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Practical Jazz Theory for Improvisation

Chords and scales

Craig Fraedrich

Practical Jazz Theory for Improvisation Chords and scales Craig Fraedrich

Practical Jazz Theory for Improvisation

Contents

Foundations

Contents Foundations Introduction To Chords b Major Key Chord Function Chord Extensions and Alterations Minor Scales

Introduction To Chords

b
b

Major Key Chord Function

Introduction To Chords b Major Key Chord Function Chord Extensions and Alterations Minor Scales and Minor

Chord Extensions and Alterations

To Chords b Major Key Chord Function Chord Extensions and Alterations Minor Scales and Minor Key

Minor Scales and Minor Key Chord Function

To Chords b Major Key Chord Function Chord Extensions and Alterations Minor Scales and Minor Key

Other Important Chords and Scales

Other Important Chords and Scales Introduction to Substitute and Secondary Harmony Chromatic and Combined Scales Reference

Introduction to Substitute and Secondary Harmony

Chords and Scales Introduction to Substitute and Secondary Harmony Chromatic and Combined Scales Reference Appendices

Chromatic and Combined Scales

Chords and Scales Introduction to Substitute and Secondary Harmony Chromatic and Combined Scales Reference Appendices

Reference Appendices

Chords and Scales Introduction to Substitute and Secondary Harmony Chromatic and Combined Scales Reference Appendices
b b
b b

b b
b b
b b
b b
b b
b b
b b
b b
b
b
Foundations
Foundations
Example 1–1
Example 1–1

Example 1–1

Example 1–1
Example 1–1
Example 1–2

Example 1–2

Example 1–2
Example 1–2
Example 1–2
Example 1–2
Example 1–2
Example 1–2

Example 1–3

Example 1–3
Example 1–3
Example 1–3
Example 1–3
Example 1–3
Example 1–3
Example 1–3
Example 1–4 Example 1–5 Example 1–6 Example 1–7 Example 1–8

Example 1–4

Example 1–4 Example 1–5 Example 1–6 Example 1–7 Example 1–8
Example 1–4 Example 1–5 Example 1–6 Example 1–7 Example 1–8

Example 1–5

Example 1–4 Example 1–5 Example 1–6 Example 1–7 Example 1–8

Example 1–6

Example 1–4 Example 1–5 Example 1–6 Example 1–7 Example 1–8

Example 1–7

Example 1–4 Example 1–5 Example 1–6 Example 1–7 Example 1–8

Example 1–8

Example 1–9

Example 1–9 Example 1–10 Exercise 1–11 Exercise 1–12
Example 1–9 Example 1–10 Exercise 1–11 Exercise 1–12

Example 1–10

Example 1–9 Example 1–10 Exercise 1–11 Exercise 1–12
Example 1–9 Example 1–10 Exercise 1–11 Exercise 1–12

Exercise 1–11

Example 1–9 Example 1–10 Exercise 1–11 Exercise 1–12

Exercise 1–12

Example 1–9 Example 1–10 Exercise 1–11 Exercise 1–12
Exercise 1–13 Chord Chart

Exercise 1–13 Chord Chart

Exercise 1–13 Chord Chart
Exercise 1–13 Chord Chart
Exercise 1–13 Chord Chart
b bbb bb b b b b bb bb b b b b b b
b bbb bb b b
b
bbb bb
b
b
b b bb bb b b b b b
b
b
bb
bb
b
b
b
b
b
b b b b b b b b b bb b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
bb
b
b bbb bb b b b b bb bb b b b b b b b
b b
b
b
b b b b b Exercise 2–1 Exercise 2–2
b b b b b Exercise 2–1 Exercise 2–2
b b b b b
b
b
b
b
b

Exercise 2–1

b b b b b Exercise 2–1 Exercise 2–2
Exercise 2–2
Exercise 2–2
Exercise 2–3 Exercise 2–4
Exercise 2–3
Exercise 2–3

Exercise 2–4

Exercise 2–3 Exercise 2–4
Exercise 2–3 Exercise 2–4
Exercise 2–5 Exercise 2–6

Exercise 2–5

Exercise 2–5 Exercise 2–6
Exercise 2–5 Exercise 2–6

Exercise 2–6

Exercise 2–5 Exercise 2–6
Exercise 2–5 Exercise 2–6
Exercise 2–5 Exercise 2–6
3 b b b © b b b b b b

3

3 b b b © b b b b b b
3 b b b © b b b b b b
3 b b b © b b b b b b
b b b © b b
b
b
b
©
b
b
3 b b b © b b b b b b
b b b b
b
b
b
b
Exercise 3–1 Exercise Exercise Exercise Exercise Exercise 3–2 3–3 3–4 3–5 3–6

Exercise 3–1

Exercise

Exercise

Exercise

Exercise

Exercise

3–2 3–3 3–4 3–5 3–6

3–2

3–2 3–3 3–4 3–5 3–6

3–3

3–2 3–3 3–4 3–5 3–6
3–4
3–4

3–5

3–2 3–3 3–4 3–5 3–6
3–6
3–6

Exercise 3–7

Exercise 3–7
Exercise 3–7
Exercise 3–7
Exercise 3–7
Introduction To Chords
Introduction
To Chords
4 Example 4–1 b b © © b Example 4–2

4

4 Example 4–1 b b © © b Example 4–2
4 Example 4–1 b b © © b Example 4–2
4 Example 4–1 b b © © b Example 4–2

Example 4–1

4 Example 4–1 b b © © b Example 4–2
b b © ©
b
b
©
©
b
b
4 Example 4–1 b b © © b Example 4–2

Example 4–2

# Example 4–3 Example 4–4 Triad Quality Root Third Fifth Major Minor Augmented Diminished b
# Example 4–3 Example 4–4 Triad Quality Root Third Fifth Major Minor Augmented Diminished b
# Example 4–3 Example 4–4 Triad Quality Root Third Fifth Major Minor Augmented Diminished b
#
#
# Example 4–3 Example 4–4 Triad Quality Root Third Fifth Major Minor Augmented Diminished b b

Example 4–3

# Example 4–3 Example 4–4 Triad Quality Root Third Fifth Major Minor Augmented Diminished b b
# Example 4–3 Example 4–4 Triad Quality Root Third Fifth Major Minor Augmented Diminished b b
# Example 4–3 Example 4–4 Triad Quality Root Third Fifth Major Minor Augmented Diminished b b
# Example 4–3 Example 4–4 Triad Quality Root Third Fifth Major Minor Augmented Diminished b b

Example 4–4

# Example 4–3 Example 4–4 Triad Quality Root Third Fifth Major Minor Augmented Diminished b b
# Example 4–3 Example 4–4 Triad Quality Root Third Fifth Major Minor Augmented Diminished b b

Triad Quality

Root

Third

Fifth

Major

Major

Minor

Minor

Augmented

Augmented

Diminished

Diminished
# Example 4–3 Example 4–4 Triad Quality Root Third Fifth Major Minor Augmented Diminished b b

b b

# Example 4–3 Example 4–4 Triad Quality Root Third Fifth Major Minor Augmented Diminished b b

b b

© b
©
b
Exercise 4–5 Exercise 4–6
Exercise 4–5 Exercise 4–6

Exercise 4–5

Exercise 4–6
Exercise 4–6
Exercise 4–5 Exercise 4–6
Exercise 4–5 Exercise 4–6
Exercise 4–7 Exercise 4–8

Exercise 4–7

Exercise 4–7 Exercise 4–8

Exercise 4–8

Exercise 4–7 Exercise 4–8

Exercise 4–9

Exercise 4–9
Exercise 4–9
5 th Chords b b © ^ ^ b

5

5 th Chords b b © ^ ^ b
5 th Chords b b © ^ ^ b
5 th Chords b b © ^ ^ b

th Chords

5 th Chords b b © ^ ^ b
b b ©
b b
©
^ ^ b
^
^
b
# Exercise 5–1 Exercise 5–2
#
#
# Exercise 5–1 Exercise 5–2

Exercise 5–1

# Exercise 5–1 Exercise 5–2
# Exercise 5–1 Exercise 5–2

Exercise 5–2

# Exercise 5–1 Exercise 5–2

Exercise 5–3

Exercise 5–3 Exercise 5–4
Exercise 5–4
Exercise 5–4
6 ^ Chord 1–3–5–7 Chord 1–3–5–7 © ©©© ©©©© b b b b b b

6

6 ^ Chord 1–3–5–7 Chord 1–3–5–7 © ©©© ©©©© b b b b b b b
6 ^ Chord 1–3–5–7 Chord 1–3–5–7 © ©©© ©©©© b b b b b b b
6 ^ Chord 1–3–5–7 Chord 1–3–5–7 © ©©© ©©©© b b b b b b b
^
^
6 ^ Chord 1–3–5–7 Chord 1–3–5–7 © ©©© ©©©© b b b b b b b

Chord

1–3–5–7

Chord

1–3–5–7

© ©©© ©©©©
© ©©© ©©©©
©
©
©©©
©©©

©©©©

b b b b
b
b
b
b
b b b b b b b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b b b b b b b b b b b
© © © © © © ©
© © © © © © ©
©
©
©
©
©
©
©
Chord 1–3–5–7 © ©©© ©©©© b b b b b b b b b b b
Chord 1–3–5–7 © ©©© ©©©© b b b b b b b b b b b
Chord 1–3–5–7 © ©©© ©©©© b b b b b b b b b b b
1–3–5–7 © ©©© ©©©© b b b b b b b b b b b ©
Exercise 6–1 Exercise 6–2 Exercise 6–3 Exercise 6–4

Exercise 6–1

Exercise 6–1 Exercise 6–2 Exercise 6–3 Exercise 6–4

Exercise 6–2

Exercise 6–1 Exercise 6–2 Exercise 6–3 Exercise 6–4

Exercise 6–3

Exercise 6–1 Exercise 6–2 Exercise 6–3 Exercise 6–4

Exercise 6–4

Exercise 6–1 Exercise 6–2 Exercise 6–3 Exercise 6–4

Exercise 6–5

Exercise 6–5
Exercise 6–5
Exercise 6–5
Exercise 6–5
7 Seventh Chord b b b b Chord 1–3–5– b 7 Chord 1–3–5– b 7

7

7 Seventh Chord b b b b Chord 1–3–5– b 7 Chord 1–3–5– b 7 b
7 Seventh Chord b b b b Chord 1–3–5– b 7 Chord 1–3–5– b 7 b
7 Seventh Chord b b b b Chord 1–3–5– b 7 Chord 1–3–5– b 7 b

Seventh Chord

7 Seventh Chord b b b b Chord 1–3–5– b 7 Chord 1–3–5– b 7 b
b b b b
b
b
b
b
7 Seventh Chord b b b b Chord 1–3–5– b 7 Chord 1–3–5– b 7 b

Chord

1–3–5– b 7

Chord

1–3–5– b 7

b b © ©©© © ©
b b
b
b
©
©
©©© © ©
©©©
©
©
b b b b
b
b
b
b
b A b b bb b bb b bb
b
A b
b
bb
b
bb
b
bb
b b b b b A b b bb b bb b bb © © ©
© © ©
©
©
©
Chord 1–3–5– b 7 b b © ©©© © © b b b b b A
Chord 1–3–5– b 7 b b © ©©© © © b b b b b A
Chord 1–3–5– b 7 b b © ©©© © © b b b b b A
Exercise 7–1 Exercise 7–2 Exercise 7–3 Exercise 7–4
Exercise 7–1 Exercise 7–2 Exercise 7–3 Exercise 7–4

Exercise 7–1

Exercise 7–1 Exercise 7–2 Exercise 7–3 Exercise 7–4

Exercise 7–2

Exercise 7–1 Exercise 7–2 Exercise 7–3 Exercise 7–4

Exercise 7–3

Exercise 7–1 Exercise 7–2 Exercise 7–3 Exercise 7–4

Exercise 7–4

Exercise 7–1 Exercise 7–2 Exercise 7–3 Exercise 7–4
Exercise 7–1 Exercise 7–2 Exercise 7–3 Exercise 7–4

Exercise 7–5

Exercise 7–5 Blues in C Blues in F Blues in Bb
Exercise 7–5 Blues in C Blues in F Blues in Bb
Exercise 7–5 Blues in C Blues in F Blues in Bb
Exercise 7–5 Blues in C Blues in F Blues in Bb

Blues in C

Blues in F Blues in Bb
Blues in F
Blues in Bb
Blues in E b Blues in Ab Blues in Db Blues in F© Blues in

Blues in Eb

Blues in Ab Blues in Db Blues in F© Blues in B Blues in E
Blues in Ab
Blues in Db
Blues in F©
Blues in B
Blues in E

Blues in A

Blues in A Blues in D Blues in G
Blues in D Blues in G
Blues in D
Blues in G
8 Seventh Chord b bb b b b b Chord 1– b 3–5– b 7

8

8 Seventh Chord b bb b b b b Chord 1– b 3–5– b 7 Chord
8 Seventh Chord b bb b b b b Chord 1– b 3–5– b 7 Chord
8 Seventh Chord b bb b b b b Chord 1– b 3–5– b 7 Chord

Seventh Chord

b bb b b b b
b
bb
b
b
b
b
8 Seventh Chord b bb b b b b Chord 1– b 3–5– b 7 Chord

Chord

1– b 3–5– b 7

Chord

1– b 3–5– b 7

b b b b © © © ©
b b b b
b
b
b
b
©
©
© © ©
©
©
©
1– b 3–5– b 7 b b b b © © © © b b b
b
b
b b b bbb b bbb b bbb b
b
b
b
bbb
b
bbb
b
bbb
b
b b b b bbb b bbb b bbb b b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b 7 b b b b © © © © b b b b bbb b
Exercise 8–1 Exercise 8–2 Exercise 8–3 Exercise 8–4

Exercise 8–1

Exercise 8–1 Exercise 8–2 Exercise 8–3 Exercise 8–4

Exercise 8–2

Exercise 8–1 Exercise 8–2 Exercise 8–3 Exercise 8–4

Exercise 8–3

Exercise 8–4
Exercise 8–4

Exercise 8–5

Exercise 8–5
Exercise 8–5
Exercise 8–5
Exercise 8–5
9 7 ( b 5) Chord Diminished Seventh ) Ø Ø Ø ¨ ¨ ¨

9

9 7 ( b 5) Chord Diminished Seventh ) Ø Ø Ø ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨
9 7 ( b 5) Chord Diminished Seventh ) Ø Ø Ø ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨

7 ( b 5) Chord Diminished Seventh)

Ø
Ø
9 7 ( b 5) Chord Diminished Seventh ) Ø Ø Ø ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨
Ø Ø
Ø
Ø
¨ ¨ ¨
¨
¨
¨
¨ ¨ b b b
¨
¨ b
b
b
b
b
b Chord 1– b 3– b 5– b 7 Chord 1– b 3– b 5– b

Chord

1– b 3– b 5– b 7

Chord

1– b 3– b 5– b 7

( ¨ 5) ¨
( ¨ 5)
¨
bbb bbb
bbb
bbb
( ¨ 5) © ¨
( ¨ 5)
©
¨
©
©
( ¨ 5) b
( ¨ 5)
b
b bb b ©© © © © ©
b
bb
b
©©
©
©
©
©
¨
¨
b b b b b
b
b
b
b
b
©
©

( ¨ 5)

¨
¨
( ¨ 5) ©
( ¨ 5)
©
¨
¨
( ¨ 5) ©
( ¨ 5)
©
¨
¨
( ¨ 5 ) ¨ ( ¨ 5) © ¨ ( ¨ 5) © ¨ Exercise

Exercise 9–1

( ¨ 5 ) ¨ ( ¨ 5) © ¨ ( ¨ 5) © ¨ Exercise

Exercise 9–2

( ¨ 5 ) ¨ ( ¨ 5) © ¨ ( ¨ 5) © ¨ Exercise

Exercise 9–3

( ¨ 5 ) ¨ ( ¨ 5) © ¨ ( ¨ 5) © ¨ Exercise

Exercise 9–4

Exercise 9–4 Exercise 9–5
Exercise 9–4 Exercise 9–5
Exercise 9–4 Exercise 9–5
Exercise 9–4 Exercise 9–5

Exercise 9–5

Exercise 9–4 Exercise 9–5
Exercise 9–4 Exercise 9–5
Exercise 9–4 Exercise 9–5
Major Key Chord Function
Major Key Chord
Function
10 th Chords of
10 th Chords of
10 th Chords of Example 10–1 Example 10–2
10 th Chords of Example 10–1 Example 10–2
10 th Chords of Example 10–1 Example 10–2

Example 10–1

10 th Chords of Example 10–1 Example 10–2

Example 10–2

10 th Chords of Example 10–1 Example 10–2
Diatonic Numeral Chord Structure Quality I II III IV V VI VII b
Diatonic Numeral Chord Structure Quality I II III IV V VI VII b
Diatonic Numeral Chord Structure Quality I II III IV V VI VII b
Diatonic Numeral Chord Structure Quality I II III IV V VI VII b

Diatonic Numeral

Chord Structure

Quality

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

Diatonic Numeral Chord Structure Quality I II III IV V VI VII b
Diatonic Numeral Chord Structure Quality I II III IV V VI VII b
Diatonic Numeral Chord Structure Quality I II III IV V VI VII b
Diatonic Numeral Chord Structure Quality I II III IV V VI VII b
Diatonic Numeral Chord Structure Quality I II III IV V VI VII b
Diatonic Numeral Chord Structure Quality I II III IV V VI VII b
Diatonic Numeral Chord Structure Quality I II III IV V VI VII b
Diatonic Numeral Chord Structure Quality I II III IV V VI VII b
Diatonic Numeral Chord Structure Quality I II III IV V VI VII b

b b

Diatonic Numeral Chord Structure Quality I II III IV V VI VII b
Chord Quality Function b F Major b Scale Degree Chord Quality b Chord b b
Chord Quality Function b F Major b Scale Degree Chord Quality b Chord b b

Chord Quality

Function

b
b
Chord Quality Function b F Major b Scale Degree Chord Quality b Chord b b Symbol
Chord Quality Function b F Major b Scale Degree Chord Quality b Chord b b Symbol

F Major

F Major b
F Major b
F Major b
b
b
F Major b
F Major b
F Major b

Scale

Scale
Scale
Scale
Scale
Scale
Scale
Scale

Degree

Chord

Quality

Quality b
Quality b
Quality b
Quality b
b
b

Chord

b b
b
b

Symbol

Example 10–3

Function b F Major b Scale Degree Chord Quality b Chord b b Symbol Example 10–3
KEY Imaj7 IVmaj7 VIIm7( b 5) IIIm7 VIm7 IIm7 V7 Imaj7 ( b 5) (
KEY Imaj7 IVmaj7 VIIm7( b 5) IIIm7 VIm7 IIm7 V7 Imaj7 ( b 5) (
KEY Imaj7 IVmaj7 VIIm7( b 5) IIIm7 VIm7 IIm7 V7 Imaj7 ( b 5) (

KEY

Imaj7

IVmaj7

VIIm7(b 5)

IIIm7

VIm7

IIm7

V7

Imaj7

( b 5)

(b5)

( b 5)
( b 5)
( b 5)

(b5)

( b 5)
( b 5)

B

b

E

b

A

b

D

b

F

©

B

E

A

D

G

Exercise 10–4

Exercise 10–4 Exercise 10–5
Exercise 10–4 Exercise 10–5
Exercise 10–4 Exercise 10–5

Exercise 10–5

Exercise 10–4 Exercise 10–5
11 Function b b Chord Quality Function b

11

Function
Function
11 Function b b Chord Quality Function b
11 Function b b Chord Quality Function b
11 Function b b Chord Quality Function b
b b
b
b
11 Function b b Chord Quality Function b
11 Function b b Chord Quality Function b

Chord Quality

Function

b
b
11 Function b b Chord Quality Function b
Example 11–1 © © b b b b b b b b b
Example 11–1 © © b b b b b b b b b
Example 11–1 © © b b b b b b b b b
Example 11–1 © © b b b b b b b b b

Example 11–1

Example 11–1 © © b b b b b b b b b
© ©
©
©
Example 11–1 © © b b b b b b b b b

Example 11–1 © © b b b b b b b b b
Example 11–1 © © b b b b b b b b b
b b b b
b
b
b
b

b b b b b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b

Example 11–2

b Example 11–2 Example 11–3
b Example 11–2 Example 11–3
b Example 11–2 Example 11–3

Example 11–3

b Example 11–2 Example 11–3
b Example 11–2 Example 11–3
b Example 11–2 Example 11–3
b Example 11–2 Example 11–3
b Example 11–2 Example 11–3
b Example 11–2 Example 11–3
Example 11–4

Example 11–4

Example 11–4
Example 11–4
Example 11–4
Example 11–4
Example 11–4
Example 11–4
Example 11–4
Example 11–4
Example 11–4
Example 11–4
Example 11–4
Example 11–4
Example 11–4
Example 11–4
Dominant Chord Parent Key Key Signature   C7 b   F7 B b 7 E
Dominant Chord Parent Key Key Signature   C7 b   F7 B b 7 E

Dominant Chord

Parent Key

Key Signature

 

C7

  C7 b
b
b
 

F7

B

b 7

E

b 7

A

b 7

D

b 7

C

© 7

F

© 7

 

B7

 

E7

 

A7

 

D7

 

G7

  G7
  G7

Exercise 11–5

7 C © 7 F © 7   B7   E7   A7   D7  
7 C © 7 F © 7   B7   E7   A7   D7  
Exercise 11–6 Exercise 11–7

Exercise 11–6

Exercise 11–6 Exercise 11–7

Exercise 11–7

Exercise 11–6 Exercise 11–7
12 II–V– I
12
II–V– I
12 II–V– I Example 12–1 Example 12–2
12 II–V– I Example 12–1 Example 12–2

Example 12–1

12 II–V– I Example 12–1 Example 12–2

Example 12–2

12 II–V– I Example 12–1 Example 12–2
Example 12–3 Example 12–4 Example 12–5
Example 12–3 Example 12–4 Example 12–5
Example 12–3
Example 12–3

Example 12–4

Example 12–3 Example 12–4 Example 12–5
Example 12–3 Example 12–4 Example 12–5

Example 12–5

Example 12–3 Example 12–4 Example 12–5
Example 12–6 Example 12–7
Example 12–6 Example 12–7
Example 12–6 Example 12–7

Example 12–6

Example 12–6 Example 12–7

Example 12–7

Example 12–6 Example 12–7
Example 12–6 Example 12–7
Key IIm7 V7 Imaj7 Key IIm7 V7 Imaj7 C: F:   B b :  
Key IIm7 V7 Imaj7 Key IIm7 V7 Imaj7 C: F:   B b :  
Key IIm7 V7 Imaj7 Key IIm7 V7 Imaj7 C: F:   B b :  

Key

IIm7

V7

Imaj7

Key

IIm7

V7

Imaj7

C:

C: F:  
C: F:  

F:

 

B b :

 

E

b :

A b :

 

D

b :

C:

 

G

b :

F

© :

B:

 

E:

A:

 

D:

 

G:

 
Exercise 12–8
Exercise 12–8

Exercise 12–9

G b : F © : B:   E: A:   D:   G:   Exercise
G b : F © : B:   E: A:   D:   G:   Exercise

Exercise 12–10

Exercise 12–10 Exercise 12–11 Exercise 12–12 Exercise 12–13 Exercise 12–14
Exercise 12–10 Exercise 12–11 Exercise 12–12 Exercise 12–13 Exercise 12–14
Exercise 12–10 Exercise 12–11 Exercise 12–12 Exercise 12–13 Exercise 12–14

Exercise 12–11

Exercise 12–10 Exercise 12–11 Exercise 12–12 Exercise 12–13 Exercise 12–14
Exercise 12–10 Exercise 12–11 Exercise 12–12 Exercise 12–13 Exercise 12–14

Exercise 12–12

Exercise 12–10 Exercise 12–11 Exercise 12–12 Exercise 12–13 Exercise 12–14
Exercise 12–10 Exercise 12–11 Exercise 12–12 Exercise 12–13 Exercise 12–14

Exercise 12–13

Exercise 12–10 Exercise 12–11 Exercise 12–12 Exercise 12–13 Exercise 12–14
Exercise 12–10 Exercise 12–11 Exercise 12–12 Exercise 12–13 Exercise 12–14

Exercise 12–14

Exercise 12–10 Exercise 12–11 Exercise 12–12 Exercise 12–13 Exercise 12–14
Exercise 12–10 Exercise 12–11 Exercise 12–12 Exercise 12–13 Exercise 12–14
Exercise 12–15

Exercise 12–15

Exercise 12–15
Exercise 12–15

Exercise 12–16

Exercise 12–16 Exercise 12–17
Exercise 12–16 Exercise 12–17

Exercise 12–17

Exercise 12–16 Exercise 12–17
Exercise 12–16 Exercise 12–17
13 Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Scale in C I II III IV V

13

13 Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Scale in C I II III IV V VI
13 Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Scale in C I II III IV V VI
13 Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Scale in C I II III IV V VI
13 Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Scale in C I II III IV V VI
13 Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Scale in C I II III IV V VI
13 Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Scale in C I II III IV V VI
13 Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Scale in C I II III IV V VI
13 Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Scale in C I II III IV V VI

Scale Degree

Mode

Mode in C

Scale in C

I

I

II

II

III

III

IV

IV

V

V

VI

VI

VII

VII
13 Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Scale in C I II III IV V VI
13 Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Scale in C I II III IV V VI
13 Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Scale in C I II III IV V VI
13 Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Scale in C I II III IV V VI
13 Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Scale in C I II III IV V VI
13 Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Scale in C I II III IV V VI
13 Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Scale in C I II III IV V VI
Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Chord in C I II III IV V VI
Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Chord in C I II III IV V VI
Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Chord in C I II III IV V VI

Scale Degree

Mode

Mode in C

Chord in C

I

I

II

II

III

III

IV

IV

V

V

VI

VI

VII

VII
b
b

Example 13–1

Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Chord in C I II III IV V VI VII
Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Chord in C I II III IV V VI VII

Example 13–2

Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Chord in C I II III IV V VI VII
Scale Degree Mode Mode in C Chord in C I II III IV V VI VII
b ¨ b b b b b b b b b b b b b
b ¨ b b b b b b b b b b b b b
b ¨ b b b b b b b b b b b b b
b ¨ b b b b b b b b b b b b b
b ¨ b b b b b b b b b b b b b
b ¨ b b b b b b b b b b b b b
b
¨
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b ¨ b b b b b b b b b b b b b
  Parent Parent Mode Scale Key Key Major Scale Pure Minor Degree Interval Down
  Parent Parent Mode Scale Key Key Major Scale Pure Minor Degree Interval Down
 

Parent

Parent

Mode

Scale

Key

Key

Major Scale

Pure

Minor

Degree

Interval

Down

Interval

Up

Template

Template

Ionian

Ionian
Ionian
Ionian
Ionian

Dorian

Dorian b b b
Dorian b b b
Dorian b b b
b b
b
b
b
b

Phrygian

Phrygian b bbb
Phrygian b bbb
Phrygian b bbb
b bbb
b
bbb

Lydian

Lydian #
Lydian #
Lydian #
#
#

Mixolydian

Mixolydian b
Mixolydian b
Mixolydian b
b
b

Aeolian

Aeolian b b b
Aeolian b b b
Aeolian b b b
b b b
b
b
b
Aeolian b b b

Locrian

Locrian b bb b b b b
Locrian b bb b b b b
Locrian b bb b b b b

b

bb b b
bb
b
b
b b
b
b
b bbb Lydian # Mixolydian b Aeolian b b b Locrian b bb b b b
#
#

Example 13–3

Example 13–3 Notes in Chord Symbol Notes not in Chord Symbol Modal Chord M o d
Example 13–3 Notes in Chord Symbol Notes not in Chord Symbol Modal Chord M o d
Example 13–3 Notes in Chord Symbol Notes not in Chord Symbol Modal Chord M o d
Example 13–3 Notes in Chord Symbol Notes not in Chord Symbol Modal Chord M o d
Example 13–3 Notes in Chord Symbol Notes not in Chord Symbol Modal Chord M o d
Example 13–3 Notes in Chord Symbol Notes not in Chord Symbol Modal Chord M o d
Example 13–3 Notes in Chord Symbol Notes not in Chord Symbol Modal Chord M o d

Notes in Chord Symbol

Notes not in Chord Symbol

Modal Chord

Mode

Symbol

Ionian

Ionian
Ionian
Ionian

Dorian

b b
b
b
Dorian b b
Dorian b b

Phrygian

b b
b
b
b b
b
b
b b
b
b

Lydian

Lydian © #
©
©
#
#

Mixolydian

Aeolian

Locrian

b b
b
b
b b b b b b Lydian © # Mixolydian Aeolian Locrian b b b ¨
b ¨ b
b
¨
b
b b ¨ b b b b
b
b
¨
b
b
b
b
b b b b b b Lydian © # Mixolydian Aeolian Locrian b b b ¨
Function Mode M o d a l C h o r d Symbol Chord Description
Function Mode M o d a l C h o r d Symbol Chord Description

Function

Mode

Modal Chord

Symbol

Chord Description

I

I

II

II

III

III

IV

IV

V

V

VI

VI

VII

VII
o d a l C h o r d Symbol Chord Description I II III IV
b b
b
b

#

o d a l C h o r d Symbol Chord Description I II III IV

bM o d a l C h o r d Symbol Chord Description I II III

o d a l C h o r d Symbol Chord Description I II III IV

©

b b b b
b
b
b
b
o d a l C h o r d Symbol Chord Description I II III IV
b5 b © b
b5 b ©
b5
b
©
b5 b © b
b
b
Ionian Dorian Phrygian Lydian Mixolydian Aeolian Locrian Key Chord Chord Chord Chord Chord Chord Chord
Ionian Dorian Phrygian Lydian Mixolydian Aeolian Locrian Key Chord Chord Chord Chord Chord Chord Chord

Ionian

Dorian

Phrygian

Lydian

Mixolydian

Aeolian

Locrian

Key

Chord

Chord

Chord

Chord

Chord

Chord

Chord

Symbol

Symbol

Symbol

Symbol

Symbol

Symbol

Symbol

C

C # ¨
C # ¨
#
#
C # ¨
C # ¨
¨
¨

F

Bb

 

Eb

 

A

b

Db

 

F ©

B

E

A

D

G

Exercise 13–4

¨ F B b   E b   A b D b   F © B
Ionian Dorian Phrygian Lydian Mixolydian Aeolian Locrian   Key Key Key Key Key Key Key
Ionian Dorian Phrygian Lydian Mixolydian Aeolian Locrian   Key Key Key Key Key Key Key

Ionian

Dorian

Phrygian

Lydian

Mixolydian

Aeolian

Locrian

 

Key

Key

Key

Key

Key

Key

Key

C

C b b b b
b
b
b
b
C b b b b
C b b b b
b
b
b
b

F

Bb

 

Eb

A

b

Db

 

F ©

B

E

A

D

G

Exercise 13–5

b b F B b   E b A b D b   F © B
b b F B b   E b A b D b   F © B
Chord Extensions and Alterations
Chord Extensions
and Alterations
14
14
14 Example 14–1 Example 14–2

Example 14–1

14 Example 14–1 Example 14–2
14 Example 14–1 Example 14–2
14 Example 14–1 Example 14–2

Example 14–2

14 Example 14–1 Example 14–2
14 Example 14–1 Example 14–2
14 Example 14–1 Example 14–2
14 Example 14–1 Example 14–2
14 Example 14–1 Example 14–2
b b Example 14–3
b b
b
b
b b Example 14–3

Example 14–3

b b Example 14–3
b b Example 14–3
b b Example 14–3

Example 14–4

Example 14–4 # Example 14–5
Example 14–4 # Example 14–5
Example 14–4 # Example 14–5
#
#

Example 14–5

Example 14–4 # Example 14–5
Example 14–4 # Example 14–5
Example 14–4 # Example 14–5
Example 14–6 Exercise 14–7

Example 14–6

Example 14–6 Exercise 14–7
Example 14–6 Exercise 14–7
Example 14–6 Exercise 14–7
Example 14–6 Exercise 14–7
Example 14–6 Exercise 14–7

Exercise 14–7

Example 14–6 Exercise 14–7
15
15
© b © b © © b b b ©
©
b
©
b
©
©
b
b
b
©
¨ b © ©© © ¨ ¨ © b b b
¨
b
©
©©
©
¨
¨
©
b
b
b

Example 1

15 © b © b © © b b b © ¨ b © ©© ©
© ¨ ¨ ©
©
¨
¨
©
© ¨ © © ¨ ¨ ©© ¨ ¨ Example 15–2 ¨ ©¨©© ¨ ©¨
© ¨ © © ¨ ¨ ©© ¨ ¨
©
¨
©
©
¨
¨
©©
¨
¨

Example 15–2

© ¨ © © ¨ ¨ ©© ¨ ¨ Example 15–2 ¨ ©¨©© ¨ ©¨ ©
© ¨ © © ¨ ¨ ©© ¨ ¨ Example 15–2 ¨ ©¨©© ¨ ©¨ ©
© ¨ © © ¨ ¨ ©© ¨ ¨ Example 15–2 ¨ ©¨©© ¨ ©¨ ©
© ¨ © © ¨ ¨ ©© ¨ ¨ Example 15–2 ¨ ©¨©© ¨ ©¨ ©
© ¨ © © ¨ ¨ ©© ¨ ¨ Example 15–2 ¨ ©¨©© ¨ ©¨ ©
¨ ©¨©© ¨
¨ ©¨©©
¨
©¨ © ©
©¨
©
©

Example 15–3

© ¨ © © ¨ ¨ ©© ¨ ¨ Example 15–2 ¨ ©¨©© ¨ ©¨ ©
b b ¨ b b b b Example 15–4 + # + # ##
b b ¨ b
b
b
¨
b
b b b
b
b
b

Example 15–4

b b ¨ b b b b Example 15–4 + # + # ##
+ # + # ##
+ #
+
#
##
Exercise 15–5

Exercise 15–5

Exercise 15–5
Exercise 15–5
Minor Scales and Minor Key Chord Function
Minor Scales and
Minor Key Chord
Function
16 b ª Example 16–1 Example 16–2

16

16 b ª Example 16–1 Example 16–2
16 b ª Example 16–1 Example 16–2
b ª
b
ª

Example 16–1

16 b ª Example 16–1 Example 16–2
16 b ª Example 16–1 Example 16–2

Example 16–2

16 b ª Example 16–1 Example 16–2
Example 16–3 Exercise 16–4 Exercise 16–5 Exercise 16–6 Exercise 16–7

Example 16–3

Example 16–3 Exercise 16–4 Exercise 16–5 Exercise 16–6 Exercise 16–7
Example 16–3 Exercise 16–4 Exercise 16–5 Exercise 16–6 Exercise 16–7

Exercise 16–4

Example 16–3 Exercise 16–4 Exercise 16–5 Exercise 16–6 Exercise 16–7
Exercise 16–5
Exercise 16–5

Exercise 16–6

Example 16–3 Exercise 16–4 Exercise 16–5 Exercise 16–6 Exercise 16–7

Exercise 16–7

Example 16–3 Exercise 16–4 Exercise 16–5 Exercise 16–6 Exercise 16–7
Exercise 16–8

Exercise 16–8

Exercise 16–8
Exercise 16–8
17 II–V–I
17
II–V–I
b
b
17 II–V–I b Example 17–1 a b c d ¨ ¨

Example 17–1

a b c d
a
b
c
d
¨ ¨ Example 17–2 a b
¨ ¨ Example 17–2 a b
¨
¨
¨
¨

Example 17–2

a b
a
b
¨ ¨ Example 17–2 a b
¨ ¨ Example 17–2 a b
Example 17–3 Example 17–4 Example 17–5 Example 17–6 Example 17–7

Example 17–3

Example 17–3 Example 17–4 Example 17–5 Example 17–6 Example 17–7
Example 17–3 Example 17–4 Example 17–5 Example 17–6 Example 17–7

Example 17–4

Example 17–3 Example 17–4 Example 17–5 Example 17–6 Example 17–7

Example 17–5

Example 17–3 Example 17–4 Example 17–5 Example 17–6 Example 17–7
Example 17–3 Example 17–4 Example 17–5 Example 17–6 Example 17–7

Example 17–6

Example 17–3 Example 17–4 Example 17–5 Example 17–6 Example 17–7
Example 17–3 Example 17–4 Example 17–5 Example 17–6 Example 17–7

Example 17–7

Example 17–3 Example 17–4 Example 17–5 Example 17–6 Example 17–7
Example 17–3 Example 17–4 Example 17–5 Example 17–6 Example 17–7
Example 17–8 Example 17–9 # # # © b b

Example 17–8

Example 17–8 Example 17–9 # # # © b b
Example 17–8 Example 17–9 # # # © b b

Example 17–9

Example 17–8 Example 17–9 # # # © b b
Example 17–8 Example 17–9 # # # © b b
Example 17–8 Example 17–9 # # # © b b
Example 17–8 Example 17–9 # # # © b b
# # # © b b
# #
#
©
b
b
Example 17–10 b b

Example 17–10

Example 17–10 b b
b b
b
b
Example 17–10 b b
Exercise 17–11 Exercise 17–12 Exercise 17–13 Exercise 17–14

Exercise 17–11

Exercise 17–11 Exercise 17–12 Exercise 17–13 Exercise 17–14

Exercise 17–12

Exercise 17–11 Exercise 17–12 Exercise 17–13 Exercise 17–14
Exercise 17–11 Exercise 17–12 Exercise 17–13 Exercise 17–14

Exercise 17–13

Exercise 17–11 Exercise 17–12 Exercise 17–13 Exercise 17–14
Exercise 17–11 Exercise 17–12 Exercise 17–13 Exercise 17–14
Exercise 17–11 Exercise 17–12 Exercise 17–13 Exercise 17–14

Exercise 17–14

Exercise 17–11 Exercise 17–12 Exercise 17–13 Exercise 17–14
Exercise 17–11 Exercise 17–12 Exercise 17–13 Exercise 17–14
Exercise 17–15

Exercise 17–15

Exercise 17–15
Exercise 17–15
Exercise 17–16 Exercise 17–17

Exercise 17–16

Exercise 17–16 Exercise 17–17
Exercise 17–16 Exercise 17–17

Exercise 17–17

Exercise 17–16 Exercise 17–17
Exercise 17–16 Exercise 17–17
18 Example 18–1 Traditional Melodic Minor Ascending Melodic Minor (Jazz Version)

18

18 Example 18–1 Traditional Melodic Minor Ascending Melodic Minor (Jazz Version)
18 Example 18–1 Traditional Melodic Minor Ascending Melodic Minor (Jazz Version)
18 Example 18–1 Traditional Melodic Minor Ascending Melodic Minor (Jazz Version)

Example 18–1

Traditional Melodic Minor

Ascending Melodic Minor (Jazz Version)
Ascending Melodic Minor (Jazz Version)
18 Example 18–1 Traditional Melodic Minor Ascending Melodic Minor (Jazz Version)
Example 18–2 Example 18–3 b b # b # b b b b

Example 18–2

Example 18–2 Example 18–3 b b # b # b b b b
Example 18–2 Example 18–3 b b # b # b b b b
Example 18–2 Example 18–3 b b # b # b b b b

Example 18–3

Example 18–2 Example 18–3 b b # b # b b b b
b b # b # b b b b
b
b
#
b
#
b
b
b
b
# b b b # Example 18–4 Example 18–5 b b b ©
# b b b #
#
b
b
b
#

Example 18–4

# b b b # Example 18–4 Example 18–5 b b b ©
# b b b # Example 18–4 Example 18–5 b b b ©

Example 18–5

# b b b # Example 18–4 Example 18–5 b b b ©
b b
b
b
b ©
b
©
Example 18–6 b © b b b © b b b © b © #
Example 18–6 b © b b b © b b b © b © #

Example 18–6

Example 18–6 b © b b b © b b b © b © # #
Example 18–6 b © b b b © b b b © b © # #
b ©
b
©
Example 18–6 b © b b b © b b b © b © # #
b b b © b b b © b © # # b b #
b
b
b
©
b
b
b
©
b
©
#
#
b
b
#
b
b
#

Example 18–7

Example 18–6 b © b b b © b b b © b © # #
Example 18–8 Example 18–9 Example 18–10
Example 18–8 Example 18–9 Example 18–10

Example 18–8

Example 18–9 Example 18–10
Example 18–9
Example 18–10
Exercise 18–11
Exercise 18–11

Exercise 18–11

Exercise 18–11
Exercise 18–11
Exercise 18–11
Exercise 18–11
Exercise 18–12 Exercise 18–13

Exercise 18–12

Exercise 18–12 Exercise 18–13
Exercise 18–12 Exercise 18–13
Exercise 18–12 Exercise 18–13
Exercise 18–12 Exercise 18–13

Exercise 18–13

Exercise 18–12 Exercise 18–13
Exercise 18–12 Exercise 18–13
Exercise 18–14
Exercise 18–14
Exercise 18–14

Exercise 18–14

Exercise 18–14
Exercise 18–14
Exercise 18–14
19 Scale Degree Mode Chord Symbol I II III I V V VI VII b

19

19 Scale Degree Mode Chord Symbol I II III I V V VI VII b b
19 Scale Degree Mode Chord Symbol I II III I V V VI VII b b
19 Scale Degree Mode Chord Symbol I II III I V V VI VII b b

Scale Degree

Mode

Chord Symbol

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

19 Scale Degree Mode Chord Symbol I II III I V V VI VII b b

b b

19 Scale Degree Mode Chord Symbol I II III I V V VI VII b b
19 Scale Degree Mode Chord Symbol I II III I V V VI VII b b

b b

©19 Scale Degree Mode Chord Symbol I II III I V V VI VII b b

19 Scale Degree Mode Chord Symbol I II III I V V VI VII b b
¨
¨

#19 Scale Degree Mode Chord Symbol I II III I V V VI VII b b

# # # ¨ ¨ b
#
#
#
¨
¨
b
© ©
©
©

Example 19–1

19 Scale Degree Mode Chord Symbol I II III I V V VI VII b b
19 Scale Degree Mode Chord Symbol I II III I V V VI VII b b
19 Scale Degree Mode Chord Symbol I II III I V V VI VII b b
Example 19–1 © © © © ©

Example 19–1

Example 19–1 © © © © ©
Example 19–1 © © © © ©
Example 19–1 © © © © ©
Example 19–1 © © © © ©
© © © © ©
©
©
©
©
©
Example 19–1 © © © © ©
Mode Major Scale Template Pure Minor Template Melodic Minor b ª ª Dorian b 2
Mode Major Scale Template Pure Minor Template Melodic Minor b ª ª Dorian b 2

Mode

Major Scale Template

Pure Minor Template

Melodic Minor

b
b
ª ª
ª
ª

Dorian b 2

b b b
b
b
b
b ª
b
ª

Lydian Augmented

©
©

Lydian Dominant

© b
©
b

Mixolydian b 6

b b
b
b

Locrian © 2

Super Locrian

b bb b b b b b b b b b b b
b
bb
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b 6 b b Locrian © 2 Super Locrian b bb b b b b b

Super Locrian

b
b

Example 19–2

b 6 b b Locrian © 2 Super Locrian b bb b b b b b
Lydian Dominant b Example 19–3 Locrian © 2 © ©

Lydian Dominant

b
b

Example 19–3

Lydian Dominant b Example 19–3 Locrian © 2 © ©
Lydian Dominant b Example 19–3 Locrian © 2 © ©

Locrian © 2

© ©
©
©
Example 19–4 Chord Mode Parent Melodic Minor E b maj7 ( © 5)   E

Example 19–4

Example 19–4 Chord Mode Parent Melodic Minor E b maj7 ( © 5)   E b
Example 19–4 Chord Mode Parent Melodic Minor E b maj7 ( © 5)   E b
Example 19–4 Chord Mode Parent Melodic Minor E b maj7 ( © 5)   E b

Chord

Mode

Parent Melodic Minor

E

b maj7 (© 5)

E b maj7 ( © 5)
E b maj7 ( © 5)
 

E b 7 (© 11)

  E b 7 ( © 11) b
b
b
 

E b m9 (¨ 5)

©
©
b
b
 

E b 7 alt

  E b 7 alt b
b
b

A

b maj7 (© 5)

A b 7 (© 11)

G© m9 (¨ 5)

G© 7 alt

Dbmaj7 (© 5)

Chord Mode Parent Melodic Minor D b 7 ( © 11) C © m9 (

Chord

Mode

Parent Melodic Minor

D b 7 (© 11)

C© m9 (¨ 5)

C© 7alt

G b maj7 (© 5)

C7 alt

Fmaj7 (© 5)

F9 (© 11)

G b 7 (© 11)

F ©m9 (¨ 5)

F © 7 alt

Bmaj7 (© 5)

B7 (© 11)

Bm9 (¨ 5)

B7 ( #9,# 5)

Emaj7 (© 5)

E7 (© 11)

Em9 (¨ 5)

E7 ( # 9,# 5)

Amaj7 (© 5)

A7 (© 11)

Fm9 (¨ 5)

Chord Mode Parent Melodic Minor F 7 alt B b maj7 ( © 5) A

Chord

Mode

Parent Melodic Minor

F7 alt

B b maj7 (© 5)

Am9 (¨ 5)

A7 (b9, b5)

Dmaj7 (© 5)

D7 (© 11)

Dm9 (¨ 5)

D7 ( #9, b5)

Gmaj7 (© 5)

G7 ( © 11)

Gm9 (¨ 5)

G7(b9) # 5

Cmaj7 (© 5)

C13 ( © 11)

Cm9 (¨ 5)

B b 9 (© 11)

B b m9 (¨ 5)

B b 7 (# 9,#5)

Exercise 19–5 Exercise 19–6 Exercise 19–7 Exercise 19–8 Exercise 19–9 Exercise 19–10 Exercise 19–11

Exercise 19–5

Exercise 19–5 Exercise 19–6 Exercise 19–7 Exercise 19–8 Exercise 19–9 Exercise 19–10 Exercise 19–11

Exercise 19–6

Exercise 19–5 Exercise 19–6 Exercise 19–7 Exercise 19–8 Exercise 19–9 Exercise 19–10 Exercise 19–11

Exercise 19–7

Exercise 19–5 Exercise 19–6 Exercise 19–7 Exercise 19–8 Exercise 19–9 Exercise 19–10 Exercise 19–11

Exercise 19–8

Exercise 19–5 Exercise 19–6 Exercise 19–7 Exercise 19–8 Exercise 19–9 Exercise 19–10 Exercise 19–11

Exercise 19–9

Exercise 19–10
Exercise 19–10

Exercise 19–11

Exercise 19–5 Exercise 19–6 Exercise 19–7 Exercise 19–8 Exercise 19–9 Exercise 19–10 Exercise 19–11
Exercise 19–12

Exercise 19–12

Exercise 19–12
Exercise 19–12
Exercise 19–13

Exercise 19–13

Exercise 19–13
Exercise 19–13
20 Example 20–1 Example 20–2 Example 20–3

20

20 Example 20–1 Example 20–2 Example 20–3
20 Example 20–1 Example 20–2 Example 20–3
20 Example 20–1 Example 20–2 Example 20–3
20 Example 20–1 Example 20–2 Example 20–3
20 Example 20–1 Example 20–2 Example 20–3

Example 20–1

20 Example 20–1 Example 20–2 Example 20–3
20 Example 20–1 Example 20–2 Example 20–3

Example 20–2

20 Example 20–1 Example 20–2 Example 20–3
20 Example 20–1 Example 20–2 Example 20–3

Example 20–3

20 Example 20–1 Example 20–2 Example 20–3
20 Example 20–1 Example 20–2 Example 20–3
20 Example 20–1 Example 20–2 Example 20–3
20 Example 20–1 Example 20–2 Example 20–3
20 Example 20–1 Example 20–2 Example 20–3
20 Example 20–1 Example 20–2 Example 20–3