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Chapter 10

Endocrine System

Learning Outcomes
ÌAfter viewing this slide presentation, you
should be able to:
Review of Anatomy, Physiology,
• describe the normal anatomical structures and
functions of the endocrine systems
and Pathogenesis

Anatomical Structure & Function Anatomical Structure & Function

Ì The endocrine system ÌThese glands secrete hormones into the blood
consists of several small • stimulate activity in the organ-systems of the body
glands located throughout the
• inhibit or stimulate release of other hormones
• hypothalamus ÌThe endocrine system also interacts with and
• pituitary receives input from other systems
• thyroid • nervous
• parathyroid • gastrointestinal
• thymus • cardiovascular
• adrenals • hepatic
• pancreas • renal systems
• testicles
• ovaries
• pineal

Anatomical Structure & Function Endocrine Glands & Hormones
ÌEach hormone has a specific relationship
with its target cells
Gland Hormone(s) Targets Hormone function
ÌFor a hormone to affect the cell, the cell
must have a specific protein receptor Antidiuretic Stimulate release of
Hypothalamus hormone Posterior pituitary hormones by
(ADH) posterior pituitary

Endocrine Glands & Hormones Endocrine Glands & Hormones

Gland Hormone(s) Targets Hormone function
Growth hormone All cells Growth and development; protein
(GH) synthesis; breakdown of fats for energy Gland Hormone(s) Targets Hormone function
Adrenocorticotropic Adrenal cortex Cause adrenals to release cortisol
hormone (ACTH) Antidiuretic Kidneys Reabsorption of water;
Thyroid-stimulating Thyroid gland Increase thyroid function; stimulate hormone increased blood volume;
hormone (TSH) release of thyroid hormones (T3 and (ADH) increased blood pressure
Anterior T4)
Posterior Uterus, mammary Labor contractions, milk
Pituitary Follicle-stimulating Ovaries Increase estrogen release pituitary glands (females) secretion
hormone (FSH) Testes Increase sperm production Oxytocin (OT) Ductus deferens, Contractions of ductus
Luteinizing Ovaries Stimulate ovulation prostate glands deferens and prostrate;
hormone (LH) Testes Increase testosterone release (males) ejection of secretions
Prolactin (PRL) Mammary glands Production of milk
in females

Endocrine Glands & Hormones Endocrine Glands & Hormones

Gland Hormone(s) Target Hormone Function

Thyroxine (T4) Most cells Increase metabolism, protein synthesis,

Gland Hormone(s) Targets Hormone function
growth and development
Parathyroid Increase calcium in
Parathyroid hormone Bones, kidneys blood by demineralizing
Triiodothyronine Most cells Increase metabolism, protein synthesis,
(PTH) bone
Thyroid (T3) growth and development
Increase effectiveness of
Thymus Thymosins Lymphocytes
Calcitonin (CT) Bones, Decrease demineralization of bone immune system

Endocrine Glands & Hormones Endocrine Glands & Hormones

Gland Hormone(s) Targets Hormone function

Gland Hormone(s) Targets Hormone function
Increase reabsorption of water and
Aldosterone Kidneys
sodium ions in kidneys All cells (except those
Increase glucose
Anti-inflammatory effects, tissue of brain, kidneys, GI,
Insulin transport out of blood
catabolism, respond to stress; increases epithelium, and
Cortisol Most cells and into cells
synthesis of glucose and glycogen Pancreas RBCs)
formation (endocrine) Breakdown of glycogen
Respond to stress (increase heart rate, in liver, release glucose
increase blood flow to muscle, decrease Glucagon Liver, adipose tissues
from liver into blood,
Epinephrine Most cells blood flow to internal organs), increases
release of fat stores
glycogen breakdown and release of lipids
from adipose tissue
Norepinephrine Most cells Vasoconstriction

Endocrine Glands & Hormones Endocrine Glands & Hormones

Gland Hormone(s) Targets Hormone function

Gland Hormone(s) Targets Hormone function
Produce secondary male sex Produce secondary
characteristics, increase protein female sex
Testes Testosterone Most cells synthesis, increase sperm characteristics, regulate
Estrogen Most cells
production, inhibit luteinizing menstrual cycle, inhibit
hormone release luteinizing hormone
Ovaries Prepares uterus for egg
Uterus, mammary implantation; secretory
glands function of mammary
Pubic symphysis,
Relaxes uterine muscles
Relaxin uterus, mammary
and pubic symphysis

Endocrine Glands & Hormones Regulation of Body Energy

ÌGlucose is the body’s primary energy
Gland Hormone(s) Targets Hormone function ÌEndocrine system is responsible for
maintaining normal blood glucose levels
Inhibits release of FSH and LH, slows
maturation of reproductive organs, assists
• pancreas releases insulin and glucagon
Pineal Melatonin All cells in regulation of circadian rhythms, works • adrenal glands release epinephrine,
as antioxidant to protect CNS and boost
immune system norepinephrine, and cortisol
• pituitary releases growth hormone

Regulation of Body Energy Regulation of Body Energy
ÌInsulin lowers blood glucose levels by ÌGlucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine,
transporting glucose from the blood into cortisol, and growth hormone all function
the cells for energy as insulin antagonists
ÌWhen glucose levels exceed the body’s • work collectively to increase blood glucose
need for fuel, insulin sweeps the excess
ƒ stimulate the release of glucose from glycogen
glucose out of the blood to be stored as stores
either glycogen in the liver and the ƒ promote gluconeogenesis
muscles, or fat in the adipose tissues

Regulation of Body Energy Regulation of Body Temperature

ÌDuring exercise, insulin levels decrease as ÌNormal metabolic processes produce
metabolic demand for glucose increases excess energy at rest
ÌGlucose is released in response to this • this energy is released as heat
increased fuel demand, primarily through • maintains the body’s temperature within a
narrow range
the function of glucagon
ÌThe body can also regulate heat loss or
ÌInsulin receptors on muscle cells become heat production in response to
more sensitive - increases the muscular environmental conditions
uptake of glucose

Regulation of Body Temperature Regulation of Body Temperature

ÌDuring exercise, core body temperature ÌHypothalamus is sensitive to blood
rises slightly temperature
ÌPhysiological heat-dissipating • increases or decreases thyroid-stimulating
mechanisms begin to function hormone (TSH) in the pituitary gland
ƒ increased TSH increases the production of thyroid
• evaporation of sweating hormone, which then increases body temperature
• radiation of heat from head and neck ƒ decreased TSH lowers metabolism and body

Regulation of Body Fluid Regulation of Body Fluid
ÌAntidiuretic hormone (ADH) ÌDecreases in blood volume (dehydration)
• forms in the hypothalamus lead to increases in ADH secretion
• secreted by the pituitary ÌMaintaining hydration during activity
ÌADH retains water in the body inhibits this secretion of ADH since, when
• increases water reabsorption in the kidneys properly hydrated, there is no need to
• decreases urine volume retain water

Hormonal Response to Exercise Hormonal Response to Exercise

Hormone Response to Exercise Hormone Response to Exercise

Mobilizes free fatty acids; increases Men: stimulate testosterone release, which
glycogenolysis (release glucose from the liver increases protein synthesis
hormone and
Growth hormone into the blood); inhibits uptake of glucose by Women: stimulate estrogen release, which
Luteinizing hormone
the liver; stimulates release of insulin-like inhibits uptake of glucose
growth factor 1, which stimulates tissue growth

Increases glycogenolysis (release glucose

Stimulate cortisol release, which increases from the liver into the blood); stimulates
Adrenocorticotropic gluconeogenesis (increases blood glucose); lipolysis (breaks down fat for conversion into
hormone increases protein synthesis; inhibits uptake of glucose via gluconeogenesis)
glucose by the liver