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Article
Dynamic Contact between a Wire Rope and a Pulley
Using Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation
Shoichiro Takehara 1, *, Masaya Kawarada 2 and Kazunori Hase 2
Received: 27 June 2015; Accepted: 14 January 2016; Published: 21 January 2016
Academic Editor: David Mba
1 Department of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku,
Tokyo 102-8554, Japan
2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Ohsawa, Hachioji-shi,
Tokyo 192-0397, Japan; the_world_has_turned_left_me@yahoo.co.jp (M.K.); kazunori.hase@tmu.ac.jp (K.H.)
* Correspondence: stakeha@sophia.ac.jp; Tel.: +81-3-3238-3863

Abstract: Wire rope and pulley devices are used in various machines. To use these machines more
safely, it is necessary to analyze the behavior of the contact between them. In this study, we represent
a wire rope by a numerical model of a flexible body. This flexible body is expressed in the absolute
nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF), and the model includes the normal contact force and the
frictional force between the wire rope and the pulley. The normal contact force is expressed by
spring-damper elements, and the frictional force is expressed by the Quinn method. The advantage
of the Quinn method is that it reduces the numerical problems associated with the discontinuities in
Coulomb friction at zero velocity. By using the numerical model, simulations are performed, and
the validity of this model is shown by comparing its results with those of an experiment. Through
numerical simulations, we confirm the proposed model for the contact between the wire rope and
the pulley. We confirmed that the behavior of the wire rope changes when both the bending elastic
modulus of the wire rope and the mass added to each end of the wire rope are changed.

Keywords: contact analysis; wire rope; pulley; ANCF

1. Introduction
Wire rope and pulley devices are used in various machines, such as cranes and elevators [1].
As machine elements, they have various advantages, such as being lightweight, having a small
footprint, and being useful in a wide variety of machines. In addition, ropes and cables can be used in
extreme environments, such as in space and deep in the ocean. Cables are also used to attach satellites
to a mothership [2,3] or to operate vehicles remotely. In each of these machines, pulleys are used
to change the direction of the force and to transfer power. To ensure that these machines are used
safely, it is important to consider the contact between the rope and the pulley. For example, if the
friction between them is used to transfer power in an elevator system, slip is produced when there is
a difference between the tension on the right side and that on the left side. When using a pulley in
microgravity, deformation occurs where the rope is wound, and this can lead to fractures. To solve
these problems, it is necessary to perform an advanced analysis of the contact between the rope and
the pulley. However, most of the relevant research has been directed at the vibration of the rope [1,4,5]
or the motion of the rope. Few studies have considered the contact between the rope and pulley [6],
and those that have have been based on physical experiments [7], not on numerical simulations.
Consequently, it is important to develop a numerical model in which the parameters can be changed
and the deformations of the contacting parts can be evaluated.
The purpose of this study is to construct a numerical model that can use flexible multibody
dynamics to investigate the motion of the contact part of the pulley and express in detail the normal

Machines 2016, 4, 4; doi:10.3390/machines4010004 www.mdpi.com/journal/machines


Machines 2016, 4, 4 2 of 12

contact and frictional forces between a rope and pulley. First, the validity of the model is shown by
comparing the results with those of an experiment. We then use the numerical model to perform
simulations under various conditions. We also examine the force acting between the wire rope and
the pulley and the resulting motion. Additional simulations are performed in which various masses
are added to each end of the rope, and the influence of the ratio of tension, which is the ratio of the
weights applied to each end of the rope, and the bending elastic modulus of the wire rope are varied;
we discuss the influence of each of these factors on the motion of the rope.

2. Modeling of Rope and Pulley


In this section, we discuss the formulation of the numerical model. The wire rope is modeled by
the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) [8,9], the contact force is modeled by spring-damper
elements, and the frictional force is defined by the Quinn method.

2.1. Formulation of Wire Rope


Using the ANCF to formulate the wire rope makes it easier to describe its motion as a flexible
body with large deformation, large rotation, and large translational displacement. Figure 1 shows
an element of a flexible body in the absolute coordinate system O-XY. Here, AB is the initial form, and
A1 B1 is the deformed form. The global position vector r of an arbitrary point on the element can be
described by using the global shape function, as follows:

r “ Se (1)

The vector of the nodal coordinates is as follows:


” ıT
e“ e1 e2 e3 e4 e5 e6 e7 e8 (2)

where e1 and e2 are the positions at node A, e5 and e6 are the positions at node B, e3 and e4 are the
spatial derivatives of the displacements of the node at A1 , and e7 and e8 are the spatial derivatives of
the displacements of the node at B1 . In Equation (1), the following shape function is used:
» fiT
1 ´ 3ξ2 ` 2ξ3 0

— ´ 0 ¯ 1 ´ 3ξ2 ` 2ξ3 ffi
ffi
— le ξ ´ 2ξ2 ` ξ3
— ffi
— 0 ffi
´ ¯ ffi
le ξ ´ 2ξ2 ` ξ3 ffi
« ff — ffi
S1 — 0
S“ (3)
— ffi
“—
3ξ ´ 2ξ3
2 ffi
S2 — 0 ffi
2 3
— ffi
´ 0 3ξ ´ 2ξ
— ffi
— ¯ ffi
— le ´ξ2 ` ξ3 0
— ffi
ffi
– ´ ¯ fl
2 3
0 le ´ξ ` ξ

where ξ “ x{le , x is the coordinate along the body axis in the initial configuration, and le is the length
of the element. The kinetic energy in the flexible body element becomes
ż le
1 .T . 1 .T .
T“ ρAr rdx “ e Ma e (4)
2 0 2

Thus, an element mass matrix, expressed in terms of the global frame, becomes
ż le
Ma “ ρA ST Sdx (5)
0
Machines 2016, 4, 4 3 of 12
Machines 2016, 4, 4 3 of 12

Figure
Figure 1.
1. Element
Element of
of aa flexible
flexible body.
body.

Next, the strain energy is derived. A liner elastic model can be assumed by increasing the
Next, the strain energy is derived. A liner elastic model can be assumed by increasing the number
number of elements [10–12]. The longitudinal elastic potential energy of one element U l can be
of elements [10–12]. The longitudinal elastic potential energy of one element Ul can be written as:
written as:
11 lele
ż
E Aε22 dx
2 00 Ell Aε dx
UUl “= (6)
(6)
l
2
where EEl lisisthe
where thelongitudinal
longitudinalelastic
elasticmodulus,
modulus,and
andεεisisthe
theaxial
axialstrain
strainof
ofthe
theelement.
element. The
The bending
bending
elastic potential energy of one element U can be written
elastic potential energy of one element U can be written as:
t as:
t

11 lele
ż
UUt t“=  EEbbIIκ
κ 22dx
dx (7)
(7)
22 00

where EEb bis is the


the bending
bending elastic
elastic modulus,
modulus, I isI is
thethe second
second moment
moment ofof
thethe area
area of of
thethe element,
element, and
and κ
κ is
the curvature.
is the curvature.
The equations of motion can be written as:

e “= Q
..  Q − Q
MMe f k
f ´ Qk
(8)
(8)
where M is the mass matrix, Q is the external force, and Q is the elastic force. Q k is defined
where M is the mass matrix, Q f is fthe external force, and Qk is thekelastic force. Qk is defined as follows:
as follows:
BU TT BUt T T
ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙
Qk “  ∂Ul l  `  ∂U t  (9)
Qk = Be  +  Be  (9)
 ∂e   ∂e 
In this model, in order to express the characteristics of longitudinal strength and ease of bending,
In this model, in order to express the characteristics of longitudinal strength and ease of
the modulus of longitudinal elasticity is different from the modulus of bending elasticity.
bending, the modulus of longitudinal elasticity is different from the modulus of bending elasticity.
2.2. Formulation of Normal Contact Force, Frictional Force, and Constraint Force
2.2. Formulation of Normal Contact Force, Frictional Force, and Constraint Force
The normal contact force is expressed by the spring-damper elements, and the frictional force is
The normal contact force is expressed by the spring-damper elements, and the frictional force
expressed by the Quinn method [13]. The advantage of the Quinn method is that there is a discontinuity,
is expressed by the Quinn method [13]. The advantage of the Quinn method is that there is a
and so the Coulomb friction is consistent [14,15]. First, we formulate the normal contact force. Figure 2
discontinuity, and so the Coulomb friction is consistent [14,15]. First, we formulate the normal
shows the i-th element on which the normal contact and frictional forces act. The normal contact force
contact force. Figure 2 shows the i-th element on which the normal contact and frictional forces act.
acts when the node of an element has a boundary condition, and this depends on the radius of the
The normal contact force acts when the node piq piqof an element has a boundary condition, and this
pulley [16]. The i-th nodal coordinates are e1 , e2 . The radius of the pulley is R, and the coordinates of
are e1( ) , e2( ) . The radius of the
i i
depends
the centeron
of the
the radius of the
pulley are R x ,pulley
Ry . The[16]. The i-th
boundary nodal coordinates
condition is
pulley is R , and the coordinates of the center of the pulley are Rx , Ry . The boundary condition is
pi q 2 pi q 2 2
pR x ´ e1 ( iq) 2` pRy ´ e(2i ) q2 ě R (10)
( Rx − e1 ) + ( Ry − e2 ) ≥ R 2 (10)
Machines 2016, 4, 4 4 of 12
Machines 2016, 4, 4 4 of 12

f
h
(e , e )
i
1
i
2

θ
(e , e )
i
5
i
6

Figure 2. Forces acting on a rope.


Figure 2. Forces acting on a rope.
The normal contact force is defined as normal to the pulley. The penalty parameter of the
are e1( ) of
, e2( the
)
i i
The normal k c , the damping
pulley is contact force is constant pulley istocthe
definedofasthenormal c , the velocities
pulley. The of penalty
the i-th element
parameter , pulley
and d is the distance between the center of pulley and the i-th element. Hence, the normal
. piq . pcontact
iq
is k c , the damping constant of the pulley is cc , the velocities of the i-th element are e1 ,e2 , and
d is the
force is
distance between the center of pulley and the i-th element. Hence, the normal contact force is
˜ N =c (
kc R − ( Rx − e1( ) ) 2 + ( Ry − e2( ) ) 2 −¸
i i
)
cc (e1( ) cos θ + e2( ) sin θ)
i i
(11)
pi q 2 pi q 2 . pi q . pi q
N “ kc R´ pR x ´ e1 q ` − Ryx ´ e2 q e2 −´Rcy c pe1 cosθ ` e2 sinθq
e1( ) pR
i (i ) (11)
cos θ = , sin θ = (12)
d d
pi q
Next, the frictional force is shown.piqThe frictional force of
e1 ´ R x e2 the´ RQuinn
y
method is defined by the
velocity and force acting oncosθthe nodal
“ , sinθ “
coordinate. The advantage of this method is that it reduces (12)
the numerical problems associated with the d discontinuities in Coulomb
d friction at zero velocity, and,
Next,asthe frictional
a result, we canforce is shown.
perform The simulation
a numerical frictional at v = 0of
force the Quinn
, which is whenmethod
slip-stickisbehavior
defined by the
plays
velocity and a central
force role.
acting onThe
thefrictional force in Equation
nodal coordinate. (13) is based of
The advantage onthis
the total h ,that
forceis
method which is a
it reduces the
combination of the elastic force and the gravity acting on the i-th element, the velocity in the
numerical problems associated with the discontinuities in Coulomb friction at zero velocity, and, as
tangential direction v , the circumferential velocity of the pulley v p , the normal contact force N , a
a result, we can perform a numerical simulation at v “ 0, which is when slip-stick behavior plays
fixed regularization parameter ε [13], and the friction coefficient μ :
a central role. The frictional force in Equation (13) is based on the total force h, which is a combination
of the elastic force and the gravity acting  −μi-th ε
Nv /element, ≤ ε velocity in the tangential direction
if v the
F ( v , on
h ) =the
 (13)
− sgn( v )μ N otherwise
v, the circumferential velocity of the pulley v p , the normal contact force N, a fixed regularization
parameter ε [13], and the friction coefficient vµ:− v p + εh / μN if h ≤ μN
v ( v, h ) =  (14)
# v − v p + sgn(h)ε otherwise
´µNv{ε if |v| ď ε
F pv, hqforces
Finally, the two constraint “ are defined: In the longitudinal direction, there is a damping (13)
´sgnpvqµN otherwise
force on the edges of the rope; in the lateral direction, there is s constraint force on the edges of the
rope. The normal contact force N#, the frictional force F , and the constraint force depend on time. The
contact between the rope and pulley isv expressed
´ v p ` εh{µN i f the |h|
by adding Qf as ď µN
external force in Equation (8).
v pv, hq “ (14)
v ´ v p ` sgnphqε otherwise
3. Validation of Numerical Model
Finally, the twosection,
In this constraint forcesthe
we present areresults
defined:
of anIn the longitudinal
experiment direction,
that we conducted to there is athedamping
validate
force on the edges
results of the
of the rope;model.
proposed in the The
lateral direction,
coefficient there is selasticity
of longitudinal constraint force onbut
is specified, thetheedges
bendingof the rope.
The normalelastic modulus
contact forceis N,
not the
referred to in general.
frictional force F,Theand
coefficient of bendingforce
the constraint elasticity was determined
depend on time. The by contact
comparing the experimental and simulation results for the shape of a wire rope. In this process, the
between the rope and pulley is expressed by adding Q f as the external force in Equation (8).
bending elastic modulus was treated as an unknown parameter. A fundamental experiment was
performed to measure the shape of a wire rope used with a pulley. In this experiment, the wire rope
3. Validation
had a of Numerical
length of 1.00 mModel
and a diameter of 0.01 m. Weights of 0.05 kg, 0.2 kg and 1.0 kg were then
added to each end of the wire rope, and a digital camera was used to determine their influence on
In this section, we present the results of an experiment that we conducted to validate the results
the shape of the rope. Markers were placed on the wire rope at intervals of 0.05 m, and the
of the proposed model.
displacement The
of the coefficient
markers of longitudinal
was calculated elasticity
by using the graphics is specified,
software butImageJ
package the bending
[17,18] elastic
modulus is not referred to in general. The coefficient of bending elasticity was determined by
comparing the experimental and simulation results for the shape of a wire rope. In this process,
the bending elastic modulus was treated as an unknown parameter. A fundamental experiment was
performed to measure the shape of a wire rope used with a pulley. In this experiment, the wire rope
had a length of 1.00 m and a diameter of 0.01 m. Weights of 0.05 kg, 0.2 kg and 1.0 kg were then
added to each end of the wire rope, and a digital camera was used to determine their influence on the
shape of the rope. Markers were placed on the wire rope at intervals of 0.05 m, and the displacement
of the markers was calculated by using the graphics software package ImageJ [17,18] to analyze the
Machines 2016, 4, 4 5 of 12

Machines 2016, 4, 4 5 of 12
photographs; this4,displacement
Machines 2016, 4 was then used to determine the shape of the rope. Various 5 of 12 masses

were toused.
analyzeThethe wire rope was this
photographs; not displacement
straight, even waswhen
then there
used to is determine
no load on theit;shape
the direction
of the rope. of this
to analyze the photographs; this displacement was then used to determine the shape of the rope.
Various
curvature masses
was masses were
considered. used. The
Figure wire rope was not straight, even when there is no load on it; the
Various were used. The 3wire
shows rope an
wasexperiment
not straight, in
evenwhich
when0.20 therekg is weights
no load on were
it; the attached
direction
to each end ofofthe
thiswire
curvature
rope, was
and considered.
the results Figure
of 3 shows
this an experiment
experiment are shown in which
in 0.20 kg
Figure 4. weights
In Figure 4,
direction of this curvature was considered. Figure 3 shows an experiment in which 0.20 kg weights
were
the blue were attached to each end of the wire rope, and the results of this experiment are shown in Figure 4. 4.
attached
line shows to each
the end
result of the
when wire
the rope, and
curvature the results
induced ofbythis
theexperiment
weights are
was shown
in the in Figure
same direction
In In
Figure
Figure4, 4,
the theblue
bluelinelineshows
shows the
the result when
resultshows the curvature
when the curvatureinduced
inducedbybythe theweights
weights waswasin in
the the
as its natural curvature, and the black line the result when these were in opposite directions.
same
same direction
direction asasitsitsnatural
natural curvature,
curvature, and
and the
the black line
black line shows
showsthe theresult
resultwhen
when these
these were
were in in
From the results shown in Figure 4, we see that, when the added load is sufficiently small, the natural
opposite
opposite directions.
directions.From Fromthe the results
results shown
shown in in Figure
Figure 4,4, we
we seeseethat,
that,whenwhenthetheadded added loadload is is
curvature of thesmall,
sufficiently rope distorts the shape soofthat it does not match the numerical results. On the other
sufficiently small,thethenatural
naturalcurvature
curvature of the rope distorts
rope distorts theshape
the shape sosothat
thatit it does
does notnot match
match thethe
hand,numerical
when the
numerical added
results.
results.Onload
Onthe is large,
theother
otherhand,the natural
hand, when curvature
when the added
added load has little
loadisislarge, influence,
large,thethenatural
natural and the
curvature
curvature blue
hashas and
littleblack
little
lines influence,
areinfluence,
similar.andand thetheblue
blueandandblack
blacklines
linesareare similar.
similar.

Figure 3. Resulting curvature when a 0.20 kg weight was added to each end of the rope.
Figure 3. Resulting
Figure curvature
3. Resulting curvaturewhen
whenaa0.20
0.20 kg weightwas
kg weight wasadded
addedto to each
each endend of rope.
of the the rope.

Figure 4. Experimental results when weights were added to each end.

Figure 4. Experimental results when weights were added to each end.


We compared
Figurethe simulation andresults
4. Experimental experimental results in
when weights wereorder to identify
added to eachthe bending elastic
end.
modulus. We used the experimental result in which the 1.00 kg weights were added, because
We compared the simulation and experimental results in order to identify the bending elastic
Figure 4 shows that, in this case, the influence of the natural curvature was small. The values of the
We compared
modulus. We used
other parameters
theare simulation
theshown and experimental
experimental
in Table 1.result in which
We compared
results in order
theresults
the 1.00 kgthe
of
to identify
weights were
numerical
the bending
added,
simulations because
and
elastic
Figure
modulus. 4
Weshows
used that,
the in this case,
experimental the influence
result of
in the
whichnatural
the curvature
1.00 kg was small.
weights
the experiments for different values of the bending elastic modulus; this is shown in Figure 5. From The
were values
added, of the
because
other
Figure parameters
4Figures
shows 5, that,
we can are shown
insee
this
that in Table
case,
there the 1. We to compared
influence
appears be aof the
thebending
valid results
natural of the
curvature
elastic numerical
moduluswas simulations
small.
between The
1.00 × 10 and
values
8 of
the experiments
and 1.00 × 10 9 for
N/m different values
2. The bending of the
elastic bending
modulus elastic
of modulus;
this wire rope this
the other parameters are shown in Table 1. We compared the results of the numerical simulationswasis shown in
estimated Figure
to be 5. From
about
Figures× 5,
108we can see thatthethere appears to be a this
valid bending elastic modulus between 1.00 × 108
and the6.00 N/m 2, because error was smallest
experiments for different values of theatbending
value.elastic modulus; this is shown in Figure 5.
and 1.00 × 109 N/m2. The bending elastic modulus of this wire rope was estimated to be about
From Figure 5, we can see that there appears tovalues
Table was
1. Parameter
be a valid
used
bending elastic modulus between 1.00 ˆ 108
in this simulation.
6.00 × 108 9N/m2, because
2
the error smallest at this value.
and 1.00 ˆ 10 N/m . The bending elastic modulus of this wire rope was estimated to be about
Symbol Unit Value
6.00 ˆ 108 N/m2 , because the Table
error 1.was smallest
Parameter at this
values used value.
in this simulation.
l Length of wire rope m 1.00
R
Symbol Radius of pulley m 0.10
Table 1. Parameter values used in thisUnit
simulation. Value
ml r, ml Magnitude of wire
Length of addedrope
masses kgm 1.00
1.00
R Ee Longitudinal
Radius elastic
of modulus
pulley N/m m
2 2.91 ×0.10
1010
Symbol
n Number of elements -Unit Value
20
mr, ml Magnitude of added masses kg 1.00
Ee l Length elastic
Longitudinal of wiremodulus
rope N/m m2 2.911.00
× 1010
R Radius of pulley m 0.10
n Number of elements - 20
mr , m l Magnitude of added masses kg 1.00
Ee Longitudinal elastic modulus N/m2 2.91 ˆ 1010
n Number of elements - 20
Machines 2016, 4, 4 6 of 12
Machines 2016, 4, 4 6 of 12

Machines 2016, 4, 4 6 of 12

Figure5.5.Results
Figure Resultsofofnumerical
numericalsimulation
simulation and
and experiment
experimentwhen
whenvarying
varyingthe
thebending
bendingelastic modulus.
elastic modulus.
Figure 5. Results of numerical simulation and experiment when varying the bending elastic modulus.
Next, we considered the reciprocal motion of the pulley and the total slip distance. Note that
Next, we considered the reciprocal motion of the pulley and the total slip distance. Note that
instead Next,
of considering the individual
we considered slip motion
the reciprocal distances, which
of the areand
pulley extremely
the totalsmall, we considered
slip distance. only
Note that
instead of considering the individual slip distances, which are extremely small, we considered only the
theinstead
total. The
of considering the individual slip distances, which are extremely small, we considered onlybut
outline of the experimental setup is shown in Figure 6. Here, the rope is not held
total. Theon
placed
outline of the experimental setup is slip
shown in Figure 6. Here, the rope is not held but placed
the total.a The
pulley. In this
outline of theexperiment,
experimental thesetup isdistance
shown incorresponding
Figure 6. Here,tothe pulley
rope isrotation
not heldcan
but be
onmeasured
a pulley.
placed onIn athis
when experiment,
the
pulley.pulley the slipasdistance
In thisisexperiment,
rotated, shown
the slipincorresponding
6. First,tothe
Figure corresponding
distance pulley
to rotation
pulley can beas
was rotated
pulley rotation measured
shown
can be
when the
in Figure pulley
measured is
6a, when rotated, as shown in Figure 6. First, the pulley was rotated as shown
Step 1.the pulley is rotated, as shown in Figure 6. First, the pulley was rotated as shown in Figure 6a,
Step 1.in Figure 6a, Step 1.

Figure
Figure6.6.Experimental setup.
Experimental setup.
Figure 6. Experimental setup.
Next,
Next,thethe
location
locationofofthe thecenter
centerof ofmass
mass was was measured
measured using using the
thesensor,
sensor,and andthethepulley
pulley was
was
Next,
moved the
to thelocation
position of the
shown center
in of mass
Figure was
6b, Stepmeasured
2. using
Finally, the the sensor,
pulley
moved to the position shown in Figure 6b, Step 2. Finally, the pulley was rotated in the opposite was and the
rotated pulley
in the was moved
opposite
to direction,
thedirection,
position and shown
andthethe
ropein was
rope Figure 6b, Step
wasreturned
returned toto2.
theFinally,
the initial the pulley
initial position,
position, was
as shown
as shown rotated in the
ininFigure
Figure opposite
6c,Step
6c, Step3. 3.
The direction,
The slip
slip
distance
and the was
rope was
distance calculated
wascalculated
returnedbyby measuring
tomeasuring
the initialthethe total
position, slip after
total slipas shown ten round trips
in Figure
ten round trips 6c,and
andStep dividing
3. The
dividing by ten, since
slipsince
by ten, distance
wasthecalculated
slipslip
the distance
by of
distance a asingle
of singleround
measuring round
the trip was
tripslip
total so
so small
wasafter small that it
ten round it was
was difficult
tripsdifficult totomeasure
and dividing measureby it.it.InIn
ten, addition,
addition,
since the slip
an an
distance index
index value
of value
a singleis is required,
required,
round because
because
trip was sothe the sumthat
sum
small of the
of the round-trip
round-trip
it was difficultdistance
distance changes
changes
to measure it.when
when
In the radius
the
addition, anofindex
radius of
thethe pulley
pulley changes,
changes, and
and thus
thus the
the reduction
reduction in
in the
the slip cannot
cannot be
be understood
value is required, because the sum of the round-trip distance changes when the radius of the pulley understood quantitatively.
quantitatively. WeWe
define
define thisthis indexasas a dimensionlessslip slipnumber:
number:
changes, andindex
thus the areduction
dimensionless in the slip cannot be understood quantitatively. We define this index
Distance of
as a dimensionless slip number: Slip Number = Distance of slip
slip [m]
[m]
Slip Number = Distance of round-trip [m] (15)
(15)
Distance of round-trip [m]
Distance of slip [m]
Slip Number “ (15)
Distance of round-trip [m]
Machines 2016, 4, 4 7 of 12

Machines 2016, 4, 4 7 of 12
We changed the ratio of tension (the ratio of weight), and we calculated the slip distance when
the pulley had the reciprocal motion. The values of the parameters used in the numerical simulation
wereWe thechanged
same asthe those
ratiolisted in Table
of tension (the2.ratio
Theofcircumferential
weight), and we velocity
calculatedof the
thepulley is 0.10 when
slip distance m/s. The
the
weighthad
pulley on thethereciprocal
right wasmotion.
294.70 The
kg, values
and the of weight on the left
the parameters usedvaried. The slip numbers
in the numerical simulation forwere
the
experimental results and the numerical simulations are shown in Figure 7. From
the same as those listed in Table 2. The circumferential velocity of the pulley is 0.10 m/s. The weight on Figure 7, we can
see right
the that was
the 294.70
experimental results
kg, and the are on
weight in the
agreement
left varied. with
Thethe
slipnumerical
numbers for results when the ratio
the experimental of
results
tension
and was between
the numerical 1.00 andare
simulations 1.35. In both
shown the experiment
in Figure and 7,
7. From Figure thewenumerical
can see that simulation, the slip
the experimental
numberare
results increased
in agreementexponentially when the results
with the numerical ratio ofwhentension
the was
ratio1.25 or larger.
of tension wasWhenbetween the1.00
ratio of
and
tension
1.35. was the
In both 1.35experiment
or larger, andthe the
results of thesimulation,
numerical experimentthe differed from increased
slip number those of the numerical
exponentially
simulation.
when the ratio This difference
of tension wasis1.25
thought to beWhen
or larger. due to thethe parameters
ratio of tensionofwas the1.35
contact forcethe
or larger, between
resultsthe
of
rope
the and the pulley.
experiment differed Infrom
addition,
thoseasofindicated earlier
the numerical in this paper,
simulation. Thisthe value was
difference measured
is thought to beafter
dueten
to
round
the trips, and
parameters of this may have
the contact caused
force betweenthisthe
difference,
rope and since it occurred
the pulley. when as
In addition, theindicated
slip number
earlierwas
in
larger.
this However,
paper, the valuewhen wasthe ratio of tension
measured after tenwas 1.35 trips,
round or larger,
and the
thisfact
may that thecaused
have slip number increases
this difference,
exponentially
since it occurred must
when be the
considered
slip numberwhen was designing a rope and
larger. However, when pulley device.
the ratio The above
of tension results
was 1.35 or
validate
larger, theourfactmodel.
that the slip number increases exponentially must be considered when designing a rope
and pulley device. The above results validate our model.
Table 2. Parameters for numerical simulation.
Table 2. Parameters for numerical simulation.
Symbol Unit Value
lSymbol Length of Lope m
Unit
2.40
Value
ml , mr Mass kg 294.70
l Length of Lope m 2 2.40
Eem , m Coefficient of longitudinal
Mass
elasticity N/m
kg
2.91 × 1010
294.70
l r
Eb Ee Coefficient of bending elasticity
Coefficient of longitudinal elasticity N/m22
N/m 6.00
2.91 ˆ× 1010
10 8
ρ Eb Density
Coefficient of rope elasticity
of bending N/m23
kg/m ˆ 108
6.001091
R ρ Density
Diameter ofofpulley
rope m 3
kg/m 1091
0.10
kp R PenaltyDiameter
parameter of pulley
of pulley m
N/m 0.10× 106
2.00
kp Penalty parameter of pulley N/m 2.00 ˆ 106 5
kp2 Penalty parameter of pulley at edge N/m 2.00 × 10
k p2 Penalty parameter of pulley at edge N/m 2.00 ˆ 105
cp c p Damping
Damping constant
constantofofpulley
pulley N/(m/s)
N/(m/s) 5.00
5.00 ˆ ×1010
3 3
μ µ Frictional
Frictionalcoefficient
coefficient - 0.10
0.10
ε ε Fixed
Fixed regularizationparameter
regularization parameter m/s
m/s 0.05
0.05

Figure 7. Ratio of tension vs. slip number.


Figure 7. Ratio of tension vs. slip number.

4. Numerical Results and Discussion


4. Numerical Results and Discussion
In this section, we use the results of the numerical simulations, based on the formulation of
In this section, we use the results of the numerical simulations, based on the formulation of
Section 2, to analyze the behavior of the contact between the rope and the pulley. First, we
Section 2, to analyze the behavior of the contact between the rope and the pulley. First, we investigate
investigate the contact and friction forces between the rope and the pulley when the pulley is
the contact and friction forces between the rope and the pulley when the pulley is rotating. Then, we
rotating. Then, we discuss the behavior of the rope when varying the ratio of tension (the ratio of
discuss the behavior of the rope when varying the ratio of tension (the ratio of the weights) applied to
the weights) applied to each end of the rope and varying its bending elastic modulus.
each end of the rope and varying its bending elastic modulus.
Machines 2016, 4, 4 8 of 12

Machines 2016, 4, 4 8 of 12
4.1. Force Acting
Machines 2016, 4,on
4 Rope 8 of 12

4.1. consider
We Force Acting theonforce
Rope that rotates the pulley and acts on the wire rope. Here, we will assume
4.1. Force Acting on Rope
that a wireWe rope is wrapped
consider the force around the stationary
that rotates the pulleypuller,and acts andonitthe thenwire begins
rope. toHere,rotatewe inwillthe clockwise
assume
direction. We
that aThe consider
wire the
circumferential force
rope is wrapped that
velocity rotates
aroundof thethe pulley
thepulley and
is 0.10
stationary acts on
m/s. and
puller, the wire
A normal rope.
it thencontact Here,
begins force we will assume
and ainfrictional
to rotate the
that a wire rope is The wrapped around the stationary thepuller, and it then begins to rotate inforce
the
force clockwise
act on thedirection.
15th to 21st circumferential
elements, as shown velocity inofFigure pulley is 0.10
8; Figure 9 m/s.
shows A normal
the normal contact contact and
clockwise
and forces direction.
a frictional force Theact circumferential
onofthe 15th to velocity
21st of the as
elements, pulley
shown is 0.10
in m/s. A8;normal
Figure Figure contact
9 shows force
the
frictional
and
acting
a frictional
on
force
each
act on the
the nodes.
15th
The
to 21st
colors
elements,
of the nodal coordinates in Figure 8 correspond
normal
to thenormal contact
colorscontact and
of the lines frictional
in Figure forces acting
9. Inacting on each
the initial of theas
condition,
shown
nodes.
thereTheThe incolors
is no
Figureof8;the
contact
Figure
nodal9coordinates
between
shows the
the wire rope
and frictional forces on each of the nodes.
in Figure 8 correspond to the colors of the lines in Figure 9. In the initial condition, there is no colors of the nodal coordinates
and thein pulley;
Figure contact
8 correspond occurs when the pulley begins to rotate. In Figure 9, the horizontal axis shows
contact between the wiretorope the colors
and theofpulley;
the lines in Figure
contact occurs9. when
In thethe initial
pulleycondition,
begins
˝ . The
there
to rotate.is noIn
the clockwise
contact rotational displacement of the pulley: The far left end represents 0 magnitude In of
Figure 9,between the wire
the horizontal rope
axis showsand the
the clockwise
pulley; contact occurs
rotational when the pulley
displacement of the begins
pulley:toThe rotate.
far left
the normal
Figure contact
end represents force,
9, the horizontal
0°. Theshown axis shows
magnitude in Figure
ofthe 9a,
theclockwisediffers
normal when
rotational
contact the
force, rotational
displacement
shown angle
of
in Figure the9a, ofdiffers
the pulley
pulley: The whenfar changes;
left
the
end
although represents
this force 0°.
is The magnitude
symmetric when of the
the normal
pulley contact
is at force,
rest, it isshown
changed
rotational angle of the pulley changes; although this force is symmetric when the pulley is at rest, in Figure
by the 9a, differs
rotation when
of the thepulley.
it
In thisrotational
is figure,
changedwe angle
by see of the pulley
that theofcontact
the rotation changes;
the pulley. although
force occurs
In this this force
for we
figure, is
angles symmetric
lessthe
see that than when ˝
0 and
contact the pulley
forceoveroccurs is
180 at
˝ rest,
due itto the
for angles
is changed 0°by theover
rotation
transverse
less wave
than caused
and by
180°theofdue thetopulley.
inertial theforce In this figure,
of the wave
transverse we
rope itself. see that
caused Webyalso theinertial
the contact force
note thatforce of
theoccurs
sign
the of for angles
theitself.
rope frictional
less than 0° and over 180° due to the transverse wave caused by the inertial force of the rope itself.
force We also note
changes, that the in
as shown sign of the9b.
Figure frictional
From forcethesechanges,
results, as weshown
see that in Figure 9b. Fromforce
the frictional thesedoesresults, not act
We
we alsothat
see notethe thatfrictional
the sign force
of thedoes frictional
not force
act changes,on
uniformly asashown
rotating in Figure
pulley. 9b.
It Fromfound
was thesethatresults,
the
uniformly
we see
on a rotating
thatmoved
pulley.
the frictional
It was found that the rope was moved by the sum of these frictional
forces.rope
In was
this figure, the the force
by frictional
sum of does
force
notfrictional
thesein
act uniformly
the positive forces. onIna this
direction
rotating
is figure,
the
pulley.
force
It was found
thethat
frictional
moves force
the
that
in the
rope the
rope
positivewasdirection
moved is bythetheforce
sumthat of moves
these frictional
the rope in forces. In this figure,
the rotational direction, the and
frictional force inforce
the frictional thein the
rotational
positivedirection,
direction and theforce
is the frictional force the in the negative directiondirection,
is the force and that moves the rope in
in the negative direction is thethatforcemoves
that moves rope in rope
the the rotational
in the inverse rotational the frictional
direction. force
Thus, it
the inverse
in rotational
theshown
negative direction. theThus, it was shown that, in wheninversethe difference between the right it and
was that,direction
when the is difference
force that moves
between theright
the rope andthe left inertialrotational
forces wasdirection.
greater than Thus, the
was
left inertial
masses shown
forces
of thethat,
was when
frictional the
greater difference
than
forces in the betweenofthe
the masses
direction theright
opposite and
frictional leftforces
to that ofinertial
the in forces was greater
the direction
inertial force, than
theopposite
rope the
slidesto that
masses
of theandinertial of the frictional
force,isthe
the pulley notrope forces
able to slides in
moveand the direction
the the
rope. opposite to that of
pulley is not able to move the rope. the inertial force, the rope slides
and the pulley is not able to move the rope.

Figure 8. Shape of a wire rope at start time.


Figure8.8.Shape
Figure Shapeof
of aa wire ropeatatstart
wire rope starttime.
time.

(a) (b)
(a) (b)
Figure 9. Normal contact and frictional force at each node of the element. (a) Normal contact force;
Figure 9. Normal contact and frictional force at each node of the element. (a) Normal contact force;
(b)9.frictional
Figure Normalforce.
contact and frictional force at each node of the element. (a) Normal contact force;
(b) frictional force.
(b) frictional force.
Machines2016,
Machines 2016,4,4,44 99of
of12
12

4.2. Influence of Ratio of Tension


4.2. Influence of Ratio of Tension
In this section, we investigate the influence of the ratio of tension, which is the ratio of the
weights
In thisapplied
section,towe each end of the
investigate the influence
rope. Theof weightthe ratioadded on the
of tension, which right endratio
is the of theof therope was
weights
294.70 kg,
applied and end
to each we performed
of the rope.numericalThe weight simulations
added on in thewhich different
right end of theweights
rope was were294.70added kg, on
andthewe
left side. Figure 10 shows the normal contact force and the friction
performed numerical simulations in which different weights were added on the left side. Figure 10 acting on each nodal coordinate
when the
shows the ratio
normal of tension
contactvaried force and fromthe 1.00 to 1.35.acting
friction First, we consider
on each nodalthecoordinate
normal contact whenforce. Whenof
the ratio
the mass
tension on the
varied left1.00
from sidetois1.35.greater,
First, thewe force that acts
consider the on the left
normal side of
contact the pulley
force. When the is larger.
mass on Thetheloadleft
on the pulley does not increase uniformly when the ratio of tension is
side is greater, the force that acts on the left side of the pulley is larger. The load on the pulley does not large. Next, we consider the
frictional
increase force. Figure
uniformly when10the shows
ratio of thetension
magnitude is large.andNext,
area we of consider
the counterclockwise
the frictional frictional
force. Figure force 10
when the
shows the magnitude
ratio of tension and areais 1.00; notecounterclockwise
of the that, as the rotational angleforce
frictional changes
whenfrom 40° toof110°,
the ratio tension the is
force
1.00;
becomes
note smaller.
that, as The reason
the rotational angle why the frictional
changes from 40force in the
˝ to 110 negative
˝ , the directionsmaller.
force becomes always The occurs at 40°
reason whyis
that the weight on the left side does not change. This angle is decided
the frictional force in the negative direction always occurs at 40 is that the weight on the left side ˝ by the radius of the pulley and
the not
does weight
change.on theThisleft.
angleThe time history
is decided of the ofsum
by the radius of the and
the pulley frictional
the weight forces as the
on the left. ratio
The timeof
tension varies from 1.00 to 1.35 is shown in Figure 10, and we can
history of the sum of the frictional forces as the ratio of tension varies from 1.00 to 1.35 is shown in see that the sum of the frictional
forces 10,
Figure acting
and we on can
the see rope that increases
the sum when the ratio forces
of the frictional of tensionactingincreases.
on the rope This is because
increases whenthe the
difference between the inertial forces of the masses on the right
ratio of tension increases. This is because the difference between the inertial forces of the masses on and left sides is equal to the
frictional
the right and force. As an
left sides example,
is equal to the consider
frictionalthe force.case
As an in example,
which the ratio the
consider of tension
case in which is 1.35:the
2
We have 0.35 × 294.7 kg × 9.81 m / s ≅ 1012 N . In addition,
ratio of tension is 1.35: We have 0.35 ˆ 294.7 kg ˆ 9.81 m{s2 – 1012 N. In addition, in Figurein Figure 10, we can see that the sum
10, of
we
the frictional forces oscillates as the nodal coordinate makes and breaks
can see that the sum of the frictional forces oscillates as the nodal coordinate makes and breaks contact contact with the pulley. The
contact
with the velocity
pulley. The of each
contact nodal coordinate
velocity of each when the coordinate
nodal ratio of tension when varies fromof
the ratio 1.00 to 1.35
tension is shown
varies from
in Figure 10. Here, the contact velocity is taken to be v in Equation
1.00 to 1.35 is shown in Figure 10. Here, the contact velocity is taken to be v in Equation (13), and its (13), and its value can be used
to define
value can bewhether
used to slip
define haswhether
occurred. slipFrom EquationFrom
has occurred. (13), Equation
we can (13), determine
we canthat the nodal
determine that
coordinate has slipped and that there is a kinetic frictional force
the nodal coordinate has slipped and that there is a kinetic frictional force when |v| ą ε. Figure when v > ε . Figure 10 shows that 10
the nodal coordinate slips at some angles, but not at others;
shows that the nodal coordinate slips at some angles, but not at others; we can see that the range of we can see that the range of slip
increases
slip increaseswhen whenthe the
ratioratioof tension
of tension increases.
increases. From Equation
From Equation (13), (13),
we see wethat the maximum
see that the maximum of theof
frictional force is μN
the frictional force is µN. When all the frictional forces on the pulley are at a maximum, the wirerope
. When all the frictional forces on the pulley are at a maximum, the wire rope
slips,and
slips, andthethepulley
pulleycannot
cannot move move it. it.

Figure 10. Cont.


Machines 2016, 4, 4 10 of 12
Machines 2016, 4, 4 10 of 12

Machines 2016, 4, 4 10 of 12

Figure 10.
Figure 10. Time
Time history
history of
of each
each force
force for
for ratios
ratios of
of tension
tension between
between1.00
1.00and
and1.35.
1.35.

4.3.Influence
4.3. Influence of of Bending
Bending
Figure Elastic
10. TimeModulus
history of each force for ratios of tension between 1.00 and 1.35.
Elastic Modulus
WeInfluence
4.3.
We investigated
investigated the
the slip
of Bending slip when
Elastic Modulus
when the
thebending
bendingelastic
elastic modulus
modulus of the
of theroperopewaswas changed,
changed, and the and
pulley had reciprocal motion. Figure 11 shows the slip numbers for the experiment and the
the pulleyWe had reciprocalthemotion.
investigated slip when Figure 11 shows
the bending themodulus
elastic slip numbers
of the ropefor was
the changed,
experiment and8andthe the
numerical simulations when the bending elastic modulus was changed as follows: 6.00 × 10 8 N/m2,2
numerical
pulleysimulations
had reciprocal when the bending
motion. Figure elastic
11 shows modulus
the slipwas changed
numbers forasthe follows:
experiment6.00 ˆ and10 the N/m ,
6.00 × 1099 N/m2,2 and 18.00 × 109 N/m 9
2. The other parameters are the same as those listed in Table 2.
2
6.00 ˆnumerical
10 N/msimulations , and 18.00 when
ˆ 10theN/m bending elastic
. The othermodulus
parameters was changed as follows:
are the same as those 6.00listed
× 10 N/m
8 2,
in Table 2.
In Figure 11,
6.00 ×11, results
10 results
N/m , and of three numerical
18.00 ×numerical
10 N/m . The simulations are
other parameters compared, and
are the same it can be seen that the 2.slip
In Figure 9 2
of three 9 2
simulations are compared, andasit those
can be listed
seen in that
Tablethe slip
number increases
In Figure when of
11, results thethree
rationumerical
of tension is low andare
simulations that the bending and itelastic bemodulus thatisthe high. The
number increases when the ratio of tension is low andcompared,
that the bending canelastic
seenmodulus slip
is high.
reasonnumber increases when the ratio of tension is low and that the bending elastic modulus is high. The for
for this is that the contact force between the rope and the pulley is smaller, since it is hard
The reason for this is that the contact force between the rope and the pulley is smaller, since it is
the rope
reason toforbendthis when the contact
is that the bending elastic
force betweenmodulus
the rope is and
large.
theFigure 12smaller,
pulley is showssincethe normal
it is hardcontact
for
hard for the rope to bend when the bending elastic modulus is large. Figure 12 shows 9the normal
forcetheacting
rope on eachwhen
to bend nodalthecoordinate
bending elastic whenmodulus
the bendingis large.elastic
Figuremodulus
12 showsisthe 6.00 × 10 contact
normal N/m 2. In
9 N/m 2.
contact force
force
acting on each nodal coordinate when the bending elastic modulus is 6.00 ˆ 10
Figure 12,acting on eachthat
it is found nodal
there coordinate when the bending
is a characteristic elastic modulus
area, indicated by a red is 6.00
circle. × 10
TheN/m
9 2
wire . Inrope
In Figure
Figure 12,12,it itisisfound
foundthatthat there
there is
is aa characteristic
characteristic area,indicated
indicated by a red circle.
The The wire rope
contacts only the edges of the pulley, because the area,bending elasticbymodulus
a red circle.
is high. wire
The rope
normal
contacts only
contacts the
only edges
the of
edges theof pulley,
the because
pulley, the
because bending
the bendingelastic modulus
elastic modulus is high.
is The
high. normal
The normal contact
contact force is larger in this area because the area of contact is small. Therefore, slip occurs easily
force contact
is larger in this area because thebecause
area of the
contact
area isof small.
contactTherefore, slip occurs slipeasily
occursbecause
easily the
because the force total is larger
frictional in this area
force is small. is small. Therefore,
because the
total frictional totalisfrictional
force small. force is small.

Figure
Figure 11. Ratio
11. Ratio of tension
of tension vs.vs.slip
slipnumber
number for
for various
variousvalues
valuesofof
thethe
bending elasticity.
bending elasticity.
Figure 11. Ratio of tension vs. slip number for various values of the bending elasticity.
Machines 2016,4,4,44
Machines2016, 1111ofof1212

Figure 12.Normal
Figure12. Normalcontact
contactforce
forceatateach
eachnode
nodeofofthe
theelement.
element.

5.5. Conclusions
Conclusions
In
Inthis
thispaper,
paper,wewedeveloped
developedaanumerical
numericalmodel
modelthat
thatcan
canbe
beused
usedfor
fordetailed
detailedanalyses
analysesof
ofthe
the
behavior of the contact between a wire rope and a pulley; the model uses multibody dynamics.
behavior of the contact between a wire rope and a pulley; the model uses multibody dynamics. Our
Our proposal
proposal andand findings
findings are are summarized
summarized as follows.
as follows.
‚• We
Weproposed
proposedaanumerical
numericalmodel
modelthat
thatcan
candescribe
describeinindetail
detailthe
thebehavior
behaviorofofthethecontact
contactbetween
between
aawire
wirerope
ropeand
andaapulley.
pulley.
‚• Thevalidity
The validityofofthe
the developed
developed numerical
numerical model
model waswas confirmed
confirmed by comparing
by comparing the distance
the distance of
of slip
slip predicted
predicted by numerical
by numerical simulations
simulations tomeasured
to that that measured in experiments,
in experiments, whenwhen the rope
the wire wire had
rope
had reciprocal
reciprocal motion. motion.
‚• Fromthe
From theresults
resultsofofthethenumerical
numerical simulations,
simulations, wewe showed
showed thatthat
thethe force
force acting
acting on aonwire
a wire
roperope
on
on a pulley is not uniform, due to the action of partial
a pulley is not uniform, due to the action of partial forces. forces.
‚• Fromthe
From theresults
resultsofofthethenumerical
numericalsimulations,
simulations,ititwas
wasdetermined
determinedthat thatthe
therope
ropeslips
slipswhen
whenthethe
ratio of tension is low, and the bending elastic modulus of the rope
ratio of tension is low, and the bending elastic modulus of the rope is large. is large.

Acknowledgments: Sophia University and Tokyo Metropolitan University financially supported this research,
Acknowledgments: Sophia
and these contributions areUniversity and Tokyo Metropolitan University financially supported this research,
highly appreciated.
and these contributions are highly appreciated.
Author Contributions:
Author Contributions: Shoichiro
Shoichiro Takehara
Takehara and
and Masaya
Masaya Kawarada
Kawarada formulated
formulated thethe numerical
numerical model;
model;
Masaya Kawarada
Masaya Kawarada coded
coded the
the numerical
numerical model
model andand performed
performed the
the experiments;
experiments; Shoichiro
Shoichiro Takehara,
Takehara,
MasayaKawarada
Masaya Kawaradaand andKazunori
KazunoriHase
Haseanalyzed
analyzedthe
thedata
dataand
anddiscussed
discussedthe
theresults;
results;Shoichiro
ShoichiroTakehara
Takeharawrote
wrote
the
thepaper.
paper.
Conflicts Interest:The
ConflictsofofInterest: Theauthors
authorsdeclare
declareno
noconflict
conflictofofinterest.
interest.

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4. Kimura, H.; Min, Z.; Ishii, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Shiba, H. Vibration analysis of elevator rope(simplified
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