Sie sind auf Seite 1von 342
x X (t) (ω = ) = 2 1 π −∞ −∞ ∞ ∞ x
x X (t) (ω = ) = 2 1 π −∞ −∞ ∞ ∞ x X (t)e
(ω )e −jωt jωt dt dω
∞ −j σ +j ∞ x ∞ (t)e 1 = −∞ σ X −st x
∞ −j σ +j ∞ x ∞ (t)e
1 = −∞ σ
X −st
x (t) X = (s ) 2πj
(s )e dt st ds

Continuous-Time Signals and Systems

(Version: 2013-09-11)

Michael D. Adams

∞ c k e jkω 0 t x (t) = k =−∞ T 1 T
∞ c k e jkω 0 t
x (t) = k
=−∞
T 1 T x (t)e −jkω 0 t dt
c k
=
k δ (ω −∞ ) 0 ) X (ω X ) (ω = ) k=
k δ (ω
−∞
) 0 )
X (ω X ) (ω = ) k= = a ∞ −∞ k k= = ∞
ω 0 T 1 X X 2πa T T (kω (kω
0 0 )δ ) − (ω kω − 0 kω

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Continuous-Time Signals and Systems

(Version: 2013-09-11)

Michael D. Adams

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada

of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada Copyright c 2013 Michael D.

Copyright c 2013 Michael D. Adams

The author has taken care in the preparation of this book, but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions. No liabi lity is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the use of the information or programs contained herein.

Copyright c 2013 Michael D. Adams

Published by the University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada

Photography by Michael Adams

This book is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC- ND 3.0) License. A copy of this license can be found in the sect ion titled “License” on page xix of this book. For a simple explanation of the rights granted by this license, see:

MATLAB is a registered trademark of The MathWorks, Inc. Image Processing Toolbox, Optimization Toolbox, Symbolic Math Toolbox, Signal Processing Toolbox, and Wavelet Toolbox are registered trademarks of The MathWorks, Inc. UNIX and X Window System are registered trademarks of The Open Group. Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

This book was typeset with L A T E X.

Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication

Adams, Michael D., 1969–, author Continuous-time signals and systems / Michael D. Adams.

Includes index. ISBN 978-1-55058-495-0 (pbk.) ISBN 978-1-55058-506-3 (PDF)

1. Signal theory (Telecommunication)—Textbooks. 2. System analysis—Textbooks. 3. MATLAB—Textbooks. I. Title.

TK5102.5.A33 2013

621.382’23

C2013-904334-9

To my students, past, present, and future

v

Contents

License

xix

Preface

xxvii

Acknowledgments

 

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xxvii

About the Author

 

xxix

1 Introduction

1

1.1 Signals

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1

 

1.1.1 Dimensionality of Signals

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1

1.1.2 Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Signals

 

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1.1.3 Notation and Graphical Representation of Signals

 

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1.1.4 Examples of Signals .

1.2.1 Classification of Systems

1.2 Systems

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3

 

1.2.2 Examples of Systems

 

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4

1.3 Continuous-Time Signals and Systems

 

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5

1.4 Why Study Signals and Systems?

 

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5

2 Continuous-Time Signals and Systems

 

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2.1 Transformations of the Independent Variable

 

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7

 

2.1.1 Time Reversal

 

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7

2.1.2 Time Scaling

 

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7

2.1.3 Time Shifting

 

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2.1.4 Combining Time Scaling and Time Shifting

 

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2.2 Transformations of the Dependent Variable

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10

 

2.2.1 Amplitude Scaling

 

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10

2.2.2 Amplitude Shifting

 

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10

2.2.3 Combining Amplitude Scaling and Shifting

 

12

2.3 Signal Properties

 

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12

 

2.3.1 Even and Odd Signals

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12

2.3.2 Periodic Signals

 

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14

2.3.3 Support of Signals

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16

2.3.4 Signal Energy and Power

 

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16

2.3.5

Examples

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17

2.4 Elementary Signals

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18

 

2.4.1 Real Sinusoidal Signals

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2.4.2 Complex Exponential Signals

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19

2.4.3 Relationship Between Complex Exponential and Real Si nusoidal Signals

 

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2.4.4 Unit-Step Function

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2.4.5 Unit Rectangular Pulse

 

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22

Version: 2013-09-11

Copyright c 2013 Michael D. Adams

vi

CONTENTS

2.4.6 Unit Triangular Pulse

 

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22

2.4.7 Cardinal Sine Function

 

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24

2.4.8 Unit-Impulse Function

 

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24

2.5 Signal Representation Using Elementary Signals

 

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2.6 Continuous-Time Systems

 

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30

2.6.1 Block Diagram Representation

 

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2.6.2 Interconnection of Systems

 

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31

2.7 Properties of Continuous-Time Systems

 

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31

2.7.1 Memory

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32

Causality

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32

Invertibility

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33

2.7.4 Stability

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2.7.5 Time Invariance

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2.7.6 Linearity

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2.7.7 Examples

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37

2.8 Problems

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40

3 Continuous-Time Linear Time-Invariant Systems

 

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3.1 Introduction

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45

3.2 Continuous-Time Convolution

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45

3.3 Properties of Convolution

 

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53

3.3.1 Commutative Property

 

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53

3.3.2 Associative Property

 

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55

3.3.3 Distributive Property

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55

3.4 Representation of Continuous-Time Signals Using Impul ses

 

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3.5 Continuous-Time Unit-Impulse Response and Convolution Integral Representation of LTI Systems

 

56

3.6 Unit-Step Response of LTI Systems

 

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