also awarded and civil works are under brisk
progress.

 Financial closure achieved through PFC, REC, Central Bank and Indian Overseas Bank.
RAYALASEEMA THERMAL POWER PROJECT STAGE – III:

SAILENT FEATURES:

Installed Capacity 710 MW (1x210 MW + 1x500 MW)

Installation Cost Rs. 2800 Cr.


Location V. V Reddy Nagar-516 312, Kadapa (Dt)
Coal Source It is being Finalized
Water Source Mylavaram
Units Commissioning Unit-V: February, 2009
Schedule Unit-VI: March, 2010
Financial Assistance Power Finance Corporation,
Rural Electrification corporation

STATUS AS ON 31.05.2007:

 Honorable Chief Minister during 3rd Unit of RTPP Stage-II on 24.01.2007 directed
APGENCO to immediately take up another 210 MW and ensure that the unit is
commissioned by February 2009.
 ADO letter was addressed to Director (power), M/s. BHEL, New Delhi by
MD/APGENCO to go ahead with the project with the Zero Date as 24.01.2007 subject to
finalization of technical scope and prices.
 APGENCO Board has accorded approval for establishment of RTPP Stage-III Unit-5
(1x210 MW) in the 64th Board Meeting held on 30.03.2007.
 The Irrigation Dept. was addressed vides MD/APGENCO Letter Dt.24.02.2007 for
allocation of 16 cusecs of water for Unit-5 of RTPP-Stage III and allocation is not yet
received.
 CEA was addressed vide CE/Comml. Letter Dt.26.02.2007 for allocation of 1.03 million
Tons of coal from Singareni or from Mahanadi coalfields and the coal allocation is not
yet received.

The Airport Authority of India was addressed vide CE/Comml letter Dt.29.03.2007 for issuing
‘No Objection certificate’ for construction of chimney and the same is yet to be received.
PLANT DESIGN

LOCATION OF THE PROJECT:

The project is located at a distance of 8KM from Muddanur Railway station of South
Central Railway on the BROADGUGE RAILWAY LINE connecting CHENNAI-MUMBAI.
The site near Mekalapalli is selected for Thermal Power Project as it is at an adequate distance
from populous towns and the land is government land not to any use. The site is comparatively
nearer to MAILAVARAM RESERVOIR, which supplies water supplies water. It is quite near to
existing railway lines. Transmission lines of A.P. grid are also nearby to supply construction
power, later for evacuation of power generated and supplying reliable power.

COST ESTIMATES:

The total cost of the project was estimated at Rs.503.71 Crores based on 1987 prices and
now revised to 840 Crores and it is financed partly by Asian development bank, Manila and
partly by power Finance Corporation, Delhi and self finance.

ESSENTIAL INPUTS TO PROJECTS:

 Land: An extent of 2621.587 acres of Government land has been acquired for main
plant, colony ash pond and marshalling yard areas. In addition to that 52.59 acres of patta
land was also acquired.
 Water Supply: The Water required for running of the Power Station is being drawn from
the Mylavaram Reservoir through a 21 KM long steel pipeline. Government of Andhra
Pradesh Irrigation Department has allocated 40 cusecs of water from the reservoir
throughout the year for the project.
 Coal Supply: The Power Station requires about 1.5 million tons of coal every year,
which is being supplied from Singareni Collieries under long-term coal linkage
arrangements. The Coal is being transported to Power House side by rail transport over a
distance of about 800 KM by one of the routs, Vijayawada-Gudur-Renigunta. An
approach railway line is formed from Muddanur Railway Station to the project site as a
part of the project. Of the late, coal supply is arranged from TELCHER also (State of
Orissa in Eastern India).
 Evacuation of Power: The power generated at the project is evacuated through 220 KV
transmission lines to Yerraguntla, Kadapa, Anantapur, Srisailam and the Grid at
Chinakampali.
 State of Clearances: All the Clearances required for the construction of the project like
“No Objection” from Airports Authority, “No Objection, from the State Pollution Control
Board and clearance from environmental angle were obtained. The Planning
Commission, Government of India wide letter dated 09-03-1998 accorded investment
approval for the project at an estimated cost of Rs. 503.71 Crores for the Power Station
based on 1987 prices (Revised to Rs. 840 Crores).

SAILENT FEATUIRES OF THE PROJECT:

Single Tower types Boilers on concrete pylons with a capacity of 690 T/HR, at a pressure
of 155 Kg/cm sq and at 540 degree centigrade for each unit reinstalled.

 Milling Plant: Three Horizontal tube mils each having capacity of 105 T/HR is provided
for each of the boilers.
 Electrostatic Precipitators: In order to achieve total pollution control 6 field
electrostatic precipitators having capacity of 13,82,000 M/s and 99.89% efficiency are
installed.
 Chimney: A 220 m tall chimney with two fuels conforming to the latest requirement of
“Emission Regulators” is installed.
 Turbo Generators: Germany designed steam Turbines with lower heat rate with 3
cylinders reaction type. Microprocessors based Automatic Turbine runs up systems are
installed.
 Generator Transformers: %No. s 240 MVA, 15.75, 236KV, 3 phase step up
transformers, one for each unit are installed for evacuation of power at 220KV.
 Instrumentation & Controls: Total automation and highly sophisticated DDC control
system with advance control system with advance control advance control features.
 Coal Handling Plant: The Coal Handling Plant has two wagon tipplers complete with
weighing arrangement and double stream conveying system and one stacker re-claimed
of 1275 T/HR.
 ASH HANDLING SYSTEM
o Bottom Ash System: Bottom Ash System provided for the collection of furnace
bottom ash through water impounded storage type bottom ash hopper. The ash
blurry is being pumped to ash pond.
o Fly Ash Removal System: A wet removal system in which fly ash is collected in
the hoppers of electrostatic precipitators, air heaters etc., is mixed with water and
sluiced to ash slurry sump by means high pressure sluicing jets. Dry fly ash
system is intended for recovery of dry fly ash from the selected rows of ESP
hoppers.

This system will empty the dry fly ash-to-ash silos from where the ash is unloaded into
vehicles for using in the manufacture of cement.

 Water Treatment Plant: Water Treatment Plant produces 225Cu/hr of DM plant water
through three streams of capacity 75Cu/hr each to meet the requirements of stage-1.
 Circulating Water System: The Circulating Water System uses water from Mylavaram
Reservoir through natural drought cooling towers with provision for make up water
needs. One cooling tower for each unit is constructed. Three circulating water pumps
each having 50% capacities is installed for each unit.
 Switch Yard: The generated voltage of the units is being stepped up to 220KV by means
of 240MVA, 15.75 KV/236 KV unit step up transformers and deed to the 220 KV
transmission lines through.
 Load Growth: This Project is located in the load center of the Grid and there is
consistent Load Growth around this Project every year.
INVENTORY MANAGEMENT

INTRODUCTION
Inventory which is held in various forms such as raw material, work-in-process, and
finished goods contributes to the cost of operations of the firm and total supply chain cost. It is
the objective of inventory management to operate the firm / supply chain with minimum
inventory and still provide a good service level to the customer in terms of product availability to
meet the customers’ demands.
Material storage occurs at various stages in the supply chain when raw materials flows
from one end of the supply chain to the other end, during which processes it gets converted into
finished product for consumption by the customer. This material accumulation for the further use
(or) processing is called inventory. A typical manufacturing organization carries the following
types of inventories:

 Raw materials
 Procured components and subassemblies
 Partially completed components (work-in-process, tools, jigs and fixtures)

INVENTORY SYSTEMS

Manufacturing firms as well as service organizations need materials and supplies for their
operation. These materials and supplies which are stored for future consumption are called
inventories. Manufacturing firms use large amount of materials and supplies. It could be raw
materials, components, subassemblies, and supplies. Materials account for a major portion of the
cost of production in manufacturing firms.
The main objective of inventory control is to minimize the total cost of holding the necessary
amount of raw materials and supplies, without the risk of running a stock-out.

The materials held in stock could be broadly classified into the following categories based on the
current stage of the supply chain in which the material is present:

Raw Materials: The materials, parts, components, and sub assemblies delivered at organizations stores,
meant for consumption during operations.

Work in process: These are materials, parts and components that are undergoing conversion during
operations, by either conversion of form or by getting assembled.

Finished goods: are the outcomes of production and are ready for shipment to customer or storage.

The inventory requirement in an operations system could be classified into the following
two categories, based on the concepts by which their requirements are estimated.

i) Dependent demand inventory


ii) Independent demand inventory

(i) Dependent Demand Inventory:

The dependent demand inventory management is covered in detail under the topic
“Material Requirements Planning (MRP)”.

(ii) Independent Demand Inventory:

The independent demand inventory system uses the customer demand forecast as the
basis.

INVENTORY SYSTEM COST:


The total inventory cost consists of the following components
a) Unit cost
b) Ordering cost
c) Holding cost
d) Shortage cost
Unit material cost: It is the cost per unit item, of the materials kept under inventory. It is
relatively easier to obtain the unit cost, as it can be obtained by referring to the latest bill or
invoice. It becomes complex to find the unit cost when there are more than one supplier and
supplies are made by them with different terms and conditions. Unit cost becomes difficult to
estimate when a particular component is made internally (say, by another unit of the same
company). Setting the transfer price for the component is mostly a difficult task.

Ordering cost: is the cost involved in reordering a particular item. This will involve costs of
preparing and placing an order, computer cost (cost of computer time used in preparation of the
order), cost of correspondence and telephone charges, cost involved in receiving the inventory.
The cost considered here is for the repeat orders (reordering cost), as the cost of first order could
be phenomenally higher, as the first order involves more elaborate procedures and checks.

Holding cost: is the cost involved in stocking one unit of material or an item for a unit time
(generally 1 year period is considered). The holding cost consists of interest of the money
locked up in the inventory held. Holding cost comprises of the following cost components:
Interest, handling cost, storage, obsolescence, spoilage, inventory administration cost, and cost of
insurance. Annual inventory carrying cost could be 25 to 30 % of the material cost or more.

Shortage cost: Shortage occurs when an item is need, but could not be supplied from stock. The
simplest form of shortage cost is the profit lost due to lost sales. The effect of shortage is much
more serious than just loss of sale; it includes loss of good will, loss of image and reputation of
an organization. Shortages of raw materials for production process might force stoppage of the
plant, affect manpower requirement and maintenance schedule. Shortage cost might include cost
of remedial measures taken, in the event of shortage of a particular inventory. This could include
penalty, cost involved in expediting orders, additional cost for special deliveries, etc. It may
however, be noted that shortage cost is the most difficult to find, of the cost component of
inventory system cost.
Coal is the world's most abundant fossil fuel source. Coal is widely distributed.
Economically recoverable reserves of coal are available in more than 70 countries worldwide,
and in each major world region. Amongst the major energy sources, coal is the most rapidly
growing fuel by consumption on a global basis.
Coal has long been used as an energy resource traditionally for heating and power
generation. However the dynamics and opportunity set for utilizing coal is changing. There is
increasing convergence and competition amongst different value-chains which means coal may
have a more diverse role to play in the energy mix going forward.
The five major coal consumer countries which are China, USA, India, Japan and Russia
account for 72% of global coal use. Asia is biggest market of coal distribution more than half of
global coal consumption. Coal plays important role in electricity generation, steel and cement
manufacturing worldwide. Currently 39 % of global electricity is produced by coal-fired power
plants and about 70% of world steel production depends on coal.

SOURCES OF COAL FOR RTPP PLANT

The Coal is processed into RTPP Power Generation Plant from various different places of
Coal mines such as “Ramagundam, Mandamari, Manuguru, Singareni, Talcher” and the coal
which is imported from various other countries such as Indonesia is carried out to plant through
“Harbor of Madras” having transportation involved by railways and seaways.

So the cost involved for maintenance of coal transportation and inventory management is
considered to be very expensive. In order to avoid these costs there are some of the cost
reduction maintenance techniques are implemented in Inventory Management such as

1. Condition Based Maintenance


2. Quality Assured Maintenance Management
CONDITION BASED MAINTANANCE

In the thermal power plants maximum requirements of fuel are the primary fuel is a coal
and secondary fuel is HFO&LDO. The handling of this fuel is a great job. To handle the fuel i.e.
coal, each power station is equipped with a coal handling plant. Almost all CHP now-a-days
implies Reactive Maintenance with support of preventive maintenance. Under the current
business environment, cost competitiveness, effective maintenance management has been
accepted as the key to corporate strategy for reduced costs. This has led to integration of
maintenance management function with production and business problems, not just equipment
problems. The failure of equipments has led to high maintenance and operation costs.
Implementation of modern concept of Condition Based Maintenance can appreciably reduce
maintenance costs and enhance reliability of machine performance.
The concept of condition-based maintenance, for Coal Handling Plant is to offer
significant benefits. The system introduced will measure and detects the onset of a degradation
mechanism thereby allowing casual stresses to be eliminated or controlled prior to any
significant deterioration in the component physical state.

Introduction: -
CBMS or Predictive Maintenance methods are an extension of preventive maintenance
and have been proved to minimize the cost of maintenance, improve operational safety and
reduce the frequency and severity of in-service machine failures. The basic theory of condition
monitoring is to know the deteriorating condition of a machine component, well in advance of a
breakdown.
There are varieties of critical equipments in Coal Handling Plants. These components
require routine inspection to ensure their integrity. The purpose of the inspection is to identify
any degradation in the integrity of the systems during their service life and to provide an early
warning in order that remedial action can be taken before failure occurs. Assessing the condition
is necessary to optimize inspection and maintenance schedules, of Coal Handling Plant to make
decisions and to avoid unplanned outages.
Importance of CBM for CHP: -
To maintain an efficiently operating unit and avoid failure of critical equipment, it is
necessary to maintain the critical parts of that equipment. The effect of planned maintenance is
depending upon the methods used for maintenance. The combination of corrective preventative
and condition based maintenance will require applying for Critical Equipments. This type of
maintenance policy and strategy will improve performance of CHP through availability of
Critical Equipment.
The basic layout of Coal Handling Plant is shown by block diagram the coal is unloaded
at unloading station and transported by conveyors to crushing and screening plant via transfer
house. After crushing required quantity of coal is transported to bunker via transfer house and
remaining coal is stored in stockyard. This coal is reclaimed as per requirement.
There are different streams for transporting of coal. The streams are operated as per
requirement. Some of the CHP’s are now days are operating beyond their design lives. Working
conditions in CHP are dusty, dirty and often wet conditions. So there is a constant quest to
improve machine uptime and avoid unplanned maintenance.

Objectives of CBM: -
The main objectives of CBM for CHP should be as follows
1. Establishing an alarm level based on the variations of a physical parameter like vibration,
power consumption, temperature etc.
2. Prediction of impending failures of critical plant components like Crusher Rotors,
Conveyor Pulley Shafts, in real time resulting in enhanced safety, operational reliability,
availability, and maintainability.
Figure: Basic Layout of COAL HANDLING PLANT

Condition Monitoring Implementations: -


The steps in implementing CBM are
1. Divide Coal Handling Plant for Ease of Maintenance
2. Detection of Physical Parameters
3. In Service Examination By Using NDT
4. Analysis or Fault Diagnosis
5. Correction.
Divide Coal Handling Plant for Ease of Maintenance: -
Coal handling plant should be divided into five sections for ease of CBM.
 Incoming Fuel units
 Unloading Units
 Feeding Units
 Crushing and Screening Units
 Stacking and Reclaiming Units
 Bunkers
Incoming Fuel Units: -
The Coal has been transported through Railways (or) Rail cum Sea cum Rail from Coal
mines. The transport mode of coal is as follows.
1. Railway
2. Road ways
3. Ships
Unloading Units: -
These comprise of unloading units. The types of unloading units are depending upon the
transport mode of coal. The unloading has been taken place at Wagon Tipplers and Side Arm
Chargers. The entire Rail Rake is having 58Wagons and it has divided into “Bits” each
containing 15 Wagons by Locos. Each Wagon is dragged by Side Arm Charger and coal has to
be tippled through Wagon Tippler. The coal has discharged through Viber feeders.
Feeding Units: -
This comprises of various types of feeders. The use of dozers and mobile equipments are
done for feeding purpose. The efficient and economical storage, movement and control of large
tonnage coal handling installations, coal car unloading, storage, and reclaim system depend on
the proper application of feeders.
The various types of feeders being used in coal handling plant are:
1. Apron feeder
2. Belt feeder
3. Rotary feeders
4. Reciprocating feeders
5. Screw feeders
6. Revolving disc feeders
7. Vibrating feeders
Crushing and Screening Units: -
This comprises the belt conveyors within the crushing and screening plant, the crushers
and the screens. Coal from the mines varies to great extent in its size. So it is required to crush
upto required size. For this various types of crushers are used. There are four basic ways to
reduce material: by impact, attrition, shear or compression. All crushers employ one, or a
combination of these four methods. These ways are given below
1. Impact
2. Attrition
3. Shear
4. Compression
The coal which of required size is not required to crush. To avoid entry of proper size
coal in crusher the screens are used.
Stacking and Reclaiming Units: -
After unloading of the coal, required quantity of coal is to be bunkered. The remaining
quantity of coal is to be required to store. This store coal can be reclaiming as per requirement.
Bunker: -
Generally bunkers are located in boiler house of the power station. The bunkers are
equipped with bins. These bins are feed by mobile conveyors or travelling tippers. The bunker
slots are secured by grates and are covered with trailing belts.

Detection of Physical Parameters: -


The basic theory of condition monitoring is to know the deteriorating condition of a
machine component, well in advance of a breakdown. There are many parameters that can be
measured, trended and analyzed to detect imminent failure or onset of problems. It involves
measuring physical parameters level at marked locations on each machine on a regularly
scheduled basis. The objective is to reveal significant increases in a machine's parameter level to
warn of developing problems Common among them are:
1. Vibration
2. Lube oil analysis including wear debris analysis
3. Additionally, operational characteristics such as Coal flow rates; Conveyor speed and so on
can also be monitored to detect problems.
Vibration Monitoring: -
Each machine in the best of operating condition will have some vibration, which may be
regarded as normal or inherent. Whenever machinery vibration increases beyond safe limits, the
usual reasons are unbalance, misalignment, worn gears or bearings, looseness, etc.
Mass unbalance, bowed shafts and cracked shafts, these being amongst the most common
rotor-dynamic faults within a rotating machines. Vibration response measurements yield a great
deal of information concerning any faults within a rotating machine. Critical machines of Coal
Handling plant like Crushers can be continuously monitored by providing of permanently
mounted vibration transducers
Temperature Monitoring: -
The temperature limit of a component is defined as the peak temperature where the
material characteristics of a component are still within the range, which allows a full satisfactory
function and structural integrity. Whenever this limit increases, beyond safe limit, the common
reasons are improper bearing lubrication, increase friction in the gear mesh, in the bearings, at
the seals and hydrodynamic friction between the lubricant and the moving components.
In Coal Handling plant by providing of permanently mounted temperature sensors can
continuously monitor Gear-Box of Critical Conveyor, bearings of Crushers. The use of infrared
cameras or installing thermocouple sensors in the housing of a bearing and measuring
temperature changes within the bearing or lubricant allows problems to be recognized early
(potential failure).
Other Physical Properties Monitoring: -
Generally each machine has characteristic properties like power consumption, coal flow rate
and speed, which may be regarded as normal or inherent. The reasons for crossing the limits of these
properties are various for each machine. Reduction in the speed of conveyor with respective power
consumption may be due to fluid coupling oil seal damage. The change in oil properties of gearbox,
fluid coupling will clear indicate any physical damages.
Analysis or Fault Diagnosis: -
Fault diagnosis is a subject too wide-ranging to allow a comprehensive coverage of all of
the areas associated with this field. Analysis helps to pinpoint specific machinery problems by
revealing their unique characteristics. Accurate diagnosis can be made when the fundamental of
each component is known.
Corrections: -
Corrective action is taken after specific problem has been detected and identified by
planning and scheduling all activities to ensure that machine downtime is kept to the absolute
minimum inspection results.

P-F Curves: -
Condition based maintenance rely on the fact that many failures do not occur
instantaneously, but actually develop over a period of time. If evidence can be found that this
failure process is under way, it may be possible to take action to prevent failure. P-F Curve
means potential failure curve, which helps the maintenance department to correct the fault,
before it becomes more serious. The P-F curve shows [4] how a failure starts, deteriorates to the
point at which it can be detected (the potential failure point "P"), if it is not detected and
corrected, continues to deteriorate - usually at an accelerating rate - until it reaches the point of
functional failure ('F') The P-F interval can be known as the "Lead Time To Failure."
Condition Measurement Techniques: -

The "condition" being measured can take a variety of forms. Any condition that shows a
change, as the health of the spare deteriorates, can be used. It is important to locate the area of
equipment where the condition measured will help to correct analysis. The correct analysis [5] of
condition will help for exact fault detection. Table No 1 will guide condition measurement for
coal handling plant.
In Service Examination By Using NDT: -
The periodic inspection should be carried of critical equipments by using NDT. It is
essential to identify the critical areas where failures are likely to occur and select suitable NDE
techniques for detection of such failures. Based on design criticality, past experience and
previous failure information, suitable approach in inspection methodologies is to be adopted. A
thorough knowledge of each NDT method is required to ensure the correct selection of the
appropriate method for each application.
Ultrasonic inspection can be used to detect internal flaws such as cracked shafts, common
rotor-dynamic faults within rotating machines. To detect surface flaws in transfer chutes is
simple way by using ultrasonic technique.
Airborne Acoustic Condition Monitoring can be used for Conveyor Gearbox. Acoustic
emission monitoring is useful for conveyor structures. Table No 2 will guide for using NDT for
coal handling plant.
QUALITY ASSURANCE

Maintenance of coal handling plants (CHP) of thermal power stations has traditionally as
the processes related to the performance of routine, unscheduled and emergency maintenance. It
doesn’t include operational factors such as scheduling, procedures, and work/systems control.
The failures of equipments have led to high maintenance and operation costs. Developing
Quality Assured Maintenance Management (QAMM) for CHP is very important for improving
quality and reducing operating costs. This type of maintenance policy and strategy will improve
performance of CHP through availability of equipment, reduction in railway costs through
demurrage and further supplying constant flow of fuel to boiler to avoid failure of energy supply
to consumers.
The concept of Quality Assured Maintenance Management (QAMM), for Coal Handling
Plant is to offer significant benefits.
Introduction:-
Almost all CHP these days implies Reactive Maintenance with some support of
preventive maintenance. Generally repairs are made after the equipment is out of order and it
cannot perform its normal function any longer. Under such condition, operation persons call on
the maintenance persons to rectify the defect. The maintenance department checks the defects
and makes the necessary repairs.
Maintenance is the coordinated integration of the operations, maintenance, engineering
support, training, and administrative areas of any process in order to increase the efficiency,
reliability, and safety of the process. Coal handling plant should be divided into five sections for
QAMM.

 Unloading Units
 Feeding Units
 Crushing and Screening Units
 Stacking and Reclaiming Units
 Bunkers
Objectives of QAMM:-
Quality Assured Maintenance Management should have ability to provide assurances for
reliability. The objectives of QAMM for CHP are given below.
 Prediction of impending failures of critical plant components like Crusher Rotors,
Conveyor Pulley Shafts, in real time resulting in enhanced safety, operational reliability,
availability, and maintainability.
 Establishing an alarm level based on the variations of a physical parameter like vibration,
power consumption, temperature etc.
 Reduction of the life cycle cost by optimization of the plant operation and maintenance
schedule.
 Facilitation of design revisions as new technologies of active control and structural
materials evolve.

QAMM Implementations:-
Quality Assurance maintenance management, which meets the same requirements for
Equipment Reliability, is demonstrated in the ISO 9001:2000 Standard. The process is managed
through QMS, which is clear on PDCA as a process method. PDCA is Plan, Do, and Check Act.
Most modern maintenance management activities are not linked to QMS, which have particular
management characteristics. Using these characteristics transforms modern maintenance practice
into what may be the next generation of maintenance management. See in Figure shown below.
The steps in implementing QAMM for CHP are…

 Identify the maintenance work.


 Planned the maintenance work
 Scheduled the maintenance work
 Execute the work as per schedule and record it
 Analysis of maintenance record for implementation for further improvement.
Maintenance Planning:-

Maintenance Planning is the process of acquiring a system commencing with the


identification of a need and involving the research, modification and evaluation activities. A
detailed maintenance plan, which describes proposed echelons or levels of maintenance and
recommended function to be performed at each echelon. The material presented under
maintenance plan must cover

a) Definition of task: detailed tasks are identified to cover all acquisition function like
research, modification and evaluation activities.
b) Scheduling of tasks: using Gantt chart, PERT chart, and CPM chart etc.
This planning include
1. A plan for the basic maintenance, which is built by the best combination of
preventive, predictive and proactive maintenance.
2. A plan for the acquisition of test and support equipment and handling equipment.
3. A supply support plans to cover the acquisition of spares and repair parts.
4. A technical data plan to include system maintenance procedures i.e. servicing,
inspection, calibration and overhaul instructions.
5. A personnel and training plan to cover system operator training and maintenance
training.
6. A plan for Scheduled shutdowns should provide unique opportunities to a
maintenance department not normally available during standard operation or even
during short shutdown periods. Lost capacity can be restored to an overtaxed facility
during an extended shutdown. Major equipment overhauls can be performed to help
prevent future unscheduled shutdowns.

Objective of Maintenance Planning:-


A plant is a place, where men, materials, money, equipment, machinery, etc., are brought
together for manufacturing products. Today in modern industry, equipment and machinery are a
very important part of total productive effort that was the case years ago. Moreover, with the
development of special purpose and sophisticated machines, equipment and machinery cost a lot
more money and therefore their idle or downtime becomes more expensive. For this reasons, it is
vitally important that the plant machinery should be properly maintained. The aggregate of direct
and supporting actions that detect, preclude or mitigate the degradation of system or component
functionality, or restore that function to an acceptable level of performance following failure.
Coal handling plants Maintenance plan should be developed in order to maximize equipment
availability and utilization by following points.
 Adjusting planned maintenance start times due to changes in Railway schedules.
 Taking advantage of shift change over down time.
 Ensuring preventive maintenance on critical equipment is carried out.
 Ensuring equipment is available for maintenance when planned
Coal handling Plant Maintenance planners need enhanced skills in job planning (as
distinct from job scheduling), and Maintenance Supervisors need enhanced skills in Leadership
and Management, and that all Maintenance personnel need enhanced skills in Failure
Investigation and Analysis. In general terms, Maintenance management process can be
considered as having seven phases, as shown in Figure below.
This can be recognized as being similar to the familiar control loops, where plans are put
in place, actions take place, and then the outputs are compared with the original plan and
appropriate action take.

Maintenance Scheduling:-
Scheduling is the function of coordinating all of the logistical issues around the issues
regarding the execution phase of the work. This can also uncover some areas of planning
deficiency, which needs to be captured.
Scheduling is best performed in a capacity-scheduling manner, whereby the following
takes place. Most modern systems have the capacity to output data to spreadsheets or similar.
This is where the majority of scheduling work needs to occur.
 Overhead labor hours such as safety and toolbox meetings, break times and training times
are to be gathered, along with holidays and scheduled as standing works orders for future
analysis of these.
 Hours for PM completion to be deduced form data. This focuses on ensuring the
equipment is maintained to its best levels.
 Addition of corrective and approved improvement actions as dictated by the prioritization
system and operations plan. These are to be planned works orders only. A guide could be:
Age of works orders against priority (As a measure of the priority systems effectiveness)

The combination of corrective, preventative and improvement work needs to total the
levels set for planned / scheduled work. Although this does constitute the most effective use of
labor and resources, there are advantages to planned/unscheduled works.
Development of Maintenance System for QAMM:-

The combination of all these methods will develop a system for coal handling plant
maintenance. It is the activity that most determines the success. It can forecast with some degree
of certainty that we will be able to achieve the schedules that we have established. This, in turn,
has a direct impact on equipment availability, utilization, and operating and maintenance costs.

Basic Maintenance Program: -


In addition to preventive maintenance the predictive maintenance technology will be
practical approaches to enhance solutions to maintenance problems. As this program is based
upon the combination of two methods, it is desired to follow first preventive maintenance and
then carry for predictive maintenance technology. But it is not sufficient for this type of plant, so
it is required to follow up for proactive maintenance.
Preventive Maintenance: -
A better method than reactive maintenance is to create a maintenance schedule based on
plant data and breakdown history. The schedules are created for routine check and replacement
of components whose lifetime is estimated over time based upon the life span of previous
components of the similar type. The approach to preventive maintenance may become inefficient
because some parts are nowhere near breaking but are replaced with new parts, although, they
can still serve without problems.
The “mean” is to be defined for preventive maintenance this mean is decided after the
data, which is received from maintenance history. Otherwise less mean time is costly and more
mean time will be harmful. Much of the success of preventive maintenance is dependent upon
inter-departmental relationships otherwise mechanical department planned for same machine and
other department like electrical testing, instrumentation &control, electrical maintenance will
plan for other day. This will fail preventive maintenance schedule. Continuous feedback is
required for improvement of preventive maintenance.
Figure: Basic Maintenance Program for QAMM

Predictive Maintenance:-
This system measures and detects the onset of a degradation mechanism thereby allowing
casual stresses to be eliminated or controlled prior to any significant deterioration in the component
physical state. Results indicate current and future functional capability.
Proactive Maintenance:-
Proactive Maintenance is based upon reliability criteria with priority given to the most
critical components. It determines types of failures are likely to occur with focus on preventing
failures whose consequences are likely to be serious. It requires careful analysis of failure modes and
effects. And identify effective maintenance tasks or mitigation strategies. This helps integration into
the existing maintenance system.

Breakdown Maintenance:-

During Continuous running equipments and system, when there is no chance for
preventive maintenance, the equipment may be goes down for Breakdown. At that time, the
running of the system has to be hampered. The maintenance will be done on the breakdown
equipment.

SUGGESTIONS

 The Company should be able to reduce the Inventory Holding Period by having good

Supply Chain Management.

 The Management should take of the machinery that is involved in holding the

inventory whether any disturbances that occurs, the Tippler Processing and

Maintenance Conditions.

 Reduction in wastage of Coal and Oil should be maintained because they are the fast

depleting source today.

 Better safety measures without affecting the health of the employees should be

provided by the company to prevent accidents.

 Induction training may be required to the engineers and staff members to analyze and

rectify the technical problems.


 Minimum Inventory should be maintained at the Stores.

 In the plant, the management should follow all the industrial acts for better industrial

relations.

CONCLUSION

The study was conducted to identify the Inventory Management system in Rayalaseema
Thermal Power Plant, the Maintenance Conditions and Quality Control Systems that are carried
out at the plant are more effective and efficient when compared to the other plants which reflect
in their achievements.
The condition Based Maintenance that followed by the company in Inventory
Management System was very useful and cost effective for the production and maintenance of
inventory. The Quality Control System that was maintained having Quality Assured
Maintenance Management where the Quality checkups will be take up at each and every stages
in order to reduce the error rate was performed in more effective and controlled manner.