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# 17/10/2018 GROUP PROJECT

## STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS AND

EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING

## 1. JAMAL CHAKER 13280755

3. DHURAIRAJ ATHINARAYANAN 12849941
4. YAO MENG 12837656

## DUE DATE: 17/10/2018

Aim and Objectives

The main aim of this project is to offer an opportunity to the deepening learnt knowledge, focused on

applying and inquiry-based learning for solving a real-world problem. The project makes use of

particular experimental facility and UTS research expertise to offer the hand on experience and

contextual substance to enrich the learning experiences of students. The objectives include:

## 2. To deepen and contextualize students’ learning

3. To enhance the student’s capacity and skills on problem-solving and critical thinking.

## Layout and Scope of the Project

Project group consists of 4 students and should be regulated and managed by group members for

## efficient and effective operations. This is the part of project evaluation.

The projected is subdivided into three stages, including numerical analysis, modelling, design task,

analysis of experimental results. However, in this report, we will discuss only the first two stages.

1. Stage 1: From the model of the structure assigned, create a numerical model and compute its

dynamic property

## 2. Step 2; Analyze the experimental data

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Step 1- Creating a numerical model and calculating the dynamic Property

Sometimes, it is important to come up with a dynamic model of very complicated structures from

the vibration data of the experiment. This report presents the steps for creating stiffness and mass

matrices from modal data in a manner which preserves the real importance of the individual stiffness

and mass components. The stiffness and mass matrices are obtained from a solar array example. These

## matrices are used to describe the response of the model of an array.

Structural design always requires a response estimate of the structure conceived to dynamic excitation

prior to finalizing the design. The forecasted response is derived using discretisation of finite elements

of the differential to compute the matrices M and K that features the structure’s mass and stiffness

properties. The definite solution to the problem of algebraic eigenvalue kx =Mx describes the forecasted

## natural frequencies as well as vibration shapes of the structure.

To enhance the model of the structure so that the estimation to the response of powerful

earthquake of the completed building can be created by the addition of mass matrices and elemental

stiffness defining the modifications of the structure directly to matrices synthesized. A lot of

techniques for synthesizing the stiffness and mass matrices from modes of experimental vibrations have

been described. a modified matrix synthesis method that is demonstrated to enable mass matrices and

elemental stiffness illustrating structural modifications to be directly added to the matrices synthesised.

To validate the analytical model, the mode shapes and natural frequencies of low-order might

also be determined in a modal test. These tests usually are run on the structural simulation on the final

structure, always at a time when it is hard to include anomalies into the cycle of design. For this

instance, there is an increased desire to incorporate results of modal tests of skeletal systems and early

prototypes into the models of these systems of estimation to designs can be arrived at with a lot of

confidence. Also, to space applications, one specific area of great interest is the testing of the model of

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building structures which are carried out after completing the main structure through prior the addition

## of interior trim, walls and furnishing.

Definition of Problem

The problem is described as follows, with the set of eigenvalues A and the eigenvectors

corresponding to the structural system that is not known. To estimate the nth order stiffness and mass

matrices in order, the eigensystem possesses eigenvectors and eigenvalues that are close or equal to the

determined ones. Since the most critical characteristics of stiffness and mass matrices are their strain

energies and system kinetic representation, K and M are required further to represent accurately known

strain and dynamic energy features of the system. This is important if k and M are compatible with the

## model of analytical of the structure.

To estimate the specifications for K and M, we note that if K and M are supposed to be symmetric to

describe the estimated eigensolution, then the eigenvectors ought to in respect to them. Nevertheless,

since the coordinate’s number used is considered be bigger than p number of the determined natural

modes, only the initial p out of the total of n eigenvectors are readily available, and the modal matrix

inverse is not defined. To solve this problem, it is advisable to put into consideration the inverse

## matrices that are singular.

The matrices are of rank p when the only the modes p are readily available. Since the ultimately K

and M are needed, these rank deficient inversion will be necessary. Nevertheless, first identify the

problem of estimating the normalization of the diagonal to conserve as much as possible the

characteristics of strain and kinetic energy that is known. The diagram below is a scatter plot diagram

of Time against Earthquake force. The scatter plot diagram displays a relationship between two sets of

data, that is, earthquake force and time. The trend indicate a negative relationship between the two

The relationship provide us with the perfect model to estimate the normalization of the diagonal.

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NATURAL FREQUENCY:

5 2.247

4 1.802

3 1

2 0.5

1 0.25

0 0
6

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

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5 1

4 -1

3 -1

`2 1

1 0.5

0 0

0
-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5

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5 -0.5

4 0.445

3 1

2 -0.5

1 0.25

0 0

0
-0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

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5 0.555

4 -1.247

3 1

2 -0.5

1 0.25

0 0

0
-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5

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Mode Shape 5: ω 1=268.7 rad/sec

5 -1.27

4 -0.75

3 -0.5

2 0.5

1 0.35

0 0

0
-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1

Earthquake force g
0.400000

0.300000

0.200000

0.100000
Time

0.000000
0.0000 10.0000 20.0000 30.0000 40.0000 50.0000 60.0000
-0.100000

-0.200000

## -0.300000 Earthquake force

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Step 2- Analyzing the Experimental Data

Determination of Normalization

In many cases, the system energies knowledge is confined to that denoted by the analytical

stiffness and mass matrices. Other energy characteristics M, that is known is represented as the matrix

that indicates the knowledge of the kinetic energy system. Also, K is denoted as the estimated stiffness

matrix that denotes the knowledge of the strain for the sum of arbitrary vectors p, q1 and v1. If in any

case, more than p valuable energy relationships is existing, D can be described by having the

## matrix equations be satisfied in the sense of least squares

To conserve the valuable energies described by K and M, the vectors which are arbitrary must

be selected as a velocity distribution and meaningful displacement for the structural system under

assessment. Although the optimum vectors will rely on the certain characters of M and K, a logical

selection for most of the problems might by identifying that M the kinetic energies of the modes well.

For such specific issues, the low measured order is thus for the vectors.

## Rank-Deficient Inverse Matrices Inversion

If the p number of vibration modes estimated is of estimated coordinates n, then when all the

inverted matrices, describe the regular mode and frequencies shapes accurately. When n is more than p,

only the inverse matrices are considered singular while equations of matrices and rank p estimate the

equalities defined.

Application

The matrix synthesis method is used to create stiffness and mass matrices for the solar array. The

array is made of the two blankets of solar cells positioned between the base and a leading edge beam

that is connected to the tip of the boom. The array dynamic behavior is defined by the freedom model.

The values of the parameters which are correlated with the array are also described. Take note that the

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first array is considered to have blanket tensions that are not equal on the uneven mass and two side’s

distribution. The primary modes shapes and few eigenvalues described by the model will be employed

## as the modal data (Ross & Ronald 2640).

The issue is to synthesize new stiffness and mass matrices that approximate better the modal retained

to be compatible with the analysis of finite component and used to describe the estimated model. Using

the algorithm that previously together with four estimated modes, p=4 provides a new matrix for the

specific structure. The mode shapes and eigenvalues described by this synthesized stiffness and mass

## matrices have been suitable with the estimated modal data.

To show the compatibility with the estimated finite component model of replacement stiffness with

the adding at the tip of mass is taken into consideration. Adding the proper and mass to the actual

estimate and the matrices synthesized leads to improved eigenvalues and shapes of modes. It is crystal

clear that improved synthesized model offers a better illustration of the structure that is modified than

estimate model. But the exact agreement models and the integrated models are not perfect; it efficient

regarding the error size in the estimate models and modification size that was designed.

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WORKS CITED

Ross Jr, Ronald G. "Synthesis of stiffness and mass matrices from experimental vibration modes." SAE

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