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Creeds, Councils and

Controversies
Documents illustrating the history of the Church AD 337–461

Edited by J. Stevenson
Revised with additional documents by W. H. C. Frend

First edition published 1966


Seven futher impressions 1972–86

This revised edition first published 1989


SPCK
Holy Trinity Church
Marylebone Road
London NW 14DU

Copyright © J. Stevenson 1966


This edition © M. Stevenson 1989
Additional material © W.H.C. Frend 1989

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be produced or transmi4ed in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and
retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data


A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 0–281–24327–2

Creeds, councils, and controversies : Documents illustrative of the history of the church A.D. 337-461. 1966 (J. Stevenson & B. J. Kidd,
Ed.). New York: Seabury Press.
Exported from Logos Bible Software 4, 1:55 PM June 18, 2011. 1
Contents

The source of each document is shown, except where this is sufficiently indicated in the title. Full ref-
erences are given at the head of each individual passage in the text.

Map of the Roman Empire, c. AD 400


Preface to the First Edition
Preface to the New Edition

Acknowledgements

Abbreviations and Conventions

1 The Sons of Constantine, AD 337–40


1 The Return of Athanasius, 337: Socrates
2 Canons of Gangra, c. 340 (?)
3 Persecution in Persia, c. 340: Martyrdom of Symeon, Catholicus of Persia: Sozomen

2 The Papacy, the Easterners and Athanasius to 348


4 Julius I of Rome, on the Exiled Bishops, 340: Julius ap. Athanasius
5 Marcellus of Ancyra and the Roman Creed; Marcellus ap. Epiphanius
6 The Council of Antioch, 341: Athanasius
7 The Council of Sardica, 343: Socrates, Hilary of Poitiers
8 The Doctrinal Statement of the Western Council of Sardica, 343: Theodoret
9 Canons of Sardica, 343
10 The Creed of the Long Lines (Ekthesis macrostichos), 345: Athanasius
11 The Creed of Jerusalem, 348: Cyril of Jerusalem

3 The West under Constans, 340–50


12 The ‘Manual of lntolerance’ of Firmicus Maternus, c. 346–8: Firmicus Maternus
13 Some Pagan Shrines are Spared, 342: Codex Theodosianus
14 Donatism: The Mission of Paul and Macarius to Africa, 347, and the Behaviour of Donatus:
Optatus

Creeds, councils, and controversies : Documents illustrative of the history of the church A.D. 337-461. 1966 (J. Stevenson & B. J. Kidd,
Ed.). New York: Seabury Press.
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15 The Circumcellions, c. 340: Optatus

4 Constantius II as Sole Ruler of the Roman World, 353–61


16 Constantius II and Paganism: Codex Theodosianus
17 Constantius II and Christianity: Ammianus Marcellinus
18 A Cross in the Heavens, 351: Cyril of Jerusalem
19 The Ba*le of Mursa, 28 September 351: Sulpicius Severus
20 The Issue between Constantius and the Western Church, 353–4: Liberius
21 The Council of Milan, 355: Hilary of Poitiers
22 The Exile of Liberius, 355: Sozomen
23 A*empted Arrest of Athanasius, 8 February 356: Ought Christians to Flee when Persecuted?:
Athanasius
24 Protest by Ossius (Hosius) of Cordova to Constantius II, c. 356: Ossius (Hosius) ap. Athanasius
25 The Lapse of Liberius, 357: Athanasius
26 Le*er of Constantius to the Rulers of Axum, c.357: Athanasius
27 The Second Creed (the ‘Blasphemy’) of Sirmium, 357: Hilary of Poitiers
28 The Surrender of Ossius (Hosius), 357: Sozomen
29 Constantius the Forerunner of Antichrist: Athanasius
30 Aëtius, Eudoxius and the Synod of Ancyra, c. 358: Sozomen
31 Problems about Homoousios, c. 359: Athanasius
32 The Fourth Creed of Sirmium, commonly called the ‘Dated’ Creed (22 May 359): Athanasius
33 The Council of Seleucia: Sozomen
34 Acacius of Caesarea: Sozomen
35 The Anomoeans, 361: Socrates
36 Meletius of Antioch, 361: Socrates
37 The Status of Ecclesiastical and Clerical Property: Codex Theodosianus

5 Julian ‘the Apostate’, 360–63


38 The Youth of the Emperor Julian: Julian
39 The Apostasy of Julian (1): Ammianus Marcellinus
40 The Apostasy of Julian (2): Ammianus Marcellinus
41 Julian at Athens, a Less Friendly Account: Gregory of Nazianzus
42 Prudentius’ Tribute to Julian: Prudentius
43 The Lynching of George, Intruding Bishop of Alexandria, 24 December 361: Ammianus
Marcellinus
44 Julian: Reformed Paganism, 362: Julian ap. Sozomen
45 Julian: To the Alexandrians, Against Athanasius
46 The Flight of Athanasius, under Julian: Socrates
47 Julian: The Rescript on Teachers, 362
48 Julian: To the People of Bostra, 1 August 362

Creeds, councils, and controversies : Documents illustrative of the history of the church A.D. 337-461. 1966 (J. Stevenson & B. J. Kidd,
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49 Julian and the Church of Edessa, 362–3: Julian
50 Julian and the Antiochenes, 363: Ammianus Marcellinus
51 Julian: The Temple of Apollo at Daphne near Antioch
52 The Death of julian, 26 June 363: Ammianus Marcellinus

6 The Restoration of Christianity under Jovian and Valentinian I, 363–75


53 The Emperor Jovian, 27 June 363–17 February 364: Socrates
54 Toleration under Valentinian I: Ammianus Marcellinus
55 Except for the Manichees, 372: Codex Theodosianus
56 Riots in Rome: Damasus and Ursinus, 26 October 366: Ammianus Marcellinus
57 Clergy and the Decurionate: Codex Theodosianus
58 Clergy Prohibited from Hunting for Legacies, 370: Codex Theodosianus

7 Christianity Beyond the Roman Frontier


A Armenia and Persia 364–81
59 The Synod of Ashtishat, 365: Faustus of Byzantium
60 Ephraim the Syrian, d. c. 370: Sozomen
B The Goths
61 Ulfila, c. 311—c. 381: Auxentius of Durostorum
62 The Gothic Bible: Philostorgius
63 How the Goths became Arians: Theodoret

8 Further Doctrinal Disputes in the East


A The Holy Spirit in the Godhead
64 The Beginnings of Heresy about the Holy Spirit, c. 358: Athanasius
65 The Council of Alexandria, 362: Athanasius
66 Basil of Caesarea on the Holy Spirit
67 The Deity of the Holy Spirit: Gregory of Nazianzus
68 The Divinity of the Holy Spirit: a case of Development in Doctrine: Gregory of Nazianzus
B The Person of Christ
69 Athanasius: The Two Natures of Christ
70 The Teaching of Apollinarius, Bishop of Laodicea in Syria: Apollinarius
71 Gregory of Nazianzus: Criticism of Apollinarianism
72 Gregory of Nyssa on the ‘Self-emptying’ of the Godhead
73 Western Views: Hilary of Poitiers on the Two Natures of Christ, c. 365
74 Decisions of a Roman Council under Damasus, 377: Damasus

9 The Cappadocian Fathers: Theology and Asceticism


A Basil of Caesarea: Life and Theology
75 Macrina Converts Basil to the Ascetic Life: Gregory of Nyssa

Creeds, councils, and controversies : Documents illustrative of the history of the church A.D. 337-461. 1966 (J. Stevenson & B. J. Kidd,
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76 Basil’s Buildings at Caesarea: Basil
77 Basil’s Hospital at Caesarea: Gregory of Nazianzus
78 The Superiority of the Conventual Life over the Solitary Life: Basil
79 Basil and the Emperor Valens: Theodoret
80 Basil on the Schism of Antioch, 375
81 The Antiochene Parties in 378: Theodoret
82 Basil on the Doctrine of the Trinity, 375
83 Basil: The Distinction of Meaning between ousia and hypostasis
84 Basil: Our Knowledge of God Imperfect, but Real, 376
B Gregory of Nyssa
85 Gregory of Nyssa on the Trinity
86 Gregory of Nyssa on the Eucharist and Baptism
C Gregory of Nazianzus
87 Gregory of Nazianzus on Man’s Condition

10 The Council of Constantinople, 381


88 Gregory of Nazianzus at Constantinople, 379–81: in Socrates, Sozomen
89 The ‘Last Farewell’ of Gregory of Nazianzus, on his Resignation of the See of Constantinople
90 The Creed of Constantinople, 381
91 Canons of Constantinople, 381
92 Gregory of Nazianzus: The Futility of Councils, 382
93 Condemnation of Apollinarianism, 388: Codex Theodosianus

11 Ambrose (c. 339–97), Bishop of Milan 373–97


94 Ambrose becomes Bishop of Milan, 373: Paulinus
95 The Altar of Victory, 384: Symmachus, Ambrose
96 The Council of Aquileia, 381: Gesta Concilii Aquileiensis, Ambrose
97 The Struggle between Ambrose and the Court at Milan: Round 1, 385: Ambrose
98 The Struggle between Ambrose and the Court at Milan: Round 2, 386: Codex Theodosianus,
Ambrose
99 The Discovery of the Relics of SS Protasius and Gervasius, 386: Ambrose
100 Hymns and Psalms at Milan, 386: Augustine
101 Ambrose and Theodosius I: the Affair of Callinicum, 388: Ambrose
102 Ambrose and Theodosius I: the Massacre at Thessalonica, 390: Ambrose
103 Church and Emperor: the Crux of the Ma=er: Ambrose
104 Fritigil, Queen of the Marcomanni: Paulinus
105 The Communion of Saints: Niceta of Remesiana
106 The Creed of Aquileia, c. 390: Rufinus

12 The Roman See under Damasus and Siricius, 378–99

Creeds, councils, and controversies : Documents illustrative of the history of the church A.D. 337-461. 1966 (J. Stevenson & B. J. Kidd,
Ed.). New York: Seabury Press.
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107 Petition of a Roman Council to the Emperors Gratian and Valentinian II, c. 378
108 Gratian’s Reply
109 The Decretal of Siricius, Bishop of Rome, to Himerius of Tarragona, 11 February 385
110 The Catacombs: Jerome
111 The Rebuilding of the Church of St Paul-Outside-the-Walls at Rome, 386: Valentinian II

13 The Establishment of Catholic Orthodoxy as the Religion of the Empire, 380–423


A Imperial Legislation and Initiatives
112 An Edict on the Profession of the Catholic Faith, 380: Codex Theodosianus
113 Imperial Confirmation of a Papal Election, 24 February, 385: Valentinian II
114 The Effective Prohibition of Paganism, 391: Codex Theodosianus
115 The Punishment of Heretics, 392: Codex Theodosianus
116 Sunday: Codex Theodosianus
117 No Immunities for Priests of the Mysteries, 7 December 396: Codex Theodosianus
118 Country Temples to be Destroyed, 10 July 399, Codex Theodosianus
119 Only Catholics to Serve in the Palace, 14 November 408, Codex Theodosianus
120 Pagans Barred from Military and Civil Service, 7 December 415: Codex Theodosianus
121 Law-abiding Jews and Pagans Not to be Disturbed, 8 June 423: Codex Theodosianus
B The Destruction of Pagan Temples
122 Theophilus Destroys the Serapeum at Alexandria, 391: Theodoret
123 The Destruction of Temples: Murder of Marcellus, Bishop of Apamea: Sozomen
C Legislation Concerning the Jews
124 Marriages of Christians and Jews Prohibited, 388: Codex Theodosianus
125 Jewish Ownership of Christian Slaves, 415: Codex Theodosianus

14 Asceticism in the West: Martin of Tours and Priscillian


126 Martin’s Monastery, c. 370: Sulpicius Severus
127 The Heresy of Priscillian, c. 378–85: Sulpicius Severus
128 The Execution of Priscillian and his Friends, 385: Sulpicius Severus
129 Martin of Tours at Trier, 386: Sulpicius Severus

15 Monasticism in the East


130 Pachomius and his Monasteries: Sozomen
131 Admission to a Monastery: Cassian
132 Life in a Monastery of Pachomius: Jerome
133 The Monastic Life: Jerome
134 The Monks of Nitria: Palladius
135 Feats of Asceticism: Macarius of Alexandria: Palladius
136 Monastic Wisdom: Apophthegmata Patrum

Creeds, councils, and controversies : Documents illustrative of the history of the church A.D. 337-461. 1966 (J. Stevenson & B. J. Kidd,
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137 Monastic Failings: the Spirit of Accidie: Cassian
138 Monastic Failings: The Spirit of Faction: Jerome
139 Pagan Hatred of the Monks: Libanius, Rutilius, Zosimus

16 Jerome
A The Unquiet Ascetic
140 Lax Christianity in Jerome’s Home Town: Jerome
141 Jerome in the Desert: Jerome
142 Jerome: Ciceronian or Christian?: Jerome
143 Jerome’s Appeal to Damasus for Light in his Doctrinal Darkness
B Jerome in Rome, 382–5
144 Jerome to Damasus on the Revision of the Latin Bible
145 The Agapetae: Jerome
146 Advice to a Virgin: Jerome
147 How Jerome was Slandered at Rome, 385: Jerome
C Jerome in Exile in Bethlehem, 385–420
148 The Ordination of Paulinian, 394: Epiphanius
149 A City, even Jerusalem itself, is No Place for a Monk, 395: Jerome
D Jerome on Origen’s Theology
150 Jerome’s Early Enthusiasm for Origen, c. 384: Jerome
151 The Controversy about Origen: a scene at Jerusalem, 394: Jerome
152 The False Teaching Ascribed to Origen, c. 396: Jerome
153 Condemnation of Origen at Rome, 400: Anastasius ap. Jerome
154 Socrates’ Defence of Origen: Socrates
E Rome from Afar
155 The Propositions of Jovinian, c. 391: Jerome
156 The Penance and Charity of Fabiola (d. 399): Jerome
157 Marcella, d. 410: Jerome
158 Jerome and the Fall of Rome: Jerome
159 Jerome as a Supporter of Popular Piety in the West, 406: Jerome
F Summing Up
160 Palladius on Jerome and Rufinus: Palladius

17 Augustine
A The Search for Wisdom
161 Augustine: The Hortensius of Cicero and the Christian Scriptures
162 Why Manichaeism AAracted Augustine: Augustine
163 Augustine and Ambrose, 385–6: Augustine
164 The Conversion of Victorinus: Augustine
165 The Call to the Monastic Life: Augustine

Creeds, councils, and controversies : Documents illustrative of the history of the church A.D. 337-461. 1966 (J. Stevenson & B. J. Kidd,
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166 The Conversion of Augustine, August 386: Augustine
B Augustine as Presbyter
167 The Festival of Leontius, Bishop and Martyr, at Hippo Regius: Augustine
C Augustine and the Donatists
168 Augustine and the Donatists: Possidius
169 The Condemnation of Primian, 24 June 393: Leer of Council of Cebarsussa
170 Donatist Sacraments Valid but not Efficacious: Augustine
171 The Council of Carthage, June 404: the State is asked to Persecute the Donatists: Codex
Canonum Ecclesiae Africanae
172 Augustine on Repressive Legislation, 408: Augustine
173 The Donatist Standpoint: Petilian ap. Augustine, Gesta Collationis Carthaginensis, Optatus
174 A Donatist Chronicle, 405: Liber Genealogus
175 Augustine: Advice to Marcellinus on the Punishment of Donatists, 412
176 The Circumcellions Again, c. 417: Augustine
D Augustine and the Fall of Rome in 410
177 The Fall of Rome, 410: Augustine
178 The Two Cities: Augustine
E The Pelagian Controversy
179 A Beginning of Controversy with Pelagius: Augustine
180 Original Sin: ‘Ambrosiaster’, Augustine
181 Augustine’s Conception of Freedom: Augustine
182 Pelagius’ Doctrine of Human Freedom: Pelagius
183 Pelagius: Le7er to Demetrias, 414
184 The Pelagians: Causa finita est, 417: Innocent I, Augustine
185 Caelestius’ Denial of Original Sin, and Appeal to Pope Zosimus: Augustine
186 The Council of Carthage, 417: Canons on Sin and Grace
187 Nature and Grace: Augustine
188 Augustine on Pelagianism, 428
F Old Age
189 The Last Days of Augustine: Possidius

18 Church Discipline in the West: Appeals to Rome to 430


190 Innocent I of Rome on Penance and Remarriage aer Divorce, 405
191 The Safeguarding of Clerical Morals, 420: Codex Theodosianus
192 Directions of Honorius about Disputed Papal Elections, c. 420
193 Appeals from Africa to Rome: The Case of Apiarius, 418: Leer to Boniface
194 Appeals from Africa to Rome: The Case of Antony of Fussala, 422–3: Augustine
195 Appeals from Africa to Rome: The Case of Apiarius Again, 424: Leer to Coelestine

19 The Church beyond the Eastern Frontier, 410–50

Creeds, councils, and controversies : Documents illustrative of the history of the church A.D. 337-461. 1966 (J. Stevenson & B. J. Kidd,
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196 Religious Peace in Persia: Synod of Seleucia, 410: Synodicon Orientate
197 Theodoret on the Persecutions in Persia
198 The Charity of Acacius, Bishop of Amida, towards Persian Captives, c. 422: Socrates
199 The Synod of Dadiso, 424:Synodicon Orientale
200 Persecution in Armenia under Yazdegerd II, King of Persia, 449: Elisaeus Vartabed

20 Liturgy and Discipline in the East to 400


201 Jerusalem Services: Egeria’s Account, c. 384: Egeria (Etheria)
202 Penitential Discipline at Constantinople, c. 390: Socrates

21 John Chrysostom
203 Dark Days at Antioch, 387: John Chrysostom
204 The End of the Schism at Antioch, 388: Socrates
205 John Chrysostom at Ephesus, 401: Palladius
206 John Chrysostom and the Refugee Monks from Egypt, 401–402: Palladius
207 Le9er of John Chrysostom to Innocent I of Rome, 404: John Chrysostom ap. Palladius
208 The Statue of Eudoxia, c. November 403: Socrates
209 Easter at Constantinople, 404: Palladius
210 The Character of John Chrysostom: Socrates

22 The Church in Alexandria under Theophilus and Cyril to 420: Synesius and Hypatia
211 The Doubts of Synesius, 409: Synesius
212 Synesius: Venit summa dies
213 The Murder of Hypatia, 415: Socrates
214 The A9endants of the Sick at Alexandria, 416: Codex Theodosianus

23 Cyril, Nestorius and the Council of Ephesus, 431


215 Nestorius, Bishop of Constantinople, 428: Socrates
216 Nestorius, Anastasius, and the Term ‘Theotokos’, 429: Socrates
217 Nestorius, Bishop of Constantinople, Rebukes his Congregation for their Neglect of the
Sacrament of Holy Communion: Nestorius
218 Antiochene Christology: Theodore of Mopsuestia
219 The Second Le9er of Cyril to Nestorius, February 430: Cyril of Alexandria
220 Nestorius’ Reply to Cyril’s Second Le9er, June 430
221 Coelestine Delegates Cyril of Alexandria to represent him in dealing with Nestorius, 11 August
430: Coelestine
222 The Third Le9er of Cyril to Nestorius, November 430
223 Ephesus, June 431: John of Antioch’s Council
224 Canons of Ephesus, 431

Creeds, councils, and controversies : Documents illustrative of the history of the church A.D. 337-461. 1966 (J. Stevenson & B. J. Kidd,
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225 Nestorius on Cyril’s Part at the Council of Ephesus
226 Cyril’s Leer to John of Antioch, 23 April 433
227 Cyril’s Defence of his Acceptance of the Formula of Reunion
228 The Character of Cyril of Alexandria: Isidore of Pelusium, Theodoret

24 The West: Authority Catholic and Papal, 430–45


229 Vincent of Lérins: The Rule of Doctrine and Development, 434
230 The Novatianists Harassed in Rome, c. 430: Socrates
231 The Manichees at Rome, 443: Leo
232 The Authority of the Roman Church: Leo
233 The Roman Church the Head of the World: Leo
234 Valentinian III on the Roman Primacy and on Hilary of Aries, 445: Leer of Valentinian III

25 The East: an Interval of Harmony, 433–47


235 The Ideal of Monarchy, Praise for Theodosius II: Sozomen
236 When No News is Good News: Socrates

26 Chalcedon: The Crisis, 447–51


237 Theodoret of Cyrrhus on the Person of Christ
238 Theodoret Complains to Dioscorus of Alexandria that he has been Misrepresented, 447
239 Petition of his Clergy in Favour of Ibas, Bishop of Edessa, 448
240 The Admissions of Eutyches, 22 November 448
241 The Tome of Leo, 13 June 449: Leo
242 Hilary, Legate of Leo, Resists the Deposition of Flavian at the Council of Ephesus, 449: ACO
243 The Council of Ephesus, 449, Flavian’s Appeal to Leo
244 The Appeal of Theodoret to Leo, 449
245 Nestorius and the Tome of Leo, 451: Nestorius
246 The Chalcedonian Definition of the Faith
247 Canons of Chalcedon, 451
248 The Canons of Chalcedon on the Church of Constantinople (Can. 9, 17 and 28)
249 Leer of the Council of Chalcedon to Leo
250 An End to Controversy, 7 February 452: Edict of Martian
251 Leo Annuls Canon 28 of Chalcedon, 22 May 452: Leo
252 Leo Explains the Doctrine of the Tome

27 The Church and the Fall of the Empire in the West, 427–55
253 Augustine and the Uprising of North African Tribes, c. 427: Augustine
254 The Problem of Flight in face of Barbarian Incursions, 428: Augustine
255 Salvian: Roman and Barbarian in Gaul, c. 440
256 Salvian: Agrarian Discontent; the Bagaudae, c. 440

Creeds, councils, and controversies : Documents illustrative of the history of the church A.D. 337-461. 1966 (J. Stevenson & B. J. Kidd,
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257 Breakdown of Morale: Salvian
258 Leo I, Bishop of Rome, as Ambassador to A!ila, 452: Prosper
259 The Vandals Capture Rome, 455: Prosper
260 Deogratias, Bishop of Carthage, Ransoms Captives brought from Rome by the Vandals: Victor
of Vita

28 Christianity in Britain and Ireland 400–461


261 Ninian and the Church at Whithorn in Galloway, c. 400: Bede
262 Pelagianism in Britain, c. 430: Prosper
263 The ‘Confession’ of Patrick, c. 450: Patrick
264 Patrick: Le!er to the Soldiers of Coroticus

Notes on Sources
Further Reading
Books Published since 1966
Texts and Sources
Chronological Tables
Index

Creeds, councils, and controversies : Documents illustrative of the history of the church A.D. 337-461. 1966 (J. Stevenson & B. J. Kidd,
Ed.). New York: Seabury Press.
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Preface to the First Edition

The multiplicity and complexity of the sources available for the fourth and fih centuries ad render a
selection of documents for this period a harder task than for the period up to Constantine the Great. I
am conscious that much could have been added, and that certain topics and individuals have not
received the aention that they merit.
The present volume is intended to be a successor to Vol. II of the late B. J. Kidd’s Documents, pub-
lished in 1923. It is arranged in the same way as A New Eusebius.
I am very grateful to Dr W. H. C. Frend, Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, who has read the
proofs, and has also been of great assistance in maers affecting Western Christianity. I wish also to
thank Mrs N. K. Chadwick for help in the passages dealing with the Celtic Church. Finally, I am much
indebted to the publishers and the printers for the care and interest that they have taken in the produc-
tion of the book.
J. Stevenson

Dooming College
Cambridge 1966

Preface to the New Edition

Creeds, Councils and Controversies has for the last twenty years proved its worth as the sequel to A New
Eusebius. As the editor pointed out, however, the multiplicity and complexity of the sources for the
period 337–451 rendered the selection of documents far more difficult than for the early period of
Church history. In practice it has been found that, while the documents have been excellently chosen
and no important theme has been omied, they have not always been arranged in a way easiest for
students to use. Though the order was mainly chronological, themes would sometimes be interrupted
by documents relating to a different subject and cohesion lost in consequence.
The main task of revision has therefore been to reorganize the editor’s selection into sections each
devoted to a particular subject or personality. Thus, all the documents relating to Jerome have been
grouped together, and similarly those recounting the controversies in which Augustine or Cyril of

Creeds, councils, and controversies : Documents illustrative of the history of the church A.D. 337-461. 1966 (J. Stevenson & B. J. Kidd,
Ed.). New York: Seabury Press.
Exported from Logos Bible Software 4, 1:55 PM June 18, 2011. 12
Alexandria were involved. Few documents have been omied, but thirty-eight have been added, either
to illustrate aspects of thought and teaching of individuals, such as the Cappadocian Fathers, which
had not been represented fully, or to provide connecting material to clarify a sequence of events, such
as Nestorius’ reply to Cyril’s Second Leer, or Eutyches’ trial before Archbishop Flavian and the Home
Synod of Constantinople in November 448.
In making these additions I have been able to use Henry Beenson’s The Later Christian Fathers
(OUP 1970, 1984), Maurice Wiles and Mark Santer’s Documents in Early Christian Thought (CUP 1975,
1979), and L. R. Wickham’s excellent edition of Cyril of Alexandria: Selected Leers (Oxford Early Chris-
tian Texts, OUP 1983). I owe to Professor Stuart Hall the translation of Nestorius’ reply to Cyril.
A short bibliography of relevant works published in English since 1966 has been added, and read-
ers are recommended, in particular, Frances Young’s book From Nicaea to Chalcedon, Fortress Press 1983,
as a concise commentary on the sources for this period. Stevenson’s footnotes have been retained so
far as possible, but updated where necessary.
Finally, I would like to thank the staff of SPCK for their help and encouragement in preparing this
new edition of a friend and colleague’s fine contribution to the historical study of the early Church.
W. H. C. Frend
Barnwell Rectory
Peterborough
1988

Acknowledgements

Thanks are due to the following for permission to include copyright material:

A. and C. Black Ltd. and Harper and Row Inc. (J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines).

Burns and Oates Ltd. (O. R. Vassall-Phillips, The Work of St Optatus against the Donatists).

The Cambridge University Press (J. F. Bethune-Baker, Nestorius and his Teaching, M. Wiles and M. San-
ter, Documents in Early Christian Thought).

The Catholic University of America Press (A. M. Lesousky, The De Dono Perseverantiae of St
Augustine).

The Church Historical Society (T. A. Lacey, Appellatio Flaviani).

The Clarendon Press (F. Homes Dudden, The Life and Times of St Ambrose, A. Fitzgerald, The Leers of
Synesius of Cyrene).

Creeds, councils, and controversies : Documents illustrative of the history of the church A.D. 337-461. 1966 (J. Stevenson & B. J. Kidd,
Ed.). New York: Seabury Press.
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The Columbia University Press (M. A. Human, The Establishment of Christianity and the Proscription of
Paganism; E. M. Sandford, Salvian, On the Government of God; J. T. Shotwell and L. R. Loomis, The See of
Peter, K. M. Seon, The Christian Aitude towards the Emperor in the fourth century.

The Epworth Press (C. R. B. Shapland, The Leers of St Athanasius concerning the Holy Spirit).
The Trustees of the Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press, and William Heinemann Ltd. (R.
J. Deferrari, St Basil, The Leers; T. R. Glover, Tertullian’s Apology; J. E. King, Baedae Opera Historica; J. C.
Rolfe, Ammianus Marcellinus; F. A. Wright, Jerome, Select Leers, W. C. Wright; The Works of the Emperor
Julian).

Longmans, Green and Co. (L. Bieler, St Patrick, Works).

Longmans, Green and Co. and David McKay Co. Inc. (J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Creeds).

Longmans, Green and Co. and The Newman Press (J. N. D. Kelly, Rufinus, A Commentary on the
Apostles’ Creed).

The Oxford University Press (Henry Beenson, Documents of the Christian Church and The Later Chris-
tian Fathers, 1970/1984; L. R. Wickham, Cyril of Alexandria, Select Leers, 1983).

The Princeton University Press (Clyde Pharr, The Theodosian Code).

Sheed and Ward Ltd and Sheed and Ward Inc., 1954 (F. R. Hoare tr. and ed., The Western Fathers).

The SCM Press Ltd. and The Westminster Press, 1955 (W. Telfer, tr. and ed., Cyril of Jerusalem and Neme-
sius of Emesa; Owen Chadwick, Western Asceticism).

Abbreviations and Conventions

ACO Acta Conciliorum Oecumenicorum, ed. E. Schwartz


ACW Ancient Christian Writers
ANCL Ante-Nicene Christian Library

Bethune-Baker, Introduction J. F. Bethune-Baker, An Introduction to the Early History of Christian


Doctrine

Beenson, DCC Henry Beenson, tr., Documents of the Christian Church

Creeds, councils, and controversies : Documents illustrative of the history of the church A.D. 337-461. 1966 (J. Stevenson & B. J. Kidd,
Ed.). New York: Seabury Press.
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Beenson, LCF Henry Beenson, tr., The Later Christian Fathers

Bindley-Green The Oecumenical Documents of the Faith, T. H. Bindley, ed., revised by F.


W. Green

Bright, Canons Canons of the First Four General Councils

CSEL Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum

D’Alton, Chrysostom J. F. D’Alton, ed., Selections from St John Chrysostom

DCA Dictionary of Christian Antiquities

DCB Dictionary of Christian Biography

DTC Dictionnaire de Théologie catholique

GCS Die Griechischen christlichen Schrifisteller der ersten drei Jahrhunderte

Giles, Documents E. Giles, Documents illustrating Papal Authority, AD 96–454

HE Historia Ecclesiastica. (Bede, Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomen, Theodoret)

Hefele-Leclercq Histoire des Conciles

JHS Journal of Hellenic Studies

JRS Journal of Roman Studies

JTS (NS) Journal of Theological Studies (New Series)

E. J. Jonkers Acta et Symbola Conciliorum quae saeculo quarto habita sunt

Kelly, Creeds J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Creeds

Kelly, Doctrines J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines


Kidd, Documents B. J. Kidd, Documents illustrative of the History of the Church, Vol. II
LF Library of the Fathers

Lietzmann H. Lietzmann, Symbols of the Ancient Church

Mansi, Concilia J. D. Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima Collectio


MGH Monumenta Germaniae Historica

NER A New Eusebius, J. Stevenson, ed., revised with additional documents by


W. H. C. Frend

Creeds, councils, and controversies : Documents illustrative of the history of the church A.D. 337-461. 1966 (J. Stevenson & B. J. Kidd,
Ed.). New York: Seabury Press.
Exported from Logos Bible Software 4, 1:55 PM June 18, 2011. 15
NPNF Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers

PG Migne, Patrologia Graeca

PL Migne, Patrologia Latina

Pharr Clyde Pharr, The Theodosian Code


Square brackets are used to indicate paraphrased passages or editorial insertions in the documents.
Except where otherwise specified, italic type is used to indicate direct quotations from Scripture
in the documents.
Each passage is preceded by a reference to its original source or sources.
Each passage is immediately followed by a reference to the source or sources of the English version.

Creeds, councils, and controversies : Documents illustrative of the history of the church A.D. 337-461. 1966 (J. Stevenson & B. J. Kidd,
Ed.). New York: Seabury Press.
Exported from Logos Bible Software 4, 1:55 PM June 18, 2011. 16