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Department of Architecture
College of Engineering Architecture and Technology
Puerto Princesa City

March 2018


A Feasibility Study Presented to

The Faculty of the Department of Architecture
Palawan State University

In Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements for the Degree
Bachelor of Science in Architecture


Almorfe, Micah Banaag
Inso, Sharmaine Lotilla

March 2018

This Feasibility Study entitled “PROPOSED MEMORIAL HALL WITH

PERIMETER FENCE” prepared and submitted by Micah B. Almorfe and
Sharmaine L. Inso, in partial fulfillment of the requirements leading to the degree
of Bachelor of Science in Architecture (BS AR) is hereby accepted.



Evaluation by the Panel on Oral Defense with a grade of______.




Member Member

Accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements leading to the degree of



Chairman, Department of Architecture


The major objective of the study was to design and develop an Environment-

Friendly Memorial Hall that will accommodate the residents of Bgy. Sicsican by

serving as a hall of commemorating and reminiscing the memories of the

deceased through offering prayers, potted plants or flowers, and candles in

honoring the dead during and outside special seasons.

It is a flexible infrastructure that can house small masses, prayer vigils, and

funerals even during ordinary days outside peak seasons. The project introduces

concrete and masonry construction method adopting the concept of brutalism

accentuated by the application of vertical garden. The uniqueness of the project

is that vertical garden will serve as a means of separation and will accentuate the

movable panel with white marble tablets where the names of the deceased is

engraved. The design aims to achieve convenience and flexibility for the visitors

especially during peak seasons so that they can commemorate or reminisce the

memory of the deceased easily without having to go to the tombs directly. The

proposal aims to give solution to the lack of convenience to the existing cemetery

during memorial visits and hopes to become an encouragement to the people to

visit their loved ones even during ordinary days.

C H A P T E R 1


A. Background Of The Study

During 1930’s, Barangay Sicsican was a sitio and was a part of Barangay

Irawan until 1932 when it was finally declared as a barangay with currently 12

puroks and a population of 15,821 as calculated by the NSO on year 2015. After

2 years, specifically on 1934, the cemetery was established on Purok Narra,

Brgy. Sicsican Puerto Princesa City prior to the establishment of the residential

houses around the vicinity and when the area was not yet crowded. Today

however, it was estimated that there are approximately 60 households in the

vicinity of the cemetery due to its land allocation as a residential zone. The

Sicsican cemetery is one of the five existing cemeteries in the city, the four of

which namely: Puerto Princesa Memorial Park in Brgy. San Jose; Loyola

Memorial Park in Brgy. Bagong Silang (both privately operated); and the

cemeteries which are publicly managed, the cemeteries on Barangays’ Masipag

and Tagburos. The Sicsican cemetery served as a public cemetery open to

different barangays such as Barangays’ Tiniguiban, Sta. Monica, Irawan and Sta.

Lourdes until only 2010 due to the rapid growth of the burials. The estimated

maximum visitors during peak season such as All Soul’s Day is roughly 1,000

ranging from October 29 to November 2, while during normal days’ visitors are

According to the Barangay, they already bought the lot beside the

cemetery for expansion purposes and they plan to construct an apartment-like

tomb effectively this year as a solution to the situation of the cemetery. However,

until now, no action has started. In relation of this plan to the current situation of

the cemetery, it will surely offer more spaces for burials but the problem still


Cemetery is an area set apart for or containing graves, tombs or funeral

urns. It is a public or private land used for the burial of the dead and other uses

dedicated for cemetery purposes (P.D 856 Sanitation Code of the Philippines).

Although it somehow expresses noncomplexity, cemeteries or memorial parks

must achieve flexibility in design and it should be laid-out orderly to respond to

the various spatial requirements of burial and at the same time for economic land

use and environmental control (HLURB). Cemeteries should have facilities such

as: Landscaped grounds, Columbaria, Crematories, Mortuaries Mausoleums,

Walks, Public Information Center, Cortege Assembly Area, Public Rest Rooms,

Committal Service Shelter, Administration/ Maintenance Complex and the

Interment Areas (Burial Section) as conform to the National Cemetery

Administration Design Guide and the Code of Sanitation. However, as Sicsican

cemetery was established on the early 1930s’ and was managed publicly with

lack of planning, such spaces were not considered. Today, Sicsican cemetery is

currently housing an approximately 1500 tombs and is continuously increasing

making the site almost full and crowded.

This Proposed Commemoration Hall/ Memorial Hall is a structure

designed to accommodate the public by serving as a hall of commemorating and

reminiscing the memories of the deceased by offering prayers, potted plants or

flowers and candles as a culture and tradition of the Filipino people in honoring

the dead during and outside special seasons. It will become a flexible

infrastructure that can house small masses, prayer vigils and funerals even

during ordinary days outside peak seasons. It introduces concrete & masonry

construction method adopting the concept of brutalism and vertical gardens as

for means of separation and aesthetic as well as its functional purposes that

serves as a uniqueness and one of the feature of the proposed project. Through

the combination of its desired function and aesthetical component that is aiming

to achieve convenience and flexibility, it will be an encouragement for the people

to come and visit the cemetery more often because of the presence of this


B. Statement of The Problem

1. Absence of Roofed structure for public assembly that can provide shade

to the general public and accommodate further plausible activities such

as: Small scale masses, Prayer meetings and Funeral ceremonies.

- According to the National Building Code of the Philippines

(DOH): Cemeteries/ Memorial Parks shall have a facility that

can accommodate public assemble wherein funeral ceremonies

and others may be held and to serve as a haven for protection

against the sun or rain.

2. Lack of convenience during memorial visits due to the limited access to

every tombs or aboveground interment structures that varies from 100-600

mm because of lack of planning & design that resulted to crowdedness.

- According to the HLURB under the National Building Code of

the Philippines, the minimum size of a plot for Aboveground

Interment is 1.60 x 3.00 m with a minimum setback of 30 cm for

the front and sides of the plot where no structure or part of it can

be constructed. For the access to plots a minimum of 2.00 m

passageway shall be provided between interment structures if

proposed to be in grid design as also conform to the HLURB

Provisions for Accessibility to Plots.

3. Lack of Perimeter Fence surrounding the cemetery both as a means of

separation from the public and for health and sanitation concern.

- Based on HLURB as prescribed in the IRR of the National

Building Code (Rule XII, 3.1) “ The Cemetery shall be totally

enclosed by a perimeter fence of strong material, and all gates

provided with a strong door and lock perimeter wall shall not

exceed 3.00 meters in height.” And also as conform with the

Sanitation Code of the Philippines “ Perimeter fence should be

constructed of a reinforced concrete or steel grille or

combination thereof with a minimum height of two (2) meters

around the cemetery with a steel grille main door provided with

a lock.”

4. The number of the burials/ tombs are not proportional to the total lot area

of the cemetery making the Interment section crowded and crammed.

- The Total Lot Area of the Brgy. Sicsican Cemetery technically

known as Lot no. 5599 is 3,590 sq. m and according to the

Building Code, the minimum area of a burial plot for

aboveground interment is 4.80 sq. m. Currently, there are

approximately 1,500 tombs in the cemetery. By ratio and

proportion, to house 1,500 tombs an area of 7200 sq. m.

(minimum) is required for better accessibility.

5. The cemetery is located in a residential zone and is surrounded by houses

on its frontage and both sides. The site is open to the residence and to the

people passing by the road that makes their health at risk since they are

more exposed to infections and other diseases.

- -Based on DOH as prescribed in the IRR of Chapter XXI

Disposal of Dead Persons, “A burial ground shall at least be 25

meters distant from any dwelling house and no house shall be

constructed within the same distance from any burial ground.”

C. Objectives

General Project Objective: Promote and strengthen the spirit and value of

Philippine culture and tradition in honoring the dead among the Brgy. Sicsican

residents for a broader purpose of introducing connectivity and kinship.

Specific Project Objectives:

1. Create opportunities to further the means of commemorating the

deceased by exhibiting their names in scripted on a white marble tablet.

2. Establish sense of relevance and recognition in a reverential environment

for the living and the dead interconnection.

3. Ensure suitable and user- friendly environment in relation to promoting

Filipino culture.

General Architectural Design Objective: Design a structure for the general public

for public safety and assembly that can provide convenience and introduce

sustainability while serving its function in honoring the deceased as a response

to the Filipino culture.

1. Create a hall without exterior solid partitions to ensure energy efficiency by

taking advantage of wind orientation and to provide opportunities for

flexible use and function.

2. Adapt the concept of a movable screen type partitions made from steel

grille for the interior walls to achieve adaptability and flexibility.

3. Strategically locate the hall where the general public’s primary activity will

first take place.

4. Apply concept of vertical garden to the interior movable partitions and

perimeter fence of the cemetery for aesthetics and functional values.

D. Scope and Delimitation

The coverage of the study will focus only on the design of an

Environment-Friendly Memorial Hall and the perimeter fence in Sicsican

cemetery Purok Narra, Bgy. Sicsican, Puerto Princesa City, and the application

of vertical garden to the structure.

The study does not cover the existing areas outside the cemetery such as

the required width of the road, the proper zoning of residential and commercial

spaces surrounding the site, the required parking spaces and the like, and the

proper planning of the existing tombs on the site.

E. Significance of the Study

The significance of the study is that the memorial hall will serve as a place

to preserve and reminisce the memory of the dead in preparation to the

increasing population of the burials in the locality of Bgy. Sicsican. The proposed

project is a flexible structure that can accommodate both the public and the dead

requiring only a small land area instead of the conventional cemetery that

requires a large and expandable land. It will save land area for the burial and can

control the expansion of cemetery especially because the site is limited due to

the increasing population of households that surrounds the site.


A. Literature

Local Literature

Cemeteries are the least visited places in contrast to parks and shopping

malls. Not until November 1, when All Saints is annually held, that

cemeteries get absolutely crowded with families visiting their departed

loved ones. Contrary to common knowledge that cemeteries are mere

final resting places for those who passed away, cemeteries are also

historic sites and silent witnesses of history, and can be sources of

historical information about important events that happened in a specific


The terms “sementeryo” or “campo santo” stirs fright among the public

because of the popular belief that the sementeryo is inhabited by ghosts.

The word sementeryo came from the Spanish “cementerio” which is also

known as kampo santo from Spanish “campo” (field), and “santo”, (saints).

Other names for sementeryo are pantyon, a Tagalog word for the Spanish

“panteon” a (funeral monument), and libingan (resting place) from the

Tagalog “libing” or (bury).

The practice of burying the dead goes back to the pre-Hispanic Philippines

where honoring the dead was observed by the families of the departed

member because of the belief in afterlife. Thus, burial practices varied

from one place to another depending on the culture of a specific group.

When the Philippines was colonized by the Spanish, the Filipino practice

of burying the dead with ceremonial rites carried on. It was customary to

inter the dead Catholic members within church sacred grounds while

religious and civil personages were buried within the church. This practice

continued until the 19th century.

The dramatic increases in the population of towns prompted civil officials

to construct grave sites away from the center of towns. This was to ensure

proper sanitation of the disposal of the corpse. On the grave site is

a lapida or a stone slab with the name and birth of the deceased inscribed

on it. (


Neil H. Cruz of Philippine Daily Inquirer, discusses the frequent complaint

of citizens: the loss of the graves of their loved ones when they go to the

cemeteries as the day of the dead approaches. They go to the site of the

tombs of their relatives to clean and paint them and find, to their surprise,

somebody else’s tomb there. It is due to the increasing population of the

dead and the limited site for public cemeteries that when the people forgot

to pay the yearly rent for the site to the local government, the bones of

their loved ones are removed so that the graves could be used for new
occupants. The public cemeteries are crowded and every day, people are

dying but the areas of the cemeteries remain the same, they do not


Despite the growing popularity of memorial parks, cremation and

columbarium, the masses prefer to bury their loved ones in public

cemeteries because memorial parks and columbarium are expensive and

only the well-to-do can afford them, whereas public cemeteries are free

except for the annual rent. In fact, the masses cannot afford the cost of

cremation. Some LGUs have tried to solve it by putting up condominium-

type of tombs, one on top of another, along the perimeter walls of public

cemeteries. But even that is not enough. People are dying in greater

numbers than new condos can be built for them. Along with the bursting

population of the living, the population of the dead is also bursting.


Cemeteries are also like art museums; showcases of a society’s artistic

prowess, skills and tastes and their evolution over time. In remembering

departed loved ones, humankind at all times spared no costs and efforts to

honor them and hold up their memory and remembrance. Elaborate tombs

also serve to showcase the deceased or his/her family’s social status during

earthly life, or, in some religions, to carry it over into the afterlife. In short,

the cemeteries of the past have a lot to tell us who live in the present, if only

we care to know and to listen. Especially in the fast developing megacities

of Asia-Pacific, where history, art and beauty are all too readily sacrificed in

the name of rapid “development” and unelected “progress,” cemeteries,

now rare oases of quiet and greenery, have become precious repositories

of the past, be it history, art, or architecture.

This applies in particular to Manila, where a destructive tropical climate, war

and overcrowding, but especially massive re-development, has since 1945

erased much of its built heritage. As the frenzy to demolish and rebuilt

“bigger and better” (and more profitable) continues unabated, Manila’s vast

necropolis in the north of the Sta. Cruz district has become a veritable

museum of the artistic and architectural styles that shaped the face of the

surrounding city over the past 150 years. It spans from the Spanish colonial

period (until 1898), the American interlude (1899-1946), and the post-

colonial era (since 1946) until the present.

Overcrowding of cemeteries with dead and alive has given rise to veritable

“condominiums of the dead” to accommodate the not-so-wealthy

deceased, where row upon row of concrete burial niches is piled on top of

each other just like the condominium high-rises for the living that now

mushroom all over Metro Manila. For financially better-situated middle-

class families, as in “real life,” more spacious row/ town houses or

mausoleums, respectively, can be leased. And for those very wealthy

Chinese who still bury their dead here, new and fully-air-conditioned

mansions of mausoleums in the latest domestic architectural fashion

guided by fengshui or geomantic principles are still being built on large

sprawling lots. At the extreme other end of the scale, in many urban

cemeteries (albeit not in the Chinese Cemetery) lack of space has

necessitated the burial of the extremely poor below the walkways of the

cemetery, where they continue “living on the streets” even in the afterlife.

(Archipel, The Manila Chinese Cemetery: A Repository of Tsinoy Culture)

Foriegn Literature

Julie Rugg, Senior Research Fellow, Centre for Housing Policy in

University of York, UK and a member of Cemetery Research Group stated

that, “A further important feature of cemeteries is that they offer the

possibility of, and a context for, memorializing a particular individual: the

identity of the deceased can be enshrined in the site’s internal order.

Implicit in the landscaping of a cemetery is the ability of users to locate a

specific grave. Thus, internally, the site will be divided by roads and paths:

each grave will have an established `address’, registered as such in the

site’s documentation and so giving each family a sense of ownership of

and control over a particular plot.”

The purpose of cemeteries can extend beyond the community’s need for

burial space. The reasons attached to cemetery foundation change over

time, and can include concerns over public health (Finer, 1952) and a

desire to offer protection and privacy both to the corpse and to the

bereaved (McManners,1981).
A further distinguishing feature of different kinds of burial sites is the

extent to which they are regarded as `sacred’. `Sacredness’ is a concept

that is in itself slippery (Hubert, 1994). Dictionary definitions give the word

a range of meanings, from the `holy’ and `consecrated’, implying a

spiritual element, through to `protected from irreligious action’ and the

almost secular in tone `worthy of or regarded with reverence, awe or

respect’ (Makins, 1991).

There are two further, closely associated, elements that combine as a

measure of the sacred nature of burial sites: pilgrimage and permanence.

`Pilgrimage’ is a term that can be used to describe visits to a burial site for

the purpose of tending or viewing a particular grave. Three intertwined

reasons can be ascribed to grave visits: the private and personal (Francis

et al., 2000); the overtly or inadvertently political (Hartman, 1986); and the

recreational (Rojek, 1993). In the case of the cemetery, going to the site is

for the most part a private and personal activity. The majority of visitors

have friends or family buried at the site, and the essential interest in the

site is largely restricted to a particular town. The 19th century cemetery is

often embedded in local historical narrative, partly because of its use over

generations, partly because it tended to flourish in periods of rapid urban

growth, and partly because it often achieved a near monopoly with respect

to accommodating the dead of a particular location. The high incidence of

visits over a protracted period of time means that the site becomes sacred

and is afforded some degree of permanence.

Thus cemeteries can be defined as specifically demarcated sites of burial,

with internal layout that is sufficiently well ordered to allow families to claim

and exercise control over their particular grave space, and which facilitate

the conducting of appropriate funerary ritual. Although cemetery space

can be regarded to some degree as sacred, cemeteries are principally

secular institutions that aim to serve the whole community. The sites are

able to carry multiple social and political meanings.

When and why do people visit?

While the influence of structure and sentiment on social action have

frequently been cast as competing forces (Willmott & Young, 1957;

Needham, 1962;Schneider, 1968), in visiting graves people describe

interactions, motivations and responses which reveal a nexus rather than

a continuum. Concepts of obligation, compulsion, concern and feeling are

configured in patterns shaped by complex personal, individual, collective,

material and spiritual templates. The order which determines the hierarchy

or overlay of these templates is undoubtedly strongly influenced by

socioeconomic, cultural, religious and gendered factors, but the

configurations are by no means immutable for individuals or over time.

Visiting patterns usually change as time passes. During the first years

following burial, the newly bereaved may come to the cemetery once or
twice a week, and sometimes daily. Thereafter, visiting frequency is likely

to decline to once monthly or every six weeks and over time to become

embedded as collective activity centring on Christmas, Mother’s and

Father’ s Day, birthdays and name days.

What do people do when they visit?

Symbolic action and discursive data strongly suggest that grave visiting

expresses concerns which occupy internal, metaphysical as well as

material domains. Observation of these aspects of grave visiting provides

insight as to the varied, but on-going, dialogues between the living and the

deceased. Interestingly, the data suggest a relatively similar range of

activities across the different religious and cultural groups at the

graveside. These include: examining/washing/cleaning the memorial;

tidying the space around the grave; saying prayers and partaking of rituals

Greek Orthodox visitors light a votive lamp and burn incense, sometimes

with the attendance of a priest, leaving small tokens, such as a stone;

Orthodox Jews mark their visits with a pebble or stone, flowers are not

customary; at the municipal cemetery, cards are attached or flowers

placed to communicate with the deceased; the grave may be planted; the

words on the stone read; and the departed remembered and thought

For most visitors, a trip to the cemetery acts as a catalyst to purposely

think about and remember the deceased, to share with them family news,

express feelings and concerns, and possibly ask for their guidance, help,

advice and/or intercession. (Sustaining cemeteries: the user perspective,

Doris Francis et al.)

B. Case Studies

Foreign Case Studies (Vertical Garden)

A vertical garden is a technique used to grow plants on a vertically

suspended panel by using hydroponics. These unique structures can

either be freestanding or attached to a wall. Vertical gardens have been

used since ancient civilizations; many modern vertical gardens can last for

decades and give a pop of nature into the modern day business.

Vertical gardens are a wonderful alternative to potted plants in the office

space. While potted plants have the advantage of being placed anywhere,

they can take up space and require lots of maintenance. However, with

vertical gardens there is only one large panel to maintain, and it will

provide a lush pop of color to any professional environment. (-

The vertical garden benefits from the fact that in order to survive, plants

need light, carbon dioxide, suitable temperature, water and minerals.

Contrary to general beliefs, plants can vegetate without soil. This

observation allowed French botanist Patrick Blanc to start creating and

patented his first green walls called vertical gardens. They were inspired

with tropical landscapes where plants, which have optimal conditions of

habitat, grow directly on rocks. The broader view on the genesis of the

idea of a vertical gardens’ creation, is provided by W. Kosiński referring to

cultural examples. Inter alia refers to Babylon Gardens, traditional

gardening art related to residential architecture and pitched roofs covered

with grass of regional Scandinavian architecture. The term of vertical

garden covers inter alia systems providing the opportunity for plants to

grow in properly shaped wall layers made on the construction site;

modular systems prefabricated, delivered and combined at the investment

spot, building walls, support installations made of iron nets, bars or ties

and acoustic screens covered with creepers creating green vertical

surfaces ingrained in the soil.

In order to maintain a vertical garden on an artificial wall in the city and at

the same time to ensure the security of the building, it is necessary to

make a supporting construction and plan watering and nutrition systems.

Nowadays, plants are becoming a rightful façade material creating the

architecture; their usage is planned and dedicated to achieve both a

particular aesthetic and ecological effect. Urban landscape enriched with

the vertical garden gains an additional biologically active surface, which

increases its biodiversity. One can say that plants become a part of a

building, but at the same time the building becomes a part of the

ecosystem. An important feature of the vertical garden, especially

significant for urban areas, is its ability to grow in already built up places,

where there is no room for traditionally shaped greenery.

Systems of public greenery designed mostly at the turn of the nineteenth

century (inspired by such ideas as City Beautiful Movement and Garden

Cities) and in the mid-twentieth century appear to be insufficient to serve

twenty-first century cities. Thanks to vertical gardens it is possible to fix

the systems of urban greenery made of traditional elements such as:

alleys of trees, hedge, square, park, urban garden, green roof, which have

to be continuous in order to work properly.

Systematic introduction of vertical gardens into cities seems to be justified

and is the right solution for implementing greenery in places where it is

necessary because of the low quality of the environment and difficulty of

current land use. S. Herrington says that: “landscapes are spaces that

condition and are conditioned by cultural and natural systems directly

connected to our well-being”. It means that the spread of vertical gardens

and green roofs in urban areas is an indication of the concern of humans

about ecology, as well as the high quality of the cultural landscape.(M.Sc.

Arch. Magdalena Chudy, Ph.D. Studies, Faculty of Architecture, Cracow

University of Technology.)
Design of Vertical Garden or Live Wall: Each vertical garden is given a

unique design and selection of species. The composition of plants takes in

consideration the specific environment where it will be built, such as the

local and micro climate, sun exposure and the surrounding context. The

aim is to create a one of a kind and site-specific garden that stands

beautiful through all the seasons of the year.

A well-executed design is also a way to minimize the future maintenance

demand of the garden. A plant's growth habit, size and behavior on a

vertical surface is important knowledge for making the right combination of

species, in order to keep the competition between plants at a healthy

level. Choosing the right plant for the right place makes sense for any

garden, but maybe even more so in a vertical garden.

Creating a vertical garden can be problematic. Some of the problems

encountered are:

1. Getting a messy soil to stay in place when the planter is turned 90


2. Watering and rooting problems.

3. Growing problems of plant vertically.

Benefits of Vertical Garden:

1. Public benefits

2. Private benefits

3. Design specific benefits

Public Benefits:

Aesthetic Improvements: Green walls can reclaim disregarded

space by providing aesthetic stimulation where it would not otherwise be

found. They can also serve to create privacy and a sense of enclosure

while limiting the negative psychological effects associated with property


Reduction of the Urban Heat Island Effect: The reintroduction of

vegetation into urban environments promotes the occurrence of natural

cooling processes, such as photosynthesis and evapo-transpiration. With

strategic placement of green walls, plants can create enough turbulence to

break vertical airflow, which slows and cools down the air.

Improved Exterior Air Quality: Green walls mitigate air pollution

levels by lowering extreme summer temperatures through photosynthesis,

trapping particulate matter, and capturing gases. The ability of green walls
to provide thermal insulation for buildings means less demand on power,

and as a result fewer polluting by-products are released into the air.

Local Job Creation: Green walls draw upon several disciplines for

their design, installation and maintenance - such as landscape architects,

architects, irrigation consultants, and more. Demand for a local supply of

plant materials, blended growing media, greenhouse production, and

fabrication of structural frames creates further business activity.

Private Benefits:

Improved Energy Efficiency: Green walls can reduce the

temperature fluctuations at a wall's surface from a range of 10-60ºC (50-

140ºF) to one of 5-30ºC (41-86ºF), in turn limiting the movement of heat

between building walls. They cause this reduction by:

Trapping a layer of air within the plant mass.

Reducing ambient temperature via evapotranspiration and shading.

Creating a buffer against wind during winter months.

Green walls can help lower the air temperature around intake valves,

which means HVAC units will require less energy to cool air before being

circulated around a building.

Building Structure Protection: Temperature fluctuations over a

building's lifetime can be damaging to organic construction materials in

building facades. Green walls provide an additional layer of exterior

insulation and thereby limit thermal fluctuations.

Green walls protect exterior finishes and masonry from UV

radiation and rain. They can also increase the seal or air tightness of

doors, windows, and cladding by decreasing the effect of wind pressure

Improved Indoor Air Quality: Most North Americans spend 80-90%

of their time indoors and as a result are highly influenced by the

effectiveness of interior air circulation systems. It has been estimated that

problems associated with poor indoor air quality negatively affect

workplace production by $60 billion per year in the United States.

Air that has been circulated throughout a building with a

strategically placed green wall (such as near an air intake valve) will be

cleaner than that on an uncovered building. The presence of vegetation

indoors will have the same effect.

These processes remove airborne pollutants such as toluene, ethyl

benzene, xylene, and other volatile organic compounds.

Noise Reduction: The vegetated surface provided by strategic

urban greenery such as green walls and roofs will block high frequency

sounds, and when constructed with a substrate or growing medium

support can also block low-frequency noises. For over 30 years plant life

has been used to this end along freeways, arterials, and rail lines in North

America and Europe.

Marketing Potential: Green buildings, products, and services now

possess a competitive edge in the marketplace. Green walls are an easily

identifiable symbol of the green building movement since they are visible

and directly impact the amount of green space in urban centers.

Design Specific Benefits

Increased Biodiversity: Green walls can help mitigate loss of

biodiversity due to the effects of urbanization, help sustain a variety of

plants, pollinators and invertebrates, and provide habitat and nesting

places for various bird species.

Improved Health and Well-Being: Buildings that feature and

promote access to vegetation have been documented as having a greater

positive human health impact than those without. Studies have shown
that visual access to natural settings leads to increased job satisfaction

and productivity and post-operative recovery rates in medical facilities.

Urban Agriculture: Green walls offer the opportunity for urban

agriculture, such as vertical gardens of small fruits, vegetables, and herbs.

Onsite Wastewater Treatment: Several water-recycling systems

can be applied to green walls. These systems pump grey water through a

green wall, which then passes through filters, gravel, and marine plants.

Treated water is then sent to a grey water holding tank for household or

irrigation use or released into the public water treatment system. Some of

these systems also collect storm water, which is filtered for household use

or irrigation purposes. (Piyush Sharma, Department of Civil Engineering,

Amity School of Engineering & Technology Amity University, Haryana,


The benefits of living green walls

Living green walls are a surefire way to enhance a building’s

visuals, improve air quality as well as employee alertness and energy

levels. Over the past half century, a notable increase of urban-living

seekers has led to a considerable uptick in air pollution and loss of green

spaces. Living green walls (also commonly referred to as vertical gardens

or living walls) are a wonderful solution for any property interested in

improving their space with intrinsic benefits of nature. Living green walls

infuse the dull expanse of interiors with life-renewing greenery. They offer

an inspirational and aesthetically intriguing natural boost to employee

morale. Whether they are installed on the exterior or interior of a building,

the structures of living, breathing plant life create the “wow factor” so many

interior designers seek while championing sustainability.

Visual benefits of living green walls

Living green walls make a breathtaking statement by creating

alluring and inviting environments. They are as equally impressive in

appearance as they are purveyors of good health; the plants in the walls

work as a natural air-filtration system that building occupants can enjoy.

Employees are greeted by a green lush environment while savoring the

soothing effects of being around an abundance of foliage. An emerging

trend in green design, these vertically sprawling gardens of green are

springing to life across the world on the exteriors of skyscrapers, in hotel

lobbies, office reception areas and more.

WELL credits/sustainability. WELL is a building performance rating

and certification system similar to LEED, but with a focus on human well-

being and performance rather than environmental sustainability. This

performance-based system was constructed around seven core concepts

to measure, certify, and monitor our working environments. These seven

concepts lay the foundation for maximizing human health and wellness

within the built environment.

The WELL Building Standard’s core concepts include: Air, Water,

Nourishment, Light, Fitness, Comfort, Mind The installation of living green

walls or the addition of plants can earn buildings WELL credits which

boost employee happiness, productivity, reduce absenteeism, and

improve well-being.

LEED credits/sustainability. The LEED program (Leadership in

Energy and Environmental Design), developed by the U.S. Green Building

Council, is an internationally recognized green building certification system

to help convert the design, operation and construction of buildings into

eco-friendly properties.

The installation of living green walls can earn buildings LEED points

which, in turn, helps to increase a property’s value by creating a favorable

perception of a structure with an improved carbon footprint. Commercial

Buildings that receive LEED certifications can receive tax credits between

.70 - $6.25 per square foot depending on your rating level according to the

U.S Department of Energy.

Improved air quality. Living green walls are natural air-filters,

creating a cleaner, more invigorating work environment that will lead to

better overall employee health and production. Officer workers are often

exposed to air toxins in their work environment such as formaldehyde,

carbon monoxide, VOCs and benzene. Living green walls metabolize

harmful toxins while releasing oxygen into the workplace air, much like

office plants but on a much larger scale.

Energy cost reduction. The interior and exterior living green walls

function to cool the air in the warmer summer months by a process known

as “evapotranspiration.” The winter months see the added advantage of

building insulation thus reducing energy costs for heating the building.

Exterior living green walls can reduce wall surface temperatures by as

much as 50 degrees °F, resulting in significant energy savings and air

conditioning costs.

Noise level reduction. One of the lesser known benefits of living

green walls, the structures can reduce noise levels in buildings. Plants

have been used, throughout the world, to reduce noise along roads and

highways. Living green walls expand on this concept as vegetation

‘naturally’ blocks high frequency sounds while the supporting structure can

help to diminish low frequency noise.

Living green walls act as extra insulation with a layer of air between the

plants and the wall. They also reduce noise levels by reflecting, refracting

as well as absorbing acoustic energy. (

B. Conceptual Framework




3,590 sq. m VS 7200
sq. m PROPER



D. Definition of Terms

BURIAL – shall mean an interment of remains in a grave, or tomb.

BURIAL GROUND – shall mean a cemetery, memorial park or any place duly

authorized by law for permanent disposal of the dead.

BRUTALISM- Brutalism refers to a dynamic geometric style that is massive,

monolithic and blocky in appearance, and typically contains copious amounts of

poured concrete. It is the aesthetic use of basic building processes with no

apparent concern for visual amenity.

CATACOMB – shall mean a place of burial consisting of galleries or passages

with side recesses for tombs.

CEMETERY- is a public or private used for the burial of the dead and other uses

indicated for cemetery purposes, to include landscape grounds, driveways,

walks, columbaria, crematories, mortuaries mausoleums, niches, graveyards and

public comfort rooms.

CINERARY REMAINS/CREMAINS – shall mean the ashes resulting from

cremation of a dead body.

CINERARIUM – shall mean a niche in a tomb or columbarium to accommodate

an urn containing the ashes of a cremated body.

COLUMBARIUM – shall mean a sepulchre with niches for cinerary remains.

CREMATION – shall mean a process that reduces human remains to bone

fragments of fine sand and ashes through combustion and dehydration.

CREMATORIUM – shall mean any designated place duly authorized by law to

cremate dead persons.

DOH – shall mean the Department of Health.

DISINTERMENT – shall mean the removal or exhumation of remains from places

of interment.

HLURB- shall mean the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board.

INTERMENT – the act of burying a dead person

MAUSOLEUMS –shall mean a large stately tomb to accommodate one or more

interments, usually with provisions for an ossuary or a cinerarium.

MEMORIAL – shall mean a monument, marker, tablet, head-stone, tombstone,

private mausoleum or tomb for family or individual use.

MEMORIAL PARK – shall mean a privately-owned cemetery with well-kept

landscaped lawns and wide roadways and footpaths separating the areas

assigned for ground interments, tombs, mausoleums and columbaria; with or

without a mortuary chapel; and provided with a systematic supervision and

maintenance and where park-like atmosphere is its outstanding quality.

MORGUE – shall mean a place in which dead bodies are temporarily kept

pending identification or burial.

MORTUARIES – a place in which dead bodies are kept until burial; funeral home

NICHE – shall mean interment space for remains.

OSSUARY – shall mean the interment space for bones of the dead.

PUBLIC CEMETERY – shall mean a burial ground, government or privately

owned, open for general use of the public.

PLOT – an area of a cemetery given over to an individual, family, or other social

group. The term is more inclusive than "lot," since a lot can occur only in a
cemetery with some institutional organization that assigns areas; in contrast, a

plot can develop through usage in a customary cemetery.

SEPULCHRE- shall mean a small room or monument, cut in rock or built of

stone, in which a dead person is laid or buried.

TOMB – shall mean an above ground sepulchre without roof or canopy.

VAULTS – shall mean the interment receptacle for coffins, of reinforced

concrete, covered and sealed, whether sunk into the ground or to rest on the




A. Research Design

Our research is an Applied Qualitative research where detailed

descriptions of specific situation/s are conducted using interviews, observations

and document review. This kind of research is concerned with the features,

attributes and characteristics of phenomenon that can be interpreted

thematically. It is often regarded as a precursor to quantitative research, in that

it can generate leads and ideas which can be used to formulate a realistic

and testable hypothesis.

Qualitative research is a type of scientific research. In general terms,

scientific research consists of an investigation that:

 seeks answers to a question

 systematically uses a predefined set of procedures to answer the


 collects evidence

 produces findings that were not determined in advance

 produces findings that are applicable beyond the immediate

boundaries of the study

Quantitative and qualitative research methods differ primarily in:

 their analytical objectives

 the types of questions they pose

 the types of data collection instruments they use

 the forms of data they produce

 the degree of flexibility built into study design

We will be using Observational Research method with the supporting data

based on laws and facts regarding our proposal.

B. Research Locale

This study was conducted in the periphery of Brgy. Sicsican Cemetery and

the Barangay itself. The people involved in our research study is the beneficiaries

of the project in Brgy. Sicsican and also the residents around the vicinity.
C. Data Gathering

Source of Data

Our Primary Data came from the offices which are involved in our

data gathering process such as: City Planning and Development, DENR-

CENRO, and the Barangay Hall Office in Brgy. Sicsican. We also used data from

observation of our own community or environment and from research works and

case studies in the internet.


 Observing the community or the institutional infrastructure involved

and we oath to provide further development to give its beneficiaries

opportunities for more convenience, and safety usage.

 Identifying the problems of the site and existing facility (both

tangible and intangible) and developing possible solutions to

answer the problems identified and regarded.

 Asking questions or conducting an interview for the people involved

in the project i.e the barangay secretary and the cemetery

caretaker to gather basic and fundamental data that is needed in

order to start the research.

 Gathering of data from reliable agencies/offices and sources from

the internet such as case studies and research woks related and

needed to support our proposed project.

 Administer onsite research/observation/ fieldwork to further study

the problems identified and considered.


The instruments that we used to gather data to support our

proposal are from reliable sources such as: interviews, observations, internet

research, and personal data gathering.

D. Site Selection
SITE No. 1- Corner Lot in front of Divine Mercy Parish Church, Brgy. Sicsican


General Site Criteria (HLURB)

A.1. Location Remarks
A.1.1 Zoning
Zoned as Open Space x
Zoned as Agricultural -
Zoned for Cemetery x
Adjacent to an existing x
cemetery/ memorial park
Area within 100 m from the
periphery is neither 
Residential, Commercial,
Industrial or Institutional

A.2. Physical Suitability

The Area is not located in 
Environmentally Critical Areas
The Area is not located on 
ground where water table is
not higher than 4 & 7.50 m
below ground surface

A.3. Accessibility
The Site is served by a road x
with minimum width or ROW
not less than 8.00 m

RATING SCALE: 1= Not Acceptable 2= Poor 3= Acceptable 4=Very Good

5= Excellent

Specific Site Criteria

Considerations Remarks
A.1 Zoning
Appropriateness 2
Noise Reduction Control 3
Vicinity 3

A.2 Orientation
Vista/ View 3
Site Allocation 3

A.3 Accessibility
Access to the facility it serves 2
Access to the main road 3
SITE No.2- Corner Lot in front of Sicsican Elementary School


General Site Criteria (HLURB)

A.1. Location Remarks
A.1.1 Zoning
Zoned as Open Space x
Zoned as Agricultural -
Zoned for Cemetery x
Adjacent to an existing x
cemetery/ memorial park
Area within 100 m from the
periphery is neither 
Residential, Commercial,
Industrial or Institutional

A.2. Physical Suitability

The Area is not located in 
Environmentally Critical Areas
The Area is not located on 
ground where water table is
not higher than 4 & 7.50 m
below ground surface

A.3. Accessibility
The Site is served by a road x
with minimum width or ROW
not less than 8.00 m

RATING SCALE: 1= Not Acceptable 2= Poor 3= Acceptable 4=Very Good

5= Excellent
Specific Site Criteria
Considerations Remarks
A.1 Zoning
Appropriateness 2
Noise Reduction Control 2
Vicinity 2

A.2 Orientation
Vista/ View 2
Site Allocation 3

A.3 Accessibility
Access to the facility it serves 2
Access to the main road 3

SITE No.3- 120 (Lot 5601) Inside Lot, North Side of Sicsican Cemetery

General Site Criteria (HLURB)
A.1. Location Remarks
A.1.1 Zoning
Zoned as Open Space x
Zoned as Agricultural -
Zoned for Cemetery 
Adjacent to an existing 
cemetery/ memorial park
Area within 100 m from the
periphery is neither 
Residential, Commercial,
Industrial or Institutional

A.2. Physical Suitability

The Area is not located in 
Environmentally Critical Areas
The Area is not located on 
ground where water table is
not higher than 4 & 7.50 m
below ground surface

A.3. Accessibility
The Site is served by a road x
with minimum width or ROW
not less than 8.00 m

RATING SCALE: 1= Not Acceptable 2= Poor 3= Acceptable 4=Very Good

5= Excellent

Specific Site Criteria

Considerations Remarks
A.1 Zoning
Appropriateness 4
Noise Reduction Control 4

A.2 Orientation
Vista/ View 3
Site Allocation 3

A.3 Accessibility
Access to the facility it serves 5
Access to the main road 3



A. Project Site

The project will focus on Brgy. Sicsican, Puerto Princesa City, serving it’s

target beneficiaries i.e the Brgy. Sicsican Residents .

B. Site Analysis
Macro- Meso Site Analysis


Physical Geography

Somewhere in the middle west of the Philippines lies a region endowed

with abundant natural resources, mysterious natural wonders, and culturally

diverse people. This is Region IV-B- MIMAROPA.

MIMAROPA is an acronym derived from the provinces of the region,

namely: Mindoro (Oriental and Occidental), Marinduque, Romblon, and Palawan.

Located at 10.67º N and 119.5º E with a total land area of 2,960,625 ha (Country

STAT Philippines), which is about 9.15% of the Philippines’ land area. This

region is only one of the two regions in the Philippines which have no land

borders, the other one being Eastern Visayas. It is rather bounded by different

bodies of water: West Philippine Sea on the west, Sulu Sea on the south,

Sibuyan Sea on the east, and Tayabas Bay on the north.


Being a region separated by waters, MIMAROPA has three different climate:

Type I climate (dry from November to April, and wet for the rest of the year.) -

Western Palawan and Occidental Mindoro

Type III climate (no pronounced seasons but it is relatively dry from November

to April and wet for the rest of the year) – Eastern Palawan and Romblon

Type IV climate (rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year) - Marinduque

and Mindoro Oriental



Physical Geography

Mainland Palawan is divided into the west and east coasts by a long

mountain ridge that spans El Nido and Bataraza, with highest peaks Mt.

Mantalingahan (2,086 MASL) in Brooke’s Point/Rizal area, Mt. Gantung (1,788

MASL) in Bataraza, and Victoria Peak (1,726 MASL) in Narra. Palawan is located

at (09°30′N 118°30′E), measuring 450 kilometres (280 mi) long, and 50

kilometres (31 mi) wide having a total land area of 14,649.73 km2

(5,656.29 sq mi) (source: Palawan Official Profile).


The province of Palawan has two climate types: six months each of dry

and wet seasons for extreme north and south, and three-to-four months’ wet

season for the rest of Palawan. Warm weather prevails from March to May, while

the coolest months are from December to February. Heavy rainfall is usually

experienced in July and August, often accompanied by the southwest monsoon.


Location and Land Area

The City of Puerto Princesa is located 306 nautical miles southwest of

Manila, 205 nautical miles from Panay and about 250 nautical miles from

Zamboanga (9°45′N 118°45′E). It is bounded on the North by the Municipality of

San Vicente and Roxas and on the South by the Municipality of Aborlan. Its

western side faces the South China Sea while in its eastern coast lays the Sulu

Sea. Puerto Princesa City has a total land area of 253,982 hectares making it

the largest City in the country.

Topography and Slope

More than half (57.43%) of the total land area of Puerto Princesa City

have flat to gentle slopes, making the City an ideal site for urban development

and agricultural development (Table II.2). Only about 22% of the total land area

of the City has severe limitations for settlements and infrastructure development

because of steep slopes (30%). Moderate slopes of 8-18%, which can also be
developed for agriculture and low-density housing comprise 15% of the City’s

total land area. However, agriculture and settlements development within this

moderate slope range has to adopt soil conservation and slope stabilization

measures to avoid soil erosion and landslides, respectively.


The City has two prevailing type of climate. The type that prevails in the

west coast has two distinct seasons: six months dry (November-April), and six

months wet (May-October) with the heaviest recorded rainfall in September,

While the lowest or driest month occurs in February. The type prevailing in the

east coast has short dry season with varying heavy rainfall months. Dry months

have been recorded during the months of January to April. Recorded rainiest

month is September.

As for the wind direction; The City has two distinct prevailing winds, the

northeast (NE) monsoon and the southwest (SW) monsoon. The northeast

monsoon generally sets in October and continues until April. The monsoon blows

mainly between north and northeast with a tendency towards an easterly

direction at the end of the season. It has a velocity ranging from 15 to 25

kilometers per hour at its height and an average of 6 kilometers per hour. Rain

clouds during the NE monsoon practically lose all the moisture before reaching

the southwest part of the archipelago, thus the City and the province as a whole

receive no rainfall towards the end of the northeast monsoon (January-April).

The southwest (SW) monsoon or the summer monsoon follows the NE

monsoon after a transition period of variable winds and calms. The SW monsoon

prevails from June to October. It blows most steadily during July and August

although not as steady as the NE monsoon, reaching a maximum velocity of

about 35 kilometers per hour. In October or during the close of the SW monsoon,

strong winds occur in the southern part of the city. The southwest winds bring

torrential rains but with uneven distribution.

Soil Type and Condition

In terms of soil types, there are nine kinds found distributed in City: Bolinao

Clay, Tagburos Clay, Tapul Clay Loam, Guimbalaon Clay, Bay Clay Loam,

Babuyan Silt Clay Loam, Babuyan Clay, Malaglag Clay, and Hydrosol.
N O R M A L- V I E W P E R S P E C T I V E


Planning for Cemeteries

by Valerie Capels & Wayne Senville, Planning Commissioners Journal

Archipel 92
The Manila Chinese Cemetery: A Repository of Tsinoy Culture and Identity

Cemeteries as cultural landscapes

Museum of International Folk Art, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA

Mortality, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2000

Defining the place of burial: what makes a cemetery a cemetery?
University of York, United Kingdom

Mortality, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2000

Sustaining cemeteries: the user perspective
University of North London, United Kingdom