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FRANCIS TURBINE

OBJECTIVE

To study the effect of the guide vane opening under varied load conditions.

RESULTS

Atmosphere Pressure, Patm 1.0038 bar

100% GUIDE OPENING L1 L2 L1+L2 L3 L1+L3 L1+L2+L3 L4 L5


TURBINE INLET
1.36 1.36 1.36 1.36 1.36 1.37 1.36 1.38
PRESSURE (P4 bar)
FLOW RATE (litre\min) 180.6 178.7 183.9 179.9 178.9 178.6 174.6 180.6
TURBINE VOLTAGE (volt) 44.3 38.8 36.5 28.7 27 23.6 15.5 9.2
TURBINE CURRENT (amp) 0.21 0.52 0.67 1.05 1.12 1.3 1.66 2.03
TURBINE SPEED (rpm) 1032.6 916.6 863.3 691.9 658 583.6 406 272
OUTPUT POWER (watt) 9.30 20.18 24.46 30.14 30.24 30.68 25.73 18.68
INPUT POWER (watt) 64.33 63.65 65.51 64.08 63.72 65.40 62.19 67.94
EFFICIENCY (%) 14.46 31.70 37.34 47.03 47.46 46.91 41.37 27.49

60% GUIDE OPENING L1 L2 L1+L2 L3 L1+L3 L1+L2+L3 L4 L5


TURBINE INLET
1.41 1.41 1.40 1.39 1.39 1.38 1.39 1.39
PRESSURE (P4 bar)
FLOW RATE (litre\min) 169.7 174.9 173.1 175.1 175 178.4 176.3 171.5
TURBINE VOLTAGE (volt) 54.2 48.4 45.3 36.1 34.1 29.7 20.2 12
TURBINE CURRENT (amp) 0.26 0.65 0.83 1.34 1.43 1.64 2.16 2.63
TURBINE SPEED (rpm) 1272.2 1144.3 1075.1 876.5 831.2 736 528.8 353
OUTPUT POWER (watt) 14.09 31.46 37.60 48.37 48.76 48.71 43.63 31.56
INPUT POWER (watt) 68.93 71.04 68.58 67.62 67.59 67.11 68.09 66.23
EFFICIENCY (%) 20.44 44.28 54.83 71.53 72.14 72.58 64.08 47.65

30% GUIDE OPENING L1 L2 L1+L2 L3 L1+L3 L1+L2+L3 L4 L5


TURBINE INLET
1.46 1.46 1.44 1.42 1.46 1.42 1.41 1.41
PRESSURE (P4 bar)
FLOW RATE (litre\min) 162.4 169.3 170.8 165.6 168.9 168.4 166.8 157.4
TURBINE VOLTAGE (volt) 60.1 54.3 51 40.8 38.7 34.1 23.6 14.1
TURBINE CURRENT (amp) 0.29 0.73 0.94 1.51 1.62 1.9 2.53 3.09
TURBINE SPEED (rpm) 1416.8 1287.2 1211.7 987.7 942 843 618.2 410.9
OUTPUT POWER (watt) 17.43 39.64 47.94 61.61 62.69 64.79 59.71 43.57
INPUT POWER (watt) 74.09 77.23 74.50 68.92 77.05 70.09 67.75 63.94
EFFICIENCY (%) 23.53 51.33 64.35 89.39 81.36 92.44 88.13 68.14
CALCULATIONS

The power generated,

Po = Voltage x current

Po = 44.3 x 0.21

Po = 9.30 Watt

The turbine input power,

Pi = ΔP x Q = (P4 – Patm) x Flowrate

Pi = (1.36 - 1.0038) x 180.6

Pi = 64.33 Watt

The turbine efficiency is,

𝑷𝒐
ɳt = x 100
𝑷𝒊
9.303
ɳt = x 100
64.33

ɳt = 14.46 %

GRAPH (refer graph paper)

1. Power generated versus turbine speed for 100% guided vane opening
2. Power generated versus turbine speed for 60% guided vane opening
3. Power generated versus turbine speed for 30% guided vane opening
4. Turbine efficiency versus turbine speed 100% guided vane opening
5. Turbine efficiency versus turbine speed 60% guided vane opening
6. Turbine efficiency versus turbine speed 30% guided vane opening
DISCUSSION

The measurements for this experiment were taken for eight different load conditions. For the
100% guide vane opening, the power generated (watt) increased from 9.3 watt to 30.68 watt.
Due to effect of varied load conditions, the power generated decreased from 30.68 watt to 18.68
watt as shown in Graph 1. The maximum power generated is 30.68 watt when load 1, 2 and 3
are combined. The results for turbine efficiency for 100% guide vane opening is shown in Table
1. The most efficient is 47.46% when load 1 and 3 are combined as shown in Graph 2. The
input power recorded as maximum which is 67.94 watt at load 5.

For the 60% guide vane opening, the power generated (watt) increased from 14.09 watt to
48.76 watt then decreased to 31.56 watt as shown in Graph 3. The maximum power generated
when load 1,2 and 3 are combined which is 48.76 watt. The results for turbine efficiency for
60% guide vane opening is shown in Table 4. The most efficient is 72.58% when load 1,2 and
3 combined as shown in Graph 4. The higher the output generated, the higher the efficiency for
turbine to operating. The input power recorded as maximum when only load 2 is applied which
is 71.04 watt.

For the 30% guide vane opening, the power generated (watt) increased from 17.43 watt to
64.79 watt then decreased to 43.57 watt as shown in Graph 5. The maximum power generated
when load 1,2 and 3 combined which is 64.79 watt. The results for turbine efficiency for 30%
guide vane opening is shown in Table 6. The most efficient is 92.44% when load 1, 2 and 3 is
applied as shown in Graph 6. The higher the output generated, the higher the efficiency for
turbine to operating. The input power recorded as maximum when only load 1 and 2 are
combined which is 74.5 watt.
CONCLUSION

The objective of this experiment is to study the effect of the guide vane opening under varied load
conditions. Despite the difficulty of the analysis access and the complexity of the instrumentation
adjustment, the results in the region between guide vanes of a turbine-pump model in pumping
regime was characterized. The minor errors spotted in the recording data and calculation has been
solved by using experimental method. The average reading data is considered to minimize the
tolerance errors. The obtained experimental data allowed a detailed discussion and analysis for all
guide vane opening conditions. It was also possible to explain efficiency for turbine under varied
load conditions. The obtained data provide appropriate graph plotting for the understanding of
guide vane opening mechanism. As an observation, the bigger the guide vane opened, the lower
output power generated. Also, the smaller the guide vane opened, the higher efficiency is produced.

REFERENCES

1. www.fkm.utm.my%2F~syahruls%2F3-teaching%2F2-fluid-II%2Ffluid-II-enote%2F32-
turbine.pdf
2. White, F.M., Fluid Mechanics, 3rd edition. Mc- Graw Hill, 1994.
3. Yunus A Cengel, Fluid Mechanics Fundamental and Application, 3rd edition, McGraw Hill,
2014