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Introduction

Whenever deforming force is applied on the body, a

restoring force develops in it.

Resorting force per unit area is called a stress

If ‘F’ is the applied force and ‘A’ is the area of cross section of the body

Stress (N/m 2 )

is the area of cross section of the body Stress (N/m 2 ) Faculty of Engineering

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Stress (N/m 2 ) Faculty of Engineering & Technology s = F A Force (N) Area

s = F

A

Force (N)2 ) Faculty of Engineering & Technology s = F A Area (m 2 ) 1

Area (m 2 ) 2 )

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Stress

Types of stress

Longitudinal stress

Tensile stress

Compressive stress

Tangential or shearing stress

Hydraulic stress nor volume stress or bulk stress

• Hydraulic stress nor volume stress or bulk stress Faculty of Engineering & Technology 2 ©M.

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Longitudinal stress

When the body is stretched the

resorting force per unit area stress is called Tensile stress

Tensile Stress = Force/ Area

When the body is compressed the resorting force per unit area stress is called Compressive stress

Compressive Stress = Force/Area

Compressive stress • Compressive Stress = Force/Area Faculty of Engineering & Technology 3 ©M. S. Ramaiah

Faculty of Engineering & Technology

Compressive Stress = Force/Area Faculty of Engineering & Technology 3 ©M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied
Compressive Stress = Force/Area Faculty of Engineering & Technology 3 ©M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied

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Strain

Strain is the measure of effect of stress on the body

Strain is the ratio of the change in dimension to the original dimension of the body when deforming force is applied

Strain has no units and dimensions

Types of Strain

• Strain has no units and dimensions • Types of Strain • Longitudinal Strain • Shear

Longitudinal Strain

Shear Strain

Volume strain

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Longitudinal Strain

Longitudinal strain is defined as the ratio of change in

length to the original length of the body

If the change in length is L and the original length ‘L’ of

the body

Longitudinal strain =

length ‘L’ of the body • Longitudinal strain = Faculty of Engineering & Technology ∆L L

Faculty of Engineering & Technology

∆L

L

• Longitudinal strain = Faculty of Engineering & Technology ∆L L 5 ©M. S. Ramaiah University

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Ratio

of

longitudinal

• Ratio of longitudinal Faculty of Engineering & Technology Young’s Modulus tensile strain (compressive) ( 

Faculty of Engineering & Technology

Young’s Modulus

tensile

strain

(compressive)

()

is

called

Y= σ

ε

Y=

Y=

F A

∆L L

FL

A∆L

stress

(σ)

young’s

the

modulus

to

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Theory of the Experiment

A beam is a rod or bar of uniform crosssection (circular

or rectangular) whose length is very much greater than its thickness as shown in Figure

A

M

D

B N C
B
N
C

A beam is considered to be made up of a large number of

thin plane layers called surfaces placed one above the

other

thin plane layers called surfaces placed one above the other Faculty of Engineering & Technology 7

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Theory of the Experiment

Consider a beam to be bent

into an arc of a circle by the application of an external couple as shown Figure

Taking

section ABCD of the bent beam ,the layers in the upper half are elongated while

those in the lower half are

the

longitudinal

compressed

those in the lower half are the longitudinal compressed Faculty of Engineering & Technology 8 ©M.

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are the longitudinal compressed Faculty of Engineering & Technology 8 ©M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied

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Theory of the Experiment

In the middle there is a layer (MN) which is not elongated

or compressed due to bending of the beam.

This layer is called the neutral surface’ and the line (MN)

at which the neutral layer intersects the plane of bending

is called the neutral axis.

It is obvious that the length of the filament increases or decreases in proportion to its distance away from the

neutral axis MN.

in proportion to its distance away from the neutral axis MN. Faculty of Engineering & Technology

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Theory of the Experiment

The layers below MN are compressed and those above MN

are elongated and there will be such pairs of layers one above MN and one below MN experiencing same forces of elongation and compression due to bending and each pair forms a couple.

The resultant of the moments of all these internal couples are called the internal bending moment and in the

equilibrium condition, this is equal to the external bending

moment.

condition, this is equal to the external bending moment. Faculty of Engineering & Technology 10 ©M.

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Theory of the Experiment

Theory of the Experiment Faculty of Engineering & Technology 11 ©M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied
Theory of the Experiment Faculty of Engineering & Technology 11 ©M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied

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Theory of the Experiment Contd

Uniform Vs non uniform bending:

Radius of curvature is the same at all points on the beam for uniform bending

For non uniform bending it is not same

uniform bending • For non uniform bending it is not same Faculty of Engineering & Technology

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Theory of the Experiment Contd

Bending Moment =

= 2 =

2

12

I g is the geometric moment of inertia

k is the radius of gyration

a is the area of cross section

the radius of gyration • a is the area of cross section Faculty of Engineering &

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Theory of the Experiment Contd

Beam is loaded uniformly on its both ends, the bent beam

forms an arc of a circle. An elevation in the beam is produced called uniform bending.

elevation in the beam is produced called uniform bending . Faculty of Engineering & Technology 14
elevation in the beam is produced called uniform bending . Faculty of Engineering & Technology 14

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Theory of the Experiment Contd

Bending Moment =

= 2 =

2

12

Ig is the geometric moment of inertia

k is the radius of gyration

a is the area of cross section

the radius of gyration • a is the area of cross section Faculty of Engineering &

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Theory of the Experiment Contd

Y=

3Mgxl

2

3

2bd h

Y is the Young’s modulus of the material of the beam (N/m 2 )

g is the acceleration due to gravity (m/sec 2 )

l is the distance between the knife-edges (m)

x is the distance between the knife-edge and the point of

suspension of the nearest scale pan (m)

b is the breadth (m)

d is the thickness (m)

h is the elevation (m) for a load M (Kg)

thickness (m) • h is the elevation (m) for a load M (Kg) Faculty of Engineering

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