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# MAPUA UNIVERSITY

Intramuros, Manila

FIELDWORK NO. 1
LAYING OF A SIMPLE CURVE BY TRANSIT AND TAPE
(THE INCREMENTAL CHORD AND DEFLECTION ANGLE METHOD)

## COURSE AND SECTION: CE121F/A1

GROUP NO. 2
CHIEF OF PARTY: FRANCISCO, Edgar Manuel
MEMBERS:
CRISTOBAL, John Carlo
DELA CRUZ, Orlie
MARQUEZ, Mark Patrick
SAGUM, John Marciano

## DATE OF FIELDWORK: August 18, 2018

SUBMITTED ON: August 25, 2018
SUBMITTED TO: ENGR. Henry Florendo
PRELIMINARY DATA SHEET
FIELDWORK 1
LAYING OF A SIMPLE CURVE BY TRANSIT AND TAPE (THE INCREMENTAL
CHORD AND DEFLECTION ANGLE METHOD)
DATE: August 18, 2018 GROUP NO: 2
TIME: 12:00PM – 4:30PM LOCATION: Quirino Grandstand
WEATHER: Windy PROFESSOR: Engr. Florendo

DATA SUPPLIED:
R = 254.65
Backward Tangent direction: N 10o15’ E (azimuth or bearing)
Forward Tangent direction: N 46o15’ E (azimuth or bearing)
Station of the Vertex: 2+211.56
Adopt Full chord length of 20 m

STATION
CENTRAL DEFLECTION
OCCUPIED OBSERVED INCREMENTAL INCREMENTAL ANGLE
CHORD ANGLE FORM BACK
TANGENT
PC A 11.1646 2.5 1.25
B 20 7 3.5
C 20 11.5 5.75
D 29 116 8
E 20 20.5 10.5
F 20 25 12.5
G 20 29.5 14.75
H 20 34 17
PT 8.8919 36 18

## COMPUTED LENGTH OF CHORD: 15.7

ACTUAL LENGTH OF THE CHORD: 15.1
COMPUTATIONS:
R= 254.65m

## Full chord length = 20m

𝐼 = 36°
The tangent distance must be solved using:
𝐼
𝑇 = 𝑅 × 𝑡𝑎𝑛( )
2
36
𝑇 = 254.65𝑚 × 𝑡𝑎𝑛( )
2
𝑇 = 82.741 𝑚
The middle ordinate distance (M) can be computed using:
𝐼
𝑀 = 𝑅 × [1 − cos( )]
2
36
𝑀 = 254.65𝑚 × [1 − cos( )]
2
𝑀 = 12.46 𝑚
The length of the curve (Lc) can be computed using ( I is converted to radians):

𝐿𝑐 = 𝐼 × 𝑅
𝜋
𝐿𝑐 = 36 × × 254.65𝑚
180
𝐿𝑐 = 160 𝑚
The long chord (C) can be solved using:
𝐼
𝐶 = 2 × 𝑅 × sin( )
2
36
𝐶 = 2 × 254.65𝑚 × sin( )
2
𝐶 = 157.38
The station of PC can be computed using:

## Sta. of PC = 2+211.56 - 82.741

Sta. of PC = 2+128.819
The station of PT can be found by:

Sta. of PT = Sta. of PC + Lc

## Sta. of PT = 2+128.819 + 160

Sta. of PT = 2+288.819

## 𝐶1 = first full station on the curve – Sta. PC

𝐶1 = 2+140 – 2+128.819

𝐶1 = 11.1646 m

## 𝐶2 = Sta. PT – last full station of the curve

𝐶2 = 2+288.819 – 2+280

𝐶2 = 8.819 m

## The value of the first deflection angle 𝑑1 :

𝐶1
𝑑1 = 2 × sin−1( )
2×𝑅
11.1646
𝑑1 = 2 × sin−1 ( )
2 × 254.65
𝑑1 = 2.5122
The value of the last deflection angle 𝑑2 :
𝐶2
𝑑2 = 2 × sin−1( )
2×𝑅
8.819
𝑑2 = 2 × sin−1 ( )
2 × 254.65
𝑑2 = 1.9883

1145.96
𝐷=
𝑅
𝐷 = 4.5
STATION INCREMENTAL CENTRAL DEFLECTION ANGLE FROM
OCCUPIED OBSERVED CHORD INCREMENTAL ANGLE BACK TANGENT
PC A 11.1646 2.5 1.25
B 20 7 3.5
C 20 11.5 5.75
D 20 16 8
E 20 20.5 10.25
F 20 25 12.5
G 20 29.5 14.75
H 20 34 17
PT 8.819 36 18

## Deflection angle of A: Deflection angle of F:

𝑑1 ° 2.5122° 𝑑1 °+5𝐷° 2.5122°+(5×4.5°)
2
= 2
= 1.25 2
= 2
= 12.5

## Deflection angle of B: Deflection angle of G:

𝑑1 °+𝐷° 2.5122°+4.5° 𝑑1 °+6𝐷° 2.5122°+(6×4.5°)
2
= 2
= 3.5 2
= 2
= 14.75

## Deflection angle of C: Deflection angle of H:

𝑑1 °+2𝐷° 2.5122°+(2×4.5°) 𝑑1 °+7𝐷° 2.5122°+(7×4.5°)
= = 5.75 = = 17
2 2 2 2

## Deflection angle of D: Deflection angle of PT:

𝑑1 °+3𝐷° 2.5122°+(3×4.5°) 𝐼° 36°
2
= 2
=8 2
= 2
= 18

## Central incremental angle of D: Central incremental angle of PT:

8(2) = 16 18(2) = 36
𝑑1 °+4𝐷° 2.5122°+(4×4.5°)
Deflection angle of E: 2
= 2
= 10.25, Central incremental angle of E: 10.25(2) = 20.5
Cristobal, John Carlo
CE121F – A1
Group 2

DISCUSSION
This fieldwork is entitled as laying of a simple curve by transit and tape with the use of
the increment chord and deflection angle method. This is done by having the first point of
reference anywhere on the field or in a designated position, a vertex is also chosen. With
the given value of R, I, station of vertex and the adapted full chord length the researchers
must then calculate the tangent distance (T), middle ordinated distance (M), length of
curve (Lc), long chord (C), station of the first station (PC), last station (PT), length of the
first and last sub chord (C1 and C2), and the value of the deflection angles. The number
of stations that must be observed is determined in the deflection angle where the
maximum deflection angle must be 18. After computing for the needed values, the curve
can now be sketched and produced. First is setting the angle to 0 degrees with respect to
the vertex, then the first deflection angle is to be measured and the length of the chord,
along this line we can now place the first pin, and this indicates as the first sub chord.
Procedure is repeated until the last point in the curve is placed. After that, we measure the
chord from the first point to the last and compare it to the computed length of chord.

CONCLUSION
After performing the fieldwork, I have observed and therefore conclude that to construct
or lay a simple curve, we can use the deflection angle method. This method gives us a
near precise measurement of our chords and angles, with consideration on how careful
we compute for the values, precise we place the marking pins as marks on every chord
member and in measuring the angle from the transit. This fieldwork is important for us
engineering students because curves are provided whenever a road changes its direction
from right to left (vice versa) or changes its alignment from up to down (vice versa).
Curves are a critical element in the pavement design. They are provided with a maximum
speed limit that should lie followed very strictly. Following the speed limit becomes
essential as the exceed in speed may lead to the chances of the vehicle becoming out of
control while negotiating a turn and thus increase the odds of fatal accidents. Also, it is
very necessary that appropriate safety measures be adopted at all horizontal and vertical
curves to make the infrastructure road user friendly and decrease the risks of unwanted
injuries.
Dela Cruz, Orlie
CE121F – A1
Group 2

DISCUSSION

CONCLUSION
CE121F – A1
Group 2

DISCUSSION

CONCLUSION
Francisco, Edgar Manuel D.
CE121F – A1
Group 2

DISCUSSION
Fieldwork 1 is about laying of a simple curve by transit and tape (the incremental chords
and deflection angle method). Before we start this fieldwork, our professor gives us data
then compute it, so we can use it on the field. The formulas used are mostly geometry. By
having knowledge about it we can easily do the fieldwork and the computations. The
procedure is that we need to make an arc of a circle by using a corresponding method
with the help of theodolite thus we can get the bearing and the measurement of each
point.

CONCLUSION
Based on the data that we gathered, we can conclude that to construct a simple curve we
can use the deflection angle method. This method can make a simple curve and can read
the deflection angle starting from the starting point using the instrument theodolite. .Our
group encountered errors mostly human errors, like wrong solving for a data, inaccurate
measurements using the tape, wrong reading of the deflection angle in the theodolite, and
lastly the mistake of removing the marking pin from the vertex so we had to guess on
where its original point and it is turned out to be wrong and we repeat it again from the
start. The curves are important on the road it keeps the vehicles to pass through safely.
Marquez, Mark Patrick
CE121F – A1
Group 2

DISCUSSION

CONCLUSION
Sagum, John Marciano
CE121F – A1
Group 2

DISCUSSION

CONCLUSION