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Manufacturing Technology II

Manufacturing Technology II (ME-202) Powder Metallurgy Dr. Chaitanya Sharma PhD. IIT Roorkee
Manufacturing Technology II (ME-202) Powder Metallurgy Dr. Chaitanya Sharma PhD. IIT Roorkee
Manufacturing Technology II (ME-202) Powder Metallurgy Dr. Chaitanya Sharma PhD. IIT Roorkee

(ME-202)

Manufacturing Technology II (ME-202) Powder Metallurgy Dr. Chaitanya Sharma PhD. IIT Roorkee

Powder

Metallurgy

Dr. Chaitanya Sharma PhD. IIT Roorkee

Powder Metallurgy Lesson Objectives In this chapter we shall discuss the following: 1. What is

Powder Metallurgy

Lesson Objectives

In this chapter we shall discuss the following:

1. What is powder metallurgy (PM)

2. Need of PM

3. Advantages, Limitations & Application of PM

4. Basic steps in PM

5. Design considerations in PM

6. Secondary & finishing operations

Learning Activities

1. Look up Keywords

Learning Activities 1. Look up Keywords 2. View Slides; 3. Read Notes, 4. Listen to lecture

2. View Slides;

3. Read Notes,

4. Listen to lecture

Keywords:

Infiltration etc.

Keywords: Infiltration etc. Powder, Blending, Sintering, Particle size and shape,

Powder, Blending, Sintering, Particle size and shape,

What Is Powder Metallurgy ? Powder metallurgy may defined as, producing metal powders and utilizing

What Is Powder Metallurgy ?

Powder metallurgy may defined

as,

producing metal powders and

utilizing

science of

the

art

and

them

to

make

serviceable objects.

OR

of “ the art and them to make serviceable objects. ” OR It may also be

It may also be defined as “material

processing technique used to consolidate particulate matter i.e. powders both metal

and/or non-metals.

Why PM? Because: • PM parts can be mass produced to net shape or near

Why PM?

Because:

PM parts can be mass produced to net shape or near

net shape.

PM products have doctored properties.

No need for subsequent machining

PM process wastes very little material ~ 3%.

PM parts can be made with a specified level of

porosity, to produce porous metal parts − Examples: filters, oil-impregnated bearings and gears

Some More Reasons For PM … • Certain metals that are difficult to fabricate by

Some More Reasons For PM …

Certain metals that are difficult to fabricate by other methods can be shaped by powder metallurgy

Example: Tungsten filaments for incandescent lamp bulbs

Certain alloy combinations and cermets made by PM cannot be produced in other ways

PM compares favorably to most casting processes in dimensional control

PM production methods can be automated for

economical production.

Parts Made by PM (a) Fig(b) Upper trip lever for a commercial sprinkler made by

Parts Made by PM

(a) Fig(b) Upper trip lever for a commercial sprinkler made by PM. This part replaces
(a) Fig(b)
Upper trip lever for a commercial
sprinkler made by PM.
This part replaces a die-cast part of unleaded
brass alloy; with a 60% savings.
(b)
(b
(c)

Fig (c) Main-bearing metal-powder caps for 3.8 and 3.1 liter General Motors automotive engines.

Fig (a) Examples of typical parts made by PM processes.

Applications of PM • Gears • Cams • Cranks • Bearings • Roller bearing cages

Applications of PM

Applications of PM • Gears • Cams • Cranks • Bearings • Roller bearing cages •

Gears

Cams

Cranks

Bearings

Roller bearing cages

Housings

Light bulb tungsten filaments

Sprinkler mechanisms

Cemented carbide cutting tools

Electrical contacts, brushes

Metallic coating

Metal to glass seal

• Cemented carbide cutting tools • Electrical contacts, brushes • Metallic coating • Metal to glass
• Cemented carbide cutting tools • Electrical contacts, brushes • Metallic coating • Metal to glass
Advantages of PM Cost Advantages: 1. Zero or minimal scrap. 2. High production rates 3.

Advantages of PM

Cost Advantages:

1.

Zero or minimal scrap.

2.

High production rates

3.

Avoids high machining cost needed for holes, gear teeth, key-ways etc.

4.

Extremely

good surface

finish

5.

Very

close

tolerance

without

a

machining

operation;

6.

Assembly of two or more

parts (by I/M) can be made

in one piece;

Properties Advantages of sintered components:

1. Complex shapes can be produced

2. Wide composition / property variations are possible

3. Physical properties are comparable with cast

materials and wrought materials. 4. Ability to retain lubricants reduces wear and lengthens life of bearings;

5. Improved surface finish with close control of

mass, volume and density;

6. Components are malleable and can be bent without cracking.

7. Hard tools like diamond impregnated are

made for cutting porcelain, glass & WC.

8. Reactive processed.

and

non-reactive metals can be

Limitations of PM Process Major limitations are as follows: 1. Principal limitations of the process

Limitations of PM Process

Major limitations are as follows:

1.

Principal limitations of the process are those imposed by the size and

shape of the part, the compacting pressure required and material used.

2.

High initial investment in machinery and dies.

3.

Economically viable for production ranges in excess of 10,000.

4.

High material cost.

5.

Inferior strength properties.

6.

Limitations on part geometry due to limited flowability of powders.

7.

Varying density of part may be a problem, for complex geometries.

8.

Can not make undercuts and re-entrant angles.

9.

Problems in storing and handling metal powders e.g. degradation over time, fire hazards with certain metals.

10.

Limited cross-sectional area and length of the component .

Basic Steps In PM Powder metallurgy is the process of blending fine powdered materials, compacting

Basic Steps In PM

Powder metallurgy is the process of blending fine powdered

materials, compacting the same into a desired shape or form inside a mould followed by heating of the compacted powder in a controlled atmosphere (sintering) to facilitate the formation of bonding of the powder particles to form the final part.

The four basic steps of PM include:

(1) powder manufacture, (2) blending of powders, (3) compacting of powders in a mould or die, and

(4) sintering.

Steps In Making PM Fig 2 Outline of processes and operations involved in making powder-metallurgy

Steps In Making PM

Steps In Making PM Fig 2 Outline of processes and operations involved in making powder-metallurgy parts.

Fig 2 Outline of processes and operations involved in making powder-metallurgy parts.

Powder Blending • A single powder may not have all the requisite properties and hence,

Powder Blending

Powder Blending • A single powder may not have all the requisite properties and hence,
Powder Blending • A single powder may not have all the requisite properties and hence,

A

single

powder

may

not

have

all

the requisite

properties and hence, powders of different materials

are blended to form a final part with desired properties.

Blending is carried out for several purposes as follows:

1.

To imparts uniformity in the shapes of the powder

particles. 2. To facilitates mixing of different powder particles.

3.

To

impart

wide

ranging

physical

and

mechanical

properties.

 

4.

To

improve

the

flow

characteristics

of

the

powder

particles reducing friction between particles and dies.

Is Blending & mixing same? • Blending: process of mixing powder of the same chemical

Is Blending & mixing same?

Blending: process of mixing powder of the same chemical composition but different

sizes.

Mixing:

process

of combining powders of

different chemistries.

Devices For Blending & Mixing Blending and mixing are accomplished by mechanical means. Some bowl

Devices For Blending & Mixing

Blending and mixing are accomplished by mechanical means.

Some bowl geometries are shown below:

A mixer
A mixer
means. Some bowl geometries are shown below: A mixer Rotating drum Rotating double cone Screw Mixture

Rotating drum

Some bowl geometries are shown below: A mixer Rotating drum Rotating double cone Screw Mixture Blade

Rotating

double cone

are shown below: A mixer Rotating drum Rotating double cone Screw Mixture Blade Mixture Since metal
are shown below: A mixer Rotating drum Rotating double cone Screw Mixture Blade Mixture Since metal

Screw Mixture Blade Mixture

Since metal powders are abrasive, mixers rely on the rotation or tumbling of enclosed geometries as opposed to using aggressive agitators.

Compaction • Compaction: Blended powers are pressed in dies under high pressure to pressurize &

Compaction

Compaction • Compaction: Blended powers are pressed in dies under high pressure to pressurize & bond
Compaction • Compaction: Blended powers are pressed in dies under high pressure to pressurize & bond
Compaction • Compaction: Blended powers are pressed in dies under high pressure to pressurize & bond
Compaction • Compaction: Blended powers are pressed in dies under high pressure to pressurize & bond

Compaction: Blended powers are pressed in dies under

high pressure to pressurize & bond the particles to form a cohesion among powder particles to impart. required shape.

The work part after compaction is called a green compact

or simply a green, (green means not yet fully processed.)

The compaction exercise imparts the following effects.

1. Reduces voids and enhance powder.

2. Improves green strength of powder particles.

density of consolidated

3. Facilitates plastic deformation of the powder particles to conform to the final desired shape of the part.

4. Enhances the contact area among the powder particles and facilitates the subsequent sintering process.

Guidelines For Compaction General guidelines for metal powder compaction are: 1. Powder must fill die

Guidelines For Compaction

General guidelines for metal powder compaction are:

1.

Powder must fill die orifice completely.

2.

A constant volume or constant weight may be used.

3.

Use vibration filling to create denser packing to avoid

bridging and high porosity defects.

4.

Apply pressure along more than one axis to minimize defects.

5.

Filling, Pressing and Ejection may be done automatically.

6. To facilitate compaction add additives to powder i.e.

Lubricants: to reduce the particles-die friction Binders: to achieve enough strength before sintering Deflocculants: to improve the flow characteristics during feeding

Compaction: Process & Variables Compaction process is shown below: Further during compaction tooling materials,

Compaction:

Process & Variables

Compaction process is shown below:

Process & Variables Compaction process is shown below: Further during compaction tooling materials, clearances and

Further during compaction tooling materials, clearances

and tolerances require

expertise.

Main variables are:

(a) Method of compaction

(b) Compaction

pressure,

time and temperature

(c)

Rate of compaction

(d)

Compacting atmosphere

(e)

Lubricants and other

(f)

additives of mix, and Die design

(g)

Die materials

(h)

Punch

(i)

Carbide inserts

(j)

Tolerances,

clearances

and finishes

Mechanism of Compaction • Consolidation generally occurs in three stages (a) rearrangement of particles. (b)

Mechanism of Compaction

Mechanism of Compaction • Consolidation generally occurs in three stages (a) rearrangement of particles. (b) particles

Consolidation generally occurs in three stages

(a) rearrangement of particles.

(b) particles contacting by plastic deformation. (c) mechanical locking and cold welding of particles due to surface shear strains.

It is, therefore, easier to cold compact irregular particles than spherical powder particles.

compaction green

density increases rapidly with compaction pressure.

Compaction

determines mechanical properties of parts

pressure

During

density increases rapidly with compaction pressure . Compaction determines mechanical properties of parts pressure During
Methods of Compaction 1. With application of pressure 2. Without applying pressure a) Unidirectional pressing

Methods of Compaction

1. With application of pressure

2. Without applying pressure

a)

Unidirectional pressing

(single action or double

action pressing) Isostatic pressing Rocking die compaction Powder rolling Powder extrusion

Powder swaging

Powder forging

a) Slip mixing/ slip casting

b) Vibrational compaction

a) Slip mixing/ slip casting b) Vibrational compaction Single action Double action b) c) d) e)

Single action

mixing/ slip casting b) Vibrational compaction Single action Double action b) c) d) e) f) g)

Double action

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

h) Powder Injection Molding

Tool For Compaction (Presses) • The basic types of compacting presses are: 1. Mechanical (single

Tool For Compaction (Presses)

The basic types of compacting presses are:

1.

Mechanical (single punch or rotary type) presses.

2.

Hydraulic presses.

3.

Hybrid-type presses (mechanical presses may make use of

auxiliary pneumatic or hydraulic devices).

Minimum requirements for any powder metal press:

1. Adequate total pressure capability

2. Part ejection capability.

3. Controlled length and speed of

compression and ejection strokes.

4.

5.

6.

A 7.3-MN (825-ton
A 7.3-MN
(825-ton

Adjustable die fill arrangements.

Synchronized timing of press strokes.

Material feed and part removal systems.

Compacting Presses: Parts & Attachments The presses systems used are; (a) Single action press system

Compacting Presses:

Parts & Attachments

The presses systems used are;

(a) Single action press system consisting of:

a die to form the outer contour of the part;

an upper punch to form the top surface of the part;

a lower punch to form the bottom surface of the part;

if required, core rods to form any through holes (for class I parts).

(b) Double action opposed ram system consists of

a die, upper punch, lower punch and core rods (for class I and class II parts).

(c) Double action floating die system consists of

moving upper punch, stationary lower punch, moving die table and core rods (for class I IV parts).

Density as a Function of Pressure and Effects of Density on Other Properties Fig: (a)

Density as a Function of Pressure and

Effects of Density on Other Properties

of Pressure and Effects of Density on Other Properties Fig: (a) Density of copper- and a

Fig: (a) Density of copper- and

a

function of compacting pressure.

iron-powder

compacts

as

a function of compacting pressure. iron-powder compacts as Figure (b) Effect of density on tensile strength,

Figure (b) Effect of density on tensile strength, elongation, and electrical conductivity of copper

powder.

Density greatly influences mechanical & physical properties of PM parts.

Density Variation in Compacting Metal Powders Fig: Density variation in compacting metal powders in various

Density Variation in Compacting Metal Powders

Density Variation in Compacting Metal Powders Fig: Density variation in compacting metal powders in various dies:

Fig: Density variation in compacting metal powders in various dies:

(a) and (c) single-action press; (b) and (d) double-action press.

Note in (d) the greater uniformity of density from pressing with two

punches with separate movements when compared with (c).

(e) Pressure contours in compacted copper powder in a single-action press

Compacting Pressures for Various Powders

Compacting Pressures for Various Powders

Compacting Pressures for Various Powders
Sintering • Sintering bonds individual metallic particles, thereby increases strength and hardness of final part.

Sintering

Sintering • Sintering bonds individual metallic particles, thereby increases strength and hardness of final part.
Sintering • Sintering bonds individual metallic particles, thereby increases strength and hardness of final part.

Sintering bonds individual metallic particles, thereby

increases strength and hardness of final part.

Compressed metal powder is heated in a controlled- atmosphere furnace to a temperature (70% and 90% of Tm) below its melting point, but high enough to cause diffusion

thereby bonding of neighboring particles.

Powder performs are heated in a controlled, inert or reducing atmosphere or in vacuum prevent oxidation.

The primary driving force for sintering is not the fusion of

material, but formation and growth of bonds between

particles due to reduced of surface energy.

Part shrinkage occurs during sintering due to pore reduction.

Density increases due to filling up incipient holes and increasing area of contact among powder particles in compact perform.

size

Movements of Atoms During Sintering Fig: A three particle sketch of sintering, showing several possible

Movements of Atoms During Sintering

Movements of Atoms During Sintering Fig: A three particle sketch of sintering, showing several possible paths

Fig: A three particle sketch of sintering, showing several

possible paths of atomic motion involved with particle bonding

(neck growth) and pore shrinkage (densification).

Mechanisms For Sintering Metal Powders Bonding among the powder particles takes places in three ways:

Mechanisms For Sintering Metal Powders

Bonding among the powder particles takes places in three ways:

(1) melting of minor constituents in the powder particles,

(2) diffusion between the powder particles, and (3) mechanical bonding.

between the powder particles, and (3) mechanical bonding. Fig: Schematic illustration of two mechanisms for sintering

Fig: Schematic illustration of two mechanisms for sintering

metal powders:

state material transport; and (b) vapor-phase material transport.

Where R = particle radius, r = neck radius, and p = neck- profile radius.

(a) solid-

Solid State Sintering • Solid state sintering involves heating the powder below the melting point

Solid State Sintering

Solid State Sintering • Solid state sintering involves heating the powder below the melting point to
Solid State Sintering • Solid state sintering involves heating the powder below the melting point to

Solid state sintering involves heating the powder below

the melting point to allow solid-state diffusion and

bonding the particles together.

Particle bonding is initiated at contact point, which then grow into necks, reducing pores between particles.

Prolonged heating develops grain boundaries between particle in place of necked regions.

pores between particles. • Prolonged heating develops grain boundaries between particle in place of necked regions.
Liquid Phase Sintering Liquid phase sintering usually involves mixing an iron powder With a liquid

Liquid Phase Sintering

Liquid phase sintering usually involves mixing an iron powder

With a liquid forming

powder ( Boride, carbide, phosphide, copper ,tin And heating to a temperature where the liquid forms, spread

and contributes to

particle bonding and densifications.

where the liquid forms, spread and contributes to particle bonding and densifications. Fig: Liquid phase sintering

Fig: Liquid phase sintering

Factors In Sintering • The nature and strength of the bond between the particles depends

Factors In Sintering

Factors In Sintering • The nature and strength of the bond between the particles depends on:

The nature and strength of the bond between

the particles depends on:

1.

The mechanism of diffusion,

 

2.

Plastic flow of the powder particles, and

 

3.

Evaporation

of

volatile

material

from

the

compacted preform.

The three critical factors that control the sintering process are:

1) time, 2) temperature and 3) the furnace atmosphere

three critical factors that control the sintering process are: 1) time, 2) temperature and 3) the
Sintering Time and Temperature for Metals

Sintering Time and Temperature for Metals

Sintering Time and Temperature for Metals
Examples Production Lines of Sintering

Examples

Production Lines

of

Sintering

Examples Production Lines of Sintering
Mechanical Properties of P/M Materials

Mechanical Properties of P/M Materials

Mechanical Properties of P/M Materials
Comparison of Properties of Wrought and Equivalent P/M Metals

Comparison of Properties of Wrought and Equivalent P/M Metals

Comparison of Properties of Wrought and Equivalent P/M Metals
Finishing Operations • A number of secondary and finishing operations can be applied after sintering,

Finishing Operations

A number of secondary and finishing operations can be applied after sintering, some of them are:

1. Sizing: cold pressing to improve dimensional accuracy 2. Coining: cold pressing to press details into surface

3. Impregnation: oil fills the pores of the part

4. Infiltration: pores are filled with a molten metal

5. Heat treating, plating, painting

Impregnation and Infiltration • Porosity is a unique and inherent characteristic of PM technology. •

Impregnation and Infiltration

• Porosity is a unique and inherent characteristic of PM

technology.

• It can be exploited to create special products by filling the available pore space with oils, polymers,

or metals

• Two categories:

1. Impregnation 2. Infiltration

Impregnation • The term used when oil or other fluid is permeated into the pores

Impregnation

The term used when oil or other fluid is permeated into the pores of a sintered PM part Common products are oil-impregnated bearings, gears, and similar components.

An alternative application is when parts are

impregnated with polymer resins that seep into the pore spaces in liquid form and then solidify to create a pressure tight part.

Infiltration • An operation in which the pores of the PM part are filled with

Infiltration

An operation in which the pores of the PM part are filled with a molten metal.

The melting point of the filler metal must be below

that of the PM part.

Involves heating the filler metal in contact with the sintered component so capillary action draws the

filler into the pores

The resulting structure is relatively nonporous, and the infiltrated part has a more uniform density, as well as improved toughness and strength.

General Classification of Powder Metallurgy Parts 1) Class a diameter (or thickness) up to 65

General Classification of

Powder Metallurgy Parts

1) Class

a diameter (or

thickness) up to 65 mm and single level

parts of any contour that can be pressed with a force from one direction.

level

I

parts with

2) Class

II

parts

single

are

components of any thickness and any contour that must be pressed from two directions.

3) Class III parts are two level components

of any thickness and contour that must be pressed from two directions. 4) Class IV parts are multilevel components of any thickness and contour that must be pressed from two direction.

any thickness and contour that must be pressed from two direction. (a) Class I,(b) Class II

(a) Class I,(b) Class II

any thickness and contour that must be pressed from two direction. (a) Class I,(b) Class II

(c) Class III,(d) Class IV

Design Considerations for P/M 1. Shape of compact must be kept as simple and uniform

Design Considerations for P/M

1.

Shape of compact must be kept as simple and uniform as possible.

2.

Provision must be made for ejection of the green compact without damaging the compact.

3.

P/M parts should be made with the widest acceptable tolerances to maximize tool life.

4.

Part walls should not be less than 1.5 mm thick;

5.

Walls with length to thickness ratios above 8:1 are difficult to press.

6.

Steps in parts can be produced if they are simple and their size doesn’t exceed 15% of the overall part length.

7.

Letters can be pressed if oriented perpendicular to pressing direction.

8.

Raised letters are more susceptible to damage in the green stage and

prevent stacking.

9.

Flanges or overhangs can be produced by a step in the die.

10.

A true radius cannot be pressed; instead use a chamfer.

11.

Dimensional tolerances are on the order of ±0.05 to 0.1 mm.

12. Tolerances improve significantly with additional operations such as sizing, machining and grinding.

Poor & Good Designs of P/M Parts Note that sharp radii and reentry corners should

Poor & Good Designs of P/M Parts

Poor & Good Designs of P/M Parts Note that sharp radii and reentry corners should be

Note that sharp radii and reentry corners should be avoided and that threads and transverse holes have to be produced

separately by

additional machining operations.

Fig: Examples of P/M parts showing poor and good designs.

Design Features for Use with Unsupported Flanges or Grooves Fig: (a) Design features for use

Design Features for Use with Unsupported Flanges or Grooves

Design Features for Use with Unsupported Flanges or Grooves Fig: (a) Design features for use with

Fig: (a) Design features for use with unsupported flanges.

(b) Design features for use with grooves.

Die Design for Powder- Metal Compaction Fig: Die geometry & design features for P/M compaction.

Die Design for Powder-

Metal Compaction

Die Design for Powder- Metal Compaction Fig: Die geometry & design features for P/M compaction.

Fig: Die geometry & design features for P/M compaction.

Further reading • Fundamentals of powder metallurgy • Powder Metallurgy: Principles & Applications •

Further reading

Fundamentals of powder metallurgy

Powder Metallurgy: Principles & Applications

Fundamentals of P/M

W. D. Jones

F. V. Lenel

I. H. Khan