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Dynamic Contact between a Wire Rope and a Pulley Using Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation

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Article

Dynamic Contact between a Wire Rope and a Pulley

Using Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation

Shoichiro Takehara 1, *, Masaya Kawarada 2 and Kazunori Hase 2

Received: 27 June 2015; Accepted: 14 January 2016; Published: 21 January 2016

Academic Editor: David Mba

1 Department of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku,

Tokyo 102-8554, Japan

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Ohsawa, Hachioji-shi,

Tokyo 192-0397, Japan; the_world_has_turned_left_me@yahoo.co.jp (M.K.); kazunori.hase@tmu.ac.jp (K.H.)

* Correspondence: stakeha@sophia.ac.jp; Tel.: +81-3-3238-3863

Abstract: Wire rope and pulley devices are used in various machines. To use these machines more

safely, it is necessary to analyze the behavior of the contact between them. In this study, we represent

a wire rope by a numerical model of a flexible body. This flexible body is expressed in the absolute

nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF), and the model includes the normal contact force and the

frictional force between the wire rope and the pulley. The normal contact force is expressed by

spring-damper elements, and the frictional force is expressed by the Quinn method. The advantage

of the Quinn method is that it reduces the numerical problems associated with the discontinuities in

Coulomb friction at zero velocity. By using the numerical model, simulations are performed, and

the validity of this model is shown by comparing its results with those of an experiment. Through

numerical simulations, we confirm the proposed model for the contact between the wire rope and

the pulley. We confirmed that the behavior of the wire rope changes when both the bending elastic

modulus of the wire rope and the mass added to each end of the wire rope are changed.

1. Introduction

Wire rope and pulley devices are used in various machines, such as cranes and elevators [1].

As machine elements, they have various advantages, such as being lightweight, having a small

footprint, and being useful in a wide variety of machines. In addition, ropes and cables can be used in

extreme environments, such as in space and deep in the ocean. Cables are also used to attach satellites

to a mothership [2,3] or to operate vehicles remotely. In each of these machines, pulleys are used

to change the direction of the force and to transfer power. To ensure that these machines are used

safely, it is important to consider the contact between the rope and the pulley. For example, if the

friction between them is used to transfer power in an elevator system, slip is produced when there is

a difference between the tension on the right side and that on the left side. When using a pulley in

microgravity, deformation occurs where the rope is wound, and this can lead to fractures. To solve

these problems, it is necessary to perform an advanced analysis of the contact between the rope and

the pulley. However, most of the relevant research has been directed at the vibration of the rope [1,4,5]

or the motion of the rope. Few studies have considered the contact between the rope and pulley [6],

and those that have have been based on physical experiments [7], not on numerical simulations.

Consequently, it is important to develop a numerical model in which the parameters can be changed

and the deformations of the contacting parts can be evaluated.

The purpose of this study is to construct a numerical model that can use flexible multibody

dynamics to investigate the motion of the contact part of the pulley and express in detail the normal

Machines 2016, 4, 4 2 of 12

contact and frictional forces between a rope and pulley. First, the validity of the model is shown by

comparing the results with those of an experiment. We then use the numerical model to perform

simulations under various conditions. We also examine the force acting between the wire rope and

the pulley and the resulting motion. Additional simulations are performed in which various masses

are added to each end of the rope, and the influence of the ratio of tension, which is the ratio of the

weights applied to each end of the rope, and the bending elastic modulus of the wire rope are varied;

we discuss the influence of each of these factors on the motion of the rope.

In this section, we discuss the formulation of the numerical model. The wire rope is modeled by

the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) [8,9], the contact force is modeled by spring-damper

elements, and the frictional force is defined by the Quinn method.

Using the ANCF to formulate the wire rope makes it easier to describe its motion as a flexible

body with large deformation, large rotation, and large translational displacement. Figure 1 shows

an element of a flexible body in the absolute coordinate system O-XY. Here, AB is the initial form, and

A1 B1 is the deformed form. The global position vector r of an arbitrary point on the element can be

described by using the global shape function, as follows:

r “ Se (1)

” ıT

e“ e1 e2 e3 e4 e5 e6 e7 e8 (2)

where e1 and e2 are the positions at node A, e5 and e6 are the positions at node B, e3 and e4 are the

spatial derivatives of the displacements of the node at A1 , and e7 and e8 are the spatial derivatives of

the displacements of the node at B1 . In Equation (1), the following shape function is used:

» fiT

1 ´ 3ξ2 ` 2ξ3 0

—

— ´ 0 ¯ 1 ´ 3ξ2 ` 2ξ3 ffi

ffi

— le ξ ´ 2ξ2 ` ξ3

— ffi

— 0 ffi

´ ¯ ffi

le ξ ´ 2ξ2 ` ξ3 ffi

« ff — ffi

S1 — 0

S“ (3)

— ffi

“—

3ξ ´ 2ξ3

2 ffi

S2 — 0 ffi

2 3

— ffi

´ 0 3ξ ´ 2ξ

— ffi

— ¯ ffi

— le ´ξ2 ` ξ3 0

— ffi

ffi

– ´ ¯ fl

2 3

0 le ´ξ ` ξ

where ξ “ x{le , x is the coordinate along the body axis in the initial configuration, and le is the length

of the element. The kinetic energy in the flexible body element becomes

ż le

1 .T . 1 .T .

T“ ρAr rdx “ e Ma e (4)

2 0 2

Thus, an element mass matrix, expressed in terms of the global frame, becomes

ż le

Ma “ ρA ST Sdx (5)

0

Machines 2016, 4, 4 3 of 12

Machines 2016, 4, 4 3 of 12

Figure

Figure 1.

1. Element

Element of

of aa flexible

flexible body.

body.

Next, the strain energy is derived. A liner elastic model can be assumed by increasing the

Next, the strain energy is derived. A liner elastic model can be assumed by increasing the number

number of elements [10–12]. The longitudinal elastic potential energy of one element U l can be

of elements [10–12]. The longitudinal elastic potential energy of one element Ul can be written as:

written as:

11 lele

ż

E Aε22 dx

2 00 Ell Aε dx

UUl “= (6)

(6)

l

2

where EEl lisisthe

where thelongitudinal

longitudinalelastic

elasticmodulus,

modulus,and

andεεisisthe

theaxial

axialstrain

strainof

ofthe

theelement.

element. The

The bending

bending

elastic potential energy of one element U can be written

elastic potential energy of one element U can be written as:

t as:

t

11 lele

ż

UUt t“= EEbbIIκ

κ 22dx

dx (7)

(7)

22 00

the bending

bending elastic

elastic modulus,

modulus, I isI is

thethe second

second moment

moment ofof

thethe area

area of of

thethe element,

element, and

and κ

κ is

the curvature.

is the curvature.

The equations of motion can be written as:

e “= Q

.. Q − Q

MMe f k

f ´ Qk

(8)

(8)

where M is the mass matrix, Q is the external force, and Q is the elastic force. Q k is defined

where M is the mass matrix, Q f is fthe external force, and Qk is thekelastic force. Qk is defined as follows:

as follows:

BU TT BUt T T

ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙

Qk “ ∂Ul l ` ∂U t (9)

Qk = Be + Be (9)

∂e ∂e

In this model, in order to express the characteristics of longitudinal strength and ease of bending,

In this model, in order to express the characteristics of longitudinal strength and ease of

the modulus of longitudinal elasticity is different from the modulus of bending elasticity.

bending, the modulus of longitudinal elasticity is different from the modulus of bending elasticity.

2.2. Formulation of Normal Contact Force, Frictional Force, and Constraint Force

2.2. Formulation of Normal Contact Force, Frictional Force, and Constraint Force

The normal contact force is expressed by the spring-damper elements, and the frictional force is

The normal contact force is expressed by the spring-damper elements, and the frictional force

expressed by the Quinn method [13]. The advantage of the Quinn method is that there is a discontinuity,

is expressed by the Quinn method [13]. The advantage of the Quinn method is that there is a

and so the Coulomb friction is consistent [14,15]. First, we formulate the normal contact force. Figure 2

discontinuity, and so the Coulomb friction is consistent [14,15]. First, we formulate the normal

shows the i-th element on which the normal contact and frictional forces act. The normal contact force

contact force. Figure 2 shows the i-th element on which the normal contact and frictional forces act.

acts when the node of an element has a boundary condition, and this depends on the radius of the

The normal contact force acts when the node piq piqof an element has a boundary condition, and this

pulley [16]. The i-th nodal coordinates are e1 , e2 . The radius of the pulley is R, and the coordinates of

are e1( ) , e2( ) . The radius of the

i i

depends

the centeron

of the

the radius of the

pulley are R x ,pulley

Ry . The[16]. The i-th

boundary nodal coordinates

condition is

pulley is R , and the coordinates of the center of the pulley are Rx , Ry . The boundary condition is

pi q 2 pi q 2 2

pR x ´ e1 ( iq) 2` pRy ´ e(2i ) q2 ě R (10)

( Rx − e1 ) + ( Ry − e2 ) ≥ R 2 (10)

Machines 2016, 4, 4 4 of 12

Machines 2016, 4, 4 4 of 12

f

h

(e , e )

i

1

i

2

θ

(e , e )

i

5

i

6

Figure 2. Forces acting on a rope.

The normal contact force is defined as normal to the pulley. The penalty parameter of the

are e1( ) of

, e2( the

)

i i

The normal k c , the damping

pulley is contact force is constant pulley istocthe

definedofasthenormal c , the velocities

pulley. The of penalty

the i-th element

parameter , pulley

and d is the distance between the center of pulley and the i-th element. Hence, the normal

. piq . pcontact

iq

is k c , the damping constant of the pulley is cc , the velocities of the i-th element are e1 ,e2 , and

d is the

force is

distance between the center of pulley and the i-th element. Hence, the normal contact force is

˜ N =c (

kc R − ( Rx − e1( ) ) 2 + ( Ry − e2( ) ) 2 −¸

i i

)

cc (e1( ) cos θ + e2( ) sin θ)

i i

(11)

pi q 2 pi q 2 . pi q . pi q

N “ kc R´ pR x ´ e1 q ` − Ryx ´ e2 q e2 −´Rcy c pe1 cosθ ` e2 sinθq

e1( ) pR

i (i ) (11)

cos θ = , sin θ = (12)

d d

pi q

Next, the frictional force is shown.piqThe frictional force of

e1 ´ R x e2 the´ RQuinn

y

method is defined by the

velocity and force acting oncosθthe nodal

“ , sinθ “

coordinate. The advantage of this method is that it reduces (12)

the numerical problems associated with the d discontinuities in Coulomb

d friction at zero velocity, and,

Next,asthe frictional

a result, we canforce is shown.

perform The simulation

a numerical frictional at v = 0of

force the Quinn

, which is whenmethod

slip-stickisbehavior

defined by the

plays

velocity and a central

force role.

acting onThe

thefrictional force in Equation

nodal coordinate. (13) is based of

The advantage onthis

the total h ,that

forceis

method which is a

it reduces the

combination of the elastic force and the gravity acting on the i-th element, the velocity in the

numerical problems associated with the discontinuities in Coulomb friction at zero velocity, and, as

tangential direction v , the circumferential velocity of the pulley v p , the normal contact force N , a

a result, we can perform a numerical simulation at v “ 0, which is when slip-stick behavior plays

fixed regularization parameter ε [13], and the friction coefficient μ :

a central role. The frictional force in Equation (13) is based on the total force h, which is a combination

of the elastic force and the gravity acting −μi-th ε

Nv /element, ≤ ε velocity in the tangential direction

if v the

F ( v , on

h ) =the

(13)

− sgn( v )μ N otherwise

v, the circumferential velocity of the pulley v p , the normal contact force N, a fixed regularization

parameter ε [13], and the friction coefficient vµ:− v p + εh / μN if h ≤ μN

v ( v, h ) = (14)

# v − v p + sgn(h)ε otherwise

´µNv{ε if |v| ď ε

F pv, hqforces

Finally, the two constraint “ are defined: In the longitudinal direction, there is a damping (13)

´sgnpvqµN otherwise

force on the edges of the rope; in the lateral direction, there is s constraint force on the edges of the

rope. The normal contact force N#, the frictional force F , and the constraint force depend on time. The

contact between the rope and pulley isv expressed

´ v p ` εh{µN i f the |h|

by adding Qf as ď µN

external force in Equation (8).

v pv, hq “ (14)

v ´ v p ` sgnphqε otherwise

3. Validation of Numerical Model

Finally, the twosection,

In this constraint forcesthe

we present areresults

defined:

of anIn the longitudinal

experiment direction,

that we conducted to there is athedamping

validate

force on the edges

results of the

of the rope;model.

proposed in the The

lateral direction,

coefficient there is selasticity

of longitudinal constraint force onbut

is specified, thetheedges

bendingof the rope.

The normalelastic modulus

contact forceis N,

not the

referred to in general.

frictional force F,Theand

coefficient of bendingforce

the constraint elasticity was determined

depend on time. The by contact

comparing the experimental and simulation results for the shape of a wire rope. In this process, the

between the rope and pulley is expressed by adding Q f as the external force in Equation (8).

bending elastic modulus was treated as an unknown parameter. A fundamental experiment was

performed to measure the shape of a wire rope used with a pulley. In this experiment, the wire rope

3. Validation

had a of Numerical

length of 1.00 mModel

and a diameter of 0.01 m. Weights of 0.05 kg, 0.2 kg and 1.0 kg were then

added to each end of the wire rope, and a digital camera was used to determine their influence on

In this section, we present the results of an experiment that we conducted to validate the results

the shape of the rope. Markers were placed on the wire rope at intervals of 0.05 m, and the

of the proposed model.

displacement The

of the coefficient

markers of longitudinal

was calculated elasticity

by using the graphics is specified,

software butImageJ

package the bending

[17,18] elastic

modulus is not referred to in general. The coefficient of bending elasticity was determined by

comparing the experimental and simulation results for the shape of a wire rope. In this process,

the bending elastic modulus was treated as an unknown parameter. A fundamental experiment was

performed to measure the shape of a wire rope used with a pulley. In this experiment, the wire rope

had a length of 1.00 m and a diameter of 0.01 m. Weights of 0.05 kg, 0.2 kg and 1.0 kg were then

added to each end of the wire rope, and a digital camera was used to determine their influence on the

shape of the rope. Markers were placed on the wire rope at intervals of 0.05 m, and the displacement

of the markers was calculated by using the graphics software package ImageJ [17,18] to analyze the

Machines 2016, 4, 4 5 of 12

Machines 2016, 4, 4 5 of 12

photographs; this4,displacement

Machines 2016, 4 was then used to determine the shape of the rope. Various 5 of 12 masses

were toused.

analyzeThethe wire rope was this

photographs; not displacement

straight, even waswhen

then there

used to is determine

no load on theit;shape

the direction

of the rope. of this

to analyze the photographs; this displacement was then used to determine the shape of the rope.

Various

curvature masses

was masses were

considered. used. The

Figure wire rope was not straight, even when there is no load on it; the

Various were used. The 3wire

shows rope an

wasexperiment

not straight, in

evenwhich

when0.20 therekg is weights

no load on were

it; the attached

direction

to each end ofofthe

thiswire

curvature

rope, was

and considered.

the results Figure

of 3 shows

this an experiment

experiment are shown in which

in 0.20 kg

Figure 4. weights

In Figure 4,

direction of this curvature was considered. Figure 3 shows an experiment in which 0.20 kg weights

were

the blue were attached to each end of the wire rope, and the results of this experiment are shown in Figure 4. 4.

attached

line shows to each

the end

result of the

when wire

the rope, and

curvature the results

induced ofbythis

theexperiment

weights are

was shown

in the in Figure

same direction

In In

Figure

Figure4, 4,

the theblue

bluelinelineshows

shows the

the result when

resultshows the curvature

when the curvatureinduced

inducedbybythe theweights

weights waswasin in

the the

as its natural curvature, and the black line the result when these were in opposite directions.

same

same direction

direction asasitsitsnatural

natural curvature,

curvature, and

and the

the black line

black line shows

showsthe theresult

resultwhen

when these

these were

were in in

From the results shown in Figure 4, we see that, when the added load is sufficiently small, the natural

opposite

opposite directions.

directions.From Fromthe the results

results shown

shown in in Figure

Figure 4,4, we

we seeseethat,

that,whenwhenthetheadded added loadload is is

curvature of thesmall,

sufficiently rope distorts the shape soofthat it does not match the numerical results. On the other

sufficiently small,thethenatural

naturalcurvature

curvature of the rope distorts

rope distorts theshape

the shape sosothat

thatit it does

does notnot match

match thethe

hand,numerical

when the

numerical added

results.

results.Onload

Onthe is large,

theother

otherhand,the natural

hand, when curvature

when the added

added load has little

loadisislarge, influence,

large,thethenatural

natural and the

curvature

curvature blue

hashas and

littleblack

little

lines influence,

areinfluence,

similar.andand thetheblue

blueandandblack

blacklines

linesareare similar.

similar.

Figure 3. Resulting curvature when a 0.20 kg weight was added to each end of the rope.

Figure 3. Resulting

Figure curvature

3. Resulting curvaturewhen

whenaa0.20

0.20 kg weightwas

kg weight wasadded

addedto to each

each endend of rope.

of the the rope.

We compared

Figurethe simulation andresults

4. Experimental experimental results in

when weights wereorder to identify

added to eachthe bending elastic

end.

modulus. We used the experimental result in which the 1.00 kg weights were added, because

We compared the simulation and experimental results in order to identify the bending elastic

Figure 4 shows that, in this case, the influence of the natural curvature was small. The values of the

We compared

modulus. We used

other parameters

theare simulation

theshown and experimental

experimental

in Table 1.result in which

We compared

results in order

theresults

the 1.00 kgthe

of

to identify

weights were

numerical

the bending

added,

simulations because

and

elastic

Figure

modulus. 4

Weshows

used that,

the in this case,

experimental the influence

result of

in the

whichnatural

the curvature

1.00 kg was small.

weights

the experiments for different values of the bending elastic modulus; this is shown in Figure 5. From The

were values

added, of the

because

other

Figure parameters

4Figures

shows 5, that,

we can are shown

insee

this

that in Table

case,

there the 1. We to compared

influence

appears be aof the

thebending

valid results

natural of the

curvature

elastic numerical

moduluswas simulations

small.

between The

1.00 × 10 and

values

8 of

the experiments

and 1.00 × 10 9 for

N/m different values

2. The bending of the

elastic bending

modulus elastic

of modulus;

this wire rope this

the other parameters are shown in Table 1. We compared the results of the numerical simulationswasis shown in

estimated Figure

to be 5. From

about

Figures× 5,

108we can see thatthethere appears to be a this

valid bending elastic modulus between 1.00 × 108

and the6.00 N/m 2, because error was smallest

experiments for different values of theatbending

value.elastic modulus; this is shown in Figure 5.

and 1.00 × 109 N/m2. The bending elastic modulus of this wire rope was estimated to be about

From Figure 5, we can see that there appears tovalues

Table was

1. Parameter

be a valid

used

bending elastic modulus between 1.00 ˆ 108

in this simulation.

6.00 × 108 9N/m2, because

2

the error smallest at this value.

and 1.00 ˆ 10 N/m . The bending elastic modulus of this wire rope was estimated to be about

Symbol Unit Value

6.00 ˆ 108 N/m2 , because the Table

error 1.was smallest

Parameter at this

values used value.

in this simulation.

l Length of wire rope m 1.00

R

Symbol Radius of pulley m 0.10

Table 1. Parameter values used in thisUnit

simulation. Value

ml r, ml Magnitude of wire

Length of addedrope

masses kgm 1.00

1.00

R Ee Longitudinal

Radius elastic

of modulus

pulley N/m m

2 2.91 ×0.10

1010

Symbol

n Number of elements -Unit Value

20

mr, ml Magnitude of added masses kg 1.00

Ee l Length elastic

Longitudinal of wiremodulus

rope N/m m2 2.911.00

× 1010

R Radius of pulley m 0.10

n Number of elements - 20

mr , m l Magnitude of added masses kg 1.00

Ee Longitudinal elastic modulus N/m2 2.91 ˆ 1010

n Number of elements - 20

Machines 2016, 4, 4 6 of 12

Machines 2016, 4, 4 6 of 12

Machines 2016, 4, 4 6 of 12

Figure5.5.Results

Figure Resultsofofnumerical

numericalsimulation

simulation and

and experiment

experimentwhen

whenvarying

varyingthe

thebending

bendingelastic modulus.

elastic modulus.

Figure 5. Results of numerical simulation and experiment when varying the bending elastic modulus.

Next, we considered the reciprocal motion of the pulley and the total slip distance. Note that

Next, we considered the reciprocal motion of the pulley and the total slip distance. Note that

instead Next,

of considering the individual

we considered slip motion

the reciprocal distances, which

of the areand

pulley extremely

the totalsmall, we considered

slip distance. only

Note that

instead of considering the individual slip distances, which are extremely small, we considered only the

theinstead

total. The

of considering the individual slip distances, which are extremely small, we considered onlybut

outline of the experimental setup is shown in Figure 6. Here, the rope is not held

total. Theon

placed

outline of the experimental setup is slip

shown in Figure 6. Here, the rope is not held but placed

the total.a The

pulley. In this

outline of theexperiment,

experimental thesetup isdistance

shown incorresponding

Figure 6. Here,tothe pulley

rope isrotation

not heldcan

but be

onmeasured

a pulley.

placed onIn athis

when experiment,

the

pulley.pulley the slipasdistance

In thisisexperiment,

rotated, shown

the slipincorresponding

6. First,tothe

Figure corresponding

distance pulley

to rotation

pulley can beas

was rotated

pulley rotation measured

shown

can be

when the

in Figure pulley

measured is

6a, when rotated, as shown in Figure 6. First, the pulley was rotated as shown

Step 1.the pulley is rotated, as shown in Figure 6. First, the pulley was rotated as shown in Figure 6a,

Step 1.in Figure 6a, Step 1.

Figure

Figure6.6.Experimental setup.

Experimental setup.

Figure 6. Experimental setup.

Next,

Next,thethe

location

locationofofthe thecenter

centerof ofmass

mass was was measured

measured using using the

thesensor,

sensor,and andthethepulley

pulley was

was

Next,

moved the

to thelocation

position of the

shown center

in of mass

Figure was

6b, Stepmeasured

2. using

Finally, the the sensor,

pulley

moved to the position shown in Figure 6b, Step 2. Finally, the pulley was rotated in the opposite was and the

rotated pulley

in the was moved

opposite

to direction,

thedirection,

position and shown

andthethe

ropein was

rope Figure 6b, Step

wasreturned

returned toto2.

theFinally,

the initial the pulley

initial position,

position, was

as shown

as shown rotated in the

ininFigure

Figure opposite

6c,Step

6c, Step3. 3.

The direction,

The slip

slip

distance

and the was

rope was

distance calculated

wascalculated

returnedbyby measuring

tomeasuring

the initialthethe total

position, slip after

total slipas shown ten round trips

in Figure

ten round trips 6c,and

andStep dividing

3. The

dividing by ten, since

slipsince

by ten, distance

wasthecalculated

slipslip

the distance

by of

distance a asingle

of singleround

measuring round

the trip was

tripslip

total so

so small

wasafter small that it

ten round it was

was difficult

tripsdifficult totomeasure

and dividing measureby it.it.InIn

ten, addition,

addition,

since the slip

an an

distance index

index value

of value

a singleis is required,

required,

round because

because

trip was sothe the sumthat

sum

small of the

of the round-trip

round-trip

it was difficultdistance

distance changes

changes

to measure it.when

when

In the radius

the

addition, anofindex

radius of

thethe pulley

pulley changes,

changes, and

and thus

thus the

the reduction

reduction in

in the

the slip cannot

cannot be

be understood

value is required, because the sum of the round-trip distance changes when the radius of the pulley understood quantitatively.

quantitatively. WeWe

define

define thisthis indexasas a dimensionlessslip slipnumber:

number:

changes, andindex

thus the areduction

dimensionless in the slip cannot be understood quantitatively. We define this index

Distance of

as a dimensionless slip number: Slip Number ＝ Distance of slip

slip [m]

[m]

Slip Number ＝ Distance of round-trip [m] (15)

(15)

Distance of round-trip [m]

Distance of slip [m]

Slip Number “ (15)

Distance of round-trip [m]

Machines 2016, 4, 4 7 of 12

Machines 2016, 4, 4 7 of 12

We changed the ratio of tension (the ratio of weight), and we calculated the slip distance when

the pulley had the reciprocal motion. The values of the parameters used in the numerical simulation

wereWe thechanged

same asthe those

ratiolisted in Table

of tension (the2.ratio

Theofcircumferential

weight), and we velocity

calculatedof the

thepulley is 0.10 when

slip distance m/s. The

the

weighthad

pulley on thethereciprocal

right wasmotion.

294.70 The

kg, values

and the of weight on the left

the parameters usedvaried. The slip numbers

in the numerical simulation forwere

the

experimental results and the numerical simulations are shown in Figure 7. From

the same as those listed in Table 2. The circumferential velocity of the pulley is 0.10 m/s. The weight on Figure 7, we can

see right

the that was

the 294.70

experimental results

kg, and the are on

weight in the

agreement

left varied. with

Thethe

slipnumerical

numbers for results when the ratio

the experimental of

results

tension

and was between

the numerical 1.00 andare

simulations 1.35. In both

shown the experiment

in Figure and 7,

7. From Figure thewenumerical

can see that simulation, the slip

the experimental

numberare

results increased

in agreementexponentially when the results

with the numerical ratio ofwhentension

the was

ratio1.25 or larger.

of tension wasWhenbetween the1.00

ratio of

and

tension

1.35. was the

In both 1.35experiment

or larger, andthe the

results of thesimulation,

numerical experimentthe differed from increased

slip number those of the numerical

exponentially

simulation.

when the ratio This difference

of tension wasis1.25

thought to beWhen

or larger. due to thethe parameters

ratio of tensionofwas the1.35

contact forcethe

or larger, between

resultsthe

of

rope

the and the pulley.

experiment differed Infrom

addition,

thoseasofindicated earlier

the numerical in this paper,

simulation. Thisthe value was

difference measured

is thought to beafter

dueten

to

round

the trips, and

parameters of this may have

the contact caused

force betweenthisthe

difference,

rope and since it occurred

the pulley. when as

In addition, theindicated

slip number

earlierwas

in

larger.

this However,

paper, the valuewhen wasthe ratio of tension

measured after tenwas 1.35 trips,

round or larger,

and the

thisfact

may that thecaused

have slip number increases

this difference,

exponentially

since it occurred must

when be the

considered

slip numberwhen was designing a rope and

larger. However, when pulley device.

the ratio The above

of tension results

was 1.35 or

validate

larger, theourfactmodel.

that the slip number increases exponentially must be considered when designing a rope

and pulley device. The above results validate our model.

Table 2. Parameters for numerical simulation.

Table 2. Parameters for numerical simulation.

Symbol Unit Value

lSymbol Length of Lope m

Unit

2.40

Value

ml , mr Mass kg 294.70

l Length of Lope m 2 2.40

Eem , m Coefficient of longitudinal

Mass

elasticity N/m

kg

2.91 × 1010

294.70

l r

Eb Ee Coefficient of bending elasticity

Coefficient of longitudinal elasticity N/m22

N/m 6.00

2.91 ˆ× 1010

10 8

ρ Eb Density

Coefficient of rope elasticity

of bending N/m23

kg/m ˆ 108

6.001091

R ρ Density

Diameter ofofpulley

rope m 3

kg/m 1091

0.10

kp R PenaltyDiameter

parameter of pulley

of pulley m

N/m 0.10× 106

2.00

kp Penalty parameter of pulley N/m 2.00 ˆ 106 5

kp2 Penalty parameter of pulley at edge N/m 2.00 × 10

k p2 Penalty parameter of pulley at edge N/m 2.00 ˆ 105

cp c p Damping

Damping constant

constantofofpulley

pulley N/(m/s)

N/(m/s) 5.00

5.00 ˆ ×1010

3 3

μ µ Frictional

Frictionalcoefficient

coefficient - 0.10

0.10

ε ε Fixed

Fixed regularizationparameter

regularization parameter m/s

m/s 0.05

0.05

Figure 7. Ratio of tension vs. slip number.

4. Numerical Results and Discussion

In this section, we use the results of the numerical simulations, based on the formulation of

In this section, we use the results of the numerical simulations, based on the formulation of

Section 2, to analyze the behavior of the contact between the rope and the pulley. First, we

Section 2, to analyze the behavior of the contact between the rope and the pulley. First, we investigate

investigate the contact and friction forces between the rope and the pulley when the pulley is

the contact and friction forces between the rope and the pulley when the pulley is rotating. Then, we

rotating. Then, we discuss the behavior of the rope when varying the ratio of tension (the ratio of

discuss the behavior of the rope when varying the ratio of tension (the ratio of the weights) applied to

the weights) applied to each end of the rope and varying its bending elastic modulus.

each end of the rope and varying its bending elastic modulus.

Machines 2016, 4, 4 8 of 12

Machines 2016, 4, 4 8 of 12

4.1. Force Acting

Machines 2016, 4,on

4 Rope 8 of 12

4.1. consider

We Force Acting theonforce

Rope that rotates the pulley and acts on the wire rope. Here, we will assume

4.1. Force Acting on Rope

that a wireWe rope is wrapped

consider the force around the stationary

that rotates the pulleypuller,and acts andonitthe thenwire begins

rope. toHere,rotatewe inwillthe clockwise

assume

direction. We

that aThe consider

wire the

circumferential force

rope is wrapped that

velocity rotates

aroundof thethe pulley

thepulley and

is 0.10

stationary acts on

m/s. and

puller, the wire

A normal rope.

it thencontact Here,

begins force we will assume

and ainfrictional

to rotate the

that a wire rope is The wrapped around the stationary thepuller, and it then begins to rotate inforce

the

force clockwise

act on thedirection.

15th to 21st circumferential

elements, as shown velocity inofFigure pulley is 0.10

8; Figure 9 m/s.

shows A normal

the normal contact contact and

clockwise

and forces direction.

a frictional force Theact circumferential

onofthe 15th to velocity

21st of the as

elements, pulley

shown is 0.10

in m/s. A8;normal

Figure Figure contact

9 shows force

the

frictional

and

acting

a frictional

on

force

each

act on the

the nodes.

15th

The

to 21st

colors

elements,

of the nodal coordinates in Figure 8 correspond

normal

to thenormal contact

colorscontact and

of the lines frictional

in Figure forces acting

9. Inacting on each

the initial of theas

condition,

shown

nodes.

thereTheThe incolors

is no

Figureof8;the

contact

Figure

nodal9coordinates

between

shows the

the wire rope

and frictional forces on each of the nodes.

in Figure 8 correspond to the colors of the lines in Figure 9. In the initial condition, there is no colors of the nodal coordinates

and thein pulley;

Figure contact

8 correspond occurs when the pulley begins to rotate. In Figure 9, the horizontal axis shows

contact between the wiretorope the colors

and theofpulley;

the lines in Figure

contact occurs9. when

In thethe initial

pulleycondition,

begins

˝ . The

there

to rotate.is noIn

the clockwise

contact rotational displacement of the pulley: The far left end represents 0 magnitude In of

Figure 9,between the wire

the horizontal rope

axis showsand the

the clockwise

pulley; contact occurs

rotational when the pulley

displacement of the begins

pulley:toThe rotate.

far left

the normal

Figure contact

end represents force,

9, the horizontal

0°. Theshown axis shows

magnitude in Figure

ofthe 9a,

theclockwisediffers

normal when

rotational

contact the

force, rotational

displacement

shown angle

of

in Figure the9a, ofdiffers

the pulley

pulley: The whenfar changes;

left

the

end

although represents

this force 0°.

is The magnitude

symmetric when of the

the normal

pulley contact

is at force,

rest, it isshown

changed

rotational angle of the pulley changes; although this force is symmetric when the pulley is at rest, in Figure

by the 9a, differs

rotation when

of the thepulley.

it

In thisrotational

is figure,

changedwe angle

by see of the pulley

that theofcontact

the rotation changes;

the pulley. although

force occurs

In this this force

for we

figure, is

angles symmetric

lessthe

see that than when ˝

0 and

contact the pulley

forceoveroccurs is

180 at

˝ rest,

due itto the

for angles

is changed 0°by theover

rotation

transverse

less wave

than caused

and by

180°theofdue thetopulley.

inertial theforce In this figure,

of the wave

transverse we

rope itself. see that

caused Webyalso theinertial

the contact force

note thatforce of

theoccurs

sign

the of for angles

theitself.

rope frictional

less than 0° and over 180° due to the transverse wave caused by the inertial force of the rope itself.

force We also note

changes, that the in

as shown sign of the9b.

Figure frictional

From forcethesechanges,

results, as weshown

see that in Figure 9b. Fromforce

the frictional thesedoesresults, not act

We

we alsothat

see notethe thatfrictional

the sign force

of thedoes frictional

not force

act changes,on

uniformly asashown

rotating in Figure

pulley. 9b.

It Fromfound

was thesethatresults,

the

uniformly

we see

on a rotating

thatmoved

pulley.

the frictional

It was found that the rope was moved by the sum of these frictional

forces.rope

In was

this figure, the the force

by frictional

sum of does

force

notfrictional

thesein

act uniformly

the positive forces. onIna this

direction

rotating

is figure,

the

pulley.

force

It was found

thethat

frictional

moves force

the

that

in the

rope the

rope

positivewasdirection

moved is bythetheforce

sumthat of moves

these frictional

the rope in forces. In this figure,

the rotational direction, the and

frictional force inforce

the frictional thein the

rotational

positivedirection,

direction and theforce

is the frictional force the in the negative directiondirection,

is the force and that moves the rope in

in the negative direction is thethatforcemoves

that moves rope in rope

the the rotational

in the inverse rotational the frictional

direction. force

Thus, it

the inverse

in rotational

theshown

negative direction. theThus, it was shown that, in wheninversethe difference between the right it and

was that,direction

when the is difference

force that moves

between theright

the rope andthe left inertialrotational

forces wasdirection.

greater than Thus, the

was

left inertial

masses shown

forces

of thethat,

was when

frictional the

greater difference

than

forces in the betweenofthe

the masses

direction theright

opposite and

frictional leftforces

to that ofinertial

the in forces was greater

the direction

inertial force, than

theopposite

rope the

slidesto that

masses

of theandinertial of the frictional

force,isthe

the pulley notrope forces

able to slides in

moveand the direction

the the

rope. opposite to that of

pulley is not able to move the rope. the inertial force, the rope slides

and the pulley is not able to move the rope.

Figure8.8.Shape

Figure Shapeof

of aa wire ropeatatstart

wire rope starttime.

time.

(a) (b)

(a) (b)

Figure 9. Normal contact and frictional force at each node of the element. (a) Normal contact force;

Figure 9. Normal contact and frictional force at each node of the element. (a) Normal contact force;

(b)9.frictional

Figure Normalforce.

contact and frictional force at each node of the element. (a) Normal contact force;

(b) frictional force.

(b) frictional force.

Machines2016,

Machines 2016,4,4,44 99of

of12

12

4.2. Influence of Ratio of Tension

In this section, we investigate the influence of the ratio of tension, which is the ratio of the

weights

In thisapplied

section,towe each end of the

investigate the influence

rope. Theof weightthe ratioadded on the

of tension, which right endratio

is the of theof therope was

weights

294.70 kg,

applied and end

to each we performed

of the rope.numericalThe weight simulations

added on in thewhich different

right end of theweights

rope was were294.70added kg, on

andthewe

left side. Figure 10 shows the normal contact force and the friction

performed numerical simulations in which different weights were added on the left side. Figure 10 acting on each nodal coordinate

when the

shows the ratio

normal of tension

contactvaried force and fromthe 1.00 to 1.35.acting

friction First, we consider

on each nodalthecoordinate

normal contact whenforce. Whenof

the ratio

the mass

tension on the

varied left1.00

from sidetois1.35.greater,

First, thewe force that acts

consider the on the left

normal side of

contact the pulley

force. When the is larger.

mass on Thetheloadleft

on the pulley does not increase uniformly when the ratio of tension is

side is greater, the force that acts on the left side of the pulley is larger. The load on the pulley does not large. Next, we consider the

frictional

increase force. Figure

uniformly when10the shows

ratio of thetension

magnitude is large.andNext,

area we of consider

the counterclockwise

the frictional frictional

force. Figure force 10

when the

shows the magnitude

ratio of tension and areais 1.00; notecounterclockwise

of the that, as the rotational angleforce

frictional changes

whenfrom 40° toof110°,

the ratio tension the is

force

1.00;

becomes

note smaller.

that, as The reason

the rotational angle why the frictional

changes from 40force in the

˝ to 110 negative

˝ , the directionsmaller.

force becomes always The occurs at 40°

reason whyis

that the weight on the left side does not change. This angle is decided

the frictional force in the negative direction always occurs at 40 is that the weight on the left side ˝ by the radius of the pulley and

the not

does weight

change.on theThisleft.

angleThe time history

is decided of the ofsum

by the radius of the and

the pulley frictional

the weight forces as the

on the left. ratio

The timeof

tension varies from 1.00 to 1.35 is shown in Figure 10, and we can

history of the sum of the frictional forces as the ratio of tension varies from 1.00 to 1.35 is shown in see that the sum of the frictional

forces 10,

Figure acting

and we on can

the see rope that increases

the sum when the ratio forces

of the frictional of tensionactingincreases.

on the rope This is because

increases whenthe the

difference between the inertial forces of the masses on the right

ratio of tension increases. This is because the difference between the inertial forces of the masses on and left sides is equal to the

frictional

the right and force. As an

left sides example,

is equal to the consider

frictionalthe force.case

As an in example,

which the ratio the

consider of tension

case in which is 1.35:the

2

We have 0.35 × 294.7 kg × 9.81 m / s ≅ 1012 N . In addition,

ratio of tension is 1.35: We have 0.35 ˆ 294.7 kg ˆ 9.81 m{s2 – 1012 N. In addition, in Figurein Figure 10, we can see that the sum

10, of

we

the frictional forces oscillates as the nodal coordinate makes and breaks

can see that the sum of the frictional forces oscillates as the nodal coordinate makes and breaks contact contact with the pulley. The

contact

with the velocity

pulley. The of each

contact nodal coordinate

velocity of each when the coordinate

nodal ratio of tension when varies fromof

the ratio 1.00 to 1.35

tension is shown

varies from

in Figure 10. Here, the contact velocity is taken to be v in Equation

1.00 to 1.35 is shown in Figure 10. Here, the contact velocity is taken to be v in Equation (13), and its (13), and its value can be used

to define

value can bewhether

used to slip

define haswhether

occurred. slipFrom EquationFrom

has occurred. (13), Equation

we can (13), determine

we canthat the nodal

determine that

coordinate has slipped and that there is a kinetic frictional force

the nodal coordinate has slipped and that there is a kinetic frictional force when |v| ą ε. Figure when v > ε . Figure 10 shows that 10

the nodal coordinate slips at some angles, but not at others;

shows that the nodal coordinate slips at some angles, but not at others; we can see that the range of we can see that the range of slip

increases

slip increaseswhen whenthe the

ratioratioof tension

of tension increases.

increases. From Equation

From Equation (13), (13),

we see wethat the maximum

see that the maximum of theof

frictional force is μN

the frictional force is µN. When all the frictional forces on the pulley are at a maximum, the wirerope

. When all the frictional forces on the pulley are at a maximum, the wire rope

slips,and

slips, andthethepulley

pulleycannot

cannot move move it. it.

Machines 2016, 4, 4 10 of 12

Machines 2016, 4, 4 10 of 12

Machines 2016, 4, 4 10 of 12

Figure 10.

Figure 10. Time

Time history

history of

of each

each force

force for

for ratios

ratios of

of tension

tension between

between1.00

1.00and

and1.35.

1.35.

4.3.Influence

4.3. Influence of of Bending

Bending

Figure Elastic

10. TimeModulus

history of each force for ratios of tension between 1.00 and 1.35.

Elastic Modulus

WeInfluence

4.3.

We investigated

investigated the

the slip

of Bending slip when

Elastic Modulus

when the

thebending

bendingelastic

elastic modulus

modulus of the

of theroperopewaswas changed,

changed, and the and

pulley had reciprocal motion. Figure 11 shows the slip numbers for the experiment and the

the pulleyWe had reciprocalthemotion.

investigated slip when Figure 11 shows

the bending themodulus

elastic slip numbers

of the ropefor was

the changed,

experiment and8andthe the

numerical simulations when the bending elastic modulus was changed as follows: 6.00 × 10 8 N/m2,2

numerical

pulleysimulations

had reciprocal when the bending

motion. Figure elastic

11 shows modulus

the slipwas changed

numbers forasthe follows:

experiment6.00 ˆ and10 the N/m ,

6.00 × 1099 N/m2,2 and 18.00 × 109 N/m 9

2. The other parameters are the same as those listed in Table 2.

2

6.00 ˆnumerical

10 N/msimulations , and 18.00 when

ˆ 10theN/m bending elastic

. The othermodulus

parameters was changed as follows:

are the same as those 6.00listed

× 10 N/m

8 2,

in Table 2.

In Figure 11,

6.00 ×11, results

10 results

N/m , and of three numerical

18.00 ×numerical

10 N/m . The simulations are

other parameters compared, and

are the same it can be seen that the 2.slip

In Figure 9 2

of three 9 2

simulations are compared, andasit those

can be listed

seen in that

Tablethe slip

number increases

In Figure when of

11, results thethree

rationumerical

of tension is low andare

simulations that the bending and itelastic bemodulus thatisthe high. The

number increases when the ratio of tension is low andcompared,

that the bending canelastic

seenmodulus slip

is high.

reasonnumber increases when the ratio of tension is low and that the bending elastic modulus is high. The for

for this is that the contact force between the rope and the pulley is smaller, since it is hard

The reason for this is that the contact force between the rope and the pulley is smaller, since it is

the rope

reason toforbendthis when the contact

is that the bending elastic

force betweenmodulus

the rope is and

large.

theFigure 12smaller,

pulley is showssincethe normal

it is hardcontact

for

hard for the rope to bend when the bending elastic modulus is large. Figure 12 shows 9the normal

forcetheacting

rope on eachwhen

to bend nodalthecoordinate

bending elastic whenmodulus

the bendingis large.elastic

Figuremodulus

12 showsisthe 6.00 × 10 contact

normal N/m 2. In

9 N/m 2.

contact force

force

acting on each nodal coordinate when the bending elastic modulus is 6.00 ˆ 10

Figure 12,acting on eachthat

it is found nodal

there coordinate when the bending

is a characteristic elastic modulus

area, indicated by a red is 6.00

circle. × 10

TheN/m

9 2

wire . Inrope

In Figure

Figure 12,12,it itisisfound

foundthatthat there

there is

is aa characteristic

characteristic area,indicated

indicated by a red circle.

The The wire rope

contacts only the edges of the pulley, because the area,bending elasticbymodulus

a red circle.

is high. wire

The rope

normal

contacts only

contacts the

only edges

the of

edges theof pulley,

the because

pulley, the

because bending

the bendingelastic modulus

elastic modulus is high.

is The

high. normal

The normal contact

contact force is larger in this area because the area of contact is small. Therefore, slip occurs easily

force contact

is larger in this area because thebecause

area of the

contact

area isof small.

contactTherefore, slip occurs slipeasily

occursbecause

easily the

because the force total is larger

frictional in this area

force is small. is small. Therefore,

because the

total frictional totalisfrictional

force small. force is small.

Figure

Figure 11. Ratio

11. Ratio of tension

of tension vs.vs.slip

slipnumber

number for

for various

variousvalues

valuesofof

thethe

bending elasticity.

bending elasticity.

Figure 11. Ratio of tension vs. slip number for various values of the bending elasticity.

Machines 2016,4,4,44

Machines2016, 1111ofof1212

Figure 12.Normal

Figure12. Normalcontact

contactforce

forceatateach

eachnode

nodeofofthe

theelement.

element.

5.5. Conclusions

Conclusions

In

Inthis

thispaper,

paper,wewedeveloped

developedaanumerical

numericalmodel

modelthat

thatcan

canbe

beused

usedfor

fordetailed

detailedanalyses

analysesof

ofthe

the

behavior of the contact between a wire rope and a pulley; the model uses multibody dynamics.

behavior of the contact between a wire rope and a pulley; the model uses multibody dynamics. Our

Our proposal

proposal andand findings

findings are are summarized

summarized as follows.

as follows.

‚• We

Weproposed

proposedaanumerical

numericalmodel

modelthat

thatcan

candescribe

describeinindetail

detailthe

thebehavior

behaviorofofthethecontact

contactbetween

between

aawire

wirerope

ropeand

andaapulley.

pulley.

‚• Thevalidity

The validityofofthe

the developed

developed numerical

numerical model

model waswas confirmed

confirmed by comparing

by comparing the distance

the distance of

of slip

slip predicted

predicted by numerical

by numerical simulations

simulations tomeasured

to that that measured in experiments,

in experiments, whenwhen the rope

the wire wire had

rope

had reciprocal

reciprocal motion. motion.

‚• Fromthe

From theresults

resultsofofthethenumerical

numerical simulations,

simulations, wewe showed

showed thatthat

thethe force

force acting

acting on aonwire

a wire

roperope

on

on a pulley is not uniform, due to the action of partial

a pulley is not uniform, due to the action of partial forces. forces.

‚• Fromthe

From theresults

resultsofofthethenumerical

numericalsimulations,

simulations,ititwas

wasdetermined

determinedthat thatthe

therope

ropeslips

slipswhen

whenthethe

ratio of tension is low, and the bending elastic modulus of the rope

ratio of tension is low, and the bending elastic modulus of the rope is large. is large.

Acknowledgments: Sophia University and Tokyo Metropolitan University financially supported this research,

Acknowledgments: Sophia

and these contributions areUniversity and Tokyo Metropolitan University financially supported this research,

highly appreciated.

and these contributions are highly appreciated.

Author Contributions:

Author Contributions: Shoichiro

Shoichiro Takehara

Takehara and

and Masaya

Masaya Kawarada

Kawarada formulated

formulated thethe numerical

numerical model;

model;

Masaya Kawarada

Masaya Kawarada coded

coded the

the numerical

numerical model

model andand performed

performed the

the experiments;

experiments; Shoichiro

Shoichiro Takehara,

Takehara,

MasayaKawarada

Masaya Kawaradaand andKazunori

KazunoriHase

Haseanalyzed

analyzedthe

thedata

dataand

anddiscussed

discussedthe

theresults;

results;Shoichiro

ShoichiroTakehara

Takeharawrote

wrote

the

thepaper.

paper.

Conflicts Interest:The

ConflictsofofInterest: Theauthors

authorsdeclare

declareno

noconflict

conflictofofinterest.

interest.

References

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