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"Factors Affecting The Academic Performance of Grade 12 studensts

SHS of ACLC NAGA A/Y 2018-2019"


John Loren A. Borja

Najib A. Natangcop

Marivic A. Manjares

Nestor S. Asido Jr.

Kenneth C. Albiso

Joshua M. Navia

Juneaw W 2018



Brian Tan stated in his article “Why Filipinos follow Filipino Time”, ‘For

Filipinos, being late and starting things late has always been part of our culture.

Many Filipinos seems to either practice it or accept it, so much that we’ve been

given a term for it called Filipino Time. However, what many Filipinos don’t realize

is how crippling on our total productivity Filipino Time can be, and how it says a

lot about the character of Filipinos. With the deep-rootedness of tardiness in

Philippine culture and literature,…and our lack of ability to discipline ourselves,

Filipino Time will always be a glaring facet of Filipino culture, and their strong

network effect speaks volumes about the kind of people Filipinos are.”

Many senior high schools come late to school; as a result, it will have a

negative impact to their academic performance as well as in their grades. In

addition, they will be able to miss classes as it affects their class performance.

Being tardy will lessen the productivity of a person or the student specifically, at

school and it will cause a bad impression to you as a person. Tardiness is one of

attendance issues; it includes the lateness, absence and cutting classes If a

student is not on time every day, the student will not be able to perform in class


However, until now there are some students are still unaware of what will

be the consequences to their academic performance though some do it’s just


that they don’t mind or realize the effects of being tardy. In this study, the

researchers will aim on finding the percentage of tardiness among CSS-12A

students that affects their academic performance for us to know how severe and

serious the topic is, and to make an action to eliminate or at least minimize the

tardiness of the students stated in this study.

Statement of the problem

In this study the researches aim to evaluate, examine and determine the

percentage of tardiness affecting the academic performance among students in

CSS 12A of ACLC NAGA A/Y 2018-2019 for them to be able achieve their goals in

line with the study, the researches came up with the following guide questions

that will answer its main problem.

1.What is tha profile of the respondents in tern of

A. Age? B. Gender? C. General average.

2. What are the factors affecting the academic performance of grade 12

Students of ACLC Naga?

3. Is there a significant relationship between the academic performance of

the respondents and the profile of the student?


Objectives of the study

This study is guided with the goals stated below. The researchers are

expected to fulfill the following purpose throughout the study.

●To determine the percentage of tardiness affecting the Academic

Performance of CSS 12-A SHS of ACLC NAGA A/Y 2018-2019.

●To identify the daily percentage of late students in CSS 12-A SHS of

ACLC NAGA A/Y 2018-2019.

●To determine if the place where they live affect their behavior and/or

tardiness at school.

●To know the average of absentee in CSS 12-A SHS of ACLC NAGA A/Y

2018-2019 everyday.

Significance of the study

The result and findings of this study about tardiness in relation to

academic performance of the CSS 12-A student of ACLC NAGA SHS with both of

the students, teachers and also to the other researchers.

STUDENTS- to be aware of the effect of being tardy especially in school

so that the next time that they will do it, they will think twice because

they have an idea now on what will happen to them if they continue being

tardy in school.

TEACHERS - to be aware on those students who are always coming late

or not on time in school and they can advise their students on what they

are going to do to avoid being tardy in school researchers, so that they

will have some reference or ideas in the near future if they will going to

take a research with the same topic.

ADMINISTRATORS-It will help them to create more efficiently programs

and rules to mold more disciplined and good students.

FUTURE RESEARCHERS - This study will serve as guide, basis, and

information source for the researcher.


Scope and limitation of the study

This research will be conduct to determine the percentage of tardiness

affecting the academic performance among grade 12 CSS-12A SHS of ACLC

NAGA Campus A/Y 2018-2019, with the awareness and cooperation of the

teachers and the selected senior high school respondents in the said school. The

study will be conduct during the months of July-October 2018. The topics that

will be discuss were the percentage of tardiness affecting the academic

performance of CSS 12-A, daily percentage of late students in CSS 12-A SHS of

ACLC NAGA A/Y 2018-2019. The average of absentee in CSS 12-A everyday, the

related literatures and theories of the study, also the recommendations and

suggested solutions to the subject matter.


Definition of Terms

1. TARDINESS -moving slowly, sluggish, beyond the expected or proper time

2. ACADEMIC -a member of an institution of learning, a person who is academic

in background, outlook or methods

3. ABSENTEEISM - tendency to be away from work or school without a good

reason, the practice or habit of being absent from work or school

4. ATTENDANCE - the persons or number of persons attending

5. ATTITUDES - the way you think and feel about someone or something

6. HABITS - the usual way of behaving, something that a person does often in a

regular and repeated way

7. BEHAVIOUR- the way a person acts or behaves

8. PERSONALITY - the set of emotional qualities, ways of behaving that makes a

person different from other people

9. ALTERNATIVE - offering or expressing a choice




First Literature Cited

When students are tardy or absent, or when they drop out of school,

sequential learning cannot occur, subject matter and skills cannot be developed,

and much student talent is wasted at risk students identify in the school setting

include goes exhibiting signs of alcohol consumption, drug abuse, or anti-social

behavior. This student need assistant to overcome their problems and to achieve

in school. When counseling in the school setting is not sufficient, this students

need to be referred to appropriate services in the community. For some high

school students the immediate earnings from employment seems more

significant than staying in school. This student need courses in vocational

education and assistance to help them developed positive attitudes toward

education, perceive alternative to dropping out, and realize the worth of long-

term goals. Family situations, such as cultural differences between values taught,

at home and school, separation, divorce, or out. School personal need to be

determine causes of tardiness, absenteeism and dropping out and to provide

necessary remediation (Ediger, Marlow 1987)


Second Literature Cited

In evaluating the deleterious effects of missing in school time, research

has almost exclusively focused on absences, and almost no attention has been

paid to tardiness. Hence, this study contributes a new dimension to the field by

examining the effect of student tardiness on academic achievement. Employing

an empirical model on a large-scale, longitudinal, multilevel data set of urban

elementary school children over 6 years of observation there are two significant

findings. First, students with greater tardiness perform worse on both

standardized reading and math test. Second, holding constant lower test score,

hence, the achievement gap widens even further for students who also have

greater individual level of tardiness policy implications were discuss. (Michael

Gottfried 2012).

Third Literature Cited

Students, who are frequently tardy, have lower grades, scores on

standardized assessments, and graduation rates. Chronic tardiness in elementary

and middle school is associated with failure in high school. A national study

reported higher rates of absenteeism ad tardiness for dropouts (Ekstrom, Goertz,

Pollack, and Rock, 1986).


Fourth Literature Cited

Implicit in a commuter's choice of transport mode and departure time is a

probability of late arrival hence this literature provides some empirical evidence

on the factor that influence the propensity to arrive at work after the required

start time. A key explanatory variable, in addition to the explicit cost of transport

mode and journey time, turns out to be the degree of flexibility in arrival time

enjoyed by the employee. Abkowitz (1981), Caplice and Mahmassani (1992) and

Small (1982)

Fifth Literature Cited

Koslowsky et al. (1997) provide a useful survey of this literature by

undertaking a meta-analysis if 118 correlation coefficients across 30 samples

from 27 independent studies. The published studies used as inputs to the meta-

analysis had sample sizes ranging from 37 to 1,244 and were mainly conducted

in a single employers or workplaces. The meta-analysis suggests that the

strongest (positive) correlation was between lateness and other type of

withdrawal behavior including absence and turnover. The strongest correlation

was a negative relationship between work attitudes primarily job satisfaction and


Sixth Literature Cited

(Harryman, 2007) Within a qualitative design, the research interviewed

chronically tardy students individually and in a focus group. Study findings

evolved into functional suggestions for intervention strategies focused on

students and parents that can be implement by school and local, state and

national government agencies with the goal of reducing tardiness in the middle


Seventh Literature Cited

It is clear from literature that tardiness is a major problem. Not only do

student lose valuable educational instruction when they arrive late, but they

disrupt the educational environment and distract others who are in the class.

Excessive student tardiness has a negative impact upon student's future (Ried,


Eight Literature Cited

This study investigated the social, economic, emotional, medical and

psychological reasons for student tardiness in a middle school setting. The

National Education for statistics indicates that student tardiness occurs at a rate

of 3.3% to 9.5% each day for all students in kindergarten through grade twelve

(Harryman, 2007).

Ninth Literature Cited

Weade (2004) defined tardiness as "being late for any measurable length

of time past the stated or scheduled start time for work or school." In the most

schools, a student is considered tardy when he/she is not present when the

school bell rings or when the first teachers.

Tenth Literature Cited

According to CAESC (2007) and Zeiger (2010), the most essential learning

time of the day for the students lies in the morning, specifically between 8:00 to

9:30AM. It is because the students are most mindful and observant at this time

of the day. It is also the reason why the most important lessons and subject

matters were discussed during this time. Therefore, when students are late or

are not present during this time of the day, they in effect, miss out most of the

important lessons to be noted and learned.


Theoretical Framework

Santillano (2010) stated that psychological theorists considered some

“personality traits, including low self-esteem and anxiety” as triggering factors of

tardiness. She also mentioned that while some theorists considered tardiness as

an “inborn quality” since our being early or late is “partially biologically

determined”, which she also agreed, other experts also believed that some

people are “chronically tardy” for the reason that they consciously and

unconsciously get good things from it.

In the book cited by Santillano, “Never be late again: 7 cures for the

punctually challenged”, the author Diana DeLonzor suggested that some

personality traits could most likely lead to a person being often late. Some of the

traits included were “struggling with self-control”, “feeling nervous or

uncomfortable with social situations” and “getting distracted easily”. Santillano

also discussed about the study conducted by DeLonzor at San Francisco State

University in 1997 in which she surveyed 225 respondents about their habits that

makes them late from their appointments. It was also a test on the personalities

of the respondents that affect their habits. According to the results of DeLonzor’s

study, those respondents that were often tardy apt to be anxious and gets

distracted easily.

Social Learning Theory (Bandura)

Bandura’s social learning theory points that people learn from one another, Via

observation, imitation, and modeling. The theory has often been called a bridge

between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses

attention, memory, and motivation.


"The percentage of tardiness affecting the

academic performance among grade 12
CSS-A of ACLC NAGA A/Y 2018-2019"

Learning Theory ( 2010) In the

(Albert Bandura, book cited by
1977) santillano, "Never
be late again: 7
-As social media
cures for the
made inroads into
our living rooms.
Much of social
learning has been Year 2010
influenced by it, Santillano's stated
especially among that psychological
the impressionable traits, including
mind of children some "personality
and adolescents. traits, including
low self-esteem
and anxiety as
triggering factors
of tardiness.

Figure 1: Theoretical Framework of the Study


Conceptual Literature

This study discusses the percentage of tardiness among CSS-12A senior

high school students of ACLC Naga that affects their academic performance. To

accomplish the study the researchers gathered data by conducting a survey

using close-ended survey questionnaire and collecting daily attendance records

for data analysis and evaluation. Moreover, at the end of the study the

researchers will give their findings and recommendations in line with the study

these are the following: implying more strict rules and policies of time in school,

giving fun related and encouraging activities to students, and giving

corresponding punishment to tardy students.



Taking action on
how to prevent
being Tardy of
"Percentage of the student:
Conducting a
tardiness survey using ●Implying more
affecting the close-ended strict rules and
academic survey policies of Time
performance questionnaire in School
among grade and collecting
●giving fun
12 CSS SHS of daily
ACLC NAGA attendance
activities to
A/Y 2018- records for
2019" data analysis
and evaluation

Figure 2: Conceptual Framework of the Study




In this chapter, the Researchers presented the Methodology, Research

Method, and Respondent of the Study, Sampling Technique, Instrumentation,

and Data collection method used in the study.

Research Method

The researchers used action research to determine the percentage of

tardiness affecting to academic performance among CSS-12A grade 12 students

of ACLC NAGA. In their study, the researchers conducted an analysis and

evaluations of the main problem connected to their study, give findings by data

collection and analysis, and recommended solutions, which are the characteristic

or the qualification of an action research.

Respondents of the Study

The population or the respondents of the study are composed of one class or

section whose referred and indicated in the study (specifically the grade 12

students of CSS 12-A ACLC Naga Senior High School). The class or section is

composed of 48 students that will actively cooperate to needs of researchers for

the study.

Sampling Technique

The researchers will use simple random sampling technique. It is

conveniently selecting the sample fitted to the description of the desire



The instruments used in the study are a closed ended survey

questionnaires and document analysis in gathering data. They provide 48 copies

of questionnaire for each respondent. Documents and records of daily

attendance and late students i going to be acquire by the researches from the

teachers and daily attendance checker.

Data Collection Method

Data were collected using self-administered paper and pencil

questionnaires method and by gathering documents and records. The

researchers will use closed ended survey questionnaires to be disseminate and

filled out by the respondents of the study. They will also gather daily attendance

and latecomers student records from the teachers and daily attendance


Statistical Tool

The statistical method used in the study was descriptive statistic

wherein it will be use to describe basic data in the study. Moreover, it includes

mathematical quantities such as measures of central tendency (mean),

percentage count, frequency count..



I. Introduction:

Good day CSS-12A student we are currently conducting a study that will
include the data collection through gathering of attendance records and this
survey questionnaire to be fill out by you. The purpose of this study is to know
the percentage of tardiness affecting the academic performance of CSS-12A.
Answer the following questions truthfully and honestly based on your own
perception. Do not write your name on this questionnaire. Your responses will be
anonymous and will never be link to you personally. Your participation and
cooperation is necessary and voluntary. Thank you for your cooperation.

II. Demographic Data

Age: ___ Gender: _______

III. Questions

Please respond to the following questions by placing a check mark (√) in the
circle that corresponds to your answer.

1. Are you late to class often?

○ Never
○ Once or twice a month
○ Once or twice a week
○ Often
2. Do you ever find yourself locked out of class due to arriving late?
○ No, I'm not often late.
○ I have locked out once or twice.
○ Often
○ Never
3. About how often do you miss an entire day of school?
○ Less than once a month
○ 1 or 2 times each month
○ 1 or 2 times each week
○ 3 or 4 times each week

4. Are you aware of the effects of being tardy to your academic

○ Yes
○ No
○ I don't know

5. What creates a difficulty to getting to school on time?

○ I wake up late
○ I need to take an early bus and they do not run that often.
○ I take more than two transportation vehicles to go to school every day.
○ Our house is far away from school
○ I really do not care that much about school.
○ Others

6. What are the some things you as part of school what could you suggest in
preventing tardiness and/or class cuts?
○ Offer rewards/incentives for regular attendance and being on time to
○ Contact your parents and let them know you are tardy or cutting.
○ Contact your parents and let them know you have been on time and
have good attendance.
○ Nothing It is not that important to me to be on time.
○ Others

7. Does your teacher/s still let you take your missed quizzes, pass
assignments and projects because of your tardiness?
○ Often
○ Never
○ Sometimes

8. What do you do to catch up the lessons in class after you have been tardy
or absent?
○ Friends or classmates help me get caught up.
○ My teacher tell me what I need to do to get caught up.
○ I ask my teacher what I have missed.
○ My parent/guardian calls the school to find out what I need to do to get
caught up.
○ I do nothing
9. Which of the following do you think would be most helpful for students at
our school to get here on time or more often?
○ Having someone to check in with every day
○ Getting assigned a School Bus
○ Getting help figuring out how to take public transportation
○ Having more strict implementations of rules at tardy students
○ Using an Alarm Clock
○ Getting a wake-up call from the school
○ Caring about grades and graduating
○ Having more after- School opportunities
○ A later start time to the school day

10. When you are late or miss an entire day or days of school, what are your
○ I cannot wake up in time
○ I have difficulty getting to and from school
○ I don’t care about getting good grades
○ I have a job
○ I have to take care of our house/younger siblings/other family members
○ I am sick
○ I am concern about my safety at school
○I have a conflict with my subjects and teacher/s
○I have a conflict with my classmates
○I don’t want to go to school/ I don’t want to go early to school because
my classmate doesn’t go early too
○ l just don’t want to go to school