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Executive Summary

The team has crafted a report that Mr. West will review and distribute to UA consultants for use
in business communications with Soybean Inc. employees. The report and its corresponding
presentation materials will teach UA consultants how to effectively deliver information to
employees. As a result, Soybean Inc. will be equipped with workers who are knowledgeable in
industry quality management standards.

The authors wish to acknowledge the support of Mr. Kanye West, Chief Executive Officer of
Universal Acquisitions. His encouragement and advice throughout the research process proved
to be invaluable. Assistance provided by Ms. Kim Kardashian and colleagues in the Universal
Acquisition Department of Global Projects is highly appreciated.
Special thanks is extended to the following organizations and institutions for their assistance
with research and presentation:
● The Department of English at the University of Arizona
● University of Arizona Libraries
● American Society for Microbiology
Special thanks is extended to the following individuals who generously donated their time and
knowledge in personal interviews:
● Richard York, English Language Acquisition Teacher
● Dr. Margarethe Cooper, Assistant Professor of Practice, Food Safety & Microbiology
● Frank M. Jacobs, Operations and Manufacturing Engineer, Raytheon
● Dr.Jeffrey C. Derickson, Doctor of Dental Surgery and American Dental Association
Finally, the authors wish to thank all staff members at Universal Acquisitions and Soybean Inc.
for their continued commitment to excellence in practice, conduct, and service.

Table of Contents

Transmittal Memo Error! Bookmark not defined.

Executive Summary 0

Acknowledgements 0

Table of Contents 1

1.0 Introduction 4

2.0 Background 4

3.0 Research Questions 5

3.1 Problem Statement 5

3.2 Research Questions 5

4.0 Methods 5

4.1 Primary Research Methods 5

4.2 Secondary Research Methods 5

4.3 Analysis and Synthesis of Research Methods 6

5.0 Speaking 6

5.1 Nonverbal Communication 6

6.0 Writing 7

7.0 Visual Communication 7

7.1 Internal Visual Communication 8

7.2 External Visual Communication 8

8.0 Cultural Variables 9

8.1 Language and Culture 9

8.2 Problem Solving 9

8.3 Workplace Interactions 9

9.0 Corporate Image 90

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9.1 International Relations 90

9.2 Public Relations 101

10.0 Conclusion 112

11.0 Works Cited 123

12.0 Appendices 134

12.1 Tip Sheet 134

12.2 Annotated Bibliography 156

12.3 Interview Report - Kimberly York 20

12.4 Interview Report - Meredythe Durckel 224

12.5 Interview Report - Ashley Maldonado-Diaz 245

12.6 Interview Report - Bryant Mitchell 257

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1.0 Introduction

On September 10th, 2018, Kanye West, CEO of Universal Acquisitions requested for our team
to collaborate and develop a proposal help the company communicate efficiently with our
business partners in Brazil. Mr. West has requested for our team to research Brazilian culture
and publish a communication plan that can be distributed to Universal Acquisitions employees.
Our research report and tip sheet will be delivered via paper copies.

Presently, there is no protocol that assists employees through this cross-cultural transition.
Universal Acquisitions has previously relied on personal experience to relay information to
international companies. This has created a cultural barrier and is ineffective to our staff.
Implementing a guide that is accessible to every employee will allow growth within the company.
This new learning resource describes how Brazilian people communicate and consummate
business transactions. As a result, the company become more successful. Universal
Acquisitions has a clear vision to be effective globally.

To study Brazilian culture, our team will be conducting primary and secondary research and
later present our findings to Mr.West. We would also be acquiring data from soybean
productions. If approved, this proposal would lead to an expansion of the company and broaden
our team’s skill set by preparing them for global business interactions. The team is composed of
four members that are each head of their research department. Meredythe Durckel, Kimberly
York, Ashley Maldonado and Bryant Mitchell strive to give informative insight to each and every
Universal Acquisitions team member.

2.0 Background

In today’s growing global market, communication across cultures has become essential for
success in new business endeavors. Universal Acquisitions has recently expanded to offer
quality management consulting services to companies outside of the United States. UA’s first
global client is Soybean Inc, a new soybean manufacturing plant located in Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil. The employees must be trained in proper manufacturing practices, but UA consultants
are inexperienced in communicating with non-native English speakers. The CEO of UA, Mr.
Kanye West, has recruited a team of supervisors from several UA departments to research
intercultural communication in the workplace.

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3.0 Research Questions

3.1 Problem Statement

Universal Acquisitions is developing new strategies in global communication to optimize health
manufacturing in Brazil. The company will teach employees how to communicate information
effectively and orchestrate innovative skills within the company. These skills will be familiarized
through research on health manufacturing tactics as well as the Brazilian culture; Universal
Acquisitions and our business partners in Brazil will grow from this key knowledge and global
communication techniques.

3.2 Research Questions

Questions regarding health manufacturing

● How is manufacturing different within Brazil?
● What are new manufacturing techniques?
● How can we incorporate manufacturing techniques within our business partners?

Questions regarding global communication

● What key concepts of Brazilian culture are important in our research?
● What is the most effective way around language barriers?
● Where does the business partners expertise come from?
● Are there any limitations on understanding key concepts? How do we work around these

4.0 Methods

4.1 Primary Research Methods

● Conduct interviews with business professionals
● Discussion-based focus group

4.2 Secondary Research Methods

● Websites, Journals, Books

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4.3 Analysis and Synthesis of Research Methods

The team was able to analyze the information by categorizing where it needed to go and how it
benefited the project. Each document contributed to the project; for lengthy documents, the
team was able to pick out details that aligned with the project’s goals and intentions. Using this
ideology, the team chose facts that supported the ideas being shared to Universal Acquisitions
and expanded the company’s knowledge of global communication.

5.0 Speaking

The Universal Acquisitions team must follow proper etiquette regulations and speak
appropriately to Brazilian corporations. In a professional setting, first impressions are important
within industries that solely rely on verbal communication. It is crucial for UA employees to
understand that tone, terminology, and body language can alter the direction a conversation is
going. Before approaching your associate, an individual must be prepared to greet and respond
accordingly. It would be wise to research and practice proper pronunciation of words and
phrases a. Pronunciation can vary in different regions. In a country like Brazil where Portuguese
is the primary language; it can be extremely useful to learn the specific dialect. Brasileiro used
in Brazil has some similarity to the Coimbra dialect used in Portugal, except it can differences in
syntax (1). Standard Portuguese will always use the object pronoun before the verb whereas
Brazilian Portuguese will place it before. Most Americans tend to reserve themselves in
professional settings by avoiding voicing their thoughts and opinions. Professional reserve is not
necessary in a Brazilian business encounter, but it is expected for one to say exactly what they
mean. One may not need to include phrases like “Please” or “thank you” depending on the way
a phrase or command is said. Tone will dictate the entire conversation.

5.1 Nonverbal Communication

Brazilians are tactile when speaking, and body language plays a large role in Brazilian culture.
An individual from a reserved culture should know that it is a form of understanding.
Handshaking, hugging, patting and embracing are common greetings(1). Such as, avoiding eye
contact is a sign of respect. The idea of proxemics is not noticed, most people will stand close to
one another while conversing. In this way personal and physical space are not a concern. In
fact, an individual may step back and it would be translated as rude.

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6.0 Writing

Effective communication can result in prosperous business relationships and opportunities. In a

Brazilian business environment, it is essential to understand writing techniques and guidelines.
Portuguese is one of the many Ibero-romance languages derived from Vulgar Latin. The various
languages within Latin America can be confusing, and avoiding Spanish is the correct way to
begin. It may have some similar grammar, but it is culturally insensitive to speak the wrong
language. The linguistic and stylistic nuances of the Portuguese language are vastly different in
comparison to English. For example, Portuguese sentences have a similar word order. These
elements are subject-verb-object-complement, except adjectives precede nouns. The Brazilian
Portuguese writing system is based on the Latin alphabet. The tilde (˜) expresses nasalized
vowel sounds (2).

Picture 1: Business Relationships with Brazil


7.0 Visual Communication

Both verbal communication and nonverbal communication are important within a successful
business. Some examples of verbal communication between employees may include titles,
greetings, and small talk about acceptable topics. The nonverbal forms focus on the visual
aspects of communication, such as work attire or dress code, hand gestures, and cooperate

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7.1 Internal Visual Communication

The business dress code is elegant and conservative, with a preference for dark colors. For
women attending a business meeting, hair should be up, not down, and manicured nails are
expected. For men, it is important to wear slacks or linen, not jeans, with a belt. The climate in
Brazil is warm, so suit jackets are not typically expected (3). Like American business culture,
meetings begin with a handshake. However, Americans are used to more personal space.
Depending on how familiar the individuals are with one another, Brazilian business meetings
may also involve hugs and back slaps (4).

7.2 External Visual Communication

Business meetings can sometimes be held during lunchtime, though, in São Paulo it is common
to have meetings at any time of the business day. Since the company wants to make a good
impression, luncheon meetings should be conducted in an upscale restaurant (5). The idea is
that the high-status restaurant reflects the appearance and respect of the company. This is just
one way the company can establish a reputable corporate image with other companies. Our
team recommends setting up UA headquarters in Brazil’s largest city, São Paulo, where most of
the international business takes place.

Picture 2: São Paulo at Night

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8.0 Cultural Variables

8.1 Language and Culture

UA consultants can communicate effectively with Soybean Inc. employees by understanding
Brazilian culture. Greetings, business dealings, and problem-solving all reflect various cultural
variables. For instance, English Language Acquisition teacher Richard York regularly works with
culturally and linguistically unique students. York notes, “English is very direct, [while] Spanish is
much less direct…[this] affects the way [students] communicate”(R. York, interview, 17 Sept
2018). Soybean Inc. employees speak Portuguese instead of Spanish; However, the link
between language, culture, and communication holds true for any group of non-native English
speakers. UA consultants who understand Portuguese linguistic culture will have constructive
interactions with Soybean Inc. employees. Thus, UA consultant training will focus on business
greetings and norms.

8.2 Problem Solving

Employees’ problem-solving skills reflect cultural practices. For example, a significant concept in
Brazilian worldview is jeitinho, which is “a special way to solve a problem quickly and efficiently”
(7). The practice of jeitinho can be manifested in several ways, some of which include “as a
creative Brazilian style of solving problems, a subversive practice that entails bending
or breaking the rules to ‘get things done” (6). Brazilians might use the jeitinho with friends. For
example, one Brazilian woman comments, “You do things because of the friendship you’ve got
with someone. So, you’re always inclined to give a jeitinho to please that person” (6). In light of
this cultural problem-solving technique, UA consultants can work to establish relationships with
Soybean Inc. employees to obtain jeitinho from them.

8.3 Workplace Interactions

Overall cultural dynamics influence Brazilian workplace interactions. For example, Brazilian
culture can be defined as being “vertical-collectivist” (7) “Vertical” describes Brazilians’ respect
of social hierarchies, while “collectivist” characterizes their “need to know...the accepted and
expected behaviors in the collective” (6). Collectivist business cultures value social interactions
including lunchtime business meetings; However, ordered authority structures promote efficient
corporate decision-making. UA consultants can implement appropriate management structures
and teaching methods by understanding how Soybean Inc. employees view social ranking. A
well-established chain of command within the manufacturing plant will help empower employees
within their role and feel more comfortable communicating. These cultural variables impact UA
training processes and employee expectations. The new quality management practices must
encourage employees to follow safety guidelines that benefit the individual and the collective.

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9.0 Corporate Image

In the last decade, Brazil has redefined itself as a global player with a decline of influence from
the US and a rise in influence from Asia (8). Brazil’s self-image, with regards to social and
economic policies, has been designed to balance this industrial growth with environmental
responsibility. The primary responsibility for this company in the soybean oil industry is

9.1 International Relations

Brazil and China have been informally trading since 1949, with a big boom in the 1990’s and
early 2000. Now, China is the world’s largest importer of soybeans and brazil’s soybean industry
has been expanding rapidly to meet demand. Traditionally, soybean production was
concentrated in the southern farming lands, including Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina,
Paraná, and São Paulo (8). In August of this year, China imported 9.15 million tons of
soybeans, which is up 29% from August of last year (9). Together, Brazil, Argentina, and the US
meet most of this demand however, with recent with tariffs on US goods, Brazil an
advantageous edge in the market but needs to ramp up production. Future challenges in this
market will be due to the volume and stability of the supply and demand. Basically, Brazil’s
economic market will be hinged on China’s.

Picture 3: International Manufacturing Partnerships

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9.2 Public Relations

Brazil is in the age of corporate social responsibility (CSR), where a good social and
environmental performance is necessary. The basic policy of CSR is to “contribute to society,
financial or other benefits, meet social expectations and alleviate stakeholder pressures” (10).
To be competitive in the industry, businesses must satisfy these ethical concerns – the focus is
to minimize negative aspects and increase positive social contributions. In the soybean oil
industry, this manufacturing company will be seen in the public image as a sustainable, “green”,
enterprise. Research indicates “that the use of sustainability practices…are directly related to
the economic performance of the company” (11). Being a sustainable company will create a
positive public image, increase competitiveness and profits. A few ways to accomplish this
address manufacturing policies related to:

● Pesticide usage and soil management

● Water use, reduction, and reuse
● Waste treatment procedures
● Investigation of alternative energy sources
● Adherence to organic production policies
● Non-GMO

Picture 4: Sustainability in Brazil

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10.0 Conclusion
Universal Acquisitions is now equip to instill global communication practices within the company
using new founded skills, tools, and suggestions. This will benefit the growth of the company
and create a stronger global outreach to international companies such as Soybean Inc, located
in Brazil. The multidimensional culture in Brazil and unfamiliarity of cultural practices will create
a disorientation with topics revolving around healthcare manufacturing; mistakes in the
collaborating process may have tensions arise from any unintended disrespect. It is important,
therefore, to inform the employees on these proper interaction strategies, both to the benefit of
the individual and the company. If Universal Acquisitions is able to abide by these new
communication strategies and recognize these cultural differences, the company, its employees,
and its business partners, will succeed.

Communication tools can be sent to Universal Acquisition’s employees, such as a tip sheet, to
educate employees how speaking, writing, visual/graphics, and cultural variables impact global
communication. These tips can be utilized in any business setting. Additionally, the company
can implement common Brazilian concepts such as Jeitinho, meaning to resolve a problem
quickly and efficiently, and a hierarchical authority structure, to promote efficient corporate
decision-making. This can be used to Universal Acquisitions advantage by rewarding strong
work ethic from Soybean Inc. employees while also utilizing a piece of Brazilian culture. Lastly, it
is important to always increase positive social contributions. Corporate responsibility can be
achieved through personal interaction in the business - shaking hands, lunch meetings - as well
as positive international relations and public relations. Universal Acquisitions has to make a
conscious effort in creating sustainability, having a positive influence in the economic market,
and creating a balance in industrial growth with environmental sustainability.

Implementing these tools will create a higher standard through Universal Acquisitions. The
future of the company will contain stronger international relationships, new tips and techniques
for all employees and partners, global optimization of healthcare manufacturing, and an
increase in sustainability in the industry. Every company has something to share with one
another. If Universal Acquisitions is able to communicate effectively with any future business
partner, the company will have a continuous, positive growth. If there are any additional
questions, please reach out to the Universal Acquisitions research department.

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11.0 Works Cited

1. Williams NV. 2018. Brazilian Portuguese Writing System. Globalization Partners

2. Lourdes M. (2016) ELL Assessment for Linguistic Differences.

3. Business Brazilian Style: Business Culture. About Brazil.

4. Novais, A. 2011. Dress for success in Brazil. The Brazil Business.

5. LaRock, H. 13 September 2018. Business Etiquette in Brazil.

6. Duarte F. 2011. The Strategic Role of Charm, Simpatia and Jeitinho in Brazilian Society:
A Qualitative Study. Asian Journal of Latin American Studies 24:29–48.

7. Torres CV, Dessen MA. 2008. Brazilian Culture, Family, and Its Ethnic-Cultural Variety.
Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies 12:189–202.

8. Brown-Lima C, Cooney M, Cleary D. 2010. An overview of the Brazil-China soybean

trade and its strategic implications for conservation. The Nature Conservancy: Latin
America Region.

9. Hong Kong Edition. 8 September 2018. China ramps up soybean purchases in August
but Brazilian supplies tipped to tighten. South China Morning Post.

10. De Jong M, Harkink K, Barth S. 2017. Making Green Stuff? Effects of Corporate
Greenwashing on Consumers. J of Business and Tech Comm. 32(1):77-112.

11. Barbosa F, Scavarda AJ, Selitto MA, Lopes Marques DI. 20 April 2018. Sustainability
in the winemaking industry: An Analysis of Southern Brazilian companies based on a
literature review. J of Cleaner Production. 192:80-87.

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12.0 Appendices

12.1 Tip Sheet

Frequently Asked Questions for

● What can I do to improve cross-cultural communication?

○ First, do some research about your audience. Are there language barriers you
need to be aware of? What kinds of greetings are appropriate in their culture?
Awareness is key, so make sure that you have a basic understanding of where
your audience is coming from. Then, apply what you learn in your interactions.

● What if my audience is not very proficient in English?

○ Use language that is plain and clear. During in-person interactions, let your tone
and body language communicate for you. If you are having trouble
understanding the person you are talking to, use visual aids that both of you are
familiar with.

● How can I avoid offending a colleague who is from another country?

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○ Identify areas where you might make a blunder like greeting, word choice, body
language, etc. Do some research about these areas in your colleagues culture (if
you know what it is). Keep in mind that your colleague may not observe certain
cultural practices, so pay close attention to your colleague’s behavior and
respond accordingly.

● Do I need to learn another language?

○ No need to take language classes! Just be aware that different languages have
different structures that might impact the way a non-native English speaker
communicates. Be patient, listen carefully, and ask clarifying questions when

● How do I work in a team with culturally diverse members?

○ Do your best to accommodate each team member’s communication needs. Hold
an initial team meeting where everyone can share their concerns and
preferences. Maintain regular communication with all team members while
completing projects, and make sure that every member understands his or her

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12.2 Annotated Bibliography

Torres CV, Dessen MA. 2008. Brazilian Culture, Family, and Its Ethnic-Cultural Variety.
Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies 12:189–202.
In Torres & Dessen’s journal article “Brazilian Culture, Family, and Its Ethno-Cultural
Variety” (2008), the authors explore the notion of Brazilian family structure and its
reflections of and implications for Brazilian culture. The authors first define “culture” by
citing various papers that describe the components and dimensions of culture; then, the
authors evaluate Brazilian culture using the ideas presented by the authors of the
aforementioned papers. To conclude, the authors describe the historical and current
roles of family in Brazilian society in connection to culture. The author's’ purpose is to
demonstrate diversity within Brazilian culture and explore what “family” really means in
the culture in order to spark discussion about these topics. The authors seem to to have
a professional or an academic audience in mind because they regularly cite and
elaborate on the literature available in social sciences.

Dzenowagis A. 3 March 2008. Intercultural communication in global business. PMI® Global

Congress 2008—Asia Pacific, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Newtown Square. Project
Management Institute, Newtown Square, PA.
In Dzenowagis’ article “Intercultural communication in global business” (2008), she
suggests that intercultural communication plays a critical role in determining the success
of failure of business endeavors. The author first describes the state of intercultural
communication in a growing global business environment; she then cites literature to
describe the various definitions and layers of culture as defined by other authors. Then,
she uses previously-created cultural models to describe how national culture and
business culture are related. Next, she applies these models to explore intercultural
communication and its implications for global project managers. To conclude, she
suggests that cultural differences can be leveraged to produce success in global
business interactions. Her purpose is to describe essential concepts of intercultural
communication in order to equip a global project manager with skills necessary to
succeed in global business dealings. She seems to have a professional business
management audience in mind because her applications are geared towards project
Evaluation (Handbook: Research, pp. 479-480 “Evaluating Print and Online Sources”)
This conference report was published 10 years ago and in the field of global business
communication this can be considered recent and relevant because it is a yearly, global
conference. From the website, the PMI Global Conference is happening again 8 October
2018. It is intended to bring together project and program managers, leaders and
business professionals from around the world in a week-long celebration. They
participate in breakout sessions and exhibits to learn about tools and solutions in
program, project, and portfolio management.
The intended audience is likely conference attendees, subscribers, and professionals
within this field of study. The author does not reference any credentials or associated
institutions, could likely be an employee of PMI or a host of a 'breakout' training session.
The author's tone is biased towards a corporate culture and enthusiasm for intercultural
communication and globalization, representing the attitudes of the audience attending
the yearly conference.

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There are multiple sources cited, however, a great number of them reference the same
publisher (SAGE), which makes me question the authority of the source. The impact
factor for the PMI conference is 1.957, so for this purpose it is a credible source.
The purpose of this article is to develop a "baseline understanding of intercultural
communication, which can then be applied in a variety of cultures. First, it lists variables
in intercultural communications, then examines the differences in the world versus
business. Finally, the author applies practical communication concepts on the individual
level. The articles does not include diagrams, but does include a section of learning
objectives, and lists of key terms and concepts throughout the article

Anholon R, Rampasso IS, Ordonez REC, da Silva D, Gonçalves Quelhas OL, Filho WL.
2017. Observed difficulties during implementation of quality management systems in Brazilian
manufacturing companies. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management 29:149–167.
In Anholon, Rampasso, Ordonez, da Silva, Gonçalves Quelhas, and Filho’s research
paper “Observes difficulties during implementation of quality management systems in
Brazilian manufacturing companies” (2017), the authors explore the various difficulties
that impact the implementation of Quality Management Systems (QMS) in Brazilian
manufacturing companies. The authors first present existing information about general
barriers to QMS implementation by describing the results from an extensive literature
review; then, they describe their research methods and results by providing detailed
information and data tables. Finally, the authors conclude with a brief discussion of the
applications of the findings. The author's’ purpose is to “analyze the difficulties observed
during implementation of quality management systems (QMSs) in Brazilian
manufacturing companies.” They seem to have a professional audience in mind because
they describe their research methods in great detail and reference other literature.
The website, Emerald Insight, is mentioned on various business school websites as a
reputable source of information. The site contains links to other publications like journals.
The authors’ credentials are all listed below the article title, and I can use Google to
research the authors’ institutions and departments. The authors seem credible overall.
The publisher includes copyright information on the cover page and in the headers and
footers. The publisher’s website appears to be reputable, containing a wide variety of
journal articles in many different fields. The publisher appears to be separate from the
researchers’ organizations and affiliates. The organization and layout of the article follow
traditional journal formats. The authors include in-text citations where appropriate and
attribute tables and figures to their respective sources. The authors provide a formatted
list of references, indicating that they did their research into existing literature for this
topic. The journal article is well-constructed and written according to standards in this
field. The claims are supported by plenty of evidence, all of which is cited appropriately.
The authors used careful reasoning and described the limitations of the study. Links are
given for journals cited in the article. The article was accepted about one year ago, so
the information is still relevant for our purposes.

Valdez R, Brennan PF, Ramly E. 2010. Industrial and Systems Engineering and Health Care:
Critical Areas of Research: Final Report. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and
Quality, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Industrial and systems engineering has the potential to address challenges faced by the
health care delivery system. Rupa Valdez, Edmond Ramly, and Patricia Brennan
articulate a vision for an ideal health care delivery system and propose a research
agenda for an ideal health care delivery system.

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Kachhal SK.2007. Industrial Engineering Applications in Health Care Systems. Handbook of

Industrial Engineering: Technology and Operations Management. 3:737-750.
Swatantra Kachhal explores industrial engineering applications in Health Care Systems.
Some applications are staffing methodologies, scheduling methodologies, optimization
models, quality-improvement tools, and future trends.

Weedmark D. 2018. A Definition of Global Communication. Bizfluent.
David Weedmark evaluates different types of global communication skills using
communication technology. He analyzes topics like the benefits, complications, cultural
barriers, and language barriers of Global Communication.

Green JD. January 2007. Well-Designed food safety & sanitation training programs. Food
Safety Magazine.
Author states effective employee training will help a company achieve food safety and
quality goals. Training is tailored for each company operations and procedures,
“answers the whos, whats, and whys associated with food safety activities”, and
educates employees about job function, policies, corrective actions, defines terms
related to hazards and contamination, and the importance of food safety. Company must
have proper procedures for employees such as sick days, sanitary bathrooms and
shared areas, yearly training, and adhere to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) that
follow federal regulations. This author recommends trainings involve demonstrations and
go over a couple of key concepts that should be addressed. The motivation for the
company is to protect the brand with an assured, safe produce, prevent costly recalls,
and increase yields/productivity.
Key terms: GMP, federal regulations, food safety, HACCP

De Jong M, Harkink K, Barth S. 2017. Making Green Stuff? Effects of Corporate

Greenwashing on Consumers. J of Business and Tech Comm. 32(1):77-112.
Corporate social responsibility, sustainability, green marketing. Found limited benefits
(perceived environmental performance) and no true competitive advantage (consumer
purchase interest) to greenwashing organization, compared to silent brown, or vocal or
silent green. Basic CSR policy – “contribute to society, financial or other benefits, meet
social expectations and alleviate stakeholder pressures”. (pg. 78).
Evaluation (TC, Ch. 6 pg. 129-130)
Authorship – The authors of this article are from the University of Twente, located in
Enschede, the Netherlands. The credentials are listed directly underneath the authors
names, as well as corresponding contributors. At the end of the article, there is a
declaration of no conflicting interests or funding.
Publisher – SAGE journals have overall had a 27% growth in impact factor, which builds
credibility. The Journal of Business and Technical Communication is a peer-reviewed,
quarterly journal with an impact factor of 1.215. The impact factor reflects the average
number of citations per article in a year and measures the importance of the journal from
the number of times it’s articles are cited.
Lit Knowledge – The article follows the typical journal format that lists key words at the
top, cites in-text citations through the text, and the works-cited listed at the end. There
were greater than 40 citations.
Accuracy – The sources cited are also from reputable journals and the authorship

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credibility is authentic. The low impact factor takes away from the credibility, typically I
only cite sources with impact factors greater than two.
Timeliness – This article was published in 2018, making it recently relevant for our topic.

Rimal RN, Lapinski MK. 2009. Why health communication is so important in public health.
Bulletin of the World health Organization. 87:247.
Communication is transmission of information, think about how messages are processes
of channel, source, receiver, message. Three considerations: info is processed through
individual and social perceptions (prior experience, beliefs, social patterns,
relationships). Second, discrepancies between messages sent and received, due to
different exposure and interpretation. Third, sources and receivers continuously
interchange roles in health communication – health needs extensive evaluation,
assessment of audience, message pretesting.
This article was produced relatively recently, so the information presented is still relevant
for our purposes. The article discusses communication, which is central to our topic. The
bulletin is available on the World Health Organization’s website, so the information is
readily available for all users. The intended audience is health professionals who will
utilize the information about communication in public health work. The authors are Rajiv
N Rimal and Maria K Lapinski. Rimal is an authority on the subject of communication
and health because he is with the Department of Health, Behavior and Society at John
Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. Lapinski is an authority on communication as
well because she is with the Department of Communication at Michigan State University.
The authors provide plenty of supporting evidence and documented sources, so the
information presented can be verified. The information is presented clearly, but the
authors are slightly biased to the importance of communication in public health due to
their affiliations. However, the bias does not detract from the main points of the article.
The viewpoints are balanced relative to the nature of the topic. The language, tone, and
style are all suited for the context of the article. The publisher, the World Health
Organization, is a well-known organization. The authors’ purpose was to explain how
and why communication is an important factor in public health work. No visuals were
provided, but the article does not need any.

Veras EZ. 2011. Cultural Differences Between Countries
Veras focuses on brazilian business interactions and communication techniques that are
most commonly utilized in a business setting. Brazilian mannerisms, behaviors and
cultural differences are measured through the Hofstede dimensions. The mixture of
values, social expectations, business practices, etiquette and attitudes will help “ensure
that international communication across borders is effective and that business
transactions are successful.” The author discusses the importance of culture in a
globalized business This article mentions a comparison in differences and similarities
with China and provides graphs and tables as visuals to the reader.

Galan JG, Mendonca MD. 2018. Professional Practice in Higher Education: A Case Study in
Faculty Training in Brazil
Jose Galan and Miranda Mendonca cultivated research with the objective “to know the
characteristics of the training received for their professional practice, both in the field of
scientific education and their educational role and ability to transfer knowledge.” A

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collaboration of interviews, questionnaires, checklists and documentary analysis

collectively question the current scientific and technical approach that is being used in a
University at Goias, Brazil. There are proposed strategies that can be used to enhance
the Brazilian education system. Such as, improving student-teacher dialogue with
communicative and ethical content. The advancement of pedagogic education in
academic professors to augment exceptional learning scenarios.

Pearson VS, Stephan WG. 1997.Preferences for styles of negotiation: A comparison of Brazil
and the United States 2:77-83
This scholarly article studied American and Brazilian negotiating differences.The authors
begin by explaining the many variables that transform intercultural relations. The
dissertation is based on conflict resolution and studying appropriate and preferred
strategies that can create an effective business interaction. Pearson and Stephan
introduce theories of collectivistic world views in brazilian culture and how this impacts
future business transactions. “Considering the accommodating traits of Brazilian
societies, the hypothesis is based on the dual concern model.” The research,
questionnaires and graphs included all demonstrate the favored methods used in
Brazilian business culture.

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12.3 Interview Report - Kimberly York

Interview Information: Richard York was interviewed by Kimberly York at his home on Monday,
September 17, 2018 at 5:00 p.m.

12.3.1 Research Question(s)

● What are the various difficulties of communicating with non-native English speakers?
● What kinds of strategies can be used to communicate effectively with non-native English
● How do cultural variables affect communication with non-native English speakers?

12.3.2 Description of Interviewee

Richard York is a English Language Acquisition Instructor for Tucson Unified School District.
On a daily basis, he interacts with students who are non-native English speakers. His goal is to
increase his students’ English proficiency, so he understands how educational communication
can be impacted by cultural differences. This aligns with the purpose of our research report:
how to communicate with non-native English speakers to provide quality management training
information. He is a reliable resource for answering my research questions because he has
many years of experience communicating with non-native English speakers from various
cultures. His insight will be used to explain the role of cultural variables in global communication.

12.3.3 Synthesized Reflection & Analysis

Mr. York emphasized the role of language structure in communicating with non-native English
speakers. Sometimes, these individuals will mix up the order of words according to the structure
of their native tongue. To overcome barriers to communication, Mr. York mentioned that visuals
are key. Universally recognized images can be used to communicate an idea no matter what
the language of the audience may be. Finally, he described the significance of mutual
understanding in communication with non-native English speakers. The uncertainty of knowing
what the individual is thinking means that communicators must use simplified vocabulary.
Ultimately, Mr. York notices that the language structure is a part of the culture of non-native
English speakers.

12.3.4 Continuing Questions

● What is the language structure of Portuguese?
● What kinds of cultural ideas or social norms impact the length, scope, or directness of
Brazilian individuals?
● What are some examples of images that are recognized by all people, regardless of
native tongue?
● How does one verify that his or her message was properly understood by a non-native
English speaker?

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12.3.5 Raw Data - Interview Notes

What is your goal when communicating with your students?
Increase engl. Prof, ORAL
How do you prepare to communicate with a non-native English speaker?
Understand dif, language structure***
What is the most difficult aspect of communicating with non-native English speakers?
Not being understood, not being able to understand them, what they are hearing??
Context is important
Do you have to alter vocabulary when communicating with these individuals?
Yeah, simplify it, learn simple first
Can you describe one interaction with a non-native English speaker where you DID NOT
communicate effectively? (scenario)
Giving directions, they don’t understand the 1st step, try to get them to understand multi
step directions. Get so bogged down in the 1st one, can’t stack things on top of each
Can you describe one interaction with a non-native English speaker where you DID
communicate effectively?
Visuals, if they have a background, VISUALS (ex: running, communicates same thing)
What have you learned about the cultures of the non-native English speakers you interact with?
Different languages have different structures, EX spanish is less direct, affects
communications, culture is less direct, social norm
In your opinion, what is the role of cultural differences in communication with non-native English
Noticeable, language structure****,talking length

12.3.5 Raw Data - Transcript

(Begin Interview)
Interviewer: What is your goal when communicating with your students?
Interviewee: To increase their English proficiency, oral language, written, speaking, oral is
Interviewer: How do you prepare to communicate with a non-native English speaker?
Interviewee: You try to understand the differences in the language structure. Understanding the
difference in the language structure is important. For example, In spanish a lot of times they will
put the adjective after the noun, while we tend to put it before the noun. Casa grande, big
house, we say big house, they say house big.
Interviewer: What is the most difficult aspect of communicating with non-native English
Interviewee: Not being understood. Not being understood and not being able to understand
them. What they are thinking, what are they hearing from you? You’re trying to tell them
something or ask them something. What are they thinking you’re asking them? That’s why
context becomes so important. If they know we are talking about dogs, it’s a lot easier than if
they don’t know what you’re talking about.

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Interviewer: Do you have to alter vocabulary when communicating with these

Interviewee: Yeah, you have to simplify your vocabulary because they will learn simplified
vocabulary before they learn more advanced vocabulary. Speaking simply, yeah, simplify your
vocabulary. Elaborate sometimes.
Interviewer: Can you describe a scenario where you might NOT communicate effectively
with a non-native English speaker?
Interviewee: If you’re giving directions for them to do something, and they don’t understand the
first step, they’re not going to get the second step or the third step. So really, what’ you’re trying
to do is get them to where they can understand multi-step directions, say that’s your goal. They
get so bogged down in the first one that they don’t get the second one. It’s all they can do to get
one step directions because they are always interpreting things in their mind. You can’t just
stack things on top of them, they are having so much trouble remembering the first one and
keeping it in their mind that they can’t put the second one in on top of it. They can only
remember so much. They can only remember the correct translation for so much information.
Interviewer: Can you describe a scenario where you might communicate effectively with
a non-native English speaker?
Interviewee: If you have a visual to refer to, and if they have a background in what you are
talking about. The more visuals, for instance, if you have running, it looks the same, the clip art
of running, communicates the same thing no matter what the language is.
Interviewer: What have you learned about the cultures of the non-native English
speakers you interact with?
Interviewee: Culturally, and individually, the different languages have different structures.
English is very direct, Spanish is much less direct, is more of a circular, almost spiraling. It
affects the way they communicate. It’s almost rude to just tell somebody “go get the car keys”.
You want to ask, “oh, how’s your car…” Culture is less direct, you almost want the person to
understand what you’re saying without coming out and saying it.
Interviewer: In your opinion, what is the role of cultural differences in communication
with non-native English speakers?
Interviewee: Oh yeah there are cultural differences. Probably language structure, the difference
of language structures. For example, what we just talked about. It’s like talking in long hand, a
culturally SPanish thing to do. Eventually you get to the subject but it doesn’t have to be right
away. English is a lot more linear.
(End of Interview)

12.4 Interview Report - Meredythe Durckel

Meredythe Durckel’s interview of Dr. Margarethe Cooper was scheduled to take place during
professor office hours from 12:30 pm to 1:00 pm on Thursday, September 20, 2018.

12.4.1 Research Questions

● Who regulates international GMP?
● What are language requirements for personnel?

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● Why is it important to have GMP?

12.4.2 Description of Interviewee

Dr. Cooper received both her Bachelor of Science in Microbiology and her PhD in Pathobiology
from the University of Arizona. She has worked as a Research Affiliate at the USDA Produce

12.4.3 Synthesized Reflection & Analysis

This interview demonstrated the variety of complex terms and acronyms used to describe food
safety practices. It is critical a company trains all personnel in managing hazards. To do this,
terms must be explained in simplified English (or Portuguese) that is relatable, engaging, and
motivating for employees to follow protocols.

12.4.4 Continuing Questions

After this interview, I was curious about Brazil’s federal version of the FDA, or health regulation
agency. It is called Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA). The broad role of this
agency is to oversee production and services for environments, processes, ingredients,
technologies, and airports and borders.

12.4.5 Raw Data - Transcript

(Begin Interview)
Interviewer: Who regulates international GMP?
Interviewee: The FDA regulates GMP [Good Manufacturing Processes] here in the US,
international regulation by the WHO [World Health Organization] primarily looks after the
pharmaceutical industry, to make sure drugs are up to safety standards and not causing harm.
There is also IPSE [International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering] that takes directives
from the FDA.
Interviewer: What are language requirements for personnel?
Interviewee: What do you mean by language requirements? [Food safety terms]. Oh, they
definitely must be explained in yearly trainings to all personnel. You have to assume the person
you just hired has no previous experience working with that food production process and needs
to be educated about the CCP’s and procedures to follow to prevent contamination.
Interviewer: Why is it important to have GMP?
Interviewee: If a product on the shelves has a recall, it will cost that company millions of dollars.
So, it’s important to take as many preventative measures as possible to protect consumers
(End of Interview)

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12.5 Interview Report - Ashley Maldonado-Diaz

Dr.Jeffrey Derickson was interviewed by Ashley Maldonado-Diaz at his private dental office
located at 762 N Country Club Rd, Tucson, AZ 85716 on September 18, 2018 at 8:00am.12.5.1
Research Questions

● Have you completed dental work internationally?

● How did you effectively communicate with non-native english speakers in the operatory
● Have you had a translator in office?
● Are there technologies that you have utilized and help improve communication?

12.5.2 Description of Interviewee

Dr.Jeffrey C. Derickson has been a doctor of dental surgery for the past 35 years in Tucson,
Arizona. During his career, he has practiced dentistry in various countries. As his expertise
expands, his curiosity of intercultural communication grows. As a life-long member of the
American Dental Association and Southern Arizona Dental Society, Dr.Derickson is constantly
attending continuing education courses that allow him to further explore communication

12.5.3 Synthesized Reflection & Analysis

The need for flexible, skilled workers that can adapt cross-culturally will be continuously
increasing as businesses strive to enhance success. Dr.Derickson has enlightened me on the
number of tools, materials and communication skills that are used globally. The most efficient
technique that I have witnessed is being culturally aware and conducting research on the
specific culture before having an interaction with them.

12.5.4 Continuing Questions

● Do doctors typically search for other social cues that will help them understand someone
speaking foreign language?
● Do doctors in other countries have access to similar forms of cross-cultural training?

12.5.5 Raw Data - Transcript

Interviewer: Ashley Maldonado-Diaz
Interviewee: Dr.Jeffrey C. Derickson
Interview setting: Dr.Derickson’s office located within the private dental practice.
Affiliation with Interviewer: Employer
(Begin Interview)
Interviewer: Would you say that cross-cultural communication training is important in the
medical field?
Interviewee: As a health professional it is crucial to have these courses. Thirty years ago,
cultural barrier training classes were unheard of. I began travelling at a young age, so there was

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always a level of understanding that I had when I met non-english speaking patients. These
classes set the bar high for employees by making sure patients feel understood, assured and in
the right hands.
Interviewer: Have you utilized any technology that has helped?
Interviewee: Yes, I have a piloting license and often volunteer in Mexico. When I travel, I have
applications on my phone that help me speak into the phone for certain words. My colleagues in
Mexico are bilingual and I can understand them perfectly, but the assistants provide patients
with phone-like devices that carry google translate. Technologies like this definitely help me in
the workplace when a patient needs urgent treatment.
Interviewer: How do you effectively cross train your staff to communicate with language
Interviewee: Some of my staff is already bilingual, but it is vital for my staff to understand basic
dental terms in other languages. In Tucson, spanish is a prominent language and I make sure
that my staff can respond. If not, one of my employees may switch out for someone who does
speak the language properly.
Interviewer: How often are refresher courses needed for communication?
Interviewee: I usually take a refresher course before entering a new country as I stay there for a
few weeks. This enables me to understand effective communication within a specific country.
This also introduces any new cultural differences I may encounter.
Interviewer: What are non-verbal cues that a provider may recognize from a non-native
Interviewee: If a patient is uncomfortable, they may have closed off extremities. Common signs
are crossed arms, wincining, tightening of the body and clenching. Fidgeting or tapping may
suggest that an individual is nervous or is anxious. If there are large language barriers, I
typically will use hand signals as a last resort. Thumbs up, smiling and hand shakes are used to
initiate positive feedback. Some words are difficult to translate or understand, so I always make
sure to draw by hand a picture of what treatment is going to be done.
(End of Interview)

12.6 Interview Report - Bryant Mitchell

Frank Jacobs was interviewed by Bryant Mitchell at the University of Arizona, Engineering Bldg.,
office ENGR 253 on September 17, 2018 at 5:00PM

12.6.1 Research Questions

● Are the ideologies of Industrial Engineering the same around the world?
● What type of work did you do with other cultures as an Industrial Engineer?
● Were there ever times that you had a language barrier
○ If so, how did you communicate?
● Did you learn any new tools from other cultures?
○ Did you utilize these tools in your career?

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12.6.2 Description of Interviewee

With over 40 years of manufacturing experience, Frank Jacobs has had challenges in
communication techniques. He focuses on continuous improvement and studies various
applications from all around the world. Japan is the leading industry for manufacturing. Jacobs
is also often contracted to fix the manufacturing processes of other companies around the

12.6.3 Synthesized Reflection & Analysis

There are many skills to be learned from all around the world; the biggest challenge to learning
them is surpassing the communication barrier. The United States is not the leading industry in
Industrial Engineering; many of our tools and techniques were created in other countries - often
Japan. These tools are relatively familiar throughout the world because they are all modeled off
of the most optimal approach. Even japanese terminology is used when talking about
characteristics of a manufacturing process in the United State. Global communication benefits
many countries because we are able to gain more knowledge and explore new techniques
being done by someone else.

12.6.4 Continuing Questions

● Are there any resources for third world countries to get access to this information?
● Will the leading industrial engineering theories alway be from the same country? Will a
country ever surpass another over time?
● Does the best way of mass production already exist? Can countries explore this further
together instead of individually?

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12.6.5 Raw Data - Transcript

Interviewer: Bryant Mitchell
Interviewee: Frank Jacobs
Interview Setting: Interview conducted in office of Frank Jacobs in the Engineering Building on
the University of Arizona Main Campus. Interview conducted at 5:00 PM on Monday.
Affiliation with Interviewee: Past professor
(Begin Interview)
Interviewer: What have been your responsibilities as an Industrial Engineer?
Interviewee: I have had a lot of responsibilities in the past forty years I’ve been in the business. I
began my career with Hughes Aircraft [Company] back in the 70s where I designed and tested
different types of machinery. They wanted me to develop my management side in the business
so I went back to school to receive my masters from the University of Arizona in Operations and
Production Management. From there I dealt with a lot of program management, so I developed
a lot new projects with a team. These projects lasted anywhere from a few months to years.
When I moved to Raytheon,I analyzed the manufacturing process to make it as lean as
possible. I utilized a lot of the techniques that I taught to you in class. I also was sent to different
locations to help different manufacturing sites. Now, I began my own business with my son here
in Tucson where we test types of machinery.
Interviewer: Are the responsibilities of an Industrial Engineer the same around the
Interviewee: Umm, yes and no. The structure around Industrial Engineering is generally the
same because each country strives to be as lean as possible in their manufacturing process.
They reflect common techniques within the industry, but sometimes, different countries lack the
technology and advancement that you might see in the United States or Japan. Because the
technology is different, Industrial Engineers use different techniques to find ways of optimizing a
process, but the ideologies are the same.
Interviewer: Have you ever had to deal with a language barrier in your professional
career? If so, how did you go about it?
Interviewee: I have here and there. Most of the time the people I dealt with were bilingual or the
company would supply an interpreter for us. It was never a huge issue in my experience.
Interviewer: What was the hardest challenge?
Interviewee: The hardest challenge was the difference in words and phrases. Luckily, industrial
engineering has a lot of common terminology in the industry, but there are also a lot of words
that have been adapted into different cultures that are not frequently used everywhere. We use
a lot of Japanese words because they revolutionized a lot of techniques and taught us using
those words. That made it easier to communicate, but there are some instances where phrases
and words are made for one type of industry. This can be seen in different industries in America,
not only different countries.
Interviewer: Since Japan “revolutionized” industrial engineering, did you often teach or
advise the techniques to other countries, or were you the one learning from other
Interviewee: It’s definitely a mixture of both. I have learned a lot of techniques from different
countries, and I have also taught these techniques to my professional peers and future
students. I would say that I learned the most from studying Japanese ideologies, but I think the

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world is in a pretty common stage of manufacturing. We all have the same main techniques but
apply them differently. It also depends on what you are processing, what resources you have,
and the economic status of the area you are working in.
Interviewer: Last question, is it easy for you to go global in your career?
Interviewee: There are a lot of opportunities to go global. There are many companies in the US
that are worldwide and provide outlets for careers overseas. I know in my experience I was sent
to help our manufacturing plants all around the world. Since you will be working in the United
States, a lot of the ideologies are valued elsewhere in the world, especially if you work for a
renowned company.
Interviewee: Perfect! Thank you for taking the time to talk to me!
(End of Interview)

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