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You are on page 1of 104

MENTAL

MATHS

Basic Skills

MATHS

Get the Results You Want! YEAR

6

Mental Maths Strategies

STRATEGIES

Year 6 Ages 11–12 years old

This book has been revised and updated for the Year 6

Australian Curriculum.

AGES

Mental Maths is the Maths we do in our heads without the

use of calculators and without writing down the calculation.

Mental Maths strategies are the ‘tricks’ we use to do Maths

11–12

in our heads. There are different ways of finding the answer

to any Mental Maths problem, and such strategies are the

focus of this series. Even though electronic devices play

an enormous role in the modern world, we still need to go

back to the basics—we do need to know how to check that the sales assistant at the counter is giving us

the right change! Mental Maths has become more important than ever and the Australian Curriculum for

primary years reflects this. All states have placed an emphasis on Mental Maths in the primary syllabus,

and the NAPLAN Tests for secondary years (Years 7 and 9) have a non-calculator section.

Features of this book

Thirty-two double-page units of Mentals are included—eight units for each school term. Each unit is

divided into four sets (A, B, C and D) of 20 questions each.

Each numbered question covers a particular Maths topic throughout the book: for example,

Question 1 always covers addition, while Question 20 always covers geometry.

A special Help Section at the front of the book gives different strategies and explanations to help students

solve Mentals problems. These are also numbered so they link to the question numbers in each Mentals unit.

A Fun Spot! unit, containing fun activities, and a Revision unit are included at the end of each eight units.

Extra practice sections which reinforce particular strategies appear in the lower part of each page.

The answers to all questions are in a lift-out section in the centre of the book.

Alan Parker has been writing textbooks for more than 30 years. As a primary school teacher for

over 40 years, he taught in several Australian states and gained experience at all levels of primary

teaching, including ESL, remedial and extension classes. He was a primary school principal for 13

years and is the author of many successful educational books, including the successful Signpost

Maths textbooks and (with Jan Faulkner) Signpost Maths Mentals Workbooks.

Jan Faulkner has been a classroom teacher for over 30 years. She has taught both mainstream and

gifted and talented classes in schools across Australia, and is currently the Assistant Principal of

a large school in Sydney. With Alan Parker, Jan also co-authored the best-selling Signpost Maths

Mentals Workbooks.

Bookseller reference Books Level

Mental Maths books

978-1-74125-184-5 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 1

978-1-74125-185-2 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 2

978-1-74125-180-7 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 3

978-1-74125-182-1 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 4

978-1-74125-182-1 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 5

ISBN 978-1-74125-183-8

G e t t he

Excel Test Zone Pascal Press

Re

su

Get the Results You Want!

PO Box 250

H

Help your child prepare with our

lt s

Glebe NSW 2037

FREE N

NAPLAN*-style and Australian Curriculum Tests. (02) 8585 4044

*This isi nott an offi

*Thi

www.exceltestzone.com.au

fficially

i ll endorsed

d publication of the NAPLAN program and is produced by Pascal Press independently of Australian governments.

www.pascalpress.com.au

9 781741 251838 Alan Par k er & You

J an Faulk ner Want !

9781741251838 EBS MentalMaths Yr6 NSACE 2015.indd 1 12/01/2015 4:05 pm

What is in this book?

There are 32 units of work, with eight units of work for each school term. The last two units for each

term are comprised of a fun unit and a revision unit. The fun unit presents fun activities and the revision

unit contains questions that test the student’s understanding of the term’s work.

Each unit is broken up into 4 sets: A, B, C and D. The sets are graded in terms of difficulty so that Set A

is the easiest and Set D is the hardest. Each set is numbered Question 1 to 20.

Each set has a score box to fill out. The student can then go to the back of the book to complete a score

sheet that provides valuable feedback on progress.

You will notice illustrations at the top of nearly every page. These characters are used to convey an

important strategy or step in Mental Maths.

Each page of Mentals has an extra practice section in the lower part which will give the student further

practice in a concept. The illustrations help explain the concepts and strategies that could be used to

answer the questions.

Answers are provided in the middle of the book. These pages may be removed if required.

The questions are set out in a special order. Each question will cover only selected topics in Mental

Maths.

If you look at the questions in Question 1, you will see only different types of addition questions,

while Question 4 has only different types of division questions. Then, if you look at Question 6, you

will see a selection of questions on only a few concepts, such as place value, expanded notation

and numerals in words.

This is our innovative approach to learning, as a student will have the opportunity to practise a few

concepts again and again in a question until they are understood. This is the essence of Maths

learning and will develop the student’s confidence and mastery.

This section is not just a list of explanations or strategies—it has been carefully put together to

relate directly to the appropriate question in each Unit.

It is divided into sections that match the numbered questions—1, 2, etc. An explanation is

supplied to help the student answer each type of question. For example:

A student has difficulty with Unit 3, Set B, Question 17.

Litres in 3 000 mL.

Go to the Help section and turn to section 17

Under the section on Capacity you will see an example in bold type:

e.g. Litres in 12 000 mL

This is a similar question to the one the student is unsure about.

Read the explanation on Capacity to find out how to solve this type of problem.

The icon tells you books in the Excel series which can provide further practice in each

particular concept.

An index for the Help section can be found on the back page.

BASIC SKILLS

MENTAL

MATHS

MATHS

YEAR

6

STRATEGIES

AGES

11–12

G e t t he

Re

su

lt s

You

Want !

A lan P arker &

Jan Faulk ner

TP 2015.indd 1 2/02/15 2:17 PM

Copyright © 2005 Alan Parker

Reprinted 2007, 2008 (twice), 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

Updated in 2013 for the Australian Curriculum

Pascal Press

PO Box 250

Glebe NSW 2037

(02) 8585 4044

www.pascalpress.com.au

Project editors: Emma Driver and May McCool

Edited by May McCool, Jeremy Billington and Valerie McCool

Answers checked by Valerie McCool

Indexed by Jeremy Billington

Original page design by Jelly Design

Additional design and typesetting by Precision Typesetting (Barbara Nilsson)

Cover by DiZign Pty Ltd

Cover photos by Brand X, Image Source and photos.com

Printed by Green Giant Press

The Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act) allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of the pages of this work,

whichever is the greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any educational institution for its educational

purposes provided that the educational institution (or the body that administers it) has given a remuneration

notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) under the Act.

Level 15, 233 Castlereagh Street

Sydney NSW 2000

Telephone: (02) 9394 7600

Facsimile: (02) 9394 7601

E-mail: enquiry@copyright.com.au

Except as permitted under the Act (for example a fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or

review) no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, communicated or transmitted in any

form or by any means without prior written permission. All inquiries should be made to the publisher at the

address above.

Contents

Help Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Unit 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Unit 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Unit 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

Unit 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Unit 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Unit 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Unit 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Unit 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Unit 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Unit 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Unit 27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Unit 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Unit 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

Unit 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Unit 29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Unit 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Unit 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Unit 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Help Section

Question 1 Question 2

Addition Subtraction

Addition is combining or putting together two Subtraction is taking away one number from

or more numbers. We use the sign + to show another number. We use the sign – to show

addition. subtraction.

e.g. 6 + 7 = 13 29 e.g. 13 – 7 = 6 51

+ 17 – 18

46 33

Hint: Other words for addition include add, plus, Hint: Other words for subtraction include minus,

sum, more and total (the answer when we add subtract, take away, less than, difference (the

two or more numbers together). answer when we subtract one number from

e.g. 19 and 26 more (answer is 45) another).

e.g. 56 minus 29 (answer is 27)

Addition strategies

You can add numbers in your head using Subtraction strategies

strategies (or little tricks) to help you. You can subtract numbers in your head using

Let’s look at some of them. strategies (or little tricks) to help you.

Let’s look at some of them.

The jump strategy

e.g. 58 + 23 The jump strategy

e.g. 81 – 23

58 68 78 79 80 81

58 59 60 61 71 81

we say 58 + 10 + 10 + 3

= 78 + 3 to give 81 we say 81 – 10 – 10 – 3

= 61 – 3 to give 58

The split strategy

e.g. 56 + 27 The split strategy

we say 50 + 20 + 6 + 7 e.g. 89 – 56

= 70 + 13 to give 83 we say 80 – 50 + 9 – 6

= 30 + 3 to give 33

The compensation strategy

e.g. 25 + 59 The compensation strategy

we say 25 + 60 – 1 e.g. 100 – 46

= 85 – 1 to give 84 we say 99 – 46 + 1

= 53 + 1 to give 54

Bridging the tens

e.g. 57 + 15 Bridging the tens

we say 57 + 10 + 5 e.g. 72 – 15

= 67 + 5 to give 72 we say 72 – 10 – 5

= 62 – 5 to give 57

Changing the order of addends

e.g. 14 + 8 + 6 Using patterns to extend number facts

we say 14 + 6 + 8 e.g. 9 – 6 = 3

= 20 + 8 to give 28 so 90 – 60 = 30

Using patterns to extend number facts Excel Basic Skills Addition and Subtraction Years 5–6

e.g. 2 + 3 = 5

so 20 + 30 = 50

Excel Basic Skills Addition and Subtraction Years 5–6

2

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8

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Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

11/09/13 8:02 AM

Factor strategy

Question 3 e.g. 6 × 33 (answer is 198)

You know 6 is 2 × 3.

Multiplication So 33 × 6 is the same as 33 × 3 × 2.

Multiplication is repeated addition of the That is 99 × 2 = 198.

same number. We use the sign × to show

Factorising large numbers

multiplication.

e.g. 6 × 45 (answer is 270)

e.g. 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 + 6

You know 45 is 40 + 5.

So 6 × 45 is the same as 6 × 40 + 6 × 5.

0 6 12 18 24 30 That is 240 + 30 = 270.

Here we added 5 lots of 6 to make 30. Multiply tens then units

5 × 6 = 30 6 e.g. 7 × 84 (answer is 588)

× 5 7 × 80 = 560

30 7 × 4 = 28

Hint: Other words for multiplication include So 7 × 84 = 560 + 28 = 588

multiply, times, lots of, groups of, product (the Excel Basic Skills Multiplication and Division Years 5–6

answer when we multiply two or more numbers

together).

e.g. 9 times 14 (answer is 126)

Here is a tables chart to help you with Question 4

multiplication. Division

× 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Division is repeated subtraction of the same

1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 number. We use the sign ÷ to show division.

2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 e.g. 30 – 6 – 6 – 6 – 6 – 6

3 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30

4 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40

5 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 6 12 18 24 30

6 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 Here we were able to take away 6 five

7 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 times so there are 5 sixes in 30.

8 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80

5

9

10

9

10

18

20

27

30

36

40

45

50

54

60

63

70

72

80

81

90

90

100 30 ÷ 6 = 5 6 30 )

Hint: Other words for division include divide,

Multiplication strategies share, quotient (the answer when we divide one

You can multiply in your head using strategies number by another).

(or little tricks) to help you. e.g. 68 divided by 4 (answer is 17)

Let’s look at some of them.

Remainder

Skip counting allows us to count When we divide one number into another number

on our fingers. we don’t always get a whole number for the

e.g. 8, 16, 24 so 3 × 8 is 24 answer. Sometimes we have a little bit left over

Using patterns to multiply and we call this a remainder.

e.g. 2 × 3 = 6 1·34 × 1 = 1·34 e.g. 31 – 6 – 6 – 6 – 6 – 6

so 2 × 30 = 60 so 1·34 × 10 = 13·4

so 2 × 300 = 600 so 1·34 × 100 = 134 01 7 13 19 25 31

Reverse operations Here 6 can be subtracted five times

If you know one table fact, you also know three but there is still one left over.

others. The answer is 5 r 1 (5 remainder 1).

e.g. 7 × 8 = 56 so 8 × 7 = 56

5r1

and 56 ÷ 8 = 7 and 56 ÷ 7 = 8

31 ÷ 6 = 5 r 1 6 31 )

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8

MMS_yr6_pp02_21_new2725.indd 3

Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

3

11/09/13 8:02 AM

Hint: If we write the remainder (here 1) over the Divisible by 10

1 The last digit must be 0.

divisor (here 6) we get a fraction (here ) so the

6 e.g. 790 ÷ 10 = 79 64 780 ÷ 10 = 6 478

1

answer to our question can be written as 5 . Here 790 and 64 780 end in 0.

6

1 Excel Basic Skills Multiplication and Division Years 5–6

e.g. 456 ÷ 5 (answer is 91 )

5

Division strategies

You can divide numbers in your head using

strategies (or little tricks) to help you. Question 5

Let’s look at some of them.

Money—addition & subtraction

Using patterns to divide We use the same strategies to add or subtract

e.g. 56 ÷ 8 = 7 so 560 ÷ 8 = 70 money that we use to add or subtract ordinary

Reverse operations numbers but we have to remember to write the

If you know one table fact, you also know three dollar sign ($) and include the decimal point.

others. e.g. $3.25 + $6.45

e.g. 7 × 8 = 56 so 8 × 7 = 56 we say $3.25 + $6 is $9.25

and 56 ÷ 8 = 7 and 56 ÷ 7 = 8 and 40c is $9.65

and 5c is $9.70

Tests for divisibility e.g. $5.65 + $7.45

Divisible by 2 (answer is $13.10)

The number must be even.

e.g. 98 ÷ 2 = 49 274 ÷ 2 = 137 Money—multiplication & division

Here 98 and 274 are even numbers. We use the same strategies to multiply or divide

Divisible by 3 money that we use to multiply or divide ordinary

The sum of the digits must be divisible by 3. numbers but we have to remember to write the

e.g. 10 212 ÷ 3 = 3 404 dollar sign ($) and include the decimal point.

Here the digits 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 = 6 e.g. $3.35 × 3

and 6 can be divided by 3. we say $3.00 × 3 is $9.00

Divisible by 4 and 3 × 40 – 15 is $1.05

The number made by the last two digits must be making $10.05

divisible by 4. e.g. $3.25 x 5 (answer is $16.25)

e.g. 868 ÷ 4 = 217 20 676 ÷ 4 = 5 169

Here 68 and 76 are both divisible by 4. Changing dollars and cents

Divisible by 5 To change dollars to cents, we multiply by 100.

The last digit must be a 5 or a 0. e.g. $16.85 = 16.85 × 100

e.g. 190 ÷ 5 = 38 3 285 ÷ 5 = 657 = 1 685 cents

Here 190 and 3 285 end in 0 or 5. Hint: You can just remove the dollar sign and the

Divisible by 6 decimal point to get the same answer.

Must be divisible by 2 and 3. e.g. $12.95 as cents

e.g. 24 is even and can be divided by 3, (answer is 1 295c)

so it can be divided by 6. To change cents to dollars, we divide by 100.

Divisible by 8 e.g. 1 685 cents = 1 685 ÷ 100

The number made by the last three digits must = $16.85

be divisible by 8.

e.g. 2 616 ÷ 8 = 327 3 944 ÷ 8 = 493 Addition & subtraction of decimals

Here 616 and 944 are both divisible by 8. We add and subtract decimals just like money.

Divisible by 9 We have to be careful to keep the decimal points

The sum of the digits must be divisible by 9. in the right place.

e.g. 11 736 ÷ 9 = 1 304 e.g. 3·5 + 1·8 = 5·3 3·5

Here the digits 1+1+7+3+6 = 18 + 1·8

and 18 can be divided by 9. 5·3

4

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8

MMS_yr6_pp02_21_new2725.indd 4

Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

11/09/13 8:02 AM

Hint: If you write the numbers vertically, make e.g. 8 256 has 8 256 ones or units

sure that the decimal points are in a straight line. 825 tens

e.g. 6·5 + 9·9 (answer is 16·4) 82 hundreds

13·8 – 8·3 (answer is 5·5) 8 thousands

e.g. Tens in 36 478 (answer is 3 647)

Problem solving with money

To solve problems with money, we first need to Numerals in words

understand what operation is involved. It may be Sometimes we need to write a numeral in words.

addition, subtraction, multiplication or division. e.g. sixty-five thousand three hundred and

Key words can help us understand what to do. forty-two

e.g. Change from $20 if $12.95 is spent. Here we write the numeral just the way it sounds

‘Change’ indicates subtraction so when we read it as a number.

$20.00 – $12.95 = $7.05 e.g. Numeral for seventy thousand four

Cost of 5 at $3.25 each hundred and ten (answer is 70 410)

Cost ‘at’ indicates multiplication so

$3.25 x 5 = $16.25

Digits

A digit is a symbol used to write a numeral.

Share $16.35 between 5 people We use digits from 0 to 9 to write all of our

‘Share’ indicates division so numerals.

$16.35 ÷ 5 = $3.27 e.g. 364 829

Excel Basic Skills Addition and Subtraction Years 5– 6 1 496 207

Excel Basic Skills Multiplication and Division Years 5–6

e.g. How many digits in 6 305 194?

(answer is 7 digits)

Excel Basic Skills Addition and Subtraction Years 5–6

Question 6

Place value

Place value tells us the value of each digit Question 7

depending on where it is placed in a number. Fractions

e.g. 38 256 3 is 3 ten thousands (30 000)

8 is 8 thousands (8 000) A fraction is any part of a whole or group. The

a

2 is 2 hundreds (200) common fraction is written as where:

b

5 is 5 tens (50)

a (numerator) is the number of equal

6 is 6 units (6)

fraction parts

e.g. Place value of 9 in 49 281 b (denominator) is the number of equal parts that

(answer is 9 thousands or 9 000) the whole has been divided into.

3

Expanded notation e.g.

5

shows 3 out of 5 equal parts

Expanded notation is a way of writing numerals 3 < numerator

to show the place value of each digit.

5 < denominator

e.g. 60 000 + 5 000 + 900 + 40 + 3

Here: 6 is in the ten thousands column The denominator is the bottom number of a

5 is in the thousands column fraction. The numerator is the upper number.

9 is in the hundreds column 5

e.g. 5 out of 6 as a fraction (answer is )

6

4 is in the tens column

3 is in the units column Decimal fractions

e.g. Expanded notation for 65 943 A decimal fraction is a fraction that uses a

(answer is 60 000 + 5 000 + 900 + 40 + 3) decimal point. Decimal fractions show the

number of equal parts out of ten, one hundred,

Reading place value one thousand, etc.

By reading place value carefully, we can find how 25

many tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. there are e.g. 25 out of 100 equal parts or

100

in a number. so the decimal fraction is 0·25

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8

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Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

5

11/09/13 8:02 AM

e.g. 6 parts out of 10 as a decimal 6

e.g. = 6 ÷ 10

(answer is 0·6) 10

= 0·6

Percent

25

= 25 ÷ 100

A percentage is a special fraction that is always 100

= 0·25

out of one hundred.

3

35 e.g. as a decimal (answer is 0·3)

e.g. is 0·35 = 35% 10

100

e.g. 75 parts out of 100 as a percentage Converting a decimal to a

(answer is 75%) fraction

Converting a percentage to a To change a decimal to a fraction, look at the

number of digits after the decimal point. If there

fraction is one digit the fraction will be tenths. If there are

To change a percentage to a fraction, write it as a two digits, the fraction will be hundredths, etc.

part out of 100. e.g. 0·7 has one digit after the decimal

65 7

e.g. 65% is 65 parts out of 100 = so 0·7 =

100 10

25 0·75 has two digits after the decimal

e.g. 25% as a fraction (answer is )

100 75

so 0·75 =

100

Converting a percentage to a e.g. 0·64 as a fraction (answer is

64

)

100

decimal

To change a percentage to a decimal, divide Converting a decimal to a

by 100. percentage

e.g. 48% = 48 ÷ 100 = 0·48 To change a decimal to a percentage, multiply

6% = 6 ÷ 100 = 0·06 by 100.

e.g. 25% as a decimal (answer is 0·25) e.g. 0·48 = 0·48 × 100 = 48%

Here are some percentage equivalents that you 0·06 = 0·06 × 100 = 6%

should know: e.g. 0·05 as a percent (answer is 5%)

1% = 1

100

= 0 ⋅ 01 50% = 50 = 0 ⋅ 5

100

Equivalent decimal fractions

10% = 10 = 0 ⋅1 75% = 75 = 0 ⋅ 75 Fractions, decimals and percentages can appear

100 100 to be different but they are equivalent if they have

20% = 20 = 0 ⋅2 100% = 100 = 1⋅ 0 the same value.

100 100

45

25% = 25 = 0 ⋅ 25 e.g. 0·45 = = 45%

100

100

They all have the same value.

e.g. Is 0·8 the same as 70%? (answer is no)

Converting a fraction to a

percentage Place value in decimals

To change a fraction to a percentage, we have to Place value tells us the value of each digit

change the denominator to one hundred. depending on where it is placed in a number.

9 (×10) 90 e.g. 8·375 8 is 8 ones (8)

e.g. =

10 (×10) 100 3

3 is 3 tenths ( )

= 90% 10

3 7

e.g. as a percentage (answer is 30%) 7 is 7 hundredths ( )

10 100

Converting a fraction to a 5 is 5 thousandths (

5

1000

)

decimal 7 4 9

We can change a fraction to a decimal if it has a e.g. 2 + + + as a decimal

10 100 1000

denominator of ten or one hundred. (answer is 2·749)

6

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8

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Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

11/09/13 8:02 AM

e.g. 3 units + 5 tenths + 2 hundredths as a Rounding off to the nearest

decimal (answer is 3·52)

thousand

Words for decimals To round 4692 to the nearest thousand we look

Sometimes we need to write a decimal numeral at the hundreds digit (6) which is above 5

in words. therefore we round off upwards so 4 692 rounds

e.g. One point three four = 1·34 off to 5 000

Here we write the numeral just the way it e.g. Round off 35 468 to the nearest thousand

sounds when we read it as a number. (answer is 35 000)

e.g. Numeral for five point three seven

(answer is 5·37)

Greater than and less than

We use the symbol > to show that one number is

Decimal to the nearest whole bigger than another.

e.g. 6 942 > 5 942

number We read this as 6 942 is greater than 5 942.

We can round off decimals in the same way that e.g. Is 75 892 > 75 882? (answer is yes)

we round off counting numbers.

e.g. 6·75 is closest to 7 We use the symbol < to show that one number is

and 6·35 is closest to 6 smaller than another.

e.g. 8·58 to the nearest whole number e.g. 6 942 < 8 942

(answer is 9) We read this as 6 942 is less than 8 942.

Excel Basic Skills Fractions, Decimals and Percentages e.g. Is 75 892 < 75 882? (answer is no)

Years 3–6

Ascending and descending order

When we place things in ascending order, we

arrange them from smallest to largest.

Question 8 e.g. 3 567, 4 069, 6 921, 8 004

1·2, 1·5, 1·9

Rounding off

Rounding off numbers allows us to estimate When we place things in descending order, we

answers. arrange them from largest to smallest.

We round off digits 5 and above up to the next e.g. 6 589, 4 318, 3 950, 3 007

number and we round off digits below 5 down to 9·5, 7·9, 5·6, 1·4

the lower number. e.g. Arrange 35, 68, 27 and 56 in ascending

order (answer is 27, 35, 56, 68)

Rounding off to the nearest ten

To round 4 692 to the nearest ten we look at Largest and smallest possible

the ones digit, which is 2 (below 5, therefore we number

round off downwards), so we round down to To make the largest possible number from a

9 tens. Then we write a zero in the place of the group of digits, we write the largest digit first,

last digit so 4 692 rounds off to 4 690. followed by the next largest and so on until all

e.g. Round off 35 468 to the nearest ten the digits have been used.

(answer is 35 470) e.g. Largest possible number using 6, 4, 8, 5

(answer is 8 654)

Rounding off to the nearest

To make the smallest possible number from a

hundred group of digits, we write the smallest digit first,

To round 4 692 to the nearest hundred we look at followed by the next smallest and so on until all

the tens digit, which is 9 (above 5, therefore we the digits have been used.

round off upwards), so we round 6 up to 7. Then e.g. Smallest possible number using 6, 4, 8, 5

we write a zero in the place of the last two digits (answer is 4 568)

so 4 692 rounds off to 4 700. Excel Basic Skills Addition and Subtraction Years 5–6

e.g. Round off 35 468 to the nearest hundred Excel Advanced Skills Start Up Maths Year 6

(answer is 35 500)

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Mixed numbers

Question 9 A mixed number is a fraction that has a whole

Equivalent fractions number and a common fraction written together.

Equivalent fractions are fractions that look e.g.

different but are equal in value.

3 6 1 1

e.g. is equivalent to 2 is coloured 2 is a mixed number

5 10 3 3

1

3 6 e.g. 2 is a mixed number

4

5 10

3

numerator and denominator of by the

5 an improper fraction

same number (× 2).

We can change a mixed number into an improper

3×2 6

= fraction by multiplying the whole number by the

5×2 10

denominator and adding the numerator.

1

Simplify a fraction e.g. 2 is 2 × 3 +1 = 7 thirds

3

7

To simplify a fraction, we reduce it to the lowest =

3

equivalent fraction. 3 11

2 1 e.g. 2 as an improper fraction (answer is )

e.g. can be simplified to 4 4

6 3

Excel Basic Skills Fractions, Decimals and Percentages

2 1 Years 3–6

6 3

Here we have divided both the numerator and

2

denominator of by the same number (÷ 2).

6 Question 10

2÷2 1

=

6÷2 3 Finding a fraction of a whole

Improper fractions number

An improper fraction is a fraction where the To find a fraction of a whole number, we multiply

numerator is bigger than the denominator. the fraction by the whole number.

1

e.g. e.g. of 15 is the same as 15 ÷ 3. That is 5.

3

7 7 Hint: Here we say that one third of 15 is 5.

is coloured is an improper fraction

5 5 2 2 × 15

e.g. × 15 =

8 3 3

e.g. is an improper fraction 30

3 =

3

Changing an improper fraction = 10

Hint: Here we could have said one third of 15 is 5

to a mixed number so two thirds (twice as much) is 10.

We can change an improper fraction to a mixed 5

e.g. of 24 (answer is 20)

number by dividing the denominator into the 6

numerator and writing down the remainder over

the denominator. Multiplying a fraction

7 We can multiply a fraction by using repeated

e.g. is 7 ÷ 5

5 addition.

= 1 remainder 2 parts of the whole 3 3 3 3

e.g. 3 × = + +

2 8 8 8 8

=1

5 9

=

11 3 8

e.g. as a mixed number (answer is 2 ) 1

4 4 =1

8

8

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We can also multiply a fraction by multiplying the

numerator by the whole number. Question 11

7 3×7

e.g. 3 ×

10

=

10 Roman numerals

21 Roman numerals use letters instead of digits.

=

10 They are not often used today but we still see

1 them on clocks and in books.

= 2

10 The letters used in Roman numerals are:

I = 1 V=5 X = 10 L = 50

Adding and subtracting fractions C = 100 D = 500 M = 1 000

With the same denominator Most Roman numerals join up to three of each

We can add and subtract fractions if they have letter to show numbers.

the same denominator. e.g. XXXII = 32 LXXXIII = 83

1 3 4 7 4 3 CCXXXI = 231 DCCCXIII = 813

e.g. + = – =

5 5 5 8 8 8

The fours and nines are a little more difficult and

With a different denominator are shown by two letters:

If the fractions have different denominators we IV = 4 XL = 40 CD = 400

can change one (or both) to equivalent fractions IX = 9 XC = 90 CM = 900

to make the denominators the same. e.g. Roman numeral for 276

7 1 7 1×2 5 1 5 1×2 (answer is CCLXXVI)

e.g.

+ = + – = –

10 5 10 5 × 2 6 3 6 3×2

=

7

+

2

=

5 2

– Hindu-Arabic numerals

10 10 6 6 These are the ordinary numbers that we use

9 3 every day. By using the digits 0 to 9, we can make

= =

10 6

any counting number.

e.g. 6, 96, 127, 2 705, etc.

Finding a percentage of a whole

Hint: These are sometimes known as digital

number numbers.

To find a percentage of something we change the e.g. Hindu-Arabic numeral for CCLXXVI

percentage to a fraction and then work it out as (answer is 276)

shown above.

e.g. To find 25% of 80

25 1

Bigger and smaller numbers

change 25% to = We can find a bigger or smaller number than a

100 4

1 given number by adding or subtracting.

and of 80 is 20 e.g. Number 500 bigger than 3 768

4

is 3 768 + 500 = 4 268

e.g. 10% of $70 (answer is $7)

e.g. What is the number after 27 899?

Finding the percentage off a price (answer is 27 900)

To find the percentage off a price, we find the

percentage of the amount (as shown above) and

Negative numbers

subtract that amount from the full price. A negative number is any number less than zero.

e.g. To find 25% off a price of $80 e.g. 5 less than 2 is –3.

25 1 2 – 5 = –3

change 25% to =

100 4 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3

1

and of $80 is $20 Hint: Imagine a thermometer in a very cold

4

climate where the temperature is –4°C. Here the

then $80 – $20 = $60

negative number is –4.

e.g. Cost if 10% off $300

e.g. What is the number 10 less than 3?

(answer is $270)

(answer is –7)

Excel Basic Skills Fractions, Decimals and Percentages Excel Basic Skills Whole Numbers, Decimals, Percentages

Years 3–6 and Fractions Year 7

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Prime numbers

Question 12

A prime number is any number that only has two

Divisible factors (itself and one).

A number is divisible if it can be divided exactly e.g. 3 = 1 × 3

by another number. 3 has only has two factors so it is a prime

e.g. 75 ÷ 5 = 25 number.

so 75 is divisible by 5 Prime numbers include 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, etc.

e.g. Is 19 a prime number?

Hint: Use the tests for divisibility in section 4

(answer is yes)

e.g. Is 75 divisible by 8? (answer is no)

A composite number has more than two factors.

A factor is any whole number that can be divided e.g. 8 = 1 × 8 = 2 × 4

into another number. 8 has more than two factors so it is a

e.g. 2, 3, 4 and 6 are factors of 12 because each composite number.

number will divide evenly into 12.

(12 ÷ 6 = 2, 12 ÷ 3 = 4 etc.) Hint: Because1 has only one factor it is neither a

prime number nor a composite number.

e.g. All the factors of 6 (answer is 1, 2, 3 and 6)

e.g. Is 12 a composite number?

Highest Common Factor (HCF) (answer is yes)

The highest common factor is the largest factor The average

found in two or more given numerals.

The average is the total of the scores divided by

e.g. Factors of 6 are 1, 6, 2, 3.

the number of scores.

Factors of 9 are 1, 9, 3.

e.g. Scores: 36, 47, 29, 40

The highest factor common to both is 3.

Average = (36 + 47 + 29 + 40) ÷ 4

Products = 152 ÷ 4

= 38

A product is the answer obtained when two or

Here, the average is 38.

more numbers are multiplied.

e.g. 12 is the product of 3 and 4 because 3 × 4 = 12 Hint: To find the average first add the scores

together. Count the number of scores and divide

e.g. Product of 5 and 6 (answer is 30)

the total by the number of scores.

Multiples e.g. Average of 12, 15 and 21

(answer is 16)

A multiple is any number that can be divided by a

Excel Basic Skills Multiplication and Division Years 5–6

given number.

e.g. 3, 6, 9 and 12 are multiples of 3 because 3

will divide into each one.

Hint: When we write the 3 times tables we write

the multiples of 3.

Question 13

i.e. 1 × 3 = 3, 2 × 3 = 6, 3 × 3 = 9, 3 × 4 = 12 Odd numbers

Here 3, 6, 9 and 12 are multiples of 3. An odd number is any number that cannot be

e.g. What are the first 3 multiples of 5? exactly divided by 2.

(answer is 5, 10 and 15) e.g. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 etc.

e.g. Is 257 an odd number? (answer is yes)

Lowest Common Multiple

The lowest common multiple is the smallest Even numbers

numeral that is a multiple of two given factors. An even number is any number that can be

e.g. What is the lowest common multiple of 4 exactly divided by 2.

and 5? e.g. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, etc

Multiples of 4 are 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, ...

e.g. Is 356 an even number?

Multiples of 5 are 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, ...

(answer is yes)

The lowest multiple common to both is 20.

10

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Ordinal numbers Number patterns

We use ordinal numbers to order things from A number pattern is a regular pattern made by

first to last. We use digits and abbreviations to counting or by using operations.

write ordinal numbers. e.g. 250, 350, 450, … Counting by hundreds

e.g. 1st (first), 2nd (second), 3rd (third) etc. 4, 8, 16, … Doubling each number

e.g. Ordinal number for twenty-fifth 1·5, 2, 2·5, 3, ... Counting by 0·5

(answer is 25th) A geometric pattern shows a pattern of numbers

that you can get from multiplication or division.

Square numbers e.g. ∆, ∆∆, ∆∆∆, ...

A square number is the answer obtained when a Here the number of sides on the triangles

number is multiplied by itself. show the pattern 3, 6, 9, …

e.g. 2 × 2 = 4 5 × 5 = 25 These are multiples of 3.

Here, 4 and 25 are square numbers.

Number patterns are often shown as grids.

Square numbers may e.g. Number of hexagons 1 2 3 4 5 6

be represented by dots Number of sides 6 12 18 24 30 36

in the shape of a square.

4 9 16 e.g. 375, 325, 275, ____ (answer is 225)

Hint: We use a small number (called an index) if

we want to show a number has been squared. Order of operations

e.g. 22 ← index When we have more than one operation to

is 2 × 2 which is equal to 4. complete in the same problem, we complete

e.g. Is 64 a square number? (answer is yes) them in a set order:

1 Complete any operations inside brackets.

Triangular numbers 2 Complete any multiplication or division in the

Triangular numbers are numbers that are order they appear.

obtained by adding successive numerals starting 3 Complete any addition or subtraction in the

at 1. order they appear.

e.g. 1 + 2 = 3 1+2+3=6 e.g. 6 + (3 × 4) – 2 × 5

Here 3 and 6 are triangular numbers. We do inside the brackets first:

6 + 12 – 2 × 5

Triangular numbers

We do multiplication next:

may be represented

6 + 12 – 10

by dots in the shape

1 3 6 10 We do addition and subtraction:

of a triangle.

6 + 12 – 10 = 18 – 10 = 8

e.g. Is 10 a triangular number?

(answer is yes as 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10) e.g. 6 + 9 – 16 ÷ 4 (answer is 11)

Excel Basic Skills Whole Numbers, Decimals, Percentages Excel Basic Skills Multiplication and Division Years 5–6

and Fractions Year 7 Excel Basic Skills Problem Solving Years 5–6

Question 15

Question 14

Length

Number sentences When we talk about length, we are talking about

A number sentence uses a shape to represent a how long something is, the distance between two

missing numeral. points or the circumference of a circle.

e.g. 3 × = 27 Units of length

To solve a problem like this we say millimetre (mm)

3 times what equals 27. centimetre (cm)

Here, the missing numeral is 9. metre (m)

e.g. 35 + = 72 (answer is 37) kilometre (km)

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You should know this table:

Question 16

10 mm = 1 cm

100 cm = 1 m Perimeter

1 000 mm = 1 m The perimeter of a shape is the total length of its

1 000 m = 1 km boundary.

e.g. The perimeter of this 4 cm

Converting different lengths shape is 2 cm 2 cm

To convert centimetres (cm) to metres (m), 4 + 2 + 4 + 2 = 12 cm 4 cm

we divide by 100.

Hint: To find the perimeter of any shape, first

e.g. 300 cm = 300 ÷ 100

draw a diagram, write the dimension of each

=3m

side and then add all the lengths together.

478 cm = 478 ÷ 100 e.g. Perimeter = 5 + 4 + 5 + 4 5 cm

= 4·78 m = 18 cm 4 cm 4 cm

we multiply by 100. Perimeter = 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 4 cm

e.g. 3 m = 3 × 100 = 16 cm 4 cm 4 cm

= 300 cm 4 cm

4·78 m = 4·78 × 100 Formula for perimeter of a rectangle

= 478 cm Another way to find the perimeter of a rectangle

is add the length to the width and then double

To convert metres (m) to kilometres (km),

that.

we divide by 1 000.

e.g. Perimeter = 2 × (length + width) 5 m

e.g. 5 000 m = 5 000 ÷ 1 000

= 2 × (5 + 4) 4m

= 5 km

=2×9

To convert kilometres (km) to metres (m), = 18 m

we multiply by 1 000. To find the perimeter of a regular polygon

e.g. 5 km = 5 × 1 000 A regular polygon has all sides the same length.

= 5 000 m You can find the perimeter of any regular polygon

e.g. Metres in 5·5 km by multiplying the length of one side by the

(answer is 5 500 m) number of sides.

e.g. Perimeter = 3 × length

Speed =3×5

5 cm

To find the (average) speed, we divide the

distance travelled by the time taken to cover that Perimeter = 6 × length

=6×3 3 cm

distance.

e.g. 60 km travelled in two hours = 18 cm

Speed is 60 ÷ 2 = 30

so speed is 30 km/h (kilometres per hour)

Circumference

The perimeter of a circle has a special name.

Distance It is called a circumference

To find the distance travelled, we multiply the Area

(average) speed by the time taken to cover that

distance. Area is the amount of space covered or enclosed

e.g. How far travelled in two hours at an average by a shape. We divide area into square units and

speed of 60 km/h. then count the number of squares.

Distance is 60 × 2 = 120 Units of area

so distance is 120 km square centimetre (cm2)

Excel Advanced Skills Start Up Maths Year 6

square metre (m2)

hectare (ha)

square kilometre (km2)

12

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You should know this table: You should know this table:

10 000 m2 = 1 hectare 1 000 000 cm3 = 1 m3

1 000 000 m2 = 1 km2 1 mL of water takes up 1 cm3 of space

100 ha = 1 km2 1 L of water takes up 1 000 cm3 of space

A formula for finding the area of a rectangle is: To find the volume of a rectangular prism we

Area = length × width can count the number of cubes in each layer and

e.g. Area = length × width 5 cm multiply by the number of layers.

= 5×4 4 cm

e.g.

= 20 cm2

Area = length × width 6 cm There are 12 cubes in each layer and there

= 6×6 6 cm are 3 layers. The volume is 36 cm3

= 36 cm2

e.g.

Area of a triangle

The area of a triangle is half the area of the

rectangle in which the triangle can be drawn.

e.g. Area = length × width 6 cm

There are 15 cubes in each layer and there

= 6×4 4 cm are 3 layers. The volume is 45 cm3

= 24 cm2

So the area of the triangle is 12 cm2. Formula for volume of a rectangular prism

A formula for finding the volume of a rectangular

A formula for finding the area of a triangle is: prism is: Volume = length × width × height

1

Area = of base × perpendicular height e.g. Volume = 5 × 3 × 3 3 cm

2

1 = 45 cm 3

e.g. Area = of 6 × 4 5 cm 3 cm

2 4 cm

=3×4 6 cm Capacity

= 12 cm2 Capacity is the amount of space inside a

container.

Hectare Units of capacity

A hectare is a unit of area that is equal to millilitre (mL) litre (L)

10 000 m2.

You should know this table:

To change square metres (m2) into hectares (ha),

we divide by 10 000. 1 000 mL = 1 L

e.g. 30 000 m2 = 30 000 ÷ 10 000 1 cm3 of space can hold 1 mL of water

= 3 ha 1 000 cm3 of space can hold 1 L of water

To change hectares (ha) into square metres (m2), Converting different capacities

we multiply by 10 000. To change millilitres (mL) into litres (L),

e.g. 3 ha = 3 × 10 000 we divide by 1 000.

= 30 000 m2 e.g. 5 000 mL = 5 000 ÷ 1 000

Excel Advanced Skills Start Up Maths Year 6 = 5 L

To change litres (L) into millilitres (mL),

we multiply by 1 000.

Question 17 e.g. 3 L = 3 × 1 000

= 3 000 mL

Volume e.g. Litres in 12 000 mL (answer is 12 L)

Volume is the space taken up by an object. We Excel Advanced Skills Start Up Maths Year 6

divide the space into cube units and then count

the number of cubes.

Units of volume

cubic centimetre (cm3) cubic metre (m3)

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Question 18 Question 19

Mass Time

Mass measures the amount of matter in an Units of time

object but weight is commonly used in place of second (s)

mass. minute (min)

Units of mass hour (h)

gram (g) You should know this table:

kilogram (kg)

tonne (t) 60 seconds = 1 minute

60 minutes = 1 hour

You should know this table: 24 hours = 1 day

1 000 g = 1 kg 365 days = 1 year

1 000 kg = 1 t 366 days = 1 leap year

1 mL of water has a mass of 1 g We use several different types of clocks to tell

1 L of water has a mass of 1 kg the time. Here are the most common ones.

Analog times uses a clock with hands to tell the

Converting grams and kilograms

minutes and hours (and seconds).

To change grams (g) into kilograms (kg), we

divide by 1 000. e.g. 11 12 1 10

11 12 1

2

10 2

4

3 9

8

3

4

8

= 5 kg 7 6 5 7 6 5

multiply by 1 000. Hint: If the minute hand (long one) is moving

e.g. 3 kg = 3 × 1 000 from 12 towards 6 we read the time as past the

= 3 000 g last hour. If the minute hand is moving from 6

e.g. Kilograms in 7 000 g towards 12 we read the time as to the next hour.

(answer is 7 kg)

Converting kilograms and tonnes Digital time

To change kilograms (kg) into tonnes (t), Digital time uses numerals to tell hours and

we divide by 1 000. minutes. It shows hours from 1 to 12 and uses

e.g. 8 000 kg = 8 000 ÷ 1 000 am to show morning (from midnight to midday)

=8t and pm to show afternoon (from midday to

midnight).

To change tonnes (t) into kilograms (kg), we

multiply by 1 000. e.g. am

time is 10:16 am

e.g. 3 t = 3 × 1 000 10:16

= 3 000 kg

e.g. Kilograms in 6 t

(answer is 6 000 kg) 24-Hour time

24-Hour time uses numerals to tell hours and

Problems with mass minutes. It shows all 24 hours with 00:00 being

To solve problems with mass, we first need to midnight and 12:00 being midday.

understand what operation is involved. It may be Sometimes, the colon is left out and we write

addition, subtraction, multiplication or division. 1200 for midday.

Key words can help us understand what to do. e.g.

am pm

e.g. 1·5 kg at $4.00 per kilogram

‘at’ indicates multiplication so 8:16 10:33

4 × 1·5 = $6.00

time is 08:16 time is 22:33

Excel Advanced Skills Start Up Maths Year 6

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e.g. Minutes from 7:36 to 8:15

Converting analog time to digital Count on from 7:36 to 8:00 is 24 minutes

time Count on from 8:00 to 8:15 is 15 minutes

To change analog time to digital time we write Giving a total of 39 minutes

the hour that has passed then count the minutes e.g. Minutes from 6:14 to 7:10

after that hour. We add ‘am’ for before noon or (answer is 56 minutes)

‘pm’ for after noon.

e.g. 20 to 9 morning Days in each month

the hour is 8 Here is a rhyme to help you to remember how

40 minutes have passed from 8 o’clock many days in each month.

so it is 8:40 am

Thirty days has September, April, June

e.g. Give the digital time for 17 to 6 evening and November.

(answer is 5:43 pm) All the rest have thirty-one except February

alone, which has twenty-eight days clear

Converting digital time to analog and twenty-nine each leap year.

time

To change digital time to analog time, we count

the minutes past the last hour.

Time zones

If it is less than 30 minutes past the last hour, we Australia is divided into three time zones. The

write that number of minutes past the hour. eastern part (NSW, Qld, Vic & Tas) use Eastern

e.g. 7:26 Standard Time (EST).

the minutes past 7 are less than 30 The central part (SA & NT) use Central Standard

so it is 26 past 7 Time (CST) which is half an hour behind EST.

If it is more than 30 minutes past the last hour, The western part (WA) uses Western Standard

we write 60 minus that number of minutes to the Time (WST) which is two hours behind EST.

next hour. e.g. When EST is 9:30 am

e.g. 7:36 CST is 9:00 am

the minutes past 7 are more than 30 and WST is 7:30 am

so it is 24 to 8

e.g. What is the analog time for 10:39? Timetables

(answer is 21 to 11) A timetable shows the expected times of events.

e.g. A train timetable shows the times that

Converting digital time to trains are expected to arrive or leave

24-hour time different stations.

To change digital time to 24-hour time we write the Station Arrive Depart

hours in the morning as 01, 02, 03, …,12 and write Concord 0927 0931

the hours in the afternoon as 13, 14, 15, …, 23. Stanley 0945 0948

Chisholm 1004 1007

e.g. 7:45 am is 07:45 7:45 pm is 19:45

Excel Advanced Skills Start Up Maths Year 6

Converting analog time to

24-hour time

To change analog time to 24-hour time we first

change to digital time and then write the digital Question 20

time as 24-hour time.

e.g. 20 to 6 evening is 5:40 pm

Angles

is 17:40 An angle is the amount of turning between two

lines. We use a protractor to measure angles and

Working out minutes between to draw angles of a given size.

There are different types of angles:

times

To find the number of minutes between two Acute angle Right angle

times, we use the counting on strategy. less than 90° is 90°

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Obtuse angle Straight angle To find the number of diagonals first draw a

more than 90° is 180° diagram and draw a diagonal from one corner to

but less than 180° every other possible corner.

Move to the next corner and do the same.

Continue until all the corners have been covered.

Count the diagonals as you draw them.

more than 180° is 360° We have symmetry when one half of a shape is a

but less than 360° mirror image of the other half.

e.g.

axis of symmetry

Hint: Some shapes have more than one line of

Compass points symmetry.

Compass points are used to N

show direction. The main NW NE Plane shapes

compass points are north (N),

A plane shape is a two-dimensional (flat) shape.

south (S), east (E) and west W E It only has length and width. Plane shapes

(W). Other main points include

SW SE include the:

north-east (NE), south-east

triangle, circle, parallelogram, rhombus,

(SE), north-west (NW) and S rectangle, square and other polygons.

south-west (SW).

Plane shapes may be regular or irregular.

Hint: The four main compass points are at right

angles to one another so there is 90° between N Regular shapes

and E, etc. Regular shapes have all sides and all angles equal.

e.g.

Parallel lines

Parallel lines are pairs of lines that always

remain the same distance apart.

e.g.

Irregular shapes

Irregular shapes do not have all sides and angles

equal.

Hint: Imagine two lines like straight railways lines e.g.

that appear to go on forever and always remain

the same distance apart. They never meet.

Circles umferen

Perpendicular lines A circle is a plane shape that has irc

c

ce

Perpendicular lines are lines that meet at right a curved line as its boundary. diameter

angles. Various parts of the circle have

radiu

s

Circumference

The circumference of a circle is the distance

Hint: Imagine that you are standing in the corner

around the outside.

of a basketball court. The line markings are

Hint: You can find the circumference of a round

perpendicular.

object by wrapping a piece of string around it and

measuring the length of the string.

Diagonals

A diagonal is a line that can be drawn to join any Diameter

two opposing corners of a polygon. A diameter is the distance across a circle through

e.g. the centre point. The diameter is twice the length

of the radius.

e.g. If the diameter is 3 cm the radius is 1·5 cm

16

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Radius Quadrilaterals

A radius is the distance from the centre of a circle

A quadrilateral is any plane shape with four

to the circumference. The radius is half the length

straight sides.

of the diameter.

e.g. If the radius is 1·5 cm the diameter is 3 cm. Quadrilaterals include the square, rectangle,

parallelogram, rhombus, etc.

Semicircle e.g.

A semicircle is a half of a circle.

Quadrant Parallelograms

A quadrant is a quarter of a circle. A parallelogram is a plane shape

that has opposite sides equal

Sector and parallel.

A sector is the shape formed Opposite angles are also equal.

between any two radii of a circle. A rectangle and square are a special kind of

parallelogram because all of the angles are right

Polygons angles.

A polygon is a plane shape having three or more

straight sides. Solid shapes

e.g. Triangle (3 sides), square (4 sides), rectangle A solid is a three-dimensional object. It has

(4 sides), pentagon (5 sides), hexagon (6 length, width and height.

sides), heptagon (7 sides), octagon (8 sides), A solid cannot be drawn so that all parts can be

nonagon (9 sides), decagon (10 sides). seen at the same time.

Hint: Polygons such as hexagons, pentagons, e.g.

octagons etc. may be regular or irregular.

Types of triangles

Hint: Solids include the prism, pyramid, cone,

A triangle is a plane shape with three sides.

sphere, cylinder, etc.

There are various types of triangles:

Scalene triangle Cross-section

This type of triangle has A cross-section is the face

no equal sides and no equal angles. that we see when we cut

a solid in two.

Right-angled triangle

Hint: Imagine that you have cut a banana into

This type of triangle has

pieces. If you cut straight across the banana the

one angle of 90°.

cross-section will be a circle. If you cut at an

Isosceles triangle angle the cross-section will be an oval.

This type of triangle has two

equal sides and two equal angles. Views of solids

Equilateral triangle When we look at a solid from different angles we

see different shapes.

This type of triangle has three

equal sides and three equal angles. e.g. A cone

top view side view front view

Sum of angles in a triangle

When we add the three angles in any triangle

together we find an interesting fact.

e.g.

70° Hint: The views of solids are always plane shapes

60° + 50° + 70° = 180° like you would see it you took a photograph of the

60° 50°

solid from that angle.

The sum of the angles in any triangle is always

180°.

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8

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Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

17

11/09/13 8:03 AM

Cones, cylinders and spheres Hint: Pyramids are named according to their

bases.

A surface is another name for a face but is often

used when we talk about circular objects such as Faces, edges and corners of pyramids

cones, cylinders and spheres. The number of faces, edges and corners of

common pyramids are shown in the table below.

A cone has one curved surface

and one flat surface. Pyramid Faces Edges Corners

A total of 2 surfaces. Triangular 4 6 4

A cylinder has one curved surface Rectangular 5 8 5

and two flat surfaces. Pentagonal 6 10 6

A total of 3 surfaces. Hexagonal 7 12 7

A sphere has only a curved Heptagonal 8 14 8

surface. Octagonal 9 16 9

Hint: Cones, cylinders and spheres are all solids. Decagonal 11 20 11

Prisms Net

A prism is a solid that has any polygon as its

A net is a flat pattern that can be folded to make

base. A prism has two identical bases (one at

a solid.

each end) and all other faces are rectangles.

e.g. Net of a cube

e.g. Triangular prism

corner

edge

base face

Hint: Imagine a breakfast cereal box opened

Hint: Rectangular prisms are shown in section 17 . out flat. That would be the net of a rectangular

A cube is a special rectangular prism that has prism.

all sides of the same length. Prisms are named Excel Advanced Skills Start Up Maths Year 6

according to their bases.

Faces, edges and corners of prisms

The number of faces, edges and corners of

common prisms are shown in the table. Extra practice

Prism Faces Edges Corners

Triangular 5 9 6 Coordinates

Rectangular 6 12 8 Coordinates are pairs of letters or numbers used

Pentagonal 7 15 10 to show a position on a grid.

Hexagonal 8 18 12 e.g. 4

Heptagonal 9 21 14 3

is at B2

Octagonal 10 24 16 2

is at C3

Decagonal 12 30 20 1

0

Pyramids A B C D E

A pyramid is a solid with any polygon as its base. We always read the horizontal coordinate before

All other faces are triangles which meet at one the vertical coordinate.

corner (vertex or apex). Hint: A map in a street directory uses

e.g. Octagonal pyramid coordinates to help you find various places.

vertex You run your finger along the two coordinates

until they meet at a single point.

corner

base

18

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8

MMS_yr6_pp02_21_new2725.indd 18

Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

11/09/13 8:03 AM

Number plane Pie graph

A pie graph uses a circle divided into segments of

On a number plane, negative numbers are different sizes to represent information.

placed to the left of zero on the horizontal axis

e.g. Rainfall

and below zero on the vertical axis.

e.g. Point A is (1, 2) Point B is (–1, 1) Apr

Point C is (1, –2) Point D is (–2, –2) May

y -axis Jun

3 Jul

A

2

B

1 Bar graph

x -axis A bar graph uses a rectangle (or bar) divided into

–3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 different sections to represent information.

–1

D C e.g. Rainfall

–2

Apr May Jun Jul

–3

A dot plot is a graph that uses dots to compare

Column graph

the sizes of different groups.

A column graph uses blocks of different lengths

to represent information. e.g. Hours worked

e.g. Here, the blocks are arranged vertically.

Rainfall

80

60

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul

mm

40 Rain Month

20

0

Chance

Apr May Jun Jul Probability tells us the chance that something

Month

may happen.

e.g. Here, the blocks are arranged horizontally. Frequency is the number of times that a chance

Rainfall event actually occurs.

Apr e.g. If you toss a coin in the air it will land on

May either a head or a tail. Here, the probability

Month

Rain

Jun or chance that the coin will land on heads is

Jul 1

one in two. This can be written as or 50%.

2

0 20 40 60 80

mm We can list the possible outcomes for an

Line graph experiment.

A line graph uses a continuous line to show how e.g. The possible outcomes for tossing two coins

one set of information varies in relation to fixed are: HH (two heads)

events. HT (head and tail)

e.g. 30 Daytime temperature TH (tail and head)

TT (two tails)

28

Temperature (°C)

24 1

22 two heads is 1 in 4 (i.e. or 25%)

4

20

18 1

16

two tails is 1 in 4 (i.e. or 25%)

4

6 am 7 am 8 am 9 am 10 am 11 am 12 noon 1

Time a head and a tail is 2 in 4 (i.e. or 50%)

2

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8

MMS_yr6_pp02_21_new2725.indd 19

Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

19

11/09/13 8:03 AM

Scale Solution:

Start with 1: 11, 15, 17, 10

Scale is used to show that a drawing or diagram

Start with 5: 51, 55, 57, 50

has not been drawn to actual size. The scale

Start with 7: 71, 75, 77, 70

on a diagram tells us the real size of the object

Twelve two-digit numbers can be made.

being represented.

Scale drawings are frequently used on maps to Act it out

reduce the actual size to something that can be e.g. Five stacks of money were placed in a row

shown on a page. with 20c in the first stack, 40c in the second,

80c in the third and so on.

e.g.

How much money altogether?

0 50 100 150 200 Solution:

kilometres

50 km.

Hint: To use the scale, find the distance on the

diagram and convert that to the actual size.

For example 5 cm on the diagram would be 20 40 80 160 320

250 km in real life. There was $6.20 altogether.

Problem solving strategies Use a ratio

e.g. One car was provided for every 4 people.

Guess and check

How many cars were needed for 128 people?

e.g. What two numbers add together to give 23

but multiply to give 126? Solution:

128 ÷ 4 = 32 so 32 cars were needed.

Solution:

Guess 1: 16 + 7 = 23 but 16 × 7 = 112 Solve a simpler problem

Guess 2: 15 + 8 = 23 but 15 × 8 = 120 e.g. How many matches are needed to make

Guess 3: 14 + 9 = 23 and 14 × 9 = 126 20 of these squares?

So the numbers are 14 and 9

Draw a diagram

e.g. How many marbles can be placed along a

30 cm ruler if each marble is 6 cm apart?

Solution:

Solution:

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 One box uses four matches.

cm Two boxes use 4 and 1 lot of 3 matches.

Three boxes use 4 and 2 lots of 3 matches.

There are six marbles. So twenty boxes use 4 and 19 lots of 3

Work backwards matches i.e. 61 matches.

e.g. I sold 35 stamps, bought 12 more, sold Eliminate possibilities

another 19 and ended up with 27. e.g. A brick has a mass between 1 kg and 2 kg.

How many did I have to begin? Could the mass of 4 bricks be:

Solution: A 3·2 kg? B 9·5 kg? C 7·9 kg?

Start 27 add 19 gives 46 minus 12 gives Solution:

34 add 35 equals 69. The least mass for 4 bricks would be 4 kg

I started off with 69 stamps. so answer A is wrong.

Make a list The greatest mass for 4 bricks would be

e.g. How many two-digit numbers can be made 8 kg so answer B is wrong.

using the digits 1, 5, 7 and 0? So the mass of 4 bricks is 7·9 kg

i.e. answer C

20

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8

MMS_yr6_pp02_21_new2725.indd 20

Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

11/09/13 8:03 AM

Look for patterns

e.g. What will be the next tile?

Solution:

The pattern is to colour one more

segment each time.

Excel Advanced Skills Start Up Maths Year 6

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8

MMS_yr6_pp02_21_new2725.indd 21

Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

21

11/09/13 8:03 AM

Unit 1

A B To add 19,

1 20 + 12 1 19 + 24 I add 20 then

subtract 1.

2 40 – 9 2 37 – 8

3 5×4 3 7×6

4 30 ÷ 6 4 35 ÷ 5

5 $1.50 + $1.25 5 $1.35 + $2.20

6 Place value of 4 in 4 367

6 Place value of 7 in 3 756

7 0·47 as a percentage

7 0·31 as a fraction

8 Round off 7 890 to nearest

8 Round off 1 654 to nearest thousand

hundred

3 9 Is 1 = 3 ?

9 Tenths in 4 8

10

10 1 of 24

10 1 of 16 2

2

11 What number is 7 more

11 Roman numeral for 150

than 3 896?

12 Is 9 divisible by 3?

12 Is 6 a factor of 30?

13 Next odd number after 31

13 Last even number before 92

14 6 + = 18 14 8, 16, 24,

15 Centimetres in 6 m 15 Millimetres in 4·2 cm

16 Area of square with

16 Perimeter of rectangle 4 m

5 cm sides

by 7 m

17 Millilitres in 3 L

17 Litres in 6 000 mL

18 Grams in 7 kg

18 Kilograms in 4 000 g 19 Use am or pm

19 25 past 7 as digital time to write 3:47 morning

20 Are opposite sides equal on a 20 How many sides has

rectangle? 20 a hexagon? 20

Complete the addition grids.

1 + 22 26 33 35 41 46

19

To add 29, 29

I add 30 then 39

subtract 1.

49

40 then subtract 2 + 23 25 32 34 45 47

1 etc.

19

29

59

69

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on page A1

C To add 99,

I add 100 then

D

1 38 + 6 1 99 + 27

subtract 1.

2 52 – 9 2 96 – 14

3 6×8 3 90 × 4

4 42 ÷ 6 4 270 ÷ 3

5 $1.30 + $5.40 5 $3.35 + $4.45

6 Place value of 7 in 75 916 6 Place value of 6 in 368 951

7 65% as a decimal 7 0·1 as a percentage

8 Round off 8 568 to nearest 8 Round off 52 498 to nearest

thousand thousand

9 Is 1 = 2 ? 9 Is 3 the same as 6 ?

5 10 5 10

10 1 of 32 10 3 of 20

8 4

11 Roman numeral for 347 11 Hindu-Arabic numeral for CCXCVI

12 All factors of 40 12 Is 6 a factor of 48?

13 Is 409 an odd number? 13 6 squared

14 7, 14, 21, 14 35 + = 68

15 Millimetres in 3·8 cm

15 Centimetres in 9·5 m

16 Area of square with 3 cm sides 16 Area of rectangle 5 cm by 9 cm

17 Millilitres in 8 L 17 Millilitres in 4·5 L

18 Grams in 5 kg 18 Grams in 6·5 kg

19 Use am or pm 19 Use am or pm to write 3:47 morning

to write 4:57 evening

20 How many sides has 20 How many vertices has

a pentagon? a sphere?

20 20

In magic squares, each row, column and diagonal add up to the same number.

Complete the following magic squares.

1 3 2 3 5 3 1 5 4 3 8

5 6 8 0 7

6 7 9 3 2 6

Let’s look

5 1 13 6 13 10 7 5 6 at an example.

3 + 5 + 7 = 15

7 14 3 2 15

so 6 + 7 + = 15

5 9 12 6 9 4 The missing number is 2.

15 10 3 6 2 15 16 14 3 13

Hint: Begin with the row, column or diagonal that has all the numbers.

23

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

A Unit 2

B To subtract

1 30 + 16 1 29 + 35

19, I subtract

2 60 – 8 2 32 – 19 20 then add 1.

3 5×9 3 9×6

4 45 ÷ 5 4 42 ÷ 7

5 $1.30 + $2.55 5 $1.65 + $3.40

6 Place value of 6 in 6 029 6 Place value of 3 in 69 321

7 0·61 as a fraction 7 0·65 as a percentage

8 Round off 2 449 to nearest 8 Round off 8 345 to nearest

hundred thousand

9 Is 3 = 5 ?

6 10 9 1 =

3 6

10 1 of 15

3 10 3 of 20

5

11 Roman numeral for 164

11 Number 100 after 5 739

12 Is 3 a factor of 12?

12 All factors of 20

13 Ordinal number for sixteenth

13 Is 55 a square number?

14 15 – =8 14 42, 35, 28,

15 Millimetres in 9 cm 15 Millimetres in 3·6 cm

16 Perimeter of rectangle 6 m 16 Area of square with 4 cm sides

by 4 m 17 Millilitres in 9 L

17 Litres in 8 000 mL 18 Grams in 5 kg

18 Kilograms in 5 000 g 19 Use am or pm

19 20 past 6 as digital time to write 6:35 evening

20 Are the angles equal in 20 How many faces has a

a square? 20 rectangular prism? 20

Complete the subtraction grids.

1 72 76 81 85 93 97

–19

–39

–59

–69

To

This is subtract

2 64 68 73 76 81 85

called the 39, first

compensation subtract –19

strategy. 40 then –29

add 1.

–39

–49

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on page A1

C 360 is 36 tens D

1 59 + 7 so 360 ÷ 4 is 1 89 + 36

2 52 – 14 9 tens. i.e. 2 65 – 19

360 ÷ 4 = 90

3 8 × 6 3 80 × 7

4 36 ÷ 6 4 280 ÷ 4

5 $1.65 + $1.40 5 $3.40 – $1.36

6 Place value of 4 in 74 589 6 60 000 + 7 000 + 400 + 60 + 3

7 0·53 as a percentage 7 0·7 as a percentage

8 Is 1 516 less than 1 416? 8 Round off 28 537 to nearest

thousand

9 Is 2 the same as 6 ?

5 10 9 9 as a mixed number

4

10 1 of 45

5 10 5 of 40

8

11 What number is 6 more than 8 358?

11 50 more than 9 476?

12 All factors of 18

12 Is 5 a prime number?

13 Ordinal number for fifteenth

13 92

14 123, 133, 143,

14 1 475, 1 575, 1 675,

15 Millimetres in 5·6 cm 15 Centimetres in 7·5 m

16 Area of square with 6 cm sides 16 Area of rectangle 4 cm by 8 cm

17 Millilitres in 9 L 17 Millilitres in 6·5 L

18 Grams in 7 kg 18 Grams in 9·5 kg

19 Use am or pm 19 Use am or pm

to write 3:29 morning to write 4:38 evening

20 A cylinder has curved 20 A cone has curved

surfaces. 20 surfaces. 20

1 Name each solid shape.

Prisms and

a b c

pyramids

are named

according to

their bases.

pentagonal prism

d e f

pentagon

_________ _________ _________

2 Which solids have curved surfaces? __________________

base is a

3 Which solids have only flat surfaces? __________________ hexagon

Excel Mental Maths Strategies Year 6—Unit 2

25

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

If I know one

A Unit 3

table fact, I also know

three related

B facts.

1 40 + 36 1 39 + 26

2 90 – 8 2 54 – 28

3 8 × 7 8 × 7 = 56

3 5×7

7 × 8 = 56

4 40 ÷ 8 4 63 ÷ 9 56 ÷ 8 = 7

56 ÷ 7 = 8

5 $3.45 + $2.35 5 $2.45 + $3.95

6 Place value of 3 in 2 309 6 8 000 + 500 + 40 + 9

7 0·84 as a fraction 7 0·54 as a percentage

8 Is 9 642 greater than 9 462? 8 Round off 25 683 to nearest

thousand

9 Fifths in 4

5

9 10 as a mixed number

3

10 1 of 24

2

10 1 of 24

4

11 Roman numeral for 139

11 What number is 9 less than 2 456?

12 Is 35 divisible by 7?

13 Even number after 699

12 All factors of 30

14 25 + = 59 13 62

15 Millimetres in 7 cm 14 120, 140, 160, 180,

16 Perimeter of rectangle 8 m 15 Centimetres in 39 mm

by 3 m 16 Area of square with 8 cm sides

17 Millilitres in 6 L 17 Litres in 3 000 mL

18 Grams in 9 kg 18 Kilograms in 9 000 g

19 28 past 11 as digital time 19 Minutes from 2:37 to 3:04

20 How many right angles has a 20 A triangular pyramid has

rectangle? faces. 20

20

Write the decimal for the part 1 2 3

coloured in each hundred square.

same as 0·28

4 5 6

60 hundredths is the same as 6 tenths.

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on pages A1-A2

C D

1 58 + 6 1 154 + 20

2 35 – 19 2 245 – 30

6 × 7 = 42 so

3 8×8 3 90 × 6 6 tens × 7 = 42 tens

= 420

4 72 ÷ 9 4 320 ÷ 8

5 $2.95 + $1.35 5 $6.20 – $1.35

6 Place value of 4 in 64 297 6 Expanded notation for 15 729

7 0·95 as a percentage

8 Round off 45 678 to nearest 7 0·9 as a percentage

thousand 8 Round off 457 964 to nearest ten

thousand

9 2 3 as improper fraction

5

9 14 as a mixed number

3

10 1 of 90

10

10 3 of 35

11 What number is 20 more that 3 645? 5

8 457?

13 3 squared

12 Is 6 a composite number?

14 14 + = 35 13 82

15 Millimetres in 4·7 cm 14 + 28 = 52

16 Area of rectangle 3 cm by 9 cm

15 Millimetres in 9·6 cm

17 Millilitres in 8 L

16 Area of rectangle 3 cm by 8 cm

18 Kilograms in 7 000 g 17 Millilitres in 7·5 L

19 Use am or pm to write 6:51 evening 18 Grams in 4·8 kg

19 Write 2:24 am in analog time

20 A hexagonal pyramid has

faces. 20 20

20 A cube has corners.

Complete the multiplication grids. When I know

2×3=6

1 × 8 6 9 5 7 4 I also know

6 20 × 3 = 60

8

9

7

2 × 9 4 7 5 8 6

10

2×3=6

20 so 2 tens × 3 = 6 tens

30 or 20 × 3 = 60

40

27

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

A Unit 4

1 36 + 9 1 59 plus 37 1, 12, 2, 6, 3 and 4.

1 × 12 = 12, 2 × 6 =

2 60 – 8 2 46 minus 8 12, 3 × 4 = 12

3 5×6 3 9 times 8

4 42 ÷ 7 4 56 divided by 7

5 $2.95 – $1.55 5 $6.45 – $2.80

6 500 + 40 + 8 6 Place value of 9 in 69 485

7 0·65 as a fraction 7 0·7 as a percentage

8 Round off 3 579 to nearest 8 Round off 98 456 to nearest

thousand thousand

9 Quarters in 3 9 3 2 as improper fraction

4 5

10 1 of $20 10 1 of 30

5 5

11 Is 6 795 less than 6 975? 11 What number is 5 less than 14 082?

12 Is 5 a factor of 30?

13 Ordinal number for twelfth 12 All factors of 36

13 Ordinal number for twenty-fifth

14 5 × = 35

15 Centimetres in 40 mm 14 8 × = 64

16 Perimeter of rectangle 8 cm 15 Centimetres in 58 mm

by 3 cm 16 Area of square with 7 cm sides

17 Millilitres in 9 L 17 Litres in 5 000 mL

18 Grams in 6 kg 18 Kilograms in 4 000 g

19 Minutes from 4:21 to 4:57 19 Minutes from 5:32 to 6:19

20 How many sides has 20 How many faces has a

a rhombus? 20 triangular prism? 20

Complete the factor wheels.

1 2 3

Factor wheels

show all the factors 10 18 20

2

of a number.

1 8 8

1×8=8 4 5 6

2×4=8

28 30 24

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on page A2

C D

1 79 plus 4 surface 1 Sum of 97 and 35

2 63 minus 8 face 2 Difference between 96 and 38

3 7 times 5 A face is a flat 3 70 × 9

surface.

4 81 divided by 9 4 450 ÷ 5

5 $1.55 + $2.95 5 $9.35 – $6.75

6 Numeral for sixty-five thousand 6 Place value of 7 in 367 594

and forty 7 97% as a decimal

7 0·63 as a percentage 8 Is 45 639 < 45 963?

8 Is 9 076 greater than 9 760? 9 1 7 as improper fraction

8

9 2 2 as improper fraction

5

10 5 of $60

10

10 1 of $24

3 11 What number is 200 after 5 824?

11 Roman numeral for 297

12 Is 40 divisible by 6? 12 Is 16 a composite number?

13 Ordinal number for thirty-first 13 102

14 + 29 = 57 14 10 + 5 × 7

15 Centimetres in 58 mm 15 Centimetres in 9·5 m

16 Area of a square with 9 m sides 16 Area of a square with 12 m sides

17 Litres in 9 000 mL 17 Volume of cube with 2 cm sides

20 corners. 20

Use three of the numerals 3, 4, 5, 12 or 15 to complete each number sentence.

Use any numeral only once in each question.

Follow the

steps.

1 ( ____ – ____ ) ÷ ____ = 3

Step 1:

2 ( ____ – ____ ) × ____ = 8 Do operations

inside grouping

3 ____ + ____ + ____ = 12 symbols.

Step 2:

4 ( ____ – ____ ) × ____ = 24

Do × and ÷ as they

5 ____ ÷ ____ + ____ = 10 occur.

Step 3:

6 ( ____ – ____ ) × ____ = 9 Do + and – as they

occur.

7 ____ ÷ ____ + ____ = 6

8 ( ____ + ____ ) × ____ = 27

Excel Mental Maths Strategies Year 6—Unit 4

29

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

A Unit 5

B

1 45 + 23 1 To 84 add 16

2 70 – 12 2 35 less than 67

3 8 × 5 3 10 times 17

4 36 ÷ 6 23rd is the

4 56 divided by 7 ordinal number for

5 $10.00 – $4.85 5 5·6 + 2·9 twenty-third.

6 9 000 + 700 + 30 + 6 6 80 000 + 5 000 + 30 + 8

7 0·3 as a fraction

7 Is 95% equivalent to 0·95?

8 Round 12 685 to nearest thousand

8 Is 35 647 closer to 35 000 or 36 000?

9 Is 2 the same as 3 ?

5 10 9 4 1 as an improper fraction

4

10 1 of 21

3 10 1 of 160

10

11 Hindu-Arabic numeral for CLXI

11 Roman numeral for 392

12 Is 3 a factor of 37?

12 Next prime number after 7

13 Ordinal number for twentieth

14 645, 545, 445, 13 32 + 2

15 Millimetres in 3·5 cm 14 20 – (3 × 4)

16 Perimeter of square with 15 Metres in 6·5 km

6 cm sides

16 Area of rectangle 5 m by 8 m

17 Litres in 9 000 mL

17 Millilitres in 3·5 L

18 Kilograms in 3 000 g

18 Grams in 7·5 kg

19 20 to 8 morning as digital time

19 9:26 pm as analog time

20 A square has 20 How many degrees in

diagonals. 20 a right angle? 20

Complete the table to show the number 7 faces,

of faces, edges and corners on each pyramid. 12 edges and

7 corners

corner

Pyramid Faces Edges Corners

Triangular edge

Rectangular

Pentagonal face

Hexagonal

Heptagonal

Octagonal

Decagonal

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on pages A2-A3

C D For 76 – 28

1 46 plus 27 1 175 + 89

say 76 – 20 = 56

2 65 minus 38 2 364 – 38 then 56 – 8 = 48

3 10 times 16 3 73 × 10

4 72 divided by 9 4 840 ÷ 10

5 2·9 + 5·8 5 $12.00 – $9.70

6 Place value of 9 in 937 291

6 90 000 + 6 000 + 800 + 70 + 3

7 95% as a decimal

7 Is 80% equivalent to 0·8?

8 Round off 57 368 to nearest hundred

8 Is 6 875 > 6 785?

9 1 5 as improper fraction 9 Improper fraction for 3 2

6 3

10 1 of 40 10 3 × 2

8 5

11 Hindu-Arabic numeral for CCLXXVII 11 What number is 500 before 9 468?

13 Is 3 457 an odd number? 13 82 – 36

14 6 × (4 + 7) 14 3 700, 3 800, 3 900,

15 Centimetres in 5·4 m

15 Centimetres in 25 mm

16 Area of rectangle 7 cm by 11 cm

16 Area of rectangle 4 m by 7 m

17 Volume of cube with 4 cm sides

17 Litres in 9 500 mL

18 Kilograms in 7·5 t 18 Grams in 3·6 kg

19 Is 4:57 am before noon? 19 8:47 am in 24-hour time

20 How many faces has a

20 Degrees in two right angles

20 triangular prism? 20

8 faces,

18 edges and

Complete the table to show the number of faces, 12 corners

edges and corners on each prism.

Triangular

Rectangular

Pentagonal

Hexagonal corner

Heptagonal

Octagonal edge

Decagonal

face

31

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

A Unit 6

B A revolution

1 24 + 45 1 77 plus 19 is one complete

2 80 – 14 2 46 minus 27 turn or 360°

3 8×8 3 10 times 14

4 54 ÷ 9 4 64 divided by 8

5 $10.00 – $5.45 5 Double $4.55

6 6 000 + 900 + 40 + 5

6 50 000 + 8 000 + 400 + 30 + 8

7 0·9 as a fraction

7 Is 75% the same as 0·70?

8 Is 6 752 closer to 6 700 or 6 800?

8 Is 35 647 less than 35 764?

9 How many thirds in 1 1 ? 9 Is 3 3 equivalent to 14 ?

3 4 4

10 1 of 40 10 1 of 32

5 8

11 Roman numeral for 164 11 Roman numeral for 348

12 All factors of 15 12 Is 35 a prime number?

13 Ordinal number for thirteenth 13 82

14 × 5 = 45 14 (4 + 8) × 4

15 Millimetres in 7·5 cm 15 Metres in 9·5 km

16 Perimeter of square with 12 m sides 16 Area of rectangle 5 cm by 9 cm

17 Millilitres in 6·5 L

17 Litres in 7 500 mL 18 Grams in 9·5 kg

18 Kilograms in 8 000 g

19 8:47 am as analog time

19 4:05 in analog time

20 How many flat surfaces

20 What shape is the face has a cone?

of a cube?

20 20

Use a protractor to measure each angle.

1 2 3

80 100 1

70 90 10

60 12

0 100 80 7 01

1

50 2 0 1 0 30

4 5 6

01 60

13 5

40

0

14

0

01

14

30

40

50

50

01

20

30

160

180 170 16

20 10

10

17 0 1 80

0

32 Excel Mental Maths Strategies Year 6—Unit 6

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on page A3

C D 62 = 6 × 6

1 64 plus 27 1 186 + 97 = 36

2 95 minus 68 2 232 – 49

3 10 times 13 3 35 × 10

4 72 divided by 8 4 950 ÷ 10

5 8·4 + 7·9 5 $11.40 – $7.60

6 70 000 + 4 000 + 200 + 90 + 6 6 Place value of 5 in 158 407

7 35% as a decimal

7 Is 80% the same as 8 ?

10 8 Is 64 219 > 64 218?

8 Is 9 521 < 9 251? 9 Mixed number for 14

5

9 Is 15 equivalent to 1 3 ?

8 8

10 3 × 3

4

10 1 of 40

10

11 What number is 300 after 6 897?

11 Roman numeral for 296

12 All factors of 35

12 All factors of 48

13 112

13 5 2

14 95 – 7 × 8 – 9

14 9 + 12 – 2 × 4

15 Centimetres in 3·7 m

15 Millimetres in 6·5 cm

16 Area of rectangle 8 m by 9 m

16 Area of rectangle 3 cm by 10 cm

17 Volume of cube with 3 cm sides

17 Litres in 6 500 mL

18 Kilograms in 4·5 t

18 Grams in 6·5 kg

19 Days in one year

19 10:29 pm in 24-hour time

20 Degrees in a straight angle

20 Degrees in three right angles

20 20

Complete the table for each geometric pattern.

1 Number of hexagons 1 2 3 4 5 6

I see the

Number of sides 6

pattern.

2 Number of heptagons 1 2 3 4 5 6

3 8 sides

Number of decagons 1 2 3 4 5 6

Number of sides 10

12 sides

4 Number of pentagons 1 2 3 4 5 6

Number of sides 5

33

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Unit 7 Fun Spot!

1 Use the four shapes to complete the

grid so that the same shape does not

appear twice

in any row,

in any column, and

in either of the diagonals.

triangular pattern of dots.

over these nine flowers. How can she

do this by flying in only four straight

lines?

4

Tile A To make this pattern, has Tile A been:

a flipped?

b slid?

c turned?

and fills the square.

34 Excel Mental Maths Strategies Year 6—Unit 7

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on page A3

5 squares. Remove three matches to

leave only 3 squares.

continuous movement without tracing

over any line more than once.

in the circles so that the sum of the

numbers along each side of the triangle

is 20.

is:

a one in each corner and

b two in each row and

c two in each column and

d two along each diagonal.

A B C D

10 Arrange these shapes in order of size

(from smallest to largest area).

35

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Unit 8 Revision A

1 Place value of 6 in: 9 a 6 + 9 × 4

a 3 675 b 3 × 8 + 4 × 9

b 26 491 c 3 × 5 – 18 ÷ 6

c 654 892

10 Write:

2 Roman numeral for: a 23 to 6 as digital time

a 232 b 29 past 11 as digital ime

b 197 c 3:55 as analog time

c 378

d 359 11 How many:

a millilitres in 3·5 L?

3 Write: b kilograms in 2 500 g?

a 0·65 as a percentage c metres in 456 cm?

b 75% as a fraction d kilometres in 5 500 m?

c 0·4 as a percentage

12 What is the perimeter of each shape?

4 a 45 plus 36 a b c

b 92 minus 37

c 9 times 40

d 45 divided by 9 3 cm

4 cm 2 cm

a 4 679

b 26 368 13 How many surfaces has each shape?

c 376 521 a b c

6 Write all factors of:

a 24

b 36 _________ _________ _________

c 45

14 What is the area of each shape?

7 Write the number that is: a b

a 100 after 23 468 4 cm 5 cm

b 1 000 before 478 569

4 cm 8 cm

8 What is: _________ _________

a half of 38?

b half of 48?

36

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on page A4

Revision B

1 a 6 000 + 500 + 40 + 9 9 Write as 24-hour time:

b 5 000 + 20 + 1 a 10:45 am b 3:18 pm

c 20 000 + 9 000 + 50 + 3 c 9:51 pm d 1:39 am

9 a 45, 54, 63, 72, ,

a

10 b 32, 40, 48, 56, ,

b 1 and 45

100 11 How many:

c 5 tenths and 7 hundredths a litres in 3 500 mL?

b grams in 6·5 kg?

3 What number follows: c millimetres in 4·6 cm?

a 7 958? d metres in 9·5 km?

b 26 394?

c 68 599? 12 What is the volume of each shape?

3m 4 cm

a b

4 a 39 + = 73

b 94 – = 56

c 7 × = 56 __________ __________

a a hexagon

5 How many: b a pentagon

a days in 5 weeks? c an octagon

b months in 3 years? d a trapezium

c weeks in a year?

14 Which angles are more than 30°?

6 a Is 3 the same as 6 ? a b c d

4 8

b Is 1 2 equal to 5 ?

3 3

9

c Is a mixed number?

4 15 Record each length shown.

7 a

d Is equal to 2 1 ?

3 3 cm

0 1 2 3 4 5

a 100 after 46 954 b

b 1 000 before 961 347 cm

0 1 2 3 4 5

a 6

b 9

Excel Mental Maths Strategies Year 6—Unit 8

37

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

A Unit 9

Did you sail

through the

B revisions?

1 38 plus 24 1

39 plus 56

2 56 minus 39 2

72 minus 39

3 Double 16 3

10 times 16

4 Halve 34 4

54 divided by 9

5 Cents in $8.68 5

Spent $3.55, change from $10

6 8 000 + 500 + 40 + 9 6

Tens in 36 754

7 0·72 as a percentage 7

3 units + 4 tenths + 9 hundredths as a

decimal

8 Is 14 589 > 14 859?

8 Round off 38 658 to nearest thousand

9 Is 1 greater than 2 ?

2 5

10 1 of 18 9 Is 4 equal to 2 ?

3 10 3

11 Hindu-Arabic numeral for CCXXI 10 1 of 15

3

11 Roman numeral for 351

12 Is 7 a factor of 35?

12 Is 139 divisible by 3?

13 7 squared

13 Ordinal number for twenty-third

14 24 + = 56

14 7 × = 63

15 Centimetres in 59 mm

15 Kilometres in 8 500 m

16 Perimeter of rectangle 6 m by 7 m

16 Perimeter of a square with 12 cm sides

18 Grams in 4·5 kg 18 Kilograms in 3 590 g

19 Days in 5 weeks 19 Minutes from 9:29 to 11:16

20 How many sides has 20 An hexagonal prism has

a quadrilateral? faces.

20 20

1 Complete the following.

a 1 + 2 = b 1 + 2 + 3 =

c 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = d 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 =

2 Is this a triangular number? Do you see

the pattern?

a 3 b 10

Triangular

c 21 d 15 numbers

e 35 f 28

g 48 h 66

1 3 6

3 What triangular number follows:

a 21? b 15?

c 28? d 10?

e 45? f 55?

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on page A4

C D 3 tenths and

9 hundredths

1 45 plus 62 1 459 and 85 more is 0·39

2 81 minus 35 2 329 take away 78

3 10 times 13 3 65 times 10

4 45 divided by 5 4 690 divided by 10

5 Cents in $10.45 5 14·5 + 6·8

6 60 000 + 7 000 + 400 + 30 + 9 6 Place value of 2 in 425 617

7 1 unit + 4 tenths + 7 hundredths as 7 75% as a decimal

decimal

8 Is 46 304 < 46 430?

8 Is 54 689 closer to 54 000 or 55 000?

9 Is 1 1 equal to 6 ?

5 5

3 6

9 Is equal to ?

4 8 10 1 of $32

8

10 1 of 30 11 Number 500 after 3 875

5

11 Roman numeral for 299 12 All factors of 64

12 Are 4 and 5 both factors of 30? 13 Is 6 a triangular number?

13 Next odd number after 97 14 4 + 6 × 5 ÷ 10

14 5 × 6 + 3 × 6 15 Metres in 3·5 km

15 Centimetres in 87 mm 16 Area of rectangle 5 cm by 9 cm

16 Area of a square with 9 cm sides

17 Litres in 6 500 mL

17 Millilitres in 5·6 L

18 Kilograms in 8 500 g

18 Grams in 4·5 kg

19 9:53 am as analog time

19 Minutes from 11:34 to 12:06

20 A pentagonal prism has

20 How many sides has

faces.

a parallelogram?

20 20

Complete the number patterns and write the rule for each.

The rule in the

1 First number 42 52 62 72 82 92 first pattern is

_____________ ‘add 14’.

Second number 56 66 76

_____________

2 First number 37 47 57 67 77 87 42 + = 56

_____________ 42 + 14 = 56

Second number 74 94 114

_____________

52 + = 66

3 First number 78 68 58 48 38 28 52 + 14 = 66

Second number 53 43 33 _____________

etc.

_____________

4 First number 1 2 3 4 5 6

_____________

Excel Mental Maths Strategies Year 6—Unit 9

39

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Unit 10

A B is equivalent

1 75 added to 68

1 39 plus 53 to because

3 Double 27 3 8 lots of 30

4 Halve 56 4 How many eights in 56?

5 546 cents as dollars and cents 5 Spent $4.35, change from $10

6 90 000 + 4 000 + 700 + 20 + 5

7 0·76 as a fraction 6 Tens in 96 537

8 Round off 35 499 to nearest thousand 7 2 units + 8 tenths as decimal

8 Is 56 835 < 56 735?

9 Is 1 equal to 3 ?

2 10 9 3=

4 8

10 1 of 24

6 10 1 of 36

12

11 Hindu-Arabic numeral for CCCXLIV

11 Number 500 after 35 894

12 Is 42 divisible by 6? 12 Average of 19, 24 and 23

13 Is 9 a square number? 13 122

14 38 + = 92 14 18 ÷ 3 + 6 × 4

16 Area of square with 10 m sides 16 Perimeter of triangle with 5 cm sides

18 Kilograms in 3 500 g 18 Kilograms in 4 500 g

19 Months in 5 years 19 Is 10:46 the same as 14 to 10?

20 How many faces on a 20 Direction between north

rectangular prism? and west

20 20

For each solid, draw the front, side and top view. 1

l For the front view, imagine that you are looking

at it face on. front side

l For the top view, imagine that you are looking

at it from the sky.

top

l For the side view, imagine that you are looking

at it side on.

2

front side

front side

top

top

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on pages A4-A5

C D

1 52 and 29 more 1 To 687 add 94

2 25 less than 81 2 From 721 take 97

3 24 multiplied by 4 10% is 1

10

3 35 times 10 so 10% of

4 How many fours in 36?

4 670 ÷ 10 $40 is $4

5 Halve $10.86

5 $3.40 + $3.29 + $2.35

6 Tens in 46 532

7 0·3 as a fraction 6 Expanded notation for 86 391

8 Is 68 642 > 68 542? 7 0·73 as a percentage

8 Is 164 584 > 165 971?

9 5 =

10 2 9 2 5 as improper fraction

8

10 1 of 30 10 10% of $90

6

11 Number 500 before 37 381 11 Number is 1 000 after 25 962

12 Average of 21, 18 and 15 12 All factors of 56

13 62 13 Is 12 a triangular number?

14 (9 + 8) × (7 – 5)

14 3 × 4 + 15 ÷ 3

15 Kilometres in 4 500 m

15 Metres in 6·5 km

16 Perimeter of regular hexagon sides 5 cm

16 Perimeter of square with 20 m

sides

17 Millilitres in 9·5 L

17 Litres in 9 500 mL

18 Kilograms in 8 t

18 Grams in 3·5 kg 19 05:46 as analog time

19 16 to 7 as digital time 20 Is an obtuse angle less

20 Direction opposite SE than 90°?

20 20

Write the digital time for each time shown.

1 11 12

2 11 12

3 11 12

1 1 1

10 2 10 2 10 2

9 3 9 3 9 3

8 4 8 4 8 4

7 5 7 5 7 5

6 6 6 Digital clocks

only show digits.

_________ _________ _________

3:24

4 11 12 1 5 11 12 1 6 11 12 1

10 2 10 2 10 2

9 3 9 3 9 3 e.g. 24 past 3 in

4 4 4

digital time is 3:24

8 8 8

7 5 7 5 7 5

6 6 6

Excel Mental Maths Strategies Year 6—Unit 10

41

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

A Unit 11

B 68 + 23

= 60 + 20 + 8 + 3

1 12 + 13 +18 1 67 plus 29 = 80 + 11

= 91

2 79 – 46 2 86 minus 47

3 Double 28 3 67 times 5

4 Half of 52 4 72 divided by 9

5 How many 5 cent coins in $1? 5 Spent $6.85, change from $10

6 6 000 + 400 + 80 + 3

7 65% as a decimal 6 Thousands in 13 684

8 Is 8 675 > 8 567? 7 9 tenths as a decimal

9 Is 1 2 less than 1 3 ? 8 Is 95 289 < 95 298?

3 4

9 Is 1 4 less than than 1 7 ?

10 1 of 80 5 10

10

10 Is 2 of 12 equal to 9?

11 Number 100 after 5 891 3

12 Is 7 a factor of 27? 11 Number 500 after 34 765

13 Next even number after 65 12 Is 9 a factor of 63?

14 7 × = 63 13 92

15 Centimetres in 4 m 14 6 + (3 × 8) – 14

16 Perimeter of a square with 5 m sides 15 Kilometres in 5 500 m

16 Area of rectangle 7 cm by 5 cm

17 Millilitres in 3·5 L

18 Grams in 6·5 kg 17 Litres in 10 500 mL

19 Days in a leap year 18 Kilograms in 6 500 g

20 How many degrees in 19 Minutes from 5:07 to 5:59

a right angle? 20 Direction opposite SW 20

20

1 Find the highest common factor for each pair of numbers.

a 3 and 6 b 5 and 10 The highest

c 8 and 12 d 6 and 10 common factor

is 2.

e 14 and 21 f 12 and 16

g 9 and 18 h 4 and 24

i 6 and 24 j 6 and 27

a 3 and 6 b 2 and 5

Factors of:

c 4 and 5 d 8 and 3 2 are 1, 2

e 5 and 3 f 6 and 12 6 are 1, 6, 2, 3

g 9 and 18 h 4 and 18

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on page A5

C 1

3

5

can be D

1 49 added to 38 written as 1 249 and 34 more

the improper

2 From 92 take 68 8 2 From 749 take 68

fraction .

5

3 34 times 6 3 147 times 10

4 How many sevens in 63? 4 790 divided by 10

5 9·6 – 6·7 5 $2.53 + $1.60 + $3.78

6 60 000 + 7 000 + 400 + 30 + 2 6 How many thousands in 469 301?

7 5 tenths as a decimal

8 Round off 56 357 to nearest hundred 7 0·73 as a fraction

8 Is 456 920 > 456 819?

9 13 as an improper fraction 9 2 2 as improper fraction

4 3

3

11 Roman numeral for 589

11 Number 1 000 after 63 872

12 Average of 45, 67, 39 and 57

12 Highest common factor of 8 and 10

13 Triangular number after 3

13 82

14 21 + 5 × 7 – 39

14 5 × 8 – 3 × 7

15 Kilometres in 9 500 m

15 Kilometres in 7 500 m

16 Perimeter of pentagon with 4 cm sides

16 Area of rectangle 5 cm by 4 cm

17 Litres in 7 500 mL

17 Millilitres in 8·5 L

18 Grams in 8·5 kg

18 Kilograms in 9 t

19 Minutes from 6:21am to 7:03 am

19 1:24 pm as 24-hour time

20 Are opposite sides of a

20 Is a straight angle 180°?

parallelogram equal? 20 20

To move 30 m

north we move

Plot this course on the grid. 3 squares up.

Move: N

30 m north

110 m east C

A

90 m north B

40 m west

60 m south

120 m west

50 m north 0 50

70 m east metres

30 m south START

At which point did you arrive?

________

Excel Mental Maths Strategies Year 6—Unit 11 43

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Unit 12

A B

1 46 + 29 1

163 + 25

2 78 – 49 2

194 – 63

3 6+6+6+6 3 34 × 4

To multiply by 4,

double then double

4 Divide 35 by 7 4

305 ÷ 5 again.

5 Cents in $9.45 5 Cost of 6 at $1.20

6 Tens in 5 692 each

7 65

as a decimal 6 60 000 + 3 000 + 900 + 30 + 7

100

7 Decimal for one point seven six

8 Is 4 675 > 4 575?

9 Is 1 4 an improper fraction? 8 Is 87 256 > 87 526?

5

4

8

11 Hindu-Arabic numeral for CCCXLII 10 3 of $15

5

11 Number 500 after 45 389

12 Is 3 a factor of 19?

12 Is 6 a factor of 24?

13 Last odd number before 200

13 52 + 4

14 156, 166, 176,

14 7 × 3 + 10 ÷ 2

15 Metres in 750 cm

15 Centimetres in 6·35 m

16 Perimeter of a square with 4 m sides

16 Perimeter of rectangle 6 cm by 5 cm

17 Litres in 8 500 mL

17 Litres in 7 500 mL

18 Kilograms in 3 500 g

18 Kilograms in 4 375 g

19 Minutes in 3 hours

19 Seconds in 2 1 minutes

20 Degrees in two right angles 2

20 20 Is 75° an acute angle? 20

Here is the net of a cube.

Which cube below could not be made from this net? _____

A

A net is a flat

pattern that can be

folded to make a

C

solid shape.

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on page A5

We can add

C fractions with the same

denominator. D

1 145 + 34 1 567 and 49 more

2 683 minus 39

2 187 – 26 3 872 × 10

3 102 × 4 4 670 divided by 10

4 369 ÷ 3 1 4 5 5 $1.97 + $1.59 + $3.68

+ =

6 6 6

5 $3.60 + $1.30 6 400 000 + 70 000 + 6 000 + 500 + 20 + 8

6 Thousands in 54 987

9

7 Decimal for 5 units + 9 tenths 7 10 as a percentage

+ 4 hundredths 8 Is 4 654 857 > 4 652 875?

8 Is 78 563 > 78 562? 9 2 5 as improper fraction

6

9 0·6 as a fraction

10 2 of 18 candles 10 3 + 2

3 8 8

12 Lowest common multiple of 3 and 5

12 Is 8 a factor of 32?

13 52 – 4 13 62 – 31

14 6 × (4 + 16) 14 8 × 4 – 3 × 5

15 Metres in 956 cm 15 Metres in 4·5 km

16 Area of square with 7 cm sides 16 Perimeter of triangle with 7 cm sides

17 Millilitres in 4·5 L

17 Litres in 6 500 mL

18 Grams in 3·125 kg

18 Kilograms in 12 t

19 Minutes in 3 1 hours

4 19 7:59 am as 24-hour time

20 Degrees in a straight angle 20 How many edges on

20 a square prism? 20

Here are two

different ways.

In different ways, colour half the area of each rectangle.

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

A Unit 13

B

1 15 + 14 + 25 1 92 plus 46

2 67 – 32 2 74 minus 39

3 5+5+5+5+5 3 35 × 6 Multiplication is the same

as repeated addition.

4 Half of $5 4 147 ÷ 7

5 50c coins in $3 5 $1.65 + $3.70 + $2.45

6 7 000 + 900 + 60 + 5 6 Place value of 4 in 34 600

7 0·5 as a percentage 7 Decimal for 5 units + 7 tenths

8 Is 4 629 < 6 429? + 9 hundredths

9 Quarters in 2 3 8 Is 67 954 > 76 945?

4

9 2 3 as an improper fraction

5

10 2 of 12

3

10 5 + 1

11 Number 100 after 35 801 10 10

13 2 squared 12 List all the factors of 60

14 36 ÷ 6 + 3 13 42 + 3

14 9 + 4 × 6 – 8

15 Centimetres in 7 1 m

2

15 Metres in 1 1 km

16 Perimeter of a rectangle 3 cm by 7 cm 4

16 Area of a square with 6 cm sides

17 Millilitres in 1

L

4

17 Litres in 1 255 mL

18 Grams in 1 kg 18 Kilograms in 1 750 g

4

19 Days in December 19 Time 15 minutes after 6:42

20 Is 69° less than a right angle?

20 Is 107° an acute angle? 20

20

What is the perimeter of each shape? 1 2

8 cm 12 m

12 m

6 cm

Perimeter is the

distance around the

boundary of a two-

dimensional shape. 3 3 cm 4 4 cm

3 cm

4 cm 2 cm

3·5 cm

6 cm 4 cm

Perimeter = 6 + 4 + 6 + 4 5 cm

= 20 cm

46 Excel Mental Maths Strategies Year 6—Unit 13

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on pages A5-A6

C 9

can be

D

1 234 + 65 4 1 Sum of 627 and 94

written as the

2 196 – 47 mixed number 2 Difference between 943 and 76

1

3 316 × 10 2 . 3 72 × 100

4

4 609 divided by 3 4 679 ÷ 10

5 $10.00 – $6.35 5 6·8 + 3·5 + 7·4

6 Place value of 7 in 174 569

6 50 000 + 4 000 + 600 + 80 + 2

7 7 as a percentage

7 Decimal for 6 units + 6 tenths 10

+ 9 hundredths 8 Round off 1 654 376 to nearest thousand

8 Is 95 201 < 95 120?

9 14

as a mixed number 9 17 as a mixed number

3 4

10 25% of 80 10 5 – 3 =

8 8

11 Number 500 before 29 387 11 Number 2 000 after 658 726

12 First three multiples of 8 12 Are 3, 4, 6 and 7 all factors of 42?

13 7 – 4 2

13 Ordinal number for seventy-fifth

14 64 ÷ 8 × 3 14 240, 280, 320,

15 Metres in 13 km 15 Metres in 9·5 km

4

16 Area of a rectangle 5 m by 9 m 16 Name for perimeter of a circle

17 Litres in 1 750 mL 17 Millilitres in 8·5 L

18 Kilograms in 2 250 g 18 Tonnes in 7 000 kg

19 Minutes from 12 to 7 until 23 past 7 19 19:21 as 12-hour digital time

20 Are opposite sides of a

20 Is 145° an obtuse angle? rectangle parallel?

20 20

Use the labels and angle measurements to complete the table.

revolution reflex

straight acute obtuse

Angle Do you

have an

angle for

remembering

Name names?

Size

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

A Unit 14

B 92 – 35

= 92 – 30 – 5

1 21 + 32 + 27 1 35 + 16 + 43 = 62 – 5

2 164 – 58 = 57

2 96 – 67

3 8+8+8+8 3 463 × 10

4 How many threes in 24? 4 How many sixes in 126?

5 20c coins in $4 5 Cost of five at $3.25 each

6 Place value of 5 in 3 562 6 60 000 + 8 000 + 300 + 90 + 1

7 60% as a decimal 7 0·4 as a percentage

8 Round off 4 763 to nearest hundred 8 Is 87 569 closer to 87 000 or 88 000?

10 3

10 10% of 60

10 3 of 40

10 11 1 000 after 46 351

11 Number after 13 469

12 Is 39 a multiple of 6?

12 Is 4 a factor of 26?

13 82 + 6

13 Next odd number after 1 797

14 7 + (3 × 4) – 6

14 35 + = 97 15 Metres in 1 km

4

15 Centimetres in 9 1 m

2 16 Area of a square with 12 cm sides

16 Perimeter of a square with 9 m sides

17 Millilitres in 4·725 L

17 Litres in 4 500 mL 18 Grams in 3·625 kg

18 Grams in 3·5 kg 19 Minutes from 8:53 am to 9:46 am

19 Days in June and July

20 Is 106° less than a right 20 How many faces on a

angle? 20 hexagonal prism? 20

A product is

In each row, circle the factors of the given products. the answer when

numbers are

Possible factors Product multiplied.

1 6 7 4 8 3 15 9 16 2 36

2 8 5 4 3 7 15 12 9 17 45

3 3 2 9 6 5 8 18 4 17 64

4 5 4 7 16 2 9 15 13 12 92

A factor is a

5 6 5 9 4 2 17 3 16 15 105 whole number

that can be

6 8 2 6 3 5 4 12 10 21 124 divided exactly

into another

7 9 3 5 2 10 6 15 13 16 156 number.

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

You should

Answers on page A6

learn these

C 1

= 0·25

facts.

D

1 167 + 39 4

1

1 Sum of 34, 48 and 67

= 0·50

2 326 – 43 2

3

2 Difference between 523 and 98

= 0·75

3 126 × 10 4 3 30 × 40

4 340 ÷ 10 4 358 ÷ 10

5 Cost of one if 6 cost $8.70

5 Change from $5 if $3.45 is spent

6 Numeral for sixty-four thousand and

6 Hundreds in 35 465 seventy

7 3 as a decimal 7 4 tenths 9 hundredths as a decimal

10

8 Is 69 521 > 69 621? 8 Round off 3 861 459 to nearest million

9 16 as a mixed number

5

9 Is 10 the same as 5 ?

10 10% of $120 12 6

10 10

12 Highest common factor of 12 and 15 11 Is –7 a negative number?

12 First 4 multiples of 8

13 32 + 3 13 40th in words

14 5 × 3 + 6 × 3 14 360, 450, 540,

15 Metres in 3 km 15 Centimetres in 3·75 m

4

16 Perimeter of a square with 30 m sides

16 Area of a rectangle 6 cm by 2 cm

17 Litres in 3 950 mL 17 Litres in 4 250 mL

18 Kilograms in 7 355 g 18 Tonnes in 4 750 kg

19 06:43 as analog time

19 16 minutes after 9:53 am

20 How many edges on a

20 Is 180° a straight angle? triangular prism?

20 20

The unit digit

Some of the multiples of 8 are 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48. in 32 is 2.

The unit digits are 8, 6, 4, 2, 0.

When joined in order, these make a unit digit pattern.

Draw the unit digit patterns for the multiples of 3, 4, 6 and 7.

1 9

0

1

2 9

0

1

3 9

0

1

4 9

0

1

8 2 8 2 8 2 8 2

7 3 7 3 7 3 7 3 0

9 1

6 4 6 4 6 4 6 4 8 2

5 5 5 5

3 4 6 7 7 3

6 4

5

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Unit 15 Fun Spot!

1 A welder can cut a metal bar into 3 pieces in six

Draw a minutes. At the same speed, how long will it take to cut

diagram the same bar into 6 pieces?

It climbs up 3 m every day but slides down 1 m every night.

How long will it take to reach the top?

How many hands are held?

Act it out 10 cents was placed between the first two blocks,

20 cents between the next two, then 30 cents, then

40 cents and so on. How much money was used to fill

the spaces?

to colour this pattern if touching shapes

have different colours.

Make a list pairs of skis. How many different groups of three could

ski?

7 Mia has a bag full of 10c and 20c coins. In how many

different ways can she pay for a drink that costs $1.10?

50 Excel Mental Maths Strategies Year 6—Unit 15

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on page A6

Trial 8 Some classrooms have 35 chairs while others have only 30.

and error The total number of chairs in ten classrooms is 330. How

many classrooms have 35 chairs?

When Mark gave Karen $10 they both had the same amount.

How much did Karen originally have?

What are the numbers?

backwards divided by 3 then squared the result. If her final answer

was 36, with which number did she begin?

5 km west, 4 km north, 3 km east, 2 km north, A

6 km west and 4 km south to reach point D.

At which point did he begin? C B

D

0 1 2 3

kilometres

Use a ratio

a If there were 17 cars, how many people were there?

b I there were 76 people, how many cars were needed?

c I there were 91 people, how many cars were needed?

Excel Mental Maths Strategies Year 6—Unit 15

51

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Unit 16 Revision A

1 Place value of 6 in: 9 a 7 × = 63

a 6 897

b 36 592 b × 8 = 64

c 637 459

c 6+ = 92

2 Complete:

a 4 × 5 + 15 ÷ 5 10 Write:

b (4 + 6) × 3 + 8 a 11 to 8 as digital time

b 14 past 12 as digital time

3 Write: c 2:54 as analog time

a 0·4 as a percentage

b 25% as a fraction 11 How many:

c 39% as a decimal a millilitres in 3·575 L?

b grams in 2·525 kg?

4 a 135 + 48 c centimetres in 5·64 m?

b 142 – 67 d kilometres in 6 250 m?

c 124 × 10

d 369 ÷ 3 12 What is the perimeter of each shape?

a b c

5 Round off to the nearest thousand: 3 cm

6m 5 cm

a 5 694 4 cm

b 37 290

3 cm

c 164 531 3m 3 cm

a 6

b 9 13 How many edges has each shape?

c 7 a b c

a 100 before 28 674

b 1 000 after 175 639

________ ________ ________

8 Write the improper fraction for:

a 1 3 14 What is the area of each shape?

4

a b

b 2 3 9m 9 cm

5

c 2 6 9m 12 cm

10

d 17 ____________ ____________

8

52

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on pages A6-A7

Revision B

1 a 40 000 + 9 000 + 400 + 70 + 6 10 Roman numeral for:

b 50 000 + 9 000 + 70 + 5 a 251 b 164

c Place value of 8 in 58 462 c 375 d 299

11 Complete the number patterns.

2 Write as a percentage: a 108, 208, 308, ___ , ___

a 3

b 0·5 b 2 065, 2 165, 2 265, ____ , ____

10

c 0·65 12 How many:

a litres in 3 950 mL?

3 Average of: b kilograms in 6 575 g?

a 22, 28, 31 c metres in 3 km?

b 16, 19, 28, 29 4

d centimetres in 6 1 m?

4 Use > or < to show the bigger number. 2

a 5 964 5 694

13 Match each angle with its name:

b 25 430 25 410

acute angle reflex angle,

c 94 236 93 236

obtuse angle straight angle

a 12

b 24

c 30 __________ __________

c d

6 What is the time half an hour after:

a 25 to 9?

b 3:42 am? __________ __________

c 11:56 am?

14 Write as digital time.

7 Write the mixed number for: a 25 past 7

a 13 b 23 b 11 to 5

5 10

c 19 past 12

11 7

c d

8 3 15 Record each length shown.

a

8 List the first five multiples of:

a 8 cm

0 1 2 3 4 5

b 6

c 4

b

9 Write as 24-hour time:

cm

a 9:26 am 0 1 2 3 4 5

b 11:26 pm

c 11:49 am

d 8:59 am

Excel Mental Maths Strategies Year 6—Unit 16

53

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

A Unit 17

B To take

away from

1 23 + 42 +13 1 35 + 29 + 45 100, I subtract

2 84 – 67 2 100 – 67 from 99 then

3 100 × 10 add 1.

3 9 + 9 + 9 + 9+ 9

4 How many sixes in 24? 4 Divide 72 by 8

5 $5.00 – $3.75 5 9·6 – 5·8

6 How many digits in 346 579?

6 60 000 + 7 000 + 400 + 90 + 7

7 0·75 as a percentage 7 9 units + 5 tenths + 3 hundredths as

8 Round off 12 864 to nearest thousand decimal

8 Is 352 857 > 353 857?

9 Is 3 1 a mixed number? 9 Is 2 3 the same as 11 ?

4 4 4

10 3 of 30 10 7 – 3

10 8 8

11 Number 100 before 9 107 11 Number 2 000 before 89 257

12 Is 72 divisible by 4? 12 Is 336 divisible by 9?

13 5 squared 13 Ordinal number for thirty-ninth

14 105, 155, 205, 14 6 × 5 – 20 ÷ 4

15 Millimetres in 3·5 cm 15 Kilometres in 9 650 m

16 Perimeter of square with 8 cm sides 16 Perimeter of a square with 4·2 cm

sides

17 Millilitres in 6·5 L 17 Millilitres in 3·5 L

18 Grams in 4·5 kg 18 Grams in 2·375 kg

19 Two hours after 11:54 am

19 Days in March and April

20 Shape of base on a hexagonal

20 Is 123° more than a right pyramid

angle? 20 20

Coordinates

tell us the position on a

grid. We read the horizontal

1 What shape is located at: coordinates first

e.g. is at G2.

a F4?

b G1?

c C3?

d E5?

e D1? 5

f B4?

4

3

2 What are the coordinates of:

a ? b ? 2

c ? d ?

1

e ? f ?

A B C D E F G H

Excel Mental Maths Strategies Year 6—Unit 17

54

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on page A7

C To find the D

1 43 + 38 +16 average, add 1 Sum of 97 and 385

all the scores

2 200 – 86 and divide by 2 From 372 take 186

3 94 × 10 the number of 3 Product of 40 × 70

scores.

4 Quotient of 720 and 8

4 147 divided by 7

5 $3.95 + $2.60 + $4.85

5 $1.45 + $1.15 + $1.55

6 Place value of 6 in 169 378

6 40 000 + 9 000 + 60 + 8 7 0·2 as a percentage

7 75% as a decimal 8 Smallest 3-digit numeral using 4, 9, 3

8 Is 49 392 > 49 329

9 3 7 as an improper fraction 9 Which is not equivalent: 0·3, 30%, 3 ?

10 100

10 3 + 5 10 4 × 3

8 8 4

11 Is –5 a negative number? 11 Number 4 less than 2

12 Are 7 and 8 both factors of 64? 12 Lowest common multiple fo 4 and 5

13 62 + 5

14 1 107, 1 057, 1 007, 13 32 + 52

14 8 × 5 ÷ 10 + 8

15 Metres in 9·5 km

15 Centimetres in 15·56 m

16 Perimeter of a square with 3·5 m sides

16 Hectares in 10 000 m2

17 Litres in 3 275 mL 17 Volume of cup if it holds 250 mL

18 3·5 kg in grams

18 Grams in 3·455 kg

19 2 hours after 20:36

19 Minutes from 10:37 am to 12:16 pm

20 Shape of a cross-section of

20 Name for bottom of a pyramid a sphere

20 20

Regular shapes

have all sides equal

and all angles

1 Colour the regular shapes.

equal.

1 2 3

5 6

7

regular

8 10

9

irregular

55

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

A Unit 18

1 Add 38 and 46 1 38 + 29 + 32 only two factors.

e.g. factors of 3

2 61 take away 39 2 200 minus 94 are 1 and 3

3 10 × 20 3 63 × 5

4 How many eights in 32? 4 128 divided by 4

5 $5.00 + $2.95 5 $2.35 + $2.55 + $2.45

6 Place value of 6 in 69 742 6 Place value of 4 in 247 890

7 35% as a decimal 7 61 as a percentage

100

8 Round off 18 578 to nearest hundred 8 Is 326 487 < 328 487?

9 Eighths in 1 1 9 4=

8 5 10

10 2 of 12 10 2 of 40

3 5

11 Roman numeral for 358 11 Number 1 000 after 968 127

12 Average of 20, 30, 40 12 All prime numbers between 0 and 10

13 4 squared

13 32 + 22

14 7 × = 56

14 2 × 3 + 2 × 10

15 Millimetres in 6·7 cm

15 Metres in 6·7 km

16 Area of square with 5 cm sides

16 Is 36 cm the area of a 6 cm square?

2

17 Millilitres in 3 1 L

2 17 Millilitres in 6·8 L

18 Grams in 1 1 kg 18 Kilograms in 4·7 t

2

19 Days in Australian winter 19 Minutes in 1 3 hours

4

20 Angle between south and east 20 Shape of base on a pentagonal

pyramid

20 20

A column

graph shows

information in This graph shows the number of students

blocks. travelling by bus in one week.

1 How many travelled by bus on:

50 a 20th? ________ b 23rd? ________

Number of students

40

2 On which date did:

a 50 students travel? ________

30 b 45 students travel? ________

20 3 How many students travelled on 21st and

22nd? ________

10

4 How many students travelled by bus

19 20 21 22 23 during the week? ________

Date

Excel Mental Maths Strategies Year 6—Unit 18

56

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on page A7

C D

1 35 + 27 + 38 1 371 + 45

2 400 – 78 2 283 – 197

3 36 × 5 3 80 × 30

4 Remainder when 125 is divided by 8 Ouadrilaterals

4 450 ÷ 9 have four sides.

5 4 kg of apples at $1.35 per kilogram 5 16·5 + 7·8 + 5·9

6 How many digits in 6 947 201?

6 80 000 + 7 000 + 400 + 60 + 1

7 0·6 as a percentage

7 Is 4 = 40%?

100 8 Is 5 647 389 > 5 637 389?

8 Round off 245 689 to nearest thousand

9 4·55 as a mixed number

12 10 3 of 16

9 as a mixed number 4

5

11 Number 9 less than 4

10 25% of $120

12 Is 6 a factor of 456?

11 Hindu-Arabic numeral for DLXXIV

13 Last odd number before 800 000

12 Is 27 a prime number?

13 Last even number before 900 000

14 35 ÷ 7 + 3 × 4

14 2 175, 2 125, 2 075,

15 Metres in 8·475 km

15 Kilometres in 5 400 m

16 Area of rectangle 3·2 cm by 5 cm

16 Area of square with 9 m sides

17 Volume of rectangular prism with sides

17 Litres in 5 275 mL 5 m, 3 m and 2 m

18 Grams in 3 1 kg 18 Mass of 3 L water

4

19 6:38 am as analog time 19 2:49 pm as 24-hour time

20 Does a cube have eight faces? 20 Name a triangle with three

20 equal sides 20

Each cube

Find the volume of each prism. is 1 cm3.

5 cm 4 cm

1 2

2 cm

3 cm

7 cm

6 cm

________________ ________________

3 7 cm 4 12 cm

2 cm 6 cubes in one layer

3 cm

2 layers, so

3 cm

Volume = 2 × 6

4 cm

= 12 cubes

________________ ________________

57

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

A Unit 19

1 Sum of 45 and 39 1 Add 257 and 64

2 Take 46 from 84 2 From 264 take 89 Ascending

order is from

3 6 × 14 3 40 times 6 smallest to

4 How many nines in 45? largest.

4 360 divided by 6

5 $10.00 + $7.85 5 13·8 – 6·9

6 How many digits in 35 920? 6 70 000 + 9 000 + 500 + 20 + 4

7 0·64 as a percentage 7 One point six three as a decimal

8 Is 45 632 > 45 532? 8 Arrange in ascending order:

9 Halves in 3 1 6·8, 6·3, 6·5

2

5 3 9 9 as a mixed number

10 + 4

10 10

10 75% of 60

11 Number 1 000 after 9 867

11 Is a negative number less than zero?

12 Is 4 a factor of 30? 12 Highest common factor of 20 and 5

13 3 squared 13 42 + 22

14 1 560, 1 660, 1 760, 14 30 × = 600

15 Centimetres in 3·9 m

15 Kilometres in 6 800 m

16 Perimeter of square with 10 cm sides

16 Is 49 cm2 the area of a 7 cm square?

17 Millilitres in 7·5 L

17 Litres in 4 725 mL

18 Grams in 1 1 kg 18 Kilograms in 3·9 t

4

19 Days in Australian spring 19 Two hours before 9:06 pm

20 Is a sphere a plane shape? 20 Do parallel lines meet at 90°?

20 20

Dot plot 1 How many wins were there in:

a August?

b June?

Football wins

c March?

d May?

e April?

f July?

Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug

a March or August?

Month

b June or April?

c July or May?

d August or April?

Excel Mental Maths Strategies Year 6—Unit 19

58

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on pages A7-A8

C D

1 24 + 25 + 26 1 53 + 268

2 400 – 67 2 294 – 188

3 36 × 5 3 30 × 70 63 + = 135

4 Remainder when 134 is divided by 9 4 350 ÷ 7 We say 135 – 63 =

5 $20.00 – $14.85 = 72

5 $3.90 + $4.85 + $3.65

6 How many digits in 5 497 208? 6 600 000 + 50 000 + 8 000 + 300 + 60 + 4

7 Is 60 = 60%?

100 7 Zero + 5 tenths + 8 hundredths

8 Round off 467 279 to nearest thousand 8 Largest 4-digit number using:

6, 3, 0, 8

9 1·58 as a mixed number 9 Mixed number for 17

6

10 5 × 2

3 10 1 + 2

2 6

11 3 – 4 11 Roman numeral for 794

12 First five multiples of 9 12 Is 163 divisible by 7?

13 Last odd number before 300 000 13 60th in words

14 4 + 6 × 7 + 3 14 3 + 4 × 5 × 2

15 Kilometres in 9 300 m 15 Metres in 7·625 km

16 Area of rectangle with sides 3·5 cm 16 Perimeter of rectangle 3·4 m by 5·7 m

by 6 cm

17 Volume of rectangular prism sides

17 Millilitres in 7·8 L

3 m, 5 m and 4 m

18 Grams in 4·7 kg 18 Kilograms in 3·25 t

19 16 to 5 morning as digital time 19 06:27 as digital time

20 Does a rectangular prism have 20 Can the top view of a sphere

six faces? 20 be a circle? 20

An axis of

How many axes of symmetry in each shape?

symmetry

1 2 3 divides a shape

into two halves.

Each half

is a mirror

______ ______ ______ image of

the other.

4 5 6

axis of

symmetry

59

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

A Unit 20

B

1 90 + 50 1 Sum of 28, 39 and 57

2 93 minus 48 2 Take 69 from 237

3 Double 39 3 63 × 10

4 How many eights in 64? 4 Remainder when 130 is divided by 6

5 $10.00 + $6.90

6 3 000 + 700 + 90 + 5 5 $2.40 × 3

7 45% as a decimal 6 Place value of 3 in 378 910

8 Round off 26 937 to nearest thousand 7 9 as a percentage

10

8 Round off 865 201 to nearest ten

9 Eighths in 1 3 thousand

8

10 8 – 2 9 4 × 2·5

10 10

10 10% of 50

11 Roman numeral for 259

11 Is 15 a negative number?

12 Are 5 and 3 both factors of 35? 12 Lowest common multiple of 4 and 6

13 2 squared

14 326, 276, 226, 13 52 – 15

15 Centimetres in 5·2 m 14 56, 64, 72,

16 Area of square with 7 cm sides 15 Metres in 3·8 km

17 Litres in 7 500 mL 16 Area of rectangle 4·3 cm by 3 cm

17 Litres in 1 439 mL

18 Grams in 1 3 kg

4 18 Kilograms in 3 595 g

19 Minutes from 3:09 am to 3:56 am 19 7:53 as analog time

20 Does a square pyramid have

20 Is a right angle more six faces?

than 75°? 20 20

24-hour time

does not need

am or pm.

Write each time as 24-hour time.

1 2 3 4

am pm am pm

________ ________ ________ ________

5 6 7 8

am pm am pm 6:35 am is

5:14 11:27 10:47 1 0:32 06:35

6:35 pm is

18:35

________ ________ ________ ________

60

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on page A8

C To share, we divide. D

1 Add 37, 46 and 54 $1.40 shared 1 Add 170 and 47

between two is

2 Take 89 from 274 $1.40 ÷ 2 = $0.70 2 Subtract 169 from 328

3 35 × 10 3 40 × 60

4 23 ÷ 5 4 280 ÷ 4

5 Share $6.90 among three 5 $35.65 – $17.95

girls

6 Place value of 4 in 405 378

6 80 000 + 2 000 + 400 + 6

4 6 7 Which is not equivalent: 0·6, 60%, 6 ?

7 Is + = 0·45? 100

10 100

8 Is 208 901 > 207 901? 8 Round off 356 895 to nearest thousand

9 1 4 as improper fraction

5

9 Improper fraction for 3 2

1 3

10 of 120

3 10 Cost if 25% off $400

11 Number 6 less than 1 11 Number 100 after 356 987

12 HIghest common factor of 4 and 20 12 Is 9 a factor of 1 665?

13 4 + 10 2

13 Is 81 a square number?

14 4 + 6 × 7 – 9 14 5 × 6 + 4 × 5

15 Metres in 2·6 km 15 Distance in 3 hours at 60 km/h

16 Is 77 cm2 the area of a 7 cm square? 16 Hectares in 20 000 m2

17 Millilitres in 9·4 L

17 Volume of glass if it holds 750 mL

18 Grams in 11 kg + 3

kg 18 Grams in 2·5 kg + 3·2 kg

2 4

19 28 to 5 afternoon as digital time 19 4:53 am as 24-hour time

20 Is a rectangle a quadrilateral? 20 Name triangle with two

20 equal angles

20

You have

to visualise the

Here are five views of the same cube. cube from all

directions.

1 2 3

61

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

A Unit 21

3 6

and are

5 10

equivalent

B fractions.

2 84 minus 56 2 285 minus 97

3 7 times 30 3 10 × 39

4 Half of 78 4 53 divided by 9

5 $10.00 + $9.85 5 2·13 × 4

6 How many digits in 67 392? 6 How many digits in 329 601?

7 Is 60% the same 0·65?

7 3 + 5 + 6 + 8 as decimal

8 Is 56 729 > 56 279? 10 100 1000

8 Smallest four-digit numeral using:

9 3 = 5, 9, 3, 8

4 8

10 25% of 12 candles 9 Improper fraction for 3 3

5

11 Hindu-Arabic numeral for CCXLVII 10 9 – 3

10 10

11 1 – 8

12 Lowest common multiple of 6 and 18

12 Average of 51, 53, 55 and 57

13 4 squared 13 62 – 11

14 50 – (5 × 6) 14 + 95 = 162

15 Metres in 624 cm 15 Millimetres in 5 1 cm

2

16 Area of square with 9 m sides 16 Area of square with 20 m sides

17 Litres in 3 500 mL 17 Litres in 8 450 mL

18 Kilograms in 1 t 18 Grams in 2·5 kg

19 28 to 10 evening as digital time 19 Minutes from 11:45 pm to 1:10 am

20 How many sides has 20 Shape of base on a hexagonal

a quadrilateral? pyramid 20

20

1 Draw and label the factors of 12. A factor is a

number that will

Factors of 6 are

divide exactly into

1, 6, 2 and 3.

another number.

6

1

62

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on page A8

C 0·62 D

1 28 + 39 + 47 We read this as 1 Sum of 164, 50 and 53

2 362 – 68 ‘zero point six two’. 2 Take 139 from 456

3 10 × 24 3 4 × 600

4 46 ÷ 6 4 Remainder when 197 ÷ 20

5 Share $20.50 among 5 friends 5 6·8 × 5

6 Expanded notation for 348 109

6 Expanded notation for 56 729 7 8 + 7 + 9 + 7 as decimal

10 100 1000

7 Numeral for seven point zero nine

8 Largest four-digit numeral using:

8 Is 467 345 < 476 345? 2, 7, 9, 6

9 Simplify 8

9 3= 12

5 10

10 7 – 2

10 3 × 20 10 5

4

11 Number 12 less than 3

11 Hindu-Arabic numeral for DCCXLVI

12 Add prime numbers between 30 and 45

12 Is 35 a composite number?

13 Are 36 and 49 both square numbers?

13 52 + 62

14 (4 + 7) × 3

14 4, 9, 16,

15 Millimetres in 25·6 cm

15 Kilometres in 6 250 m

16 Area of rectangle 6 m by 3 m

16 Area of square with 7·5 cm sides

17 Millilitres in 8·625 L

17 Volume of a cube with 5 cm sides

18 Kilograms in 4·5 t

18 Kilograms in 4·75 t

19 Minutes from 3:27 am to 5:13 am

19 3 hours after 10:48 pm

20 Name of triangle with two equal

sides 20 Sum of angles in a triangle

20 20

A

Circle the parallelograms. parallelogram

has four sides.

B C

A

F

E 4 cm

D 2 cm 2 cm

I 4 cm

H A parallelogram has

G J opposite sides equal

and opposite angles

equal.

63

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

A Unit 22

1 24 + 32 + 45 1 180 + 97 fractions we have to

make the denominators

2 100 minus 69 2 325 – 39 the same.

3 4 times 40 3 Multiply 6 and 50

4 Half of 92 4 149 ÷ 5

5 Two boxes at $2.75 a box 5 $15.00 + $9.45

6 How many digits in 136 579? 6 Place value of 6 in 641 579

7 0·35 as a percentage 7 Five point eight six as a decimal

8 Is 19 472 > 19 306? 8 Is 459 368 closer to 459 000 or 460 000?

9 6 = 9 1 7 as an improper fraction

10 5 8

10 2 + 3 + 1 10 7 + 1

8 8 8 12 6

11 Number 1 000 after 35 378 11 Next number after 348 799

12 Is 15 a prime number? 12 All prime numbers between 10 and 20

13 62

13 62 + 52 + 22

14 5 × 6 + 4 × 5

14 25, 36, 49,

15 Metres in 825 cm 15 Millimetres in 13·9 cm

16 Perimeter of triangle with 7 m sides 16 Is 63 m2 the area of 8 m by 7 m rectangle?

18 Tonnes in 2 000 kg 18 Kilograms in 1·25 t

19 11:36 pm as analog time 19 Minutes from 9:45 am to 11:06 am

20 How many faces on a

pentagonal prism? 20 Do parallel lines meet at 30°?

20 20

1 If EST is 6:29 am, what is the time in: Eastern Standard Time (EST)

a Perth? _________ b Darwin? _________ Central Standard Time (CST)

c Hobart? _________ d Adelaide? _________ half an hour behind EST

Western Standard Time (WST)

2 hours behind EST

2 If it is midnight in Perth, what is the time in:

a Sydney? _________ b Adelaide? _________

c Brisbane? _________ d Darwin? _________

a Adelaide? _________ b Perth? _________

64

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on pages A9

C D

1 290 + 64 1 243 + 168 + 76

To find the

2 236 – 19 product we 2 Difference between 841 and 358

multiply.

3 30 multiplied by 8 3 Product of 78 and 6

4 738 divided by 9

4 95 ÷ 7

5 Share $66.16 among four people

5 6·7 + 3·8 + 6·4

6 How many digits in 367 289?

6 40 000 + 6 000 + 200 + 40 + 5

7 7 + 5 + 3 as decimal

7 9 as a decimal 100 1000

10

8 Is 6 789 561 < 6 689 561?

8 Is 356 792 < 366 792?

9 Which is not equivalent: 6 , 6%, 0·6?

9 2·38 as a mixed number 10

10 3 – 2

5 10 10 Cost if 10% off $350

11 Number before 230 000 11 Roman numeral for 679

12 Highest common factor of 3 and 12 12 Is 394 a multiple of 4?

13 Odd number before 86 380 13 Even number before 93 240

14 80 – (63 – 13) + 7 14 (35 – 29) × 8

15 Metres in 8 1 km 15 Kilometres in 8 575 m

2

16 Is 64 cm2 the area of an 8 cm square? 16 Hectares in 30 000 m2

17 Volume of a cube with 4 m sides

17 Millilitres in 3·755 L 18 Grams in 5·725 kg

18 Kilograms in 2·25 t 19 23:37 as digital time

19 Two hours after 11:43 am 20 Name triangle with three

20 Does a parallelogram have equal angles

four sides? 20 20

Complete each parallelogram.

A B

C

Parallelograms

D E F have opposite

sides equal and

parallel.

G

H

65

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Unit 23 Fun Spot!

1 Peta started with a number, added 3, multiplied the

result by 4, then subtracted 6 and multiplied that result

Work by 3. If her final answer was 90, with which number did

backwards she begin?

bought 68. After 3 died, he sold another 260.

If he now had 190, with how many did he begin?

3 On a bus, Mia watched 8 people get off and 4 get on at the first stop, 3 get off and 10 get

on at the second, 5 get off and 7 get on at the third. If there were now 25 passengers,

how many were on the bus when Mia started counting?

4 Con has $3 more than Chi and $2 more than Cher, while

Trial Jan has $1 less than Cher. Together they have $28.

and error How much has Con?

time he’ll be four times as old as his daughter.

How old is Mr Right now?

How many chickens are there?

many two-digit numbers can be made using 1, 2, 3 and 4?

Make a list

write?

with 1?

66 Excel Mental Maths Strategies Year 6—Unit 23

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on page A9

Solve a simpler

problem 10 Eight people were at a party. If each person shook hands

with every other person, how many handshakes were there?

to form 40 large triangles?

50 rhombuses, how many matches will

form the perimeter of the whole pattern?

Eliminate Only one answer below shows the total number of parts.

possibilities Which is it?

a 135 b 138 c 136 d 133

10·5 cm to 12·7 cm.

Could the total of their lengths be 120·5 cm, 125·6 cm,

134·9 cm or 153·7 cm?

15 Mindy banks more than $12.70 each week. In five weeks could she bank $61.50, $63.00,

$62.90 or $64.20?

Look for a b

patterns A A

B B

C C

67

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Unit 24 Revision A

1 Place value of 2 in: 10 Write:

a 2 597 a 3:16 pm as 24-hour time

b 49 238 b 08:39 as digital time

c 290 168 c 11:37 as analog time

2 Complete:

11 How many:

a 4 + 9 × 3 – 10

a millilitres in 7·5 L?

b (2 × 3) + 5 × 8

b grams in 3·6 kg?

3 Write: c metres in 5·275 km?

a 0·38 as a percentage d hectares in 20 000 m ?2

b 35 as a decimal

100

12 What is the perimeter of each shape?

c 0·58 as a fraction a b

7m 7m

4 a 268 + 54 8 cm

b 200 – 74

7m

c 40 × 20 5 cm

d 171 ÷ 9

_______ _______

5 Round off to the nearest thousand:

a 25 375 13 How many faces has each solid?

b 49 621 a b c

c 378 502

6 Write the first five multiples of:

a 8

b 9 ______ ______ ______

c 6

14 What is the area of each shape?

7 Write the number that is:

a 1 000 after 67 206 a

b 1 000 before 569 358 6m

8 Write the improper fraction for:

6m __________

a 15 b 2 3 b

6 4

6 cm

c 2 7 d 2 5

10 8

12 cm

__________

9 a 34 + = 92 15 Lowest common multiple of:

b + 39 = 101 a 2 and 7

b 3 and 6

c 7× = 63

68

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on page A9

Revision B

1 a 80 000 + 4 000 + 700 + 20 + 1 10 Write as 24-hour time:

b 500 000 + 90 000 + 4 000 + 50 + 8 a 3:37 am

b 10:17 am

c Place value of 6 in 165 937 c 6:58 pm

d 9:26 am

2 Write as a percentage:

11 Roman number for:

a 7 b 0·9 a 307 b 589

10

c 0·84 c 767 d 684

3 Highest common factor of: 12 a 3 squared b 5 squared

c 42 d 62

a 4 and 6

b 15 and 20 13 How many:

a litres in 7 500 mL?

4 Use > or < to show the bigger number. b kilograms in 9 250 g?

a 38 439 38 349 c metres in 1·5 km?

b 94 627 94 687 d centimetres in 629 mm?

c 107 385 108 385 e metres in 7·25 km?

5 Circle the factors of: 14 Match each triangle with its name:

a 16 (4, 6, 8, 9, 12) isosceles equilateral right-angled

b 20 (4, 5, 6, 9, 10) a b

c 30 (5, 6, 7, 8, 10)

6 What is the time two hours after: __________ __________

a 5:39 pm? c

b 11:41 am?

c 13:27?

d 05:52?

__________

7 Write the mixed number for:

a 11 b 16 15 Write as digital time.

6 5 a 06:45 b 15:12

c 17 d 11 c 11:57 d 21:28

8 3

16 Record each length shown.

8 a 3 + 2 b 7

–

5 a

8 8 10 10

cm

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

9 List the first five multiples of:

a 7 b

b 4 cm

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

69

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

A Unit 25

B 1 t = 1 000 kg

1 25 + 26 + 47 1 To 258 add 65 where t = tonne

2 582 minus 97 and kg = kilogram

2 100 minus 57

3 5 times 30 3 Multiply 5 and 30

4 Half of 76 4 164 divided by 8

5 $20.45 + $3.65

5 $10.75 shared among 5 boys

6 Place value of 5 in 459 237

6 How many digits in 369 472?

7 Numeral for three point five eight

7 55% as a decimal

8 Is 11 457 < 11 657? 8 Round off 358 962 to nearest ten

9 Quarters in 2 1 thousand

4

9 2 2 as an improper fraction

3

10 1 + 2 + 1

5 5 5 10 60% of 30

11 Number 1 000 after 39 503 11 3 – 12

12 All prime numbers between 0 and 10 12 Circle the prime numbers: 63, 71, 81, 91

13 42 – 15

13 Is 16 a square number? 14 6 × 4 + 6 × 5

14 2 × (50 – 35) 15 Metres in 973 cm

15 Metres in 5 km 16 Area of rectangle 4·2 m by 5 m

16 Area of rectangle 4 m by 8 m 17 Volume of rectangular prism with sides

5 m, 4 m and 3 m

17 Millilitres in 3·7 L

18 Tonnes in 3 955 kg

18 Kilograms in 3 t

19 Minutes from 11:17 am to 1:39 pm

19 25 to 9 morning as digital time

20 How many sides has 20 Circle the obtuse angle:

a trapezium? 20 48°, 169°, 295° 20

Circle the correct cross-section for each solid.

1 2

cross-

section

3 4

A cross-section is

the face that we

see when we slice

a piece off a solid.

70

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

The largest Answers on pages A9–A10

possible

C number is 9640. D

1 97 + 180 1 Sum of 345, 271 and 196

2 325 – 39 2 Difference between 461 and 49

3 Multiply 6 and 50 6 4

3 Multiply 60 by 40

4 149 ÷ 5 9 0 4 77 ÷ 8

5 Change from $20 5 9·86 – 6·59

if I spend $12.75 6 Place value of 2 in 2 378 459

6 How many digits in 1 654 327? 7 3·78 to the nearest whole number

7 Numeral for seven point zero three 8 Arrange in descending order:

8 Largest 4-digit numeral using: 2·4, 2·7, 2·1

3, 6, 8, 4 9 12·95 as a mixed number

9 Improper fraction for 4 3 10 5 of 144

5 12

10 3 + 1 11 Hindu-Arabic numeral for DCCXCVI

5 10

11 Numeral 6 less than 2

12 Average of $1.30, $1.90, $1.60

12 All factors of 36

13 112

13 82 + 9 14 320, 400, 480,

14 48 ÷ (4 + 4) ÷ 2 15 Distance covered in 5 hours at 85 km/h

15 Centimetres in 8·37 m

16 Perimeter of a square with 9·5 cm sides 16 Area of rectangle 5·5 cm by 6 cm

17 Volume of cup if it holds 500 mL

17 How many cm3 in 950 mL of water? 18 5·5 kg at $2.20 per kilogram

18 Tonnes in 2 575 kg 19 Time in Adelaide if EST

19 9:26 pm as 24-hour time is 3:40 am

20 Does a decagon have ten 20 Are all angles in a regular

sides? 20 hexagon equal? 20

Daily bridge traffic

Sun 2 How many vehicles crossed the bridge on:

Mon a Monday? ______ b Thursday? _______

Tue c Tuesday? ______ d Saturday? _______

Day

Wed

Fri

a Monday and Tuesday? ____________

Sat

b Thursday and Friday? ____________

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 c Saturday and Sunday? ____________

Number of vehicles (in hundreds)

4 How many more vehicles used the bridge on

1 On which day were there: Friday than on:

a 600 vehicles? ____________ a Tuesday? ____________

b 1 100 vehicles? ____________ b Saturday? ____________

c 800 vehicles? ____________ c Wednesday? ____________

d 1 400 vehicles? ____________

Excel Mental Maths Strategies Year 6—Unit 25

71

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

A Unit 26

B A line of

1 32 + 46 + 28 1 148 + 35 symmetry

divides a shape

2 100 minus 78 2 263 – 147 into two mirror

3 3 times 40 3 40 × 50 images.

4 Half of 58 4 180 ÷ 3

5 $6.90 + $5.65 5 $10.00 – $4.75

6 30 000 + 5 000 + 900 + 80 + 2 6 How many digits in 7 469 023?

7 Numeral for four point nine 7 7 as a percentage

10

8 Round off 67 104 to nearest ten

8 Largest possible number using 6, 5, 9, 3

thousand

9 Improper fraction for 1 2

3 9 2 3 as improper fraction

8

10 50% of 50

10 20% of $60

11 Roman numeral for 529

12 Highest common factor of 2, 4 and 6 11 Number 100 after 356 937

12 Is 56 a prime number?

13 3 squared 13 42 + 52

14 8 × 4 – (3 × 4) 14 160, 240, 320,

15 Kilometres in 6 000 m 15 Metres in 1 567 cm

16 Area of rectangle 3 cm by 6 cm

16 Square metres in 7 ha

17 Volume of cube with 5 cm sides

17 Millilitres in 4·5 L

18 Tonnes in 5 000 kg 18 Kilograms in 3·575 t

19 Minutes in 1 1 hours 19 Two hours before 10:07 pm

2

20 Is a rectangle a 20 Does a rectangle have a line

quadrilateral? 20 of symmetry? 20

Use the pie graph to answer the following.

Finches

s

ng

rli

rk

dla

Sta

Magpies u

M Other

2 Were more magpies seen than:

a mudlarks? ___ b sparrows? ___ c finches? ___ Parrots

Sparrows

3 Were more parrots seen than:

a starlings? ___ b sparrows? ___ c magpies? ___

4 Together, were more finches and magpies seen than:

a parrots? ___ b starlings? ___ c others? ___

5 What fraction of the birds seen were either parrots or

sparrows?__________

A pie graph uses parts of a

circle to show information.

72

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on page A10

C 25 km/h means a

D

1 169 + 78 speed of

1 1 430 + 300

2 234 – 168 25 kilometres per 2 Subtract 263 from 596

hour.

3 20 × 60 3 Multiply 120 by 300

4 250 ÷ 5 4 Quotient of 140 and 10

5 $3.30 + $4.65 + $2.95 5 Five DVDs at $19.95 each

6 Place value of 1 in 178 469 6 Thousands in 1 456 389

7 6·7 to nearest whole number 7 Is 45% the same as 0·4?

8 Largest number using 6, 4, 8, 2, 7 8 Smallest possible number using

4, 6, 5, 9, 3

9 2 5 as improper fraction 9 Simplify 6

6 10

10 7 – 3 10 Add 1 and 1

8 8 6 3

12 Are 9 and 6 both factors of 36? 12 Add prime numbers between 12 and 20

13 52 – 15

13 Triangular number after 10

14 40 ÷ 5 + 25 14 56 ÷ 8 – 36 ÷ 6

15 Distance covered in 2 hours at 70 km/h 15 Average speed if 480 km covered in 6 h

17 Volume of cup if it holds 500 mL 17 Volume of a cube with 6 cm sides

18 Kilograms in 1·75 t 18 Tonnes in 3 250 kg

19 01:48 as digital time 19 2 hours before 22:17

20 Is a quadrant a quarter of a circle? 20 Diameter of a circle with

20 radius 3·45 cm 20

Answer the following by looking at the diagram.

1 Which line is parallel to:

a D? ____ b H? ____ c G? ____

2 Which line is perpendicular to: A

a I? ____ b C? ____ c D? ____

I

Perpendicular B

lines meet at Parallel

lines always

right angles. H

remain the

same distance C

apart and

never meet. D

F

E G

73

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

A Unit 27

B 350 mL of water

1 75 + 156 1 Add 168 and 43 takes up a space

of 350 cm3.

2 Take 64 from 192 2 Subtract 135 from 382

3 Double 38 3 Product of 40 and 60

4 How many fours in 120? 4 240 ÷ 6

5 How much for 10 L of petrol at 5 11·5 – 6·9

85c a litre? 6 300 000 + 60 000 + 5 000 + 700 + 40

6 How many digits in 385 604?

7 Which is not equivalent:

7 60% as a decimal

0·65, 60%, 65 ?

8 Is 34 967 < 34 957? 100

9 8 as a mixed number 8 Largest number using 8, 4, 9, 2, 5

3

9 1·07 as a mixed number

10 50% of 90

10 Cost if 25% off $200

11 Negative number before –5

11 Number 25 less than 14

12 Are 4 and 6 both factors of 48?

12 Highest common factor of 6, 9 and 12

13 42

14 23 + 12 – 8 13 32 + 42

15 Metres in 7 km 14 810, 900, 990,

16 Perimeter of square with 6 m sides 15 Kilometres in 5 725 m

16 Perimeter of square with 3·5 cm sides

17 Millilitres in 6·5 L

18 Kilograms in 4 t 17 Volume of cup if it holds 750 mL

19 10:09 am as analog time 18 Tonnes in 5 750 kg

20 Is a straight angle > a right 19 21:38 as digital time

angle? 20 Sum of angles in a triangle 20

20

1 List the possibilities you can get when you:

we have only two

_______________________________ possible outcomes:

a head or a tail.

b spin the spinner.

5 6

_______________________________ 1 If we toss two coins

4

3 2 we can get:

c draw one marble from the hat. 2 heads, 2 tails or

a head and a tail

_______________________________

_______________________________

74

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

To simplify Answers on pages A10–A11

a fraction we divide

C the top and the bottom

by the same

D

1 Add 140 and 69 number. 1 Add 147 to 652

2 Subtract 143 from 478 2 Subtract 135 from 216

3 30 × 70 3 Multiply 145 by 20

4 280 ÷ 4 4 4 790 ÷ 10

5 $30.00 – $16.45 5 Change from $100 if $64.95 spent

6 Place value of 8 in 864 539 6 Place value of 6 in 3 681 294

7 Which is not equivalent: 0·4, 4%, 4 ? 7 4·39 to the nearest whole number

10

8 Smallest number using 8, 1, 0, 4 8 Is 2 567 389 > 2 557 389?

9 Is 3 > 10 ? 9 Simplify 1 4

4 12 12

10 Cost if 25% off $800

10 2 + 7

5 10 11 Number before 3 000 000

11 Number 10 less than zero 12 Is 364 a multiple of 7?

12 Average of $3.60, $3.90, $4.50, $5.40 13 10 squared

14 36 × = 3600

13 Is 64 a square number?

15 Distance in 4 hours at 130 km/h

14 – 49 = 25

16 Square metres in 4 ha

15 Kilometres in 4 125 m 17 Volume of container if it holds 1 L

16 Hectares in 30 000 m 18 Mass of 3·5 L of water

17 Volume of rectangular prism 19 Time in Perth if EST is 4:35 am

6 cm, 4 cm, 2 cm sides?

20 How many edges on a

18 Mass of 2 L water hexagonal prism?

19 14:29 as digital time

20 Name polygon with six sides

20 20

The diameter is

twice as long as

the radius.

Use a pair of compasses to draw these circles.

diameter radius

radius 15 mm diameter 34 mm radius 1·9 cm

75

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

A Unit 28

B We can write

1 106 + 64 1 Sum of 146, 29 and 37 as

remainders

fractions

2 137 – 58

3 10 times 20 2 Take 108 from 273

4 How many sixes in 180? 3 6 × 300

5 $1.55 + $2.35 + $1.65 4 Is 148 ÷ 7 = 21 2 ?

7

6 Place value of 5 in 35 690 5 Share $24.60 among six people

7 Numeral for eight point six three 6 800 000 + 60 000 + 4 000 + 300 + 6

7 3·51 to nearest whole number

8 Smallest number using 6, 3, 8, 4 8 Is 348 952 < 284 952?

9 Simplify 6

9

9 Sixths in 15

6

10 20% of 250

10 50% of 60 11 Hindu-Arabic numeral for MCXIV

11 Roman numeral for 762 12 Lowest common multiple of 3 and 7

12 All composite numbers between 11 13 32 + 5

and 19

14 1025, 975, 925,

13 Ordinal number for thirty-eighth 15 Kilometres in 2 975 m

14 16 + 4 × 6 16 Square metres in 1 ha

15 Kilometres in 4 000 m 17 Volume of cube with 3 cm sides

16 Area of rectangle 9 m by 5 m 18 Mass of 3 L water

17 Litres in 4 500 mL 19 6:18 pm as 24-hour time

18 Tonnes in 6 000 kg 20 Tick the quadrant:

19 7:53 pm as analog time A B C

20

On a number plane the x-coordinate comes 1 Write the letter at each point.

before the y-coordinate. a (3, 1) b (4, 3)

c (5, 1) d (1, 4)

y -axis E

5 e (3, 4) f (7, 3)

A G M K g (1, 1) h (3, 0)

4

I N F P J

3 2 Write the coordinates for each point.

B L a L b P

2

c K d B

D O C

1 e N f G

H g E h I

0 x -axis

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

76

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on page A11

C D 7 =7×7 2

1 Sum of 154, 38 and 49 1 1 576 + 132

= 49

2 Take 136 from 378 2 381 – 163

3 3 × 500 3 Product of 90 and 8

4 Remainder when 187 ÷ 5 4 Remainder when 511 ÷ 6

5 8·64 – 3·78 5 Share $84.35 among 5 friends

6 Place value of 7 in 1 753 849 6 Expanded notation for 1 350 607

7 Which is not equivalent: 0·5, 50%, 5 ? 7 Numeral for five point six four

100

8 Arrange in descending order:

8 Smallest possible number using: 3·8, 3·4, 3·9

5, 8, 4, 3, 9 9 Simplify 6

12

9 Is 25% less than 0·3?

10 Cost if 10% off $750

10 Cost if 10% off $150

11 Hindu-Arabic numeral for MDCCLIV

11 Number 12 more than –7

12 Lowest common multiple of 5 and 8 12 Average of $4.55, $2.35, $3.90

13 6 squared

13 Is 21 a triangular number?

14 10 × 10 – 72 ÷ 9

14 3 064, 3 014, 2 964,

15 Average speed if 300 km covered in 4 h

15 Distance covered in 3 hours at 60 km/h

17 Volume of cube with 4 cm sides 17 Mass of 4·75 L of water

18 Kilograms in 3·5 t 18 Tonnes in 2 475 kg

19 Two hours after 11:01 pm 19 4 hours after 13:29

20 Tick the sector: A B 20 Radius of a circle with

diameter 4·56 m

20 20

Use the bar graph to answer the following.

a women? _____ b girls? _____ parts of a bar to

show information.

2 Were there fewer men than:

a boys? _____ b women? _____

3 Was the total of men and women the same as the

total of boys and girls? _____

4 Order the size of each group from largest to

smallest. __________________________________

Excel Mental Maths Strategies Year 6—Unit 28

77

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

A Unit 29

B We use ha

for hectare.

1 124 + 35 1 137 + 165 + 39

1 hectare

2 Difference between 163 and 87 2 249 – 168 = 10 000 m2

3 20 × 30 3 Product of 34 and 6

4 120 ÷ 6 4 192 divided by 5

5 $2.50 × 3 5 $15.30 – $9.85

6 How many digits in 906 500? 6 Place value of 2 in 2 569 385

7 0·6 as a percentage 7 7·04 as a mixed number

8 Round off 259 368 to nearest 8 Arrange in ascending order:

thousand 3·5, 3·8, 3·6

10 12

2

10 25% of $200

10 25% of 80

11 Number 25 more than –8

11 Next number after 156 789

12 Is 504 a multiple of 9?

12 First four multiples of 6 13 52 + 10

13 90 – 82 14 3 096, 3 146, 3 196,

14 63 ÷ =7 15 Distance covered in 5 hours at 50 km/h

15 Kilometres in 7 000 m

16 Perimeter of rectangle sides 3·2 m 16 Square metres in 9 ha

by 4·2 m 17 Volume of container if it holds 350 mL

17 Litres in 7 500 mL

18 Mass of 1·5 L water

18 Kilograms in 2·5 t

19 Time in Perth if EST is 8:47 am

19 6:38 am as analog time

20 Shape of base on a triangular

20 Name the triangle with all prism

angles 60° 20

20

The area of each

triangle is half

Find the area of each triangle. the area of each

4 cm rectangle.

1 4 cm 2

2 cm

3 cm

A = __________ A = __________

3 3 cm 4 5 cm A rectangle has

sides 4 cm by 2 cm.

3 cm Area

3 cm

= length × width

=4×2

= 8 cm2

Therefore area of

A = __________ A = __________ triangle is 4 cm2.

78

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on page A11

C 32 + 11 D

1 236 + 124 + 47 = 3 × 3 + 11 1 3 267 + 245

= 9 + 11

2 369 – 276 = 20 2 From 311 take 185

3 Product of 25 and 5 3 400 × 60

4 Is 137 ÷ 4 = 34 1 ? 4 Quotient of 1 496 and 10

4

5 12·75 – 9·8

5 Ten toys at $6.95 each

6 Place value of 9 in 9 174 682

6 Expanded notation for 367 005

7 Numeral for nineteen point zero eight

7 6·37 to nearest whole number

8 Arrange in descending order:

8 Is 4 245 789 < 4 245 145?

1·4, 1·6, 1·3

9 Simplify 1 8

9 Simplify 4 12

10

10 50% of 640

10 3 of $84

4 11 –2 + 5

11 Number before 290 000 12 Product of 45 and 6

12 First four multiples of 12 13 92 + 9

13 72 + = 60 14 81, 64, 49,

14 20 × 9 ÷ 3 15 Distance in 7 hours at 150 km/h

15 Metres in 3·65 km

16 Hectares in 30 000 m2 16 Square metres in 5 ha

17 Volume of container if it holds 250 mL 17 Volume of vase if it holds 2 L

18 Mass of 3·25 L of water

18 Grams in 3·725 kg 19 Time in Melbourne if EST is 2:19 pm

19 10:31 am as 24-hour time

20 Diameter of a circle with 20 Is the top view of a cone

radius 3·5 cm 20 a circle? 20

Number plane—four quadrants

The x-coordinate comes before the 1 Write the letter at each point.

y-coordinate. a (2, 4) b (3, 1)

y -axis

c (0, 3) d (4, –2)

L 6

e (–2, 4) f (–5, 1)

I A

4 E D g (–3, 2) h (–2, –2)

J B

K 2 C

2 Write the coordinates for each point.

x -axis a B b D

–6 –4 –2 0 2 4 6

F c G d H

N –2 G

M

e L f N

–4 H g O h M

O

–6

Excel Mental Maths Strategies Year 6—Unit 29

79

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

A Unit 30

B Simplify

2

=

2÷2

1 145 + 57 1 143 + 260 + 28 10 10 ÷ 2

5

3 50 × 30 3 Product of 45 and 5

4 150 ÷ 5 4 167 divided by 6

5 $2.50 × 4 5 12·5 × 9

6 Place value of 7 in 378 391 6 600 000 + 10 000 + 5 000 + 400 + 30 + 5

7 Is 0·75 the same as 57%?

7 Numeral for sixteen point zero nine

8 Is 567 290 < 576 290?

9 Improper fraction for 2 5 8 Smallest number using 8, 5, 2, 6

6

10 50% of 64 9 Simplify 4

16

11 Roman numeral for 629 10 Cost if 10% off $300

12 Is 248 divisible by 4? 11 Number before 500 000

13 32 + 5 12 Is 683 divisible by 7?

14 × 8 = 160 13 42 + 50

15 Kilometres in 9 000 m 14 × 32 = 160

16 Area of square with sides 10 m 15 Metres in 4·375 km

16 Hectares in 60 000 m2

17 Litres in 9 500 mL 17 Volume of container if it holds 950 mL

18 Kilograms in 4·5 t

19 20 past 4 morning as am or pm time 18 Mass of 1·625 L water

19 23:57 as digital time

20 How many faces has a 20 How many edges on an hexagonal

square prism? prism?

20 20

To change

millimetres to

centimetres we

Complete each table.

divide by 10.

Millimetre 50 120 87

Centimetre 7 3·5

Metre 6 7·5 mm ÷ 10 = cm

cm ÷ 100 = m

Metre 4 000 6 500 4 725

m ÷ 1000 = km

Kilometre 8 8·5

80

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on page A12

C One D

1 228 + 132 + 69 point five 1 2 608 + 139

six is

2 246 – 178 1·56 2 Difference between 906 and 178

3 64 multiplied by 6 3 70 × 500

4 Is 196 ÷ 6 = 32 5 ? 4 Quotient of 5 627 and 10

6

5 Change from $20 if $16.45 spent 5 Share $59.55 between three

6 Expanded notation for 475 926 6 How many digits in 26 789 201?

7 One point two five six as a decimal

5 6 4

7 6+ + + 8 Is 6 389 514 > 6 388 514?

10 100 1000

8 Is 345 498 closer to 345 000 or 350 000? 9 Simplify 1 15

20

10 Cost if 10% off $650

9 Simplify 12

24

11 Number before 67 000 000

10 25% of $640

12 Product of 54 and 4

11 Number 30 more than –16

13 Is 28 a triangular number?

12 Is 3 050 divisible by 5?

14 (9 + 7 + 5 × 8) ÷ 2

13 6, 10, 15,

15 Distance in 8 hours at 360 km/h

14 ÷ 8 = 25 16 Square metres in 12 ha

15 Metres in 4·75 km 17 Volume of container if it holds 2·375 L

16 Hectares in 60 000 m 2

18 Grams in 6·125 kg 19 Minutes from 11:35 to 14:06

19 08:52 as am or pm time 20 Are opposite sides of a

rectangle parallel?

20 Is 89° an acute angle? 20 20

Complete each table.

Kilogram 5 7·5 To change

grams to

kilograms we

divide by 1 000.

Gram 9 000 8 500 1 625 To change

Kilogram kilograms

2 3·85 to grams we

multiply by 1 000.

81

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Unit 31 Fun Spot!

1 Peta stacked small cubes into the corner of this box.

How many:

a cubes are in the stack?

b cubes altogether would stack into the box?

a flipped?

b slid?

c turned?

Tile A

so that the sum of the numbers in a straight line

across the centre of the circle is 18.

4 A palindromic number is a number that is the same when read backwards or forwards,

for example 242. Complete the table to find these palindromic numbers.

Palindromic Palindromic

Addition Addition

number number

a 56 + 65 e 423 + 324

b 132 + 231 f 514 + 415

82 Excel Mental Maths Strategies Year 6—Unit 31

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on page A12

arranged in a triangular pattern like this:

Row: Sum of numbers:

1 1 1

2 1 1 2

3 1 2 1 4

4 1 3 3 1 ___

5 1 4 6 4 1 ___

6 1 5 10 10 5 1 ___

7 ___

8 ___

9 ___

5 Find the pattern and complete the next three rows of the pattern.

Blaise Pascal

7 What will be the sum of the numbers in the: was a French

a 10th row? mathematician of the

seventeenth

b 11th row? century.

c 15th row?

What will be the second number in the:

a 10th row?

b 15th row?

c 18th row?

a 10th row?

b 11th row?

c 20th row?

10 Use a calculator the find the value of 112, 113 and 114.

Can you find these numbers in the above pattern?

83

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Unit 32 Revision A

1 a Sum of 190 and 54 8 Round off to the nearest thousand:

b To 258 add 74 a 24 782

c 486 minus 94 b 68 496

d Difference between 274 and 109 c 159 704

f 6 × 400 a 64 389 46 389

b 105 549 107 459

2 Write: c 857 294 587 294

a 0·6 as a percentage

b 90% as a fraction 10 a 3:27 am as 24-hour time

7 b 6:39 pm as 24-hour time

c as a percentage c 13:19 as digital time

10

d 08:57 as digital time

3 2

3 a + 11 How many:

8 8

9 4 a metres in 3·75 km?

b –

10 10 b square metres in 3 ha?

5 1 c tonnes in 4 575 kg?

c –

6 3 d litres in 6 500 mL?

1 2 3

d + + 12 If EST is 1:30 pm, what is the time in:

10 10 10

a Brisbane? b Adelaide?

e Simplify 9

12 c Perth? d Darwin?

4 Largest possible number using: 13 Tick the regular shapes.

a 6, 0, 3, 9 a b c

b 4, 6, 1, 8

Arrange in ascending order.

c 1·6, 1·9, 1·4

d e f

5 Hindu-Arabic numeral for:

a DCLXVII

b MCDLXXIX

Roman numeral for: 14 What is the volume of each solid?

c 468 d 1 279 a b

5 cm 5m

6 Write the first five multiples of:

a 4

b 8 3m

2 cm 4m

3 cm

c 6

7 Write the improper fraction for: __________ __________

a 1 7 b 3 2 15 What is the mass of:

8 3

a 2 L of water?

c 4 1 d 3 2 b 750 mL of water?

2 5

84

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers on page A12

Revision B

1 Place value of 8 in: 10 Write the digital time for:

a 37 849 a 23:49

b 685 721 b 06:38

c 4 892 306

11 How many:

2 Write in extended notation. a kilometres in 3 550 m?

a 359 278 b kilograms in 2·75 t?

b 950 307 c millilitres in 4·275 L?

3 What is:

a 20% of 75? 12 What is the area of each shape?

b 75% of $400? a b

c Price if 10% off $190? 5m 9 cm

4 Product of:

7m

a 56 and 4

3 cm

b 64 and 3

c 43 and 4 ________ ________

5 What is:

13 How many faces has each solid?

a 5 squared?

b 82? a b c

c triangular number after 10?

6 Complete:

a 20 + (3 × 5) ________ ________ ________

b 5 × 8 + (24 ÷ 6)

c 35 – (4 × 8) 14 How many hectares in:

a 30 000 m2?

7 Smallest possible number using:

b 50 000 m2?

a 4, 8, 2, 0

c 40 000 m2?

b 6, 3, 8, 1

d 70 000 m ? 2

Arrange in ascending order:

c 2·5, 2·8, 2·6 15 What is the capacity of a container

holding:

8 Write the number that:

a 275 mL of water?

a is 1 000 after 59 307

b 3 L of water?

b is 1 000 before 389 201

c follows 689 593

16 Record the length shown.

d follows 927 599

9 Write true or false for each:

a 367 297 > 357 297 6 7 8 9 10 11

b 987 206 < 988 206

c 1 589 346 < 1 689 346

85

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Index to help section

A F O speed 12

acute angle 15 faces of solids 18 obtuse angle 16 spheres 17–18

addition 2, 4 factors 3, 10 odd numbers 10 split strategy 2

fractions 9 fractions 5–9 order of numbers 7 square, geometry 13, 17

money 4 frequency 19 order of operations 11 square metre 12–13

analog time 14–15 G ordinal numbers 11 square numbers 11

angles 15–16 grams 14 outcomes 19 straight angle 16

in triangle 17 graphs 19 P subtraction 2, 4

apex 18 greater than 7 parallel lines 16 fractions 9

area 12–13 grids 18–19 parallelograms 17 sum see addition

ascending order 7 patterns 11, 21 sum of angles 17

H

average 10 extend number facts 2 surfaces of solids 18

hectare 12–13

axis of symmetry 16 for multiply/divide 3–4 symmetry 16

height of solid 13, 17–18

B highest common factor 10 to solve problems 19 T

bar graph 19 Hindu-Arabic numerals 9 percent 6, 9 tables

base of solid 18 hours 14–15 perimeter 12 percent/fractions/

breadth 13 perpendicular lines 16 decimals 6

I, J, K

bridging the tens 2 pie graph 19 times table 3

improper fractions 8

C place value 5, 6 tests for divisibility 4

irregular shapes 16

capacity 13 plane shapes 16–18 three-dimensions see solid

isosceles triangles 17

centimetre 11–12 plus see addition time 14–15

jump strategy 2

Central Standard Time 15 polygons 12, 16–18 times table 3

kilograms 14

chance 19 prime numbers 10 timetables 15

kilometre 11–12

circle 12, 16–18 prisms 12–13, 17–18 time zones 15

L probability 19 tonnes 14

circumference 12, 16

larger number 7, 9 problem solving 20–21 triangles 13, 16–18

column graph 19

leap year 14–15 mass 14 triangular numbers 11

compass points 16

length 11–13 money 4 triangular prism 11

compensation strategy 2

less than 2, 7 product of factors 10 twenty-four-hour time 14–15

composite numbers 10

see also subtraction see also multiplication two-dimensional shapes

cones 17–18

line graph 19 pyramids 17–18 16–18

converting units see units

lines 16

coordinates 18–19 Q, R U, V, W

litre 13

corners of solids 18 quadrant of a circle 17 units

lowest common multiple 10

cross-section of solid 17 quadrilaterals 17 area 12–13

cube, solid 17 M quotient 3–4 capacity 13

cubic metre 13 map 18 radius of circle 17 length 12

cylinders 17–18 mass 14 ratios 20 mass 14

metre 11–12 rectangles 12–13, 17 speed 12

D

millilitre 13 rectangular prisms 13, 17–18 time 14–15

days in months 14–15

millimetre 11–12 reflex angle 16 volume 13

decimals 5–7

minus see subtraction regular shapes 16 vertex 18

denominator 5–6, 8–9

minutes 14–15 remainder 3–4 views of solids 17

descending order 7

mirror image 16 reverse operations 3 volume 13

diagonal lines 16

mixed numbers 8 revolution 16 weight 14

diameter of circle 16

money 4–5 right angle 15–16 west 16

difference see subtraction

percent off price 9 right-angled triangle 17 Western Standard Time 15

digital time 14–15

months 15 Roman numerals 9 words for numerals 5, 7

digits in numbers 5

multiples 10 rounding off 7 year 14–15

distance 12

multiplication 3, 4, 10

divisibility 4, 10 S

fractions 8, 9

division 3–4 scale drawing 20

dot plot 19 N scalene triangle 17

negative numbers 9 seconds 14

E

net of solid 18 sector of circle 17

east 16

north 16 semicircle 17

Eastern Standard Time 15

number patterns 2, 11 shapes, flat 16–18

edges of prisms 18

number plane 19 simplify fraction 8–9

equilateral triangle 17

number sentences 11 smaller number 7, 9

equivalent fractions 8

numerals 9 solid shapes 13, 17–18

even numbers 10

in words 5, 7 nets 18

expanded notation 5

numerator 5–6, 8–9 south 16

86

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Unit 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 22

Answers

31

A 1 32 2 31 3 20 45 5 $2.75 6 7 hundreds (700) 7

100

8 1 700 93 10 8 11 CL 12 yes

B 1 43 2 29 3 42 4 7 5 $3.55 6 4 thousands (4 000) 7 47% 8 8 000 9 no 10 12 11 3 903

12 yes 13 90 14 32 15 42 mm 16 25 cm2 17 3 000 mL 18 7 000 g 19 3:47 am 20 6

Extra practice section: 1 + 22 26 33 35 41 46 2 + 23 25 32 34 45 47

19 41 45 52 54 60 65 19 42 44 51 53 64 66

29 51 55 62 64 70 75 29 52 54 61 63 74 76

39 61 65 72 74 80 85 59 82 84 91 93 104 106

49 71 75 82 84 90 95 69 92 94 101 103 114 116

12 1, 40, 2, 20, 4, 10, 5, 8 13 yes 14 28 15 38 mm 16 9 cm2 17 8 000 mL 18 5 000 g 19 4:57 pm

20 5

D 1 126 2 82 3 360 4 90 5 $7.80 6 6 ten thousands (60 000) 7 10% 8 52 000 9 yes 10 15

11 296 12 yes 13 36 14 33 15 950 cm 16 45 cm2 17 4 500 mL 18 6 500 g 19 3:47 am 20 none

Extra practice section: 1 8 3 4 2 3 10 5 3 1 6 5 4 10 3 8 5 1 8 13 12 6 13 8 10 7 7 5 8 6 11

1 5 9 8 6 4 8 4 0 5 7 9 14 11 2 7 14 3 17 4 2 15 1 12

6 7 2 7 2 9 3 2 7 6 11 4 4 5 16 9 9 12 6 11 9 4 10 7

15 10 3 6 2 15 5 16 14 3 13 0

Unit 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 24

61

A 1 46 2 52 3 45 49 5 $3.85 6 6 thousands (6 000) 7

100

8 2 400 9 no 10 5 11 CLXIV

2

B 1 64 2 13 3 54 46 5 $5.05 6 3 hundreds (300) 7 65% 8 8 000 9

6

10 12 11 5 839

Extra practice section: 1 72 76 81 85 93 97 2 64 68 73 76 81 85

–19 53 57 62 66 74 78 –19 45 49 54 57 62 66

–39 33 37 42 46 54 58 –29 35 39 44 47 52 56

–59 13 17 22 26 34 38 –39 25 29 34 37 42 46

–69 3 7 12 16 24 28 –49 15 19 24 27 32 36

12 1, 18, 2, 9, 3, 6 13 15th 14 153 15 56 mm 16 36 cm2 17 9 000 mL 18 7 000 g 19 3:29 am

20 1

1

D 1 125 2 46 3 560 4 70 5 $2.04 6 67 463 7 70% 8 29 000 9 2

4

10 25

Extra practice section: 1a cone b hexagonal prism c square pyramid d rectangular pyramid e cylinder

f triangular prism 2 a and e 3 b, c, d and f

Unit 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 26

84

A 1 76 2 82 3 35 45 5 $5.80 6 3 hundreds (300) 7

100

8 yes 94 10 12 11 CXXXIX 12 yes

A1

A1

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

1

B 1 65 2 26 3 56 47 5 $6.40 6 8 549 7 54% 8 26 000 9 3 10 6 11 2 447

Answers

3

12 1, 30, 2, 15, 3, 10, 5, 6 13 36 14 200 15 3·9 cm 16 64 cm2 17 3 L 18 9 kg 19 27 minutes 20 4

Extra practice section: 1 0·36 2 0·84 3 0·59 4 0·7 5 0·4 6 0·1

13

C 1 64 2 16 3 64 48 5 $4.30 6 4 thousands (4 000) 7 95% 8 46 000 9

5

10 9 11 3 665

2

D 1 174 2 215 3 540 4 40 5 $4.85 6 10 000 + 5 000 + 700 + 20 + 9 7 90% 8 460 000 9 4

3

10 21

Extra practice section: 1 × 8 6 9 5 7 4 2 × 9 4 7 5 8 6

6 48 36 54 30 42 24 10 90 40 70 50 80 60

8 64 48 72 40 56 32 20 180 80 140 100 160 120

9 72 54 81 45 63 36 30 270 120 210 150 240 180

7 56 42 63 35 49 28 40 360 160 280 200 320 240

Unit 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 28

65

A 1 45 2 52 3 30 46 5 $1.40 6 548 7

100

8 4 000 93 10 $4 11 yes 12 yes 13 12th 14 7

17

B 1 96 2 38 3 72 48 5 $3.65 6 9 thousands (9 000) 7 70% 8 98 000 9

5

10 6 11 14 077

Extra practice section: 1 2 2 1 3 1 2 4 1 2 5 6

1

2

6 6

1

2

6 2

1 10 10 18 5 20 4 7 28 4 10 30 3 8 24 3

9 3

10 20 14 28 15 5 12 4

5 18 30 24

12

C 1 83 2 55 3 35 49 5 $4.50 6 65 040 7 63% 8 no 9

5

10 $8 11 CCXCVII 12 no 13 31st

14 28 15 5·8 cm 16 81 m2 17 9 L 18 6 kg 19 38 minutes 20 3

15

D 1 132 2 58 3 630 4 90 5 $2.60 6 7 thousands (7000) 7 0·97 8 yes 9

8

10 $30 11 6 024

12 yes 13 100 14 45 15 950 cm 16 144 m2 17 8 cm3 18 8·5 kg 19 3:35 20 8

Extra practice section: 1 (12 – 3) ÷ 3 = 3 2 (5 – 3) × 4 = 8 3 3 + 4 + 5 = 12 4 (12 – 4) × 3 = 24

5 15 ÷ 3 + 5 = 10 6 (15 – 12) × 3 = 9 7 12 ÷ 4 + 3 = 6 8 (4 + 5) × 3 = 27

Unit 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 30

3

A 1 68 2 58 3 40 46 5 $5.15 6 9 736 7

10

8 13 000 9 no 10 7 11 161 12 no 13 20th

14 345 15 35 mm 16 24 cm 17 9 L 18 3 kg 19 7:40 am 20 2

17

B 1 100 2 32 3 170 48 5 8·5 6 85 038 7 yes 8 36 000 9

4

10 16 11 CCCXCII 12 11

Extra practice section: Pyramid Faces Edges Corners

Triangular 4 6 4

Rectangular 5 8 5

Pentagonal 6 10 6

Hexagonal 7 12 7

Heptagonal 8 14 8

Octagonal 9 16 9

A2A2 Decagonal 11 20 11

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Answers

11

C 1 73 2 27 3 160 48 5 8·7 6 96 873 7 yes 8 yes 9

6

10 5 11 277 12 yes 13 yes

14 66 15 2·5 cm 16 28 m 2

17 9·5 L 18 7 500 kg 19 yes 20 180°

11

D 1 264 2 326 3 730 4 84 5 $2.30 6 9 hundred thousand (900 000) 7 0·95 8 57 400 9

3

6 1

10 or 1 11 8 968 12 yes 13 28 14 4 000 15 540 cm 16 77 cm2 17 64 cm3 18 3 600 g

5 5

19 08:47 or 0847 20 5

Extra practice section: Prism Faces Edges Corners

Triangular 5 9 6

Rectangular 6 12 8

Pentagonal 7 15 10

Hexagonal 8 18 12

Heptagonal 9 21 14

Octagonal 10 24 16

Decagonal 12 30 20

Unit 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 32

9

A 1 69 2 66 3 64 46 5 $4.55 6 6 945 7

10

8 6 800 94 10 8 11 CLXIV 12 1, 15, 3, 5 13 13th

14 9 15 75 mm 16 48 m 17 7·5 L 18 8 kg 19 5 past 4 20 square

B 1 96 2 19 3 140 4 8 5 $9.10 6 58 438 7 no 8 yes 9 no 10 4 11 CCCXLVIII 12 no

13 64 14 48 15 9 500 m 16 45 cm2 17 6 500 mL 18 9 500 g 19 13 to 9 20 1

Extra practice section: 1 70o 2 50o 3 60o 4 45o 5 80o 6 40o

12 1, 48, 2, 24, 3, 16, 4, 12, 6, 8 13 25 14 13 15 65 mm 16 30 cm2 17 6·5 L 18 4 500 kg 19 365 days

20 180°

4 9 1

D 1 283 2 183 3 350 4 95 5 $3.80 6 5 ten thousands (50 000) 7 0·35 8 yes 9 2

5

10

4

or 2

4

11 7 197 12 1, 35, 5, 7 13 121 14 30 15 370 cm 16 72 cm2 17 27 cm3 18 6 500 g

19 22:29 or 2229 20 270°

Extra practice section: 1 Number of hexagons 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 Number of heptagons 1 2 3 4 5 6

1 2 3 start 4 Turned (rotated) 5 6

7 3 4

8 5 9 10 B, C, A, D

2 3 6

7 6 1 4 7

5

8 9 1 2

start 8

A3

A3

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Unit 8 ... Revision A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 36

Answers

1a 6 hundreds (600) b 6 thousands (6 000) c 6 hundred thousands (600 000) 2a CCXXXII b CXCVII

75

c CCCLXXVIII d CCCLIX 3a 65% b c 40% 4a 81 b 55 c 360 d 5 5a 5 000 b 26 000

100

c 377 000 6a 1, 24, 2, 12, 3, 8, 4, 6 b 1, 36, 2, 18, 3, 12, 4, 9, 6 c 1, 45, 3, 15, 5, 9 7a 23 568 b 477 569

8a 19 b 24 9a 42 b 60 c 12 10a 5:37 b 11:29 c 55 past 3 or 5 to 4 11a 3 500 mL b 2·5 kg c 4·56 m

d 5·5 km 12a 20 cm b 18 cm c 16 cm 13a 5 b 3 c 6 14a 16 cm2 b 40 cm2

1a 6 549 b 5 021 c 29 053 2a 0·9 b 1·45 c 0·57 3a 7 959 b 26 395 c 68 600 4a 34 b 38 c 8 d 3

5a 35 days b 36 months c 52 weeks 6a yes b yes c no d yes 7a 47 054 b 960 347 8a 6, 12, 18, 24, 30

b 9, 18, 27, 36, 45 9a 10:45 (1045) b 15:18 (1518) c 21:51 (2151) d 01:39 (0139) 10a 81, 90 b 64, 72

11a 3·5 L b 6 500 g c 46 mm d 9 500 m 12a 18m3 b 16 cm3 13a 6 b 5 c 8 d 4 14a yes b yes

c yes d no 15a 38 mm or 3·8 cm b 56 mm or 5·6 cm

Unit 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 38

A 1 62 2 17 3 32 4 17 5 868c 6 8 549 7 72% 8 no 9 yes 10 6 11 221 12 yes 13 49 14 32

15 5·9 cm 16 26 m 17 3 500 mL 18 4 500 g 19 35 days 20 4

B 1 95 2 33 3 160 4 6 5 $6.45 6 3 675 tens 7 3·49 8 39 000 9 no 10 5 11 CCCLI

12 no 13 23rd 14 9 15 8·5 km 16 48 cm 17 4·58 L 18 3·59 kg 19 107 minutes 20 8

Extra practice section: 1 a 3 b 6 c 10 d 15 2 a yes b yes c yes d yes e no f yes g no h yes

3 a 28 b 21 c 36 d 15 e 55 f 66

13 99 14 48 15 8·7 cm 16 81 cm2 17 5 600 mL 18 4 500 g 19 32 minutes 20 4

D 1 544 2 251 3 650 4 69 5 21·3 6 2 ten thousands (20 000) 7 0·75 8 yes 9 yes 10 $4 11 4 375

12 1, 64, 2, 32, 4, 16, 8 13 yes 14 7 15 3 500 m 16 45 cm2 17 6·5 L 18 8·5 kg 19 7 to 10 20 7

Extra practice section: 1 First number 42 52 62 72 82 92 2 First number 37 47 57 67 77 87

3 First number 78 68 58 48 38 28 4 First number 1 2 3 4 5 6

Unit 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 40

19

A 1 92 2 28 3 54 4 28 5 $5.46 6 94 725 7

25

8 35 000 9 no 10 4 11 344 12 yes 13 yes

6

B 1 143 2 54 3 240 47 5 $5.65 6 9 653 tens 7 2·8 8 no 9

8

10 3 11 36 394 12 22 13 144

14 30 15 8·5 km 16 15 cm 17 7·5 L 18 4·5 kg 19 no 20 NW

Extra practice section: 1 2

front side front side

top top

A4A4

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

3 1

C 1 81 2 56 3 96 49 5 $5.43 6 4 653 tens 7 8 yes 9 10 5 11 36 881 12 18

Answers

10 2

13 36 14 17 15 6 500 m 16 80 m 17 9·5 L 18 3 500 g 19 6:44 20 NW

21

D 1 781 2 624 3 350 4 67 5 $9.04 6 80 000 + 6 000 + 300 + 90 + 1 7 73% 8 no 9

8

10 $9

11 26 962 12 1, 56, 2, 28, 4, 14, 7, 8 13 no 14 34 15 4·5 km 16 30 cm 17 9 500 mL 18 8 000 kg

19 14 to 6 20 no

Extra practice section: 1 1:22 2 6:43 3 5:11 4 5:51 5 12:14 6 4:39

Unit 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 42

A 1 43 2 33 3 56 4 26 5 20 6 6 483 7 0·65 8 yes 9 yes 10 8 11 5 991 12 no 13 66 14 9

15 400 cm 16 20 m 17 3 500 mL 18 6 500 g 19 366 days 20 90°

B 1 96 2 39 3 335 4 8 5 $3.15 6 13 thousands 7 0·9 8 yes 9 no 10 no 11 35 265

12 yes 13 81 14 16 15 5·5 km 16 35 cm2 17 10·5 L 18 6·5 kg 19 52 minutes 20 NE

Extra practice section: 1 a 3 b 5 c 4 d 2 e 7 f 4 g 9 h 4 i 6 j 3

2 a 12 b 10 c 20 d 24 e 15 f 12 g 18 h 36

7

C 1 87 2 24 3 204 49 5 2·9 6 67 432 7 0·5 8 56 400 9

4

10 yes 11 64 872 12 2 13 64

73 8

D 1 283 2 681 3 1 470 4 79 5 $7.91 6 469 thousands 7

100

8 yes 9

3

10 $8 11 DLXXXIX

Extra practice section: Arrived at point B

Unit 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 44

A 1 75 2 29 3 24 4 5 5 945c 6 569 tens 7 0·65 8 yes 9 no 10 4 11 342 12 no 13 199

14 186 15 7·5 m 16 16 m 17 8·5 L 18 3·5 kg 19 180 minutes 20 180°

1

B 1 188 2 131 3 136 4 61 5 $7.20 6 63 937 7 1·76 8 no 91

4

10 $9 11 45 889 12 yes

Extra practice section: Cube B cannot be made

6

C 1 179 2 161 3 408 4 123 5 $4.90 6 54 thousands 7 5·94 8 yes 9

10

10 12 candles 11 269 360

17 5

D 1 616 2 644 3 8 720 4 67 5 $7.24 6 476 528 7 90% 8 yes 9

6

10

8

11 DCXLVII 12 15

Extra practice section: Answers will vary

Unit 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 46

A 1 54 2 35 3 25 4 $2.50 5 6 coins 6 7 965 7 50% 8 yes 9 11 quarters 10 8 11 35 901 12 yes

13 4 14 9 15 750 cm 16 20 cm 17 250 mL 18 250 g 19 31 days 20 yes

13 6 3

B 1 138 2 35 3 210 4 21 5 $7.80 6 4 thousands (4 000) 7 5·79 8 no 9

5

10

10

or

5

11 D

19 6:59 20 no

A5

A5

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Extra practice section: 1 28 cm 2 48 m 3 10·5 cm 4 14 cm

Answers

2

C 1 299 2 149 3 3 160 4 203 5 $3.65 6 54 682 7 6·69 8 no 9 4

3

10 20 11 28 887 12 8, 16, 24

1

D 1 721 2 867 3 7 200 4 67·9 5 17·7 6 70 thousands (70 000) 7 70% 8 1 654 000 9 4

4

2 1

10 or 11 660 726 12 no, 4 is not 13 75th 14 360 15 9 500 m 16 circumference

8 4

17 8 500 mL 18 7 t 19 7:21 pm 20 yes

Extra practice section: 1 acute angle, 50° 2 obtuse angle, 120° 3 straight angle, 180° 4 reflex angle, 300°

5 revolution, 360°

Unit 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 48

A 1 80 2 29 3 32 4 8 5 20 coins 6 5 hundreds (500) 7 0·6 8 4 800 9 23 tenths 10 12 11 13 470

12 no 13 1 799 14 62 15 950 cm 16 36 m 17 4·5 L 18 3 500 g 19 61 days 20 no

10

B 1 94 2 106 3 4 630 4 21 5 $16.25 6 68 391 7 40% 8 88 000 9

3

10 6 11 47 351 12 no

Extra practice section: 1 6, 4 , 3, 9, 2 2 5, 3, 15, 9 3 2, 8, 4 4 4, 2 5 5, 3, 15 6 2, 4 7 3, 2, 6, 13

1

C 1 206 2 283 3 1 260 4 34 5 $1.55 6 354 hundreds 7 0·3 8 no 9 3

5

10 $12 11 33 968

4 2

D 1 149 2 425 3 1 200 4 35·8 5 $1.45 6 64 070 7 0·49 8 4 000 000 9 yes 10

10

or

5

11 yes

Extra practice section: 1 3 9

0

1

2 4 9

0

1

3 6 9

0

1

4 7 9

0

1

8 2 8 2 8 2 8 2

7 3 7 3 7 3 7 3

6 4 6 4 6 4 6 4

5 5 5 5

1 15 minutes 2 7 days 3 16 4 $4.50 53 6 10 76 86 9 $20 10 12 and 19 11 10 12 B

13a 68 b 19 c 23

1a 6 thousands (6 000) b 6 thousands (6 000) c 6 hundred thousands (600 000) 2a 23 b 38 3a 40%

25 1

b or c 0·39 4a 183 b 75 c 1 240 d 123 5a 6 000 b 37 000 c 165 000 6a 6, 12, 18, 24, 30

100 4

7 13 26 15

b 9, 18, 27, 36, 45 c 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 7a 28 574 b 176 639 8a b c d 9a 9 b8

4 5 10 8

c 86 10a 7:52 b 12:14 c 6 to 3 11a 3 575 mL b 2 525 g c 564 cm d 6·25 km 12a 12 cm b 18 m

c 12 cm 13a 9 b 8 c 18 14a 81 m2 b 108 cm2

1a 49 476 b 59 075 c 8 thousands (8 000) 2a 30% b 50% c 65% 3a 27 b 23 4a 5 964 > 5 694

b 25 430 > 25 410 c 94 236 > 93 236 5a 1, 12, 2, 6, 3, 4 b 1, 24, 2, 12, 3, 8, 4, 6 c 1, 30, 2, 15, 3, 10, 5, 6

A6A6

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

3 3 3 1

6a 5 past 10 b 4:12 am c 12:26 pm 7a 2 b 2 c1 d 2 8a 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 b 6, 12, 18, 24, 30

5 10 8 3

Answers

c 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 9a 09:26 (0926) b 23:26 (2326) c 11:49 (1149) d 08:59 (0859) 10a CCLI b CLXIV

c CCCLXXV d CCXCIX 11a 408, 508 b 2 365, 2465 12a 3·95 L b 6·575 kg c 750 m d 650 cm

13a acute angle b obtuse angle c reflex angle d straight angle 14a 7:25 b 4:49 c 12:19

15a 34 mm or 3·4 cm b 47 mm or 4·7 cm

Unit 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 54

A 1 78 2 17 3 45 4 4 5 $1.25 6 67 497 7 75% 8 13 000 9 yes 10 9 11 9 007 12 yes 13 25

14 255 15 35 mm 16 32 cm 17 6 500 mL 18 4 500 g 19 61 days 20 yes

4 1

B 1 109 2 33 3 1 000 49 5 3·8 6 6 7 9·53 8 no 9 yes 10

8

or

2

11 87 257 12 no

37 8

C 1 97 2 114 3 940 4 21 5 $4.15 6 49 068 7 0·75 8 yes 9

10

10

8

or 1 11 yes

37 12

D 1 482 2 186 3 2 800 4 90 5 $11.40 6 6 ten thousands (60 000) 7 20% 8 349 9

10

10

4

or 3

Extra practice section: 1 yes 2 no 3 no 4 yes 5 no 6 yes 7 no 8 yes 9 no

10 no (1, 4, 6 and 8 are coloured)

Unit 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 56

A 1 84 2 22 3 200 4 4 5 $7.95 6 6 ten thousands (60 000) 7 0·35 8 18 600 9 9 eighths 10 8

11 CCCLVIII 12 30 13 16 14 8 15 67 mm 16 25 cm2 17 3 500 mL 18 1 500 g 19 92 days 20 90°

8

B 1 99 2 106 3 315 4 32 5 $7.35 6 4 ten thousands (40 000) 7 61% 8 yes 9

10

10 16 11 969 127

17 6 800 mL 18 4 700 kg 19 105 minutes 20 pentagon

Extra practice section: 1a 40 b 35 2a 19th 1 21st 3 70 4 195

2

C 1 100 2 322 3 180 4 remainder 5 5 $5.40 6 87 461 7 no 8 246 000 9 2

5

10 $30 11 574 12 no

55 11

D 1 416 2 86 3 2 400 4 50 5 30·2 6 7 7 60% 8 yes 9 4

100

or 4

20

10 12 11 –5 12 yes

Extra practice section: 1 90 cm 3

2 56 cm 3

3 84 cm 3

4 72 cm3

Unit 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 58

8 4

A 1 84 2 38 3 84 45 5 $17.85 65 7 64% 8 yes 9 7 halves 10

10

or

5

11 10 867 12 no 13 9

1

B 1 321 2 175 3 240 4 60 5 6·9 6 79 524 7 1·63 8 6·3, 6·5, 6·8 9 2

4

10 45 11 yes 12 5

A7

A7

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Extra practice section: 1a 5 b 4 c 2 d 5 e 3 f 4 2a August b June c May d August

Answers

58 10 1

C 1 75 2 333 3 180 4 remainder 8 5 $12.40 67 7 yes 8 467 000 91

100

10

3

or 3

3

11 –1

12 9, 18, 27, 36, 45 13 299 999 14 56 15 9·3 km 16 21 cm2 17 7 800 mL 18 4 700 g 19 4:44 am

20 yes

5 5

D 1 321 2 106 3 2 100 4 50 5 $5.15 6 658 364 7 0·58 8 8 630 9 2

6

10

6

11 DCCXCIV

Extra practice section: 1 one 2 one 3 two 4 one 5 two 6 two

Unit 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 60

6 3

A 1 140 2 45 3 78 48 5 $16.90 6 3 795 7 0·45 8 27 000 9 11 eighths 10

10

or

5

11 CCLIX

B 1 124 2 168 3 630 4 remainder 4 5 $7.20 6 3 hundred thousands (300 000) 7 90% 8 870 000

9 10 10 5 11 no 12 12 13 10 14 80 15 3 800 m 16 12·9 cm2 17 1·439 L 18 3·595 kg 19 7 to 8

20 no

Extra practice section: 1 02:43 (0243) 2 16:39 (1639) 3 09:42 (0942) 4 20:56 (2056) 5 05:14 (0514)

6 23:27 (2327) 7 10:47 (1047) 8 22:32 (2232)

9

C 1 137 2 185 3 350 4 4 remainder 3 5 $2.30 each 6 82 406 7 no 8 yes 9

5

10 40 11 –5

6 11

D 1 217 2 159 3 2 400 4 70 5 $17.70 6 4 hundred thousands (400 000) 7

100

8 357 000 9

3

10 $300 11 357 087 12 yes 13 yes 14 50 15 180 km 16 2 ha 17 750 cm3 18 5 700 g

19 04:53 or 0453 20 isosceles triangle

Extra practice section: 1 2 3

Unit 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 62

6

A 1 77 2 28 3 210 4 39 5 $19.85 65 7 no 8 yes 9

8

10 3 candles 11 247

18 6 3

B 1 130 2 188 3 390 4 5 remainder 8 5 8·52 66 7 3·568 8 3 589 9

5

10

10

or

5

11 –7

Extra practice section: 1 1, 12, 2, 6, 3, 4 2 1, 16, 2, 8, 4

C 1 114 2 294 3 240 4 7 remainder 4 5 $4.10 each 6 50 000 + 6 000 + 700 + 20 + 9 7 7·09 8 yes

6

9 10 15 11 746 12 yes 13 yes 14 33 15 256 mm 16 18 m2 17 8 625 mL 18 4 500 kg

10

19 106 minutes 20 isosceles triangle

D 1 267 2 317 3 2 400 4 remainder 17 5 34 6 300 000 + 40 000 + 8 000 + 100 + 9 7 8·797 8 9 762

2 3

9 10 11 –9 12 152 (add 31, 37, 41, 43) 13 61 14 25 15 6·25 km 16 56·25 cm2 17 125 cm3

3 10

18 4 750 kg 19 1:48 am 20 180°

Extra practice section: A, C, E , H and I are circled

A8A8

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Unit 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 64

Answers

3 6 3

A 1 101 2 31 3 160 4 46 5 $5.50 66 7 35% 8 yes 9

5

10

8

or

4

11 36 378 12 no 13 36

14 50 15 8·25 m 16 21 m 17 4·5 L 18 2 t 19 24 to 12 20 7

B 1 277 2 286 3 300 4 29 remainder 4 5 $24.45 6 6 hundred thousands (600 000) 7 5·86

15 9 3

8 459 000 9 10 or 11 348 800 12 11, 13, 17, 19 13 65 14 64 15 139 mm 16 no

8 12 4

17 250 cm3 18 1 250 kg 19 81 minutes 20 no

Extra practice section: 1a 4:29 am b 5:59 am c 6:29 am d 5:59 am 2a 2:00 am b 1:30 am c 2:00 am

d 1:30 am 3a 11:51 am b 10:21 am

38 4 2

C 1 354 2 217 3 240 4 13 remainder 4 5 16·9 6 46 245 7 0·9 8 yes 9 2

100

10

10

or

5

11 229 999 12 3 13 86 379 14 37 15 8 500 m 16 yes 17 3 755 mL 18 2 250 kg 19 1:43 pm 20 yes

D 1 487 2 483 3 468 4 82 5 $16.54 each 6 6 7 7·053 8 no 9 6% 10 $315 11 DCLXXIX 12 no

13 93 238 14 48 15 8·575 km 16 3 ha 17 64 cm3 18 5 725 g 19 11:37 pm 20 equilateral triangle

Extra practice section: A B

C

D E F

G

H

1 6 2 600 3 20 4 $9 5 30 6 17 7 12 8 77 9 75 10 28 11 201 12 102 13 136 14 134·9 cm

15 $64.20 16a B b B

1a 2 thousands (2 000) b 2 hundreds (200) c 2 hundred thousands (200 000) 2a 21 b 46 3a 38%

58 29

b 0·35 c or 4a 322 b 126 c 800 d 19 5a 25 000 b 50 000 c 379 000 6a 8, 16, 24, 32, 40

100 50

11 11 27 21

b 9, 18, 27, 36, 45 c 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 7a 68 206 b 568 358 8a b c d 9a 58 b 62 c9

6 4 10 8

10a 15:16 (1516) b 8:39 am c 23 to 12 11a 7 500 mL b 3 600 g c 5 275 m d 2 ha 12a 26 cm b 21 m

13a 7 b 5 c 6 14a 36 m2 b 72 cm2 15a 14 b 6

1a 84 721 b 594 058 c 6 ten thousands (60 000) 2a 70% b 90% c 84% 3a 2 b 5 4a 38 439 > 38 349

b 94 627 < 94 687 c 107 385 < 108 385 5a 4, 8 b 4, 5, 10 c 5, 6, 10 6a 7:39 pm b 1:41 pm

5 1 1 2 5 2 1

c 15:27 (1527) d 07:52 (0752) 7a 1 b 3 c 2 d 3 8a b or 9a 7, 14, 21, 28, 35

6 5 8 3 8 10 5

b 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 10a 03:37 (0337) b 10:17 (1017) c 18:58 (1858) d 09:26 (0926) 11a CCCVII b DLXXXIX

c DCCLXVII d DCLXXXIV 12a 9 b 25 c 16 d 36 13a 7·5 L b 9·25 kg c 1 500 m d 6·29 cm e 7 250 m

14a equilateral triangle b right-angled triangle c isosceles triangle 15a 6:45 am b 3:12 pm c 11:57 am

d 9:28 pm 16a 52 mm or 5·2 cm b 49 mm or 4·9 cm

Unit 25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 70

4

A 1 98 2 43 3 150 4 38 5 $2.15 66 7 0·55 8 yes 9 9 quarters 10

5

11 40 503

12 2, 3, 5, 7 (1 is neither prime nor composite) 13 yes 14 30 15 5 000 m 16 32 m2 17 3 700 mL

18 3 000 kg 19 8:35 am 20 4

A9

A9

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

8

B 1 323 2 485 3 150 4 20 remainder 4 5 $24.10 6 5 ten thousands (50 000) 7 3·58 8 360 000 9

Answers

3

10 18 11 –9 12 71 13 1 14 54 15 9·73 m 16 21 m2 17 60 m3 18 3·955 t 19 142 minutes 20 169°

Extra practice section: 1 2 3 4

23 7

C 1 277 2 286 3 300 4 29 remainder 4 5 $7.25 67 7 7·03 8 8 643 9

5

10

10

11 –4

20 yes

95

D 1 812 2 412 3 2 400 4 9 remainder 5 5 3·27 6 2 millions (2 000 000) 7 4 8 2·7, 2·4, 2·1 9 12

100

10 60 11 796 12 $1.60 13 121 14 560 15 425 km 16 33 cm2 17 500 cm3 18 $12.10 19 3:10 am

20 yes

Extra practice section: 1a Sunday b Saturday c Wednesday d Friday 2a 900 b 1 200 c 1 000 d 1 100

3a 1 900 b 2 600 c 1 700 4a 400 b 300 c 600

Unit 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 72

5

A 1 106 2 22 3 120 4 29 5 $12.55 6 35 982 7 4·9 8 70 000 9

3

10 25 11 DXXIX 12 2 13 9

19

B 1 183 2 116 3 2 000 4 60 5 $5.25 67 7 70% 8 9 653 9

8

10 $12 11 357 037 12 no 13 41

Extra practice section: 1 sparrow 2a yes b no c no 3a yes b no c yes 4a yes b yes c yes 5 50%

17 4 1

C 1 247 2 66 3 1 200 4 50 5 $10.90 6 1 hundred thousands (100 000) 7 7 8 87 642 9

6

10 or

8 2

11 –3 12 yes 13 10 14 33 15 140 km 16 20 000 m2 17 500 cm3 18 1 750 kg 19 1:48 am 20 yes

3 3 1

D 1 1 730 2 333 3 36 000 4 14 5 $99.75 6 1 456 7 no 8 34 569 9

5

10

6

or

2

11 –6

20 6·9 cm

Extra practice section: 1a A bC cE 2a B bF c E and G

Unit 27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 74

2

A 1 231 2 128 3 76 4 30 5 $8.50 6 6 7 0·6 8 no 9 2

3

10 45 11 –4 12 yes 13 16

7

B 1 211 2 247 3 2 400 4 40 5 4·6 6 365 740 7 60% 8 98 542 91

100

10 $150 11 –11 12 3

Extra practice section: 1a 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 b 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 c black, pink

d black, black (BB); black, pink (BP); pink, pink (PP)

C 1 209 2 335 3 2 100 4 70 5 $13.55 6 8 hundred thousands (800 000) 7 4% 8 1 048 9 no

11 1

10 or 1 11 –10 12 $4.35 13 yes 14 74 15 4·125 km 16 3 ha 17 48 cm3 18 2 kg 19 2:29 pm

10 10

20 hexagon

A10

A10

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

1

D 1 799 2 81 3 2 900 4 479 5 $35.05 6 6 hundred thousands (600 000) 7 4 8 yes 9 1 10 $600

Answers

3

11 2 999 999 12 yes 13 100 14 100 15 520 km 16 40 000 m2 17 1 000 cm3 18 3·5 kg 19 2:35 am

20 18

Extra practice section: 1 circle is 30 mm (3 cm) in diameter 2 circle is 34 mm (3·4 cm) in diameter

3 circle is 38 mm (3·8 cm) in diameter

Unit 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 76

A 1 170 2 79 3 200 4 30 5 $5.55 6 5 thousands (5 000) 7 8·63 8 3 468 9 11 sixths 10 30

11 DCCLXII 12 12, 14, 15, 16, 18 13 38th 14 40 15 4 km 16 45 m2 17 4·5 L 18 6 t 19 7 to 8 20 yes

2

B 1 212 2 165 3 1 800 4 no 5 $4.10 6 864 306 74 8 no 9

3

10 50 11 1 114 12 21 13 14

g (6, 5) h (0, 3)

5

C 1 241 2 242 3 1 500 4 remainder 2 5 4·86 6 7 hundred thousands (700 000) 7

100

8 34 589

19 1:01 am 20 A

D 1 1 708 2 218 3 720 4 remainder 1 5 $16.87 6 1 000 000 + 300 000 + 50 000 + 600 + 7 7 5·64

1

8 3·9, 3·8, 3·4 9 10 $675 11 1 754 12 $3.60 13 36 14 92 15 75 km/h 16 30 000 m2

2

17 4·75 kg 18 2·475 t 19 17:29 (1729) 20 2·28 m

Extra practice section: 1a no b yes 2a yes b yes 3 yes 4 women, boys, girls, men

Unit 29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 78

1

A 1 159 2 76 3 600 4 20 5 $7.50 6 6 7 60% 8 259 000 9 3

2

10 20 11 156 790 12 6, 12, 18, 24

13 26 14 9 15 7 km 16 14·8 m 17 7·5 L 18 2 500 kg 19 22 to 7 20 equilateral triangle

4

B 1 341 2 81 3 204 4 38 remainder 2 5 $5.45 6 2 millions (2 000 000) 7 7

100

8 3·5, 3·6, 3·8 9 yes

20 triangle

Extra practice section: 1 4 cm2 2 6 cm2 3 4·5 cm2 4 7·5 cm2

2

C 1 407 2 93 3 125 4 yes 5 $69.50 6 300 000 + 60 000 + 7 000 + 5 76 8 1·6, 1·4, 1·3 9

5

10 $63 11 289 999 12 12, 24, 36, 48 13 11 14 60 15 3 650 m 16 3 ha 17 250 cm3 18 3 725 g

19 10:31 (1031) 20 7 cm

6

D 1 3 512 2 126 3 24 000 4 149·6 (or 149 )

10

5 2·95 6 9 millions ( 9 000 000) 7 19·08 8 no

2

91 10 320 11 3 12 270 13 90 14 36 15 1 050 km 16 50 000 m2 17 2 000 cm3

3

18 3·25 kg 19 2:19 pm 20 yes

Extra practice section: 1a A b C c E d F e I f K g J h M 2a (5, 2) b (4, 3) c (2, –3) d (5, –5) e (–5, 5)

f (–5, –3) g (–4, –6) h (–2, –2)

A11

A11

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Unit 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 80

Answers

17

A 1 202 2 62 3 1 500 4 30 5 $10 6 7 ten thousands (70 000) 7 no 8 yes 9

6

10 32 11 DCXXIX

1

B 1 431 2 338 3 225 4 27 remainder 5 5 112·5 6 615 435 7 16·09 8 2 568 9

4

10 $270

Extra practice section: Millimetre 50 70 120 35 87

Centimetre 300 600 750 450 192

Kilometre 4 8 6·5 8·5 4·725

1

C 1 429 2 68 3 384 4 no 5 $3.55 6 400 000 + 70 000 + 5 000 + 900 + 20 + 6 7 6·564 8 345 000 9

2

10 $160 11 14 12 yes 13 21 14 200 15 4 750 m 16 6 ha 17 375 cm3 18 6 125 g 19 8:52 am

20 yes

3

D 1 2 747 2 728 3 35 000 4 562·7 5 $19.85 68 7 1·256 8 yes 91

4

10 $585 11 66 999 999

12 216 13 yes 14 28 15 2 880 km 16 120 000 m2 17 2 375 cm3 18 5·625 kg 19 151 minutes 20 yes

Extra practice section: Gram 3 000 5 000 4 500 7 500 6 275 Kilogram 2 000 9 000 8 500 1 625 3 850

Kilogram 3 5 4·5 7·5 6·275 Tonne 2 9 8·5 1·625 3·85

1a 10 b 64 2 flipped 3 6 4a 121 b 363 c 949 d 767 e 747 f 929 g 727 h 383

7 1

5 1, 6, 15, 20, 15, 6, 1; 1, 7, 21, 35, 35, 21, 7, 1; 1, 8, 28, 56, 70, 56,

4 9 5 28, 8, 1 6 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256 7a 512 b 1 024 c 16 384

8 2 8a 9 b 14 c 17 9a 36 b 45 c 171 10 121, 1 331, 14 641

3

9 5 5 1 3 1

1a 244 b 332 c 392 d 165 e 2 400 f 2 400 2a 60% b c 70% 3a b or c or

10 8 10 2 6 2

6 3 3

d or e 4a 9 630 b 8 641 c 1·4, 1·6, 1·9 5a 667 b 1 479 c CDLXVIII d MCCLXXIX

10 5 4

15 11 9 17

6a 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 b 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 c 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 7a b c d 8a 25 000 b 68 000

8 3 2 5

c 160 000 9a 64 389 > 46 389 b 105 549 < 107 459 c 857 294 > 587 294 10a 03:27 (0327) b 18:39 (1839)

c 1:19 pm d 8:57 am 11a 3 750 m b 30 000 m2 c 4·575 t d 6·5 L 12a 1:30 pm b 1.00 pm c 11:30 am

d 1:00 pm 13a yes b yes c no d no e yes f yes 14a 30 cm3 b 60 m3 15a 2 kg b 750 g

1a 8 hundreds (800) b 8 ten thousands (80 000) c 8 hundred thousands ( 800 000)

2a 300 000 + 50 000 + 9 000 + 200 + 70 + 8 b 900 000 + 50 000 + 300 + 7 3a 15 b $300 c $171 4a 224

b192 c 172 5a 25 b 64 c 15 6a 35 b 44 c 3 7a 2 048 b 1 368 c 2·5, 2·6, 2·8 8a 60 307

b 388 201 c 689 594 d 927 600 9a true b true c true 10a 11:49 pm b 6:38 am 11a 3·55 km

b 2 750 kg c 4 275 mL 12a 35 m2 b 27 cm2 13a 6 b 8 c 5 14a 3 ha b 5 ha c 4 ha d 7 ha

15a 275 cm3 b 3 000 cm3 16 106 mm or 10·6 cm

A12

A12

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Mentals Score Sheet

Write down your scores for each set of Mentals here. How did you go?

Unit Set A Set B Set C Set D Unit Set A Set B Set C Set D

Unit 1 ____ ____ ____ ____ Unit 17 ____ ____ ____ ____

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

Unit 2 ____ ____ ____ ____ Unit 18 ____ ____ ____ ____

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

Unit 3 ____ ____ ____ ____ Unit 19 ____ ____ ____ ____

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

Unit 4 ____ ____ ____ ____ Unit 20 ____ ____ ____ ____

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

Unit 5 ____ ____ ____ ____ Unit 21 ____ ____ ____ ____

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

Unit 6 ____ ____ ____ ____ Unit 22 ____ ____ ____ ____

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

Unit 9 ____ ____ ____ ____ Unit 25 ____ ____ ____ ____

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

Unit 10 ____ ____ ____ ____ Unit 26 ____ ____ ____ ____

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

Unit 11 ____ ____ ____ ____ Unit 27 ____ ____ ____ ____

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

Unit 12 ____ ____ ____ ____ Unit 28 ____ ____ ____ ____

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

Unit 13 ____ ____ ____ ____ Unit 29 ____ ____ ____ ____

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

Unit 14 ____ ____ ____ ____ Unit 30 ____ ____ ____ ____

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

© Pascal Press ISBN 978 1 74125 183 8 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 6

Excel BASIC SKILLS

MENTAL

MATHS

Basic Skills

MATHS

Get the Results You Want! YEAR

6

Mental Maths Strategies

STRATEGIES

Year 6 Ages 11–12 years old

This book has been revised and updated for the Year 6

Australian Curriculum.

AGES

Mental Maths is the Maths we do in our heads without the

use of calculators and without writing down the calculation.

Mental Maths strategies are the ‘tricks’ we use to do Maths

11–12

in our heads. There are different ways of finding the answer

to any Mental Maths problem, and such strategies are the

focus of this series. Even though electronic devices play

an enormous role in the modern world, we still need to go

back to the basics—we do need to know how to check that the sales assistant at the counter is giving us

the right change! Mental Maths has become more important than ever and the Australian Curriculum for

primary years reflects this. All states have placed an emphasis on Mental Maths in the primary syllabus,

and the NAPLAN Tests for secondary years (Years 7 and 9) have a non-calculator section.

Features of this book

Thirty-two double-page units of Mentals are included—eight units for each school term. Each unit is

divided into four sets (A, B, C and D) of 20 questions each.

Each numbered question covers a particular Maths topic throughout the book: for example,

Question 1 always covers addition, while Question 20 always covers geometry.

A special Help Section at the front of the book gives different strategies and explanations to help students

solve Mentals problems. These are also numbered so they link to the question numbers in each Mentals unit.

A Fun Spot! unit, containing fun activities, and a Revision unit are included at the end of each eight units.

Extra practice sections which reinforce particular strategies appear in the lower part of each page.

The answers to all questions are in a lift-out section in the centre of the book.

Alan Parker has been writing textbooks for more than 30 years. As a primary school teacher for

over 40 years, he taught in several Australian states and gained experience at all levels of primary

teaching, including ESL, remedial and extension classes. He was a primary school principal for 13

years and is the author of many successful educational books, including the successful Signpost

Maths textbooks and (with Jan Faulkner) Signpost Maths Mentals Workbooks.

Jan Faulkner has been a classroom teacher for over 30 years. She has taught both mainstream and

gifted and talented classes in schools across Australia, and is currently the Assistant Principal of

a large school in Sydney. With Alan Parker, Jan also co-authored the best-selling Signpost Maths

Mentals Workbooks.

Bookseller reference Books Level

Mental Maths books

978-1-74125-184-5 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 1

978-1-74125-185-2 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 2

978-1-74125-180-7 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 3

978-1-74125-182-1 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 4

978-1-74125-182-1 Excel Basic Skills Mental Maths Strategies Year 5

ISBN 978-1-74125-183-8

G e t t he

Excel Test Zone Pascal Press

Re

su

Get the Results You Want!

PO Box 250

H

Help your child prepare with our

lt s

Glebe NSW 2037

FREE N

NAPLAN*-style and Australian Curriculum Tests. (02) 8585 4044

*This isi nott an offi

*Thi

www.exceltestzone.com.au

fficially

i ll endorsed

d publication of the NAPLAN program and is produced by Pascal Press independently of Australian governments.

www.pascalpress.com.au

9 781741 251838 Alan Par k er & You

J an Faulk ner Want !

9781741251838 EBS MentalMaths Yr6 NSACE 2015.indd 1 12/01/2015 4:05 pm

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