Sie sind auf Seite 1von 356
۱
۱
۱
۱
۱
The radio navigation aids enable the crew to navigate and monitor the position of the
The radio navigation aids enable the crew to navigate and monitor the position of the
The radio navigation aids enable the crew to navigate and monitor the position of the
The radio navigation aids enable the crew to navigate and monitor the position of the
The radio navigation aids enable the
crew to navigate and monitor the
position of the aircraft.
۲
Navigation Systems Radio altimeter (RA). Instrument landing system (ILS). Marker beacon System. Distance measuring
Navigation Systems
Navigation Systems
Navigation Systems Radio altimeter (RA). Instrument landing system (ILS). Marker beacon System. Distance measuring

Radio altimeter (RA). Instrument landing system (ILS). Marker beacon System. Distance measuring equipment (DME). Air traffic transponder radar beacon system (ATCRBS). Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS). Weather radar (WXR). Ground proximity warning system (GPWS). Automatic direction finder (ADF). VHF Omni-directional range (VOR). Inertial navigation system (INS). Area navigation (RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).

Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).        
Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).        
Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).        
   
Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).        
     
Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).        
Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).        
۳ ۳
۳
۳

Radio altimeter

Radio altimeter  Function:  The radio altimeter is a device capable of accurately measuring the
Radio altimeter  Function:  The radio altimeter is a device capable of accurately measuring the
 Function:  The radio altimeter is a device capable of accurately measuring the aircraft’s
 Function:
 The radio altimeter is a device capable of accurately measuring
the aircraft’s height above ground level (AGL).
 It provides the flight deck display, automatic flight system and
the Ground proximity warning system with the height
information and rate of change of height.
Frequency:
4250 MHz to 4350 MHz – SHF band
٤
It measures the aircraft height above the ground accurately . ٥
It measures the aircraft height above the ground accurately . ٥
It measures the aircraft height above the ground accurately . ٥
It measures the aircraft height above the ground accurately . ٥
It measures the aircraft height above the ground
accurately .
٥
Radio altimeter  Principles of operation:  The radio altimeter makes use of primary radar
Radio altimeter  Principles of operation:  The radio altimeter makes use of primary radar
Radio altimeter  Principles of operation:  The radio altimeter makes use of primary radar

Radio altimeter

Radio altimeter  Principles of operation:  The radio altimeter makes use of primary radar principles
 Principles of operation: 
 Principles of operation:
Radio altimeter  Principles of operation:  The radio altimeter makes use of primary radar principles

The radio altimeter makes use of primary radar principles transmitting a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) of 4300 MHz. The depth of frequency modulation is 50 MHz so the frequency change from 4250 MHz to 4350 MHz.

 In an airplane flying above the ground, there is therefore a difference in the
 In an airplane flying above the ground, there is therefore a difference
in the frequency of the reflected signals seen by the receiver and the
transmitter frequency at the same instant.
٦
٦
Radio altimeter ۷
Radio altimeter ۷

Radio altimeter

Radio altimeter ۷
۷
۷
Radio altimeter  Principles of operation:  The aircraft height is directly proportional to the

Radio altimeter

Radio altimeter  Principles of operation:  The aircraft height is directly proportional to the difference
Radio altimeter  Principles of operation:  The aircraft height is directly proportional to the difference
 Principles of operation:  The aircraft height is directly proportional to the difference in
 Principles of operation:
 The aircraft height is directly proportional to the difference in
frequencies between the transmitted and received signal over a
short sampling period (beat frequency).
 In the receiver mixer. The transmitted and received frequencies
are mixed and the beat frequency (difference) is counted in the
counter.
۸
Radio altimeter Principles of operation:   The beat frequency counter converts the frequency difference
Radio altimeter Principles of operation:   The beat frequency counter converts the frequency difference
Radio altimeter Principles of operation:   The beat frequency counter converts the frequency difference
Radio altimeter
Radio altimeter
Principles of operation:  
Principles of operation:

The beat frequency counter converts the frequency difference to an analog DC voltage whose amplitude is a function of aircraft altitude above the ground.

is a function of aircraft altitude above the ground.  A servo system in the indicator


A servo system in the indicator drives the indication (here a vertically movable tape to a position corresponding to the amplitude of the DC analog voltage received from the beat frequency counter.

tape to a position corresponding to the amplitude of the DC analog voltage received from the
tape to a position corresponding to the amplitude of the DC analog voltage received from the
۹
۹
Radio altimeter ۱۰
Radio altimeter
۱۰
Radio altimeter    The elliptical beam transmitted downwards is wide enough to always

Radio altimeter

Radio altimeter    The elliptical beam transmitted downwards is wide enough to always allow
Radio altimeter    The elliptical beam transmitted downwards is wide enough to always allow

The elliptical beam transmitted downwards is wide enough to always allow some portion of the
The elliptical beam transmitted downwards is wide enough to always
allow some portion of the beam to travel vertically even with roll
angles 30 ˚ and pitch angles 20 ˚.
If the bank angle exceeds 30˚, or pitch attitude exceeds 20˚, the
indicated altitude is excessive.
attitude exceeds 20˚, the indicated altitude is excessive. These high figure attitudes would not be maintained

These high figure attitudes would not be maintained very long, so that does not present a problem.

is excessive. These high figure attitudes would not be maintained very long, so that does not
۱۱
۱۱
 Radio altimeter The radio altimeter use a continuous wave signal so it is necessary

Radio altimeter

 Radio altimeter The radio altimeter use a continuous wave signal so it is necessary to
 Radio altimeter The radio altimeter use a continuous wave signal so it is necessary to
 Radio altimeter The radio altimeter use a continuous wave signal so it is necessary to

The radio altimeter use a continuous wave signal so it is necessary to use a separate antenna, similar to the transmitting antenna for reception .

similar to the transmitting antenna for reception . The radio altimeter is called “low range” because

The radio altimeter is called “low range” because it is not intended to operate at airplane altitudes above the ground greater than 2,500 feet.

altitudes above the ground greater than 2,500 feet . Its principal usage is during the final
Its principal usage is during the final approach. Negative altitude: The equipment has been adjusted
Its principal usage is during the final approach.
Negative altitude:
The equipment has been adjusted to indicate zero when the
main wheels first touch down the runway surface on landing.
Therefore when aircraft is level on the ground the antenna will
be below its calibrated position relative to aircraft landing
attitude.
۱۲
۱۲

Radio altimeter

Radio altimeter  Altitude Trip Switches:  Compares the measured altitude with reference altitude if they
Radio altimeter  Altitude Trip Switches:  Compares the measured altitude with reference altitude if they
 Altitude Trip Switches:  Compares the measured altitude with reference altitude if they are
 Altitude Trip Switches:
 Compares the measured altitude with reference altitude if
they are equal it will used for lighting an alert.
Low Range Radio Altimeter Receiver/Transmitter ALTITUDE TRIP SWITCHES ALTITUDE TRIPS ۱۳
Low Range Radio Altimeter
Receiver/Transmitter
ALTITUDE TRIP
SWITCHES
ALTITUDE TRIPS
۱۳
Radio altimeter ۱٤

Radio altimeter

Radio altimeter ۱٤
Radio altimeter ۱٤
Radio altimeter ۱٤
۱٤
۱٤
Radio altimeter ۱٥
Radio altimeter
۱٥
Radio altimeter  Indicators: ۱٦
Radio altimeter  Indicators: ۱٦

Radio altimeter

 Indicators:
 Indicators:
۱٦
۱٦

Radio altimeter

 Indicators:
 Indicators:
Radio altimeter  Indicators: ۱۷
Radio altimeter  Indicators: ۱۷
۱۷
۱۷
 Indicators:
 Indicators:

Radio altimeter

 Indicators: Radio altimeter ۱۸
 Indicators: Radio altimeter ۱۸
۱۸
۱۸

Navigation Systems

Radio altimeter (RA). Instrument landing system (ILS). Marker beacon System. Distance measuring equipment (DME). Air traffic transponder radar beacon system (ATCRBS). Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS). Weather radar (WXR). Ground proximity warning system (GPWS). Automatic direction finder (ADF). VHF Omni-directional range (VOR). Inertial navigation system (INS). Area navigation (RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).

 
Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).        
Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).        
Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).        
   
Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).        
    
Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).        
Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).        
Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).        
۱۹
۱۹
Instrument landing system  Function:  The instrument landing system (ILS) provides the pilot with

Instrument landing system

Instrument landing system  Function:  The instrument landing system (ILS) provides the pilot with visual
Instrument landing system  Function:  The instrument landing system (ILS) provides the pilot with visual
 Function:  The instrument landing system (ILS) provides the pilot with visual instructions in
 Function:
 The instrument landing system (ILS) provides
the pilot with visual instructions in the cockpit to
enable him to instrumentally fly the aircraft
down a predetermined glide path and localizer
(centre line) to his decision height (DH).
۲۰

Instrument landing system

Instrument landing system  Definitions:  Decision Height:  The height at which the pilot can
Instrument landing system  Definitions:  Decision Height:  The height at which the pilot can
 Definitions:  Decision Height:  The height at which the pilot can see the
 Definitions:
 Decision Height:
 The height at which the pilot can see the land at this
point then he can legally land the A/C. If he can’t see to
land, he must go around.
 Runway Visual Range (RVR):
 It is the lower limit of visibility for safe landing.
- The RVR must be at least 1,200 ft when pilot begins his
Category II approach.
۲۱
Instrument landing system  Principles of operation:  The ILS ground installations consists of: 1-

Instrument landing system

Instrument landing system  Principles of operation:  The ILS ground installations consists of: 1- Localizer:
Instrument landing system  Principles of operation:  The ILS ground installations consists of: 1- Localizer:
 Principles of operation:  The ILS ground installations consists of: 1- Localizer: - Transmits
 Principles of operation:
 The ILS ground installations consists of:
1- Localizer:
- Transmits in VHF band and located about 1000 ft
(300m) beyond the far end of the runway.
- It provides the approach guidance in horizontal plane.
۲۲
Instrument landing system ۲۳

Instrument landing system

Instrument landing system ۲۳
Instrument landing system ۲۳
Instrument landing system ۲۳
Instrument landing system ۲۳
۲۳
۲۳

Instrument landing system

Instrument landing system  Principles of operation: 2- Glide slope: - Transmits in UHF band and
Instrument landing system  Principles of operation: 2- Glide slope: - Transmits in UHF band and
 Principles of operation: 2- Glide slope: - Transmits in UHF band and located about
 Principles of operation:
2- Glide slope:
- Transmits in UHF band and located about 1000 ft
(300m) from the touchdown end of the runway.
- It provides the approach guidance in vertical plane.
۲٤

Instrument landing system

Instrument landing system ۲٥
Instrument landing system ۲٥
۲٥
۲٥
Instrument landing system ۲٦
Instrument landing system ۲٦

Instrument landing system

Instrument landing system
۲٦
۲٦
Instrument landing system ۲۷

Instrument landing system

Instrument landing system ۲۷
Instrument landing system ۲۷
۲۷
۲۷
Instrument landing system CAT 1 200 CAT 2 A B C 100 CAT 3 800

Instrument landing system

Instrument landing system CAT 1 200 CAT 2 A B C 100 CAT 3 800 600
Instrument landing system CAT 1 200 CAT 2 A B C 100 CAT 3 800 600
Instrument landing system CAT 1 200 CAT 2 A B C 100 CAT 3 800 600
CAT 1 200 CAT 2 A B C 100 CAT 3
CAT 1
200
CAT 2
A
B
C
100
CAT 3
800
800

600landing system CAT 1 200 CAT 2 A B C 100 CAT 3 800 400 200

400system CAT 1 200 CAT 2 A B C 100 CAT 3 800 600 200 RUNWAY

200system CAT 1 200 CAT 2 A B C 100 CAT 3 800 600 400 RUNWAY

RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE (METRES)
RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE (METRES)
12th February 2007
12th February 2007

ILS CATEGORIES

50 0 ۲۸ ۲۸
50
0
۲۸
۲۸

Instrument landing system

Instrument landing system  Frequency:  localizer: -VHF band – 108 : 112 MHz (50 KHz
Instrument landing system  Frequency:  localizer: -VHF band – 108 : 112 MHz (50 KHz
 Frequency:  localizer: -VHF band – 108 : 112 MHz (50 KHz spacing) using
 Frequency:
 localizer:
-VHF band – 108 : 112 MHz (50 KHz spacing) using the
odd first decimals to provide a 40 channels.
ex: 108.10, 108.15, 108.30, 108.35…111.95 MHz
Glide slope:
-UHF band – 328.6 : 335.4 MHz (150 KHz spacing) to
provide a 40 channels.
ex: 329.15, 429.30, 329.45, ….335 MHz
۲۹

Instrument landing system

Instrument landing system  Frequency pairing:  The glide slope frequency is paired with the localizer
Instrument landing system  Frequency pairing:  The glide slope frequency is paired with the localizer
 Frequency pairing:  The glide slope frequency is paired with the localizer and the
 Frequency pairing:
 The glide slope frequency is paired with the localizer
and the frequency selection is automatic.
 When a particular localizer frequency is selected, the
frequency of the associated glide slope transmission is
simultaneously selected with the list published at ICAO.
ex: 108.1 MHz is paired with 334.7 MHz
۳۰
Instrument landing system
Instrument landing system
Instrument landing system INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM PAIRED FREQUENCIES LOCALISER GLIDESLOPE 108.10 334.70 108.90

INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM PAIRED FREQUENCIES

landing system INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM PAIRED FREQUENCIES LOCALISER GLIDESLOPE 108.10 334.70 108.90 329.30
landing system INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM PAIRED FREQUENCIES LOCALISER GLIDESLOPE 108.10 334.70 108.90 329.30
landing system INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM PAIRED FREQUENCIES LOCALISER GLIDESLOPE 108.10 334.70 108.90 329.30
LOCALISER GLIDESLOPE 108.10 334.70 108.90 329.30 111.10 331.70 111.95 330.95 ۳۱ ۳۱
LOCALISER
GLIDESLOPE
108.10
334.70
108.90
329.30
111.10
331.70
111.95
330.95
۳۱
۳۱

Instrument landing system

Instrument landing system  Localizer field pattern:  There are two overlapping lobes on the same
Instrument landing system  Localizer field pattern:  There are two overlapping lobes on the same
 Localizer field pattern:  There are two overlapping lobes on the same radio frequency
 Localizer field pattern:
 There are two overlapping lobes on the same radio
frequency in phase with each other. One has a 90 Hz
modulation and the other has a 150 Hz modulation.
Both are directional transmissions.
 The 90 Hz modulated lobe is directed a little to one side
of beam center, and the 150 Hz modulation lobe is
directed to the other side of beam center by the same
amount.
۳۲

Instrument landing system

Instrument landing system  Localizer field pattern:  The strength of the left and right lobes
Instrument landing system  Localizer field pattern:  The strength of the left and right lobes
 Localizer field pattern:  The strength of the left and right lobes are carefully
 Localizer field pattern:
 The strength of the left and right lobes are carefully
maintained equal.
 The receiver measures, not the strength of the radio
signal, but the relative strength of the two audio
signals.
۳۳
Instrument landing system ۳٤

Instrument landing system

Instrument landing system ۳٤
Instrument landing system ۳٤
۳٤
۳٤
Instrument landing system FLY LEFT SIGNAL 150 Hz PREDOMINATES 90 Hz PREDOMINATES FLY RIGHT SIGNAL
Instrument landing system FLY LEFT SIGNAL 150 Hz PREDOMINATES 90 Hz PREDOMINATES FLY RIGHT SIGNAL
Instrument landing system FLY LEFT SIGNAL 150 Hz PREDOMINATES 90 Hz PREDOMINATES FLY RIGHT SIGNAL

Instrument landing system

Instrument landing system FLY LEFT SIGNAL 150 Hz PREDOMINATES 90 Hz PREDOMINATES FLY RIGHT SIGNAL LOCALISER
FLY LEFT SIGNAL
FLY LEFT
SIGNAL
Instrument landing system FLY LEFT SIGNAL 150 Hz PREDOMINATES 90 Hz PREDOMINATES FLY RIGHT SIGNAL LOCALISER

150 Hz PREDOMINATES

landing system FLY LEFT SIGNAL 150 Hz PREDOMINATES 90 Hz PREDOMINATES FLY RIGHT SIGNAL LOCALISER FIELD
landing system FLY LEFT SIGNAL 150 Hz PREDOMINATES 90 Hz PREDOMINATES FLY RIGHT SIGNAL LOCALISER FIELD
landing system FLY LEFT SIGNAL 150 Hz PREDOMINATES 90 Hz PREDOMINATES FLY RIGHT SIGNAL LOCALISER FIELD
landing system FLY LEFT SIGNAL 150 Hz PREDOMINATES 90 Hz PREDOMINATES FLY RIGHT SIGNAL LOCALISER FIELD

90 Hz PREDOMINATES

landing system FLY LEFT SIGNAL 150 Hz PREDOMINATES 90 Hz PREDOMINATES FLY RIGHT SIGNAL LOCALISER FIELD
FLY RIGHT SIGNAL
FLY RIGHT
SIGNAL

LOCALISER FIELD PATTERN

۳٥
۳٥
Instrument landing system 700 ft WIDE AT THRESHOLD 2 DOT ENVELOPE (COURSE WIDTH) DOTS ON
Instrument landing system 700 ft WIDE AT THRESHOLD 2 DOT ENVELOPE (COURSE WIDTH) DOTS ON
Instrument landing system 700 ft WIDE AT THRESHOLD 2 DOT ENVELOPE (COURSE WIDTH) DOTS ON

Instrument landing system

Instrument landing system 700 ft WIDE AT THRESHOLD 2 DOT ENVELOPE (COURSE WIDTH) DOTS ON HSI
700 ft WIDE AT THRESHOLD
700 ft WIDE
AT THRESHOLD
2 DOT ENVELOPE (COURSE WIDTH)
2 DOT ENVELOPE
(COURSE WIDTH)
DOTS ON HSI LATERAL DEVIATION
DOTS ON HSI
LATERAL
DEVIATION
DOT ENVELOPE (COURSE WIDTH) DOTS ON HSI LATERAL DEVIATION 4º ON LONG RUNWAY 5º ON SHORT
4º ON LONG RUNWAY 5º ON SHORT RUNWAY
4º ON LONG RUNWAY
5º ON SHORT RUNWAY
LOC TX
LOC
TX

LOCALISER GEOMETRY

۳٦
۳٦

Instrument landing system

Instrument landing system  Glide slope field pattern:  The glide slope field pattern is very
Instrument landing system  Glide slope field pattern:  The glide slope field pattern is very
 Glide slope field pattern:  The glide slope field pattern is very similar to
 Glide slope field pattern:
 The glide slope field pattern is very similar to that of the
localizer. The difference is that the transmission is
rotated through 90º,so that the 90 Hz and 150 Hz audio
signals are displaced from each other vertically rather
than horizontally .
 The 90 Hz modulated transmission is directed a little to
upper side of beam, and the 150 Hz modulation
transmission is directed to the down side of beam by the
same amount.
۳۷

Instrument landing system

Instrument landing system  Glideslope field pattern:  The strength of the upper and lower signals
Instrument landing system  Glideslope field pattern:  The strength of the upper and lower signals
 Glideslope field pattern:  The strength of the upper and lower signals are carefully
 Glideslope field pattern:
 The strength of the upper and lower signals are carefully
maintained equal.
 The receiver measures, not the strength of the radio
signal, but the relative strength of the two audio
signals.
۳۸
Instrument landing system ۳۹

Instrument landing system

Instrument landing system ۳۹
Instrument landing system ۳۹
۳۹
۳۹
Instrument landing system 90 Hz PREDOMINATES FLY DOWN SIGNAL FLY UP SIGNAL 150 Hz PREDOMINATES

Instrument landing system

Instrument landing system 90 Hz PREDOMINATES FLY DOWN SIGNAL FLY UP SIGNAL 150 Hz PREDOMINATES GLIDESLOPE

90 Hz PREDOMINATES

Instrument landing system 90 Hz PREDOMINATES FLY DOWN SIGNAL FLY UP SIGNAL 150 Hz PREDOMINATES GLIDESLOPE
Instrument landing system 90 Hz PREDOMINATES FLY DOWN SIGNAL FLY UP SIGNAL 150 Hz PREDOMINATES GLIDESLOPE
Instrument landing system 90 Hz PREDOMINATES FLY DOWN SIGNAL FLY UP SIGNAL 150 Hz PREDOMINATES GLIDESLOPE
FLY DOWN SIGNAL
FLY DOWN
SIGNAL
FLY UP SIGNAL
FLY UP
SIGNAL
landing system 90 Hz PREDOMINATES FLY DOWN SIGNAL FLY UP SIGNAL 150 Hz PREDOMINATES GLIDESLOPE FIELD

150 Hz PREDOMINATES

landing system 90 Hz PREDOMINATES FLY DOWN SIGNAL FLY UP SIGNAL 150 Hz PREDOMINATES GLIDESLOPE FIELD

GLIDESLOPE FIELD PATTERN

٤۰
٤۰
Instrument landing system 28 ft 100 ft 14 ft 50 ft 3º 1,000 ft 1,000

Instrument landing system

Instrument landing system 28 ft 100 ft 14 ft 50 ft 3º 1,000 ft 1,000 ft
28 ft 100 ft 14 ft 50 ft 3º
28 ft
100 ft
14 ft
50 ft
1,000 ft
1,000 ft
1,000 ft
1,000 ft
2 DOT ENVELOPE COURSE WIDTH 1.4º
2 DOT ENVELOPE
COURSE WIDTH 1.4º
3,000 ft
3,000 ft

GLIDESLOPE GEOMETRY

28 ft 100 ft 14 ft 50 ft 3º 1,000 ft 1,000 ft 2 DOT ENVELOPE
28 ft 100 ft 14 ft 50 ft 3º 1,000 ft 1,000 ft 2 DOT ENVELOPE
٤۱
٤۱
ILS Receiver RF amplifier IF amplifier Audio detector 90 Hz filter Indicator 150 Hz filter
ILS Receiver RF amplifier IF amplifier Audio detector 90 Hz filter Indicator 150 Hz filter
ILS Receiver RF amplifier IF amplifier Audio detector 90 Hz filter Indicator 150 Hz filter

ILS Receiver

ILS Receiver RF amplifier IF amplifier Audio detector 90 Hz filter Indicator 150 Hz filter ٤۲
ILS Receiver RF amplifier IF amplifier Audio detector 90 Hz filter Indicator 150 Hz filter ٤۲
RF amplifier
RF amplifier
RF amplifier

RF amplifier

RF amplifier
RF amplifier
ILS Receiver RF amplifier IF amplifier Audio detector 90 Hz filter Indicator 150 Hz filter ٤۲

IF amplifier

Audio detector
Audio
detector
90 Hz filter Indicator 150 Hz filter ٤۲
90 Hz filter
Indicator
150 Hz filter
٤۲
LOCALIZER GLIDE SLOPE ٤۳
LOCALIZER GLIDE SLOPE ٤۳
LOCALIZER GLIDE SLOPE ٤۳
LOCALIZER
GLIDE SLOPE
٤۳
ILS Indication Signal Integrity Flag Indicates if instrument is unreliable “Dots” Each “dot” on the
ILS Indication
ILS Indication
ILS Indication Signal Integrity Flag Indicates if instrument is unreliable “Dots” Each “dot” on the instrument
ILS Indication Signal Integrity Flag Indicates if instrument is unreliable “Dots” Each “dot” on the instrument
ILS Indication Signal Integrity Flag Indicates if instrument is unreliable “Dots” Each “dot” on the instrument
ILS Indication Signal Integrity Flag Indicates if instrument is unreliable “Dots” Each “dot” on the instrument

Signal Integrity Flag Indicates if instrument is unreliable

“Dots” Each “dot” on the instrument represents 2° of deviation

Glideslope Deviation from optimal glide path

Localizer Deviation from runway centre line

٤٤ ٤٤
٤٤ ٤٤
ILS Indication ٤٥
ILS Indication
٤٥

Navigation Systems

Navigation Systems    Radio altimeter (RA). Instrument landing system (ILS). Marker beacon System. Distance
  
Radio altimeter (RA).
Radio altimeter (RA).
Navigation Systems    Radio altimeter (RA). Instrument landing system (ILS). Marker beacon System. Distance
Navigation Systems    Radio altimeter (RA). Instrument landing system (ILS). Marker beacon System. Distance

Instrument landing system (ILS). Marker beacon System. Distance measuring equipment (DME). Air traffic transponder radar beacon system (ATCRBS). Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS). Weather radar (WXR). Ground proximity warning system (GPWS). Automatic direction finder (ADF). VHF Omni-directional range (VOR). Inertial navigation system (INS). Area navigation (RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).

(RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).       
   
(RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).       
    
(RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).       
(RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).       
(RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).       
٤٦
٤٦
٤۷
٤۷
٤۷
Marker beacon system  Function:  It is a radio beacons transmitting their power vertically
Marker beacon system
Marker beacon system
Marker beacon system  Function:  It is a radio beacons transmitting their power vertically toward

Function:

Marker beacon system  Function:  It is a radio beacons transmitting their power vertically toward
Marker beacon system  Function:  It is a radio beacons transmitting their power vertically toward
Marker beacon system  Function:  It is a radio beacons transmitting their power vertically toward
 It is a radio beacons transmitting their power vertically toward the sky . 
 It is a radio beacons transmitting their power vertically toward the
sky .
 Enables the pilot to cross check the aircraft’s height against ranges.
 Three markers outer, middle and inner transmit a directional fan
shaped signal.
 The system provides visual and aural indications of the passage of
the aircraft over the marker transmitters located on the ground.
٤۸
3000 Hz WHITE INDICATOR MORSE 12th February 2007 INNER MARKER 1300 Hz AMBER INDICATOR MORSE

3000 Hz WHITE INDICATOR

MORSE

3000 Hz WHITE INDICATOR MORSE 12th February 2007 INNER MARKER 1300 Hz AMBER INDICATOR MORSE 400
3000 Hz WHITE INDICATOR MORSE 12th February 2007 INNER MARKER 1300 Hz AMBER INDICATOR MORSE 400
3000 Hz WHITE INDICATOR MORSE 12th February 2007 INNER MARKER 1300 Hz AMBER INDICATOR MORSE 400
3000 Hz WHITE INDICATOR MORSE 12th February 2007 INNER MARKER 1300 Hz AMBER INDICATOR MORSE 400
3000 Hz WHITE INDICATOR MORSE 12th February 2007 INNER MARKER 1300 Hz AMBER INDICATOR MORSE 400
3000 Hz WHITE INDICATOR MORSE 12th February 2007 INNER MARKER 1300 Hz AMBER INDICATOR MORSE 400
3000 Hz WHITE INDICATOR MORSE 12th February 2007 INNER MARKER 1300 Hz AMBER INDICATOR MORSE 400
3000 Hz WHITE INDICATOR MORSE 12th February 2007 INNER MARKER 1300 Hz AMBER INDICATOR MORSE 400
3000 Hz WHITE INDICATOR MORSE 12th February 2007 INNER MARKER 1300 Hz AMBER INDICATOR MORSE 400
3000 Hz WHITE INDICATOR MORSE 12th February 2007 INNER MARKER 1300 Hz AMBER INDICATOR MORSE 400

12th February 2007

3000 Hz WHITE INDICATOR MORSE 12th February 2007 INNER MARKER 1300 Hz AMBER INDICATOR MORSE 400
INNER MARKER
INNER
MARKER

1300 Hz AMBER INDICATOR

MORSE

February 2007 INNER MARKER 1300 Hz AMBER INDICATOR MORSE 400 Hz BLUE INDICATOR MORSE MIDDLE MARKER
February 2007 INNER MARKER 1300 Hz AMBER INDICATOR MORSE 400 Hz BLUE INDICATOR MORSE MIDDLE MARKER

400 Hz BLUE INDICATOR

MORSE

2007 INNER MARKER 1300 Hz AMBER INDICATOR MORSE 400 Hz BLUE INDICATOR MORSE MIDDLE MARKER ٤۹
2007 INNER MARKER 1300 Hz AMBER INDICATOR MORSE 400 Hz BLUE INDICATOR MORSE MIDDLE MARKER ٤۹
2007 INNER MARKER 1300 Hz AMBER INDICATOR MORSE 400 Hz BLUE INDICATOR MORSE MIDDLE MARKER ٤۹
2007 INNER MARKER 1300 Hz AMBER INDICATOR MORSE 400 Hz BLUE INDICATOR MORSE MIDDLE MARKER ٤۹
2007 INNER MARKER 1300 Hz AMBER INDICATOR MORSE 400 Hz BLUE INDICATOR MORSE MIDDLE MARKER ٤۹
MIDDLE MARKER
MIDDLE
MARKER
٤۹ OUTER ٤۹ MARKER
٤۹
OUTER
٤۹
MARKER
INNER MKR MIDDLE MKR OUTER MKR
INNER MKR MIDDLE MKR OUTER MKR
INNER MKR MIDDLE MKR OUTER MKR

INNER MKR

MIDDLE MKR

OUTER MKR

INNER MKR MIDDLE MKR OUTER MKR 3000 Hz DOT X 6 1,300 Hz DOT DASH 400
3000 Hz DOT X 6 1,300 Hz DOT DASH
3000 Hz
DOT X 6
1,300 Hz
DOT DASH
400 Hz DASH DASH
400 Hz
DASH DASH

MARKER BEACON INDICATIONS

٥۰
٥۰
٥۱ 12th February 2007 ٥۱
٥۱ 12th February 2007 ٥۱
٥۱ 12th February 2007 ٥۱
٥۱ 12th February 2007 ٥۱
٥۱ 12th February 2007 ٥۱
٥۱
12th February 2007
٥۱
Marker beacon system ٥۲
Marker beacon system
٥۲

Marker beacon system

Marker beacon system OUTER MARKER MIDDLE 400 Hz MARKER INNER 1,300 Hz MARKER 3,000 Hz GLIDESLOPE
Marker beacon system OUTER MARKER MIDDLE 400 Hz MARKER INNER 1,300 Hz MARKER 3,000 Hz GLIDESLOPE
OUTER MARKER MIDDLE 400 Hz MARKER INNER 1,300 Hz MARKER 3,000 Hz GLIDESLOPE LOCALISER CENTRELINE
OUTER
MARKER
MIDDLE
400 Hz
MARKER
INNER
1,300 Hz
MARKER
3,000 Hz
GLIDESLOPE
LOCALISER
CENTRELINE
12th February 2007
12th February 2007

MARKER BEACON & ILS OPERATION

٥۳ ٥۳
٥۳
٥۳
Marker beacon system  Function:  Outer and middle markers are associated with an instrument
Marker beacon system  Function:  Outer and middle markers are associated with an instrument

Marker beacon system

Marker beacon system  Function:  Outer and middle markers are associated with an instrument landing
 Function:  Outer and middle markers are associated with an instrument landing system (ILS).
 Function:
Outer and middle markers are associated with an instrument
landing system (ILS).
The outer marker is usually located directly below the point
where an airplane on a localizer course should intersect the
glideslope and start descending.

An outer marker is identified when the blue lights comes on and a 400-Hertz tone is emitted.

start descending.  An outer marker is identified when the blue lights comes on and a
٥٤
٥٤
Marker beacon system  Function:  The middle marker is usually located near the runway
Marker beacon system
 Function:
 The middle marker is usually located near the runway usually
under the point on the glidepath where a descent could be
discontinued (DH).
 A middle marker is identified when the amber lights come
on and 1,300 Hertz tone is emitted.
٥٥
Marker beacon system The inner marker is identified when the white lights come on and
Marker beacon system
Marker beacon system
Marker beacon system The inner marker is identified when the white lights come on and 
Marker beacon system The inner marker is identified when the white lights come on and 
The inner marker is identified when the white lights come on and
The inner marker is identified when the white lights come on and

3000 Hertz tone is emitted.  Frequency:  75 MHz - There is no interference
3000 Hertz tone is emitted.
 Frequency:
 75 MHz
- There is no interference between adjacent beacons because of the
narrow extent of radiation patterns
٥٦
Marker beacon system • Appropriate light will flash and an audible sound may be heard.

Marker beacon system

Marker beacon system • Appropriate light will flash and an audible sound may be heard. White
Marker beacon system • Appropriate light will flash and an audible sound may be heard. White
• Appropriate light will flash and an audible sound may be heard. White IM 3000
• Appropriate light will flash and an audible
sound may be heard.
White IM
3000 HZ tone
Amber MM
1300 HZ tone
Blue OM
400 HZ tone
٥۷

Marker beacon system

Marker beacon system ٥۸
Marker beacon system ٥۸
٥۸
٥۸
Marker beacon system AUDIO 75 MHz MARKER BEACON SYSTEM AMPLIFIER FILTER REMOVES 75 MHz CARRIER
Marker beacon system AUDIO 75 MHz MARKER BEACON SYSTEM AMPLIFIER FILTER REMOVES 75 MHz CARRIER

Marker beacon system

AUDIO 75 MHz MARKER BEACON SYSTEM AMPLIFIER FILTER REMOVES 75 MHz CARRIER SIGNAL RF AMP
AUDIO
75 MHz
MARKER BEACON
SYSTEM
AMPLIFIER
FILTER
REMOVES
75 MHz
CARRIER SIGNAL
RF AMP &
DETECTOR
3000
Hz
FILTER AMP
1300
Hz
FILTER AMP
MARKER
HIGH
400 Hz
FILTER AMP
LOW
SENSITIVITY
To
increase
SWITCH
sensitivity when
used with airway
markers
AUDIO (MORSE)
AUDIO
(MORSE)

INNERSENSITIVITY To increase SWITCH sensitivity when used with airway markers AUDIO (MORSE) MIDDLE OUTER SCHEMATIC ٥۹

MIDDLE

OUTERSENSITIVITY To increase SWITCH sensitivity when used with airway markers AUDIO (MORSE) INNER MIDDLE SCHEMATIC ٥۹

SCHEMATIC

٥۹
٥۹
Marker beacon system MARKER ٦۰
Marker beacon system MARKER ٦۰

Marker beacon system

Marker beacon system MARKER ٦۰
MARKER ٦۰
MARKER
٦۰
Marker beacon system  Airway marker:  It used while route-navigation along airways in order
Marker beacon system
Marker beacon system
Marker beacon system  Airway marker:  It used while route-navigation along airways in order to:
 Airway marker:  It used while route-navigation along airways in order to: - identify
 Airway marker:
 It used while route-navigation along airways in order to:
- identify certain fixes along routes where there are no
other means of establishing the fix.
- when flying over mountainous areas. It works where it
is difficult to receive other navigation aids.
 These markers can reach as high as 50,000 ft.
 Airway marker is identified when the white light comes
on and a 3000 HZ tone is emitted.
٦۱

Navigation Systems

Navigation Systems   Radio altimeter (RA). Instrument landing system (ILS). Marker beacon System. Distance
 
Navigation Systems   Radio altimeter (RA). Instrument landing system (ILS). Marker beacon System. Distance

Radio altimeter (RA). Instrument landing system (ILS). Marker beacon System. Distance measuring equipment (DME). Air traffic transponder radar beacon system (ATCRBS). Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS). Weather radar (WXR). Ground proximity warning system (GPWS). Automatic direction finder (ADF). VHF Omni-directional range (VOR). Inertial navigation system (INS). Area navigation (RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).

(RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).       
(RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).       
(RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).       
   
(RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).       
    
(RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).       
(RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).       
(RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).       
٦۲
٦۲

Distance measuring equipment (DME)

Distance measuring equipment (DME) Function:  The distance measuring equipment (DME) determines the slant range
Distance measuring equipment (DME) Function:  The distance measuring equipment (DME) determines the slant range
Function:
Function:

The distance measuring equipment (DME) determines the slant range between an airplane and a selected
The distance measuring equipment (DME) determines the slant
range between an airplane and a selected VOR or ILS ground
station in nautical mile (line of sight) by timing a signal being
sent from the A/C (interrogating) to the GND station then the
GND station replay (transponding).
Frequency:
962
- 1213 MHz in UHF band at 1 MHZ spacing (with total of
252
channels).

There is always a difference of +/_ 63 MHZ between the interrogation and transponding frequencies.
There is always a difference of +/_ 63 MHZ between the
interrogation and transponding frequencies.
٦۳

Distance measuring equipment (DME)

Distance measuring equipment (DME)
Distance measuring equipment (DME) ٦٤
٦٤
٦٤

Distance measuring equipment (DME)

Distance measuring equipment (DME) DME station located at a VOR station  or near an ILS
Distance measuring equipment (DME) DME station located at a VOR station  or near an ILS
DME station located at a VOR station
DME station located at a VOR station

equipment (DME) DME station located at a VOR station  or near an ILS station at

or near an ILS station at an airport to supplement or replace the range information provided by marker beacons.

or replace the range information provided by marker beacons.   Principles of operation:  When
or replace the range information provided by marker beacons.   Principles of operation:  When
or replace the range information provided by marker beacons.   Principles of operation:  When
or replace the range information provided by marker beacons.   Principles of operation:  When

the range information provided by marker beacons.   Principles of operation:  When a VOR

Principles of operation:

When a VOR or LOC frequency has been selected the frequency of the associated DME station (if there is one) is simultaneously selected (frequency pairing).

DME is a secondary radar system providing slant range by pulse technique.

٦٥
٦٥

Distance measuring equipment (DME)

Distance measuring equipment (DME) DME system consists of DME interrogator at the aircraft and DME ground
Distance measuring equipment (DME) DME system consists of DME interrogator at the aircraft and DME ground
DME system consists of DME interrogator at the aircraft and DME ground station.
DME system consists of DME interrogator at the aircraft and DME
ground station.

Principles of operation:

and DME ground station.  Principles of operation:  DME interrogator transmits its uniquely randomly spaced

DME interrogator transmits its uniquely randomly spaced pulse pairs to the ground station.

randomly spaced pulse pairs to the ground station.   Randomly spaced pulses make it possible
randomly spaced pulse pairs to the ground station.   Randomly spaced pulses make it possible

Randomly spaced pulses make it possible for each DME system to
Randomly spaced pulses make it possible for each DME system to
1- Discriminate between its own retransmitted signal and those of A/C s. 2- makes it
1- Discriminate between its own retransmitted signal and those of A/C s.
2- makes it possible for the A/C receiver to determine the elapsed time
between transmitted and received signal.
٦٦
2- makes it possible for the A/C receiver to determine the elapsed time between transmitted and

Distance measuring equipment (DME)

Distance measuring equipment (DME) Principles of operation:  After short delay (50 μs), the DME ground
Distance measuring equipment (DME) Principles of operation:  After short delay (50 μs), the DME ground
Principles of operation:
Principles of operation:

After short delay (50 μs), the DME ground station retransmits these pulse pairs at a
After short delay (50 μs), the DME ground station retransmits these
pulse pairs at a frequency either above or below the frequency of the
transmitted signal by 63 MHz.

above or below the frequency of the transmitted signal by 63 MHz.  d = v
above or below the frequency of the transmitted signal by 63 MHz.  d = v

d = v T , where T is the round trip time

٦۷
٦۷

Distance measuring equipment (DME)

Distance measuring equipment (DME)
Distance measuring equipment (DME) ٦۸
٦۸
٦۸
DME interrogator AUDIO TO FLIGHT INTERPHONE SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION RECEIVER MATCHING CKTS I “Lock on”
DME interrogator
AUDIO
TO FLIGHT INTERPHONE SYSTEM
IDENTIFICATION
RECEIVER
MATCHING CKTS
I
“Lock on”
“Delayed
N
TX”
D
DUPLEXER
I
CONTROLLED
VARIABLE DELAY
C
A
TRANSMITTER
T
O
RCVR/XMITR
FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZER
R
TO SUPPRESSOR
BUS
FREQUENCY SELECTOR
SIGNALS
٦۹

VHF/ NAV CTL PNL

Distance measuring equipment (DME)

Distance measuring equipment (DME)
Distance measuring equipment (DME) Components:  1 – Transmitter. 2 – Receiver. 3 – Duplexer. 4
Components:  1 – Transmitter. 2 – Receiver. 3 – Duplexer. 4 – Antenna. 5
Components:
1
– Transmitter.
2
– Receiver.
3
– Duplexer.
4 – Antenna.
5 – Controlled variable delay.
6 – Matching circuit.
۷۰

Distance measuring equipment (DME)

Distance measuring equipment (DME)  Components: 1- Transmitter :transmits the uniquely randomly spaced pulse pairs to
Distance measuring equipment (DME)  Components: 1- Transmitter :transmits the uniquely randomly spaced pulse pairs to
 Components: 1- Transmitter :transmits the uniquely randomly spaced pulse pairs to the ground station.
 Components:
1- Transmitter :transmits the uniquely randomly spaced pulse pairs to
the ground station.
The transmitter is connected to a suppressor bus which is
connected also to other DME transmitter, ATC transponders and
TCAS transmitters.
When one transmitter connected to the suppressor bus is
transmitting other transmitters connected to the bus are
suppressed to prevent interference.
DME, ATC and TCAS operate in the same frequency range.
Both DME and ATC have an identical and interchangeable antenna.
۷۱

Distance measuring equipment (DME)

Distance measuring equipment (DME)  Components:  Receiver : receives the retransmitted pulse pairs from the
Distance measuring equipment (DME)  Components:  Receiver : receives the retransmitted pulse pairs from the
 Components:  Receiver : receives the retransmitted pulse pairs from the ground station. 
 Components:
 Receiver : receives the retransmitted pulse pairs from the ground
station.
 Controlled variable delay:
- Delay the transmitted signal internally.
- Gives out a signal to the indicator to display the equivalent
distance of the delay set up in the controlled variable delay
block.
 DME antenna : transmits DME interrogation and receives the
reply from the selected ground station.
۷۲

Distance measuring equipment (DME)

Distance measuring equipment (DME)
Distance measuring equipment (DME) DME 1, 2 ۷۳
DME 1, 2 ۷۳
DME 1, 2
۷۳

Distance measuring equipment (DME)

Distance measuring equipment (DME)  Matching circuit: gives out the error information by comparing the received
Distance measuring equipment (DME)  Matching circuit: gives out the error information by comparing the received
 Matching circuit: gives out the error information by comparing the received signal with the
 Matching circuit:
gives out the error information by comparing the received signal
with the delayed transmitted signal from the controlled variable
delay block.
 When the system is turn on, it is in the Search mode. The
controlled variable delay servo motor runs from zero to max.
delay causing the indicator readout to change from zero to max.
and back to zero until it matches the delayed transmitted signal to
the received signal.
 During searching, the warning flag in the DME indicator is in
view showing that the DME isn’t operative.
۷٤
 During searching, the warning flag in the DME indicator is in view showing that the

Distance measuring equipment (DME)

Distance measuring equipment (DME)  The matching circuit causes the servo motor to Lock on a
Distance measuring equipment (DME)  The matching circuit causes the servo motor to Lock on a
 The matching circuit causes the servo motor to Lock on a particular delay (equivalent
 The matching circuit causes the servo motor to Lock on a
particular delay (equivalent to a particular distance lock on) when
the matching circuit sees the same delay for the transmitted and
received signals.
 “Lock on”: means the servo motor stops its rapid search and runs
slowly after Lock on.
 As long as the delayed transmitter signal matches the received
signal the distance indication is correct.
۷٥
on.  As long as the delayed transmitter signal matches the received signal the distance indication

Distance measuring equipment (DME)

Distance measuring equipment (DME)  When the A/C is near or over the beacon. The DME
Distance measuring equipment (DME)  When the A/C is near or over the beacon. The DME


When the A/C is near or over the beacon. The DME range is approx. = A/C altitude than the horizontal distance. This causes the GND speed indicated to be slower than the actual GND speed.

 To overcome this problem, the indicator goes to the Memory mode when the A/C
 To overcome this problem, the indicator goes to the Memory mode
when the A/C is 20 NM from the beacon and indicates the last
calculated GND speed and correct it for the slant range at 20 NM
until the A/C pass another 20 NM on the other side of the beacon.
۷٦
Distance measuring equipment (DME) Indicator ۷۷

Distance measuring equipment (DME)

Indicator
Indicator
۷۷
۷۷
Distance measuring equipment (DME) DME CTL PNL  If the DME function knob is in

Distance measuring equipment (DME)

DME CTL PNL  If the DME function knob is in the normal (DME) position
DME CTL PNL
 If the DME function knob is in the normal (DME) position
distance indication up to 199 miles will be given for VOR
stations and up to 50 miles will be given to ILS stations
۷۸

Distance measuring equipment (DME)

DME CTL PNL  If the knob in the override position distances up to 199
DME CTL PNL
 If the knob in the override position distances up to 199
miles will be given for localizer stations.
CTL PNL  If the knob in the override position distances up to 199 miles will
۷۹
۷۹

Distance measuring equipment (DME)

DME CTL PNL  When the knob in test position flag , blank ,and 000.0
DME CTL PNL
 When the knob in test position flag , blank ,and 000.0
indication appear in succession in one type of DME.
PNL  When the knob in test position flag , blank ,and 000.0 indication appear in
۸۰
۸۰

Distance measuring equipment (DME)

Indicator
Indicator
Distance measuring equipment (DME) Indicator ۸۱
۸۱
۸۱
Distance measuring equipment (DME) Indicator ۸۲

Distance measuring equipment (DME)

Indicator ۸۲
Indicator
۸۲

Navigation Systems

Navigation Systems   Radio altimeter (RA). Instrument landing system (ILS). Marker beacon System. Distance
 
Navigation Systems   Radio altimeter (RA). Instrument landing system (ILS). Marker beacon System. Distance

Radio altimeter (RA). Instrument landing system (ILS). Marker beacon System. Distance measuring equipment (DME). Air traffic transponder radar beacon system (ATCRBS). Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS). Weather radar (WXR). Ground proximity warning system (GPWS). Automatic direction finder (ADF). VHF Omni-directional range (VOR). Inertial navigation system (INS). Area navigation (RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).

(RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).       
(RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).       
(RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).       
   
(RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).       
    
(RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).       
(RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).       
(RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).       
۸۳
۸۳
Air traffic transponder (ATC) ATC COMMUNICATION ۸٤
Air traffic transponder (ATC) ATC COMMUNICATION ۸٤

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

ATC COMMUNICATION
ATC
COMMUNICATION
۸٤
۸٤
Air traffic transponder (ATC)  Function:  Air traffic control radar beacon (ATCRBS) system allows
Air traffic transponder (ATC)  Function:  Air traffic control radar beacon (ATCRBS) system allows

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC)  Function:  Air traffic control radar beacon (ATCRBS) system allows controllers
 Function: 
 Function:

Air traffic control radar beacon (ATCRBS) system allows controllers to track airplane movement on ground radar displays.

to track airplane movement on ground radar displays. The primary purpose of ATC systems worldwide is:
The primary purpose of ATC systems worldwide is:  • to separate aircraft to prevent
The primary purpose of ATC systems worldwide is:
• to separate aircraft to prevent collisions.
• to organize the flow of traffic.
• to provide information and other support for pilots when able to.
 The GND station monitor the A/Cs identification and altitude and
computes its range, bearing and airspeed.
۸٥
Air traffic transponder (ATC) ۸٦
Air traffic transponder (ATC) ۸٦

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC)
۸٦
۸٦

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC)  Function:  ۸۷ The ATC ground station has both Primary and

Function:

Air traffic transponder (ATC)  Function:  ۸۷ The ATC ground station has both Primary and
Air traffic transponder (ATC)  Function:  ۸۷ The ATC ground station has both Primary and
 ۸۷
۸۷

The ATC ground station has both Primary and secondary Surveillance Radar antennas mounted on the same rotating mounting, and therefore both always pointed in the same direction at the same time.

Air traffic transponder (ATC)  PSR (Primary Surveillance Radar):  The Primary Surveillance Radar (PSR)

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC)  PSR (Primary Surveillance Radar):  The Primary Surveillance Radar (PSR) is
 PSR (Primary Surveillance Radar):  The Primary Surveillance Radar (PSR) is a primary radar
 PSR (Primary Surveillance Radar):
 The Primary Surveillance Radar (PSR) is a primary radar uses the
echo principle and search light principle to determine range and
bearing of aircrafts .
principle to determine range and bearing of aircrafts .  The PSR used by the ATC


The PSR used by the ATC ground station provides the operator with a symbol on his surveillance radar scope for every aircraft in his area.

his surveillance radar scope for every aircraft in his area. It does not require any response
It does not require any response from the aircraft.  
It does not require any response from the aircraft.
The PSR disadvantage is the lack of individual aircraft identification. ۸۸
The PSR disadvantage is the lack of individual aircraft identification.
۸۸

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC) ۸۹
Air traffic transponder (ATC) ۸۹
۸۹
۸۹
Air traffic transponder (ATC) SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):   The secondary Surveillance Radar (PSR)
Air traffic transponder (ATC) SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):   The secondary Surveillance Radar (PSR)
Air traffic transponder (ATC) SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):   The secondary Surveillance Radar (PSR)

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC) SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):   The secondary Surveillance Radar (PSR) uses
SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  
SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):
(ATC) SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):   The secondary Surveillance Radar (PSR) uses what called

The secondary Surveillance Radar (PSR) uses what called “ATC transponder” in the aircraft.

uses what called “ATC transponder” in the aircraft.  The ATC transponder is a transmitter/receiver which
uses what called “ATC transponder” in the aircraft.  The ATC transponder is a transmitter/receiver which
 The ATC transponder is a transmitter/receiver which transmits in response to an interrogation from
 The ATC transponder is a transmitter/receiver which transmits in
response to an interrogation from the ground station secondary
surveillance radar antenna.
 The aircraft transponder replies to this interrogation by transmitting a reply signal consisting of
 The aircraft transponder replies to this interrogation by transmitting a
reply signal consisting of an identification code given to him by the
ground station operator which identifies his particular aircraft on the
scope (Mode A).
۹۰
Air traffic transponder (ATC)  SSR interrogations:  To differentiate between the interrogations three pulses
Air traffic transponder (ATC)  SSR interrogations:  To differentiate between the interrogations three pulses
Air traffic transponder (ATC)  SSR interrogations:  To differentiate between the interrogations three pulses

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC)  SSR interrogations:  To differentiate between the interrogations three pulses (P1.
Air traffic transponder (ATC)  SSR interrogations:  To differentiate between the interrogations three pulses (P1.

SSR interrogations:

Air traffic transponder (ATC)  SSR interrogations:  To differentiate between the interrogations three pulses (P1.

To differentiate between the interrogations three pulses (P1. P2, and P3) are always transmitted by the ground station.

The spacing between P1 and P3 is different according to the mode of interrogation. ۹۱
The spacing between P1 and P3
is different according to the mode
of interrogation.
۹۱

Air traffic transponder (ATC) Wednesday, September 26, ۹۲ ۹۲ 2018

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC) Wednesday, September 26, ۹۲ ۹۲ 2018
Air traffic transponder (ATC) Wednesday, September 26, ۹۲ ۹۲ 2018
Wednesday, September 26, ۹۲ ۹۲ 2018
Wednesday, September 26,
۹۲ ۹۲
2018
Air traffic transponder (ATC) 8µ SEC P1 P3 P2 MODE “A” IDENTITY ONLY 21 µ

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC) 8µ SEC P1 P3 P2 MODE “A” IDENTITY ONLY 21 µ SEC
8µ SEC P1 P3 P2
8µ SEC
P1
P3
P2
Air traffic transponder (ATC) 8µ SEC P1 P3 P2 MODE “A” IDENTITY ONLY 21 µ SEC
Air traffic transponder (ATC) 8µ SEC P1 P3 P2 MODE “A” IDENTITY ONLY 21 µ SEC
MODE “A” IDENTITY ONLY 21 µ SEC P1 P3 P2
MODE “A” IDENTITY ONLY
21 µ SEC
P1
P3
P2
MODE “C” ALTITUDE
MODE “C” ALTITUDE

INTERROGATION PULSES

12th February 2007
12th February 2007
۹۳ ۹۳
۹۳
۹۳

NO REPLY

P2 P1 P3
P2
P1
P3
NO REPLY P2 P1 P3 REPLY P1 P3 P2 SIDELOBES OMNI DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA (P2) ROTATION DIRECTIONAL
REPLY P1 P3 P2
REPLY
P1
P3
P2
SIDELOBES
SIDELOBES
NO REPLY P2 P1 P3 REPLY P1 P3 P2 SIDELOBES OMNI DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA (P2) ROTATION DIRECTIONAL
NO REPLY P2 P1 P3 REPLY P1 P3 P2 SIDELOBES OMNI DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA (P2) ROTATION DIRECTIONAL
NO REPLY P2 P1 P3 REPLY P1 P3 P2 SIDELOBES OMNI DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA (P2) ROTATION DIRECTIONAL

OMNI DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA (P2)

P3 REPLY P1 P3 P2 SIDELOBES OMNI DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA (P2) ROTATION DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA MAIN BEAM (P1
ROTATION
ROTATION
DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA MAIN BEAM (P1 & P3)
DIRECTIONAL
ANTENNA MAIN
BEAM (P1 & P3)

SIDELOBE SUPPRESSION

۹٤
۹٤
Air traffic transponder (ATC)  SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  ATC transponder reply: ۹٥

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC)  SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  ATC transponder reply: ۹٥
 SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  ATC transponder reply: ۹٥
 SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):
 ATC transponder reply:
۹٥
Air traffic transponder (ATC)  SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  ATC transponder reply: ۹٥
Air traffic transponder (ATC)  SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  ATC transponder reply:  On

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC)  SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  ATC transponder reply:  On receiving
Air traffic transponder (ATC)  SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  ATC transponder reply:  On receiving
 SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  ATC transponder reply:  On receiving a valid interrogation
 SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):
 ATC transponder reply:
 On receiving a valid interrogation the aircraft transponder transmits
two framing pulses.
 Between the framing pulses there are 12 usable information pulses.
 There are 2^12= 4096 possible combinations of pulses.
 Mode A reply:
 The transponder transmit one of the 4096 possible identification
codes which was given to him by the operator by selecting the four
figure code (numbers) on the control panel (one from 0000 to 7777).
۹٦
Air traffic transponder (ATC) SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  ATC transponder reply:   A
Air traffic transponder (ATC) SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  ATC transponder reply:   A

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC) SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  ATC transponder reply:   A further
SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  ATC transponder reply:  
SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):
ATC transponder reply:
Surveillance Radar):  ATC transponder reply:   A further pulse the special position identification (SPI)
Surveillance Radar):  ATC transponder reply:   A further pulse the special position identification (SPI)

A further pulse the special position identification (SPI) pulse maybe transmitted when the “ident” button is pressed at the ATC’s request.

the “ident” button is pressed at the ATC’s request. Mode C reply:   The transponder
Mode C reply:   The transponder transmit one of the 4096 codes regardless of
Mode C reply:
The transponder transmit one of the 4096 codes regardless of the code
selected in the window. This code corresponds to its height.
Note:
The aircraft replies only if the aircraft is equipped with a transponder
of the same mode as interrogation and the pilot selected this mode.
۹۷
Air traffic transponder (ATC) SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):   Up on the ATC ground
Air traffic transponder (ATC) SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):   Up on the ATC ground

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC) SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):   Up on the ATC ground station
SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):   Up on the ATC ground station request called “Squawk
SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):
Up on the ATC ground station request called “Squawk ident.”, the
pilot presses “the ident” button on the control panel. This causes the
display on the radar scope to change so that operator can be positive
of the aircraft particular location.
The aircraft transponder can also transmit aircraft altitude which can
then be displayed to the ground station operator (Mode C).
Up on the ATC ground station request “State the flight level.”, the
pilot state the flight level.
flight level.”, the pilot state the flight level.  If on verification, there is a difference

If on verification, there is a difference of more than + or – 300ft between flight level had been sent and the stated flight level, the pilot will normally be instructed to switch off mode C.

level had been sent and the stated flight level, the pilot will normally be instructed to
level had been sent and the stated flight level, the pilot will normally be instructed to
۹۸ ۹۸
۹۸ ۹۸
Air traffic transponder (ATC) ۹۹ ۹۹

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC) ۹۹ ۹۹
Air traffic transponder (ATC) ۹۹ ۹۹
Air traffic transponder (ATC) ۹۹ ۹۹
۹۹ ۹۹
۹۹ ۹۹
Air traffic transponder (ATC)  SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  Special codes: 1- 7700: to

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC)  SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  Special codes: 1- 7700: to indicate
Air traffic transponder (ATC)  SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  Special codes: 1- 7700: to indicate
 SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  Special codes: 1- 7700: to indicate emergency condition. 2-
 SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):
 Special codes:
1- 7700: to indicate emergency condition.
2- 7600: to indicate a radio failure.
3- 7500: to indicate Hi-jack.
4- 2000: to ask for an identification code when entering a new
airspace.
۱۰۰
Air traffic transponder (ATC) SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  Mode S “Selective addressing”  
Air traffic transponder (ATC) SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  Mode S “Selective addressing”  

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC) SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  Mode S “Selective addressing”   Mode
SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  Mode S “Selective addressing”  
SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):
Mode S “Selective addressing”
Radar):  Mode S “Selective addressing”   Mode S is being introduced in order to
Radar):  Mode S “Selective addressing”   Mode S is being introduced in order to

Mode S is being introduced in order to overcome the limitations of the present modes A and C.


overcome the limitations of the present modes A and C.  The aircraft address code will

The aircraft address code will be made up of 24 bits (about 16.700.000 codes) available for allocation to aircrafts on a permanent basis.

available for allocation to aircrafts on a permanent basis.  The system will be supported by
 The system will be supported by ground data network so can provide ground to
 The system will be supported by ground data network so can provide
ground to air, air to ground, air to air data exchange.
 The interrogator (SSR ground station) uses “all call” interrogations to
interrogate aircrafts.
 It can be “mode S/ATCRBS all call” or mode “mode S only all call”
۱۰۱ ۱۰۱
Air traffic transponder (ATC) SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar): Mode S “Selective addressing”   
Air traffic transponder (ATC) SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar): Mode S “Selective addressing”   
Air traffic transponder (ATC) SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar): Mode S “Selective addressing”   

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC) SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar): Mode S “Selective addressing”    The
SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar): Mode S “Selective addressing”
SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):
Mode S “Selective addressing”

The mode S equipped aircraft replies with a squitter message contains its specific mode S
The mode S equipped aircraft replies with a squitter message
contains its specific mode S address.
The SSR ground station replies to a squitter message by mode S
interrogation with the mode S address of the interrogated A/C
(Selective).
When a mode S intruder detects an interrogation with its
address called “discrete interrogation” . It replies according to
the interrogation.
Wednesday, September 26,
۱۰۲ ۱۰۲
2018

INTERROGATION PULSE

P1 P3 P2 P1 P3 P4 P2
P1
P3
P2
P1
P3
P4
P2

ATCRBS TRANSPONDERS (mode A & C)

P3 P2 P1 P3 P4 P2 ATCRBS TRANSPONDERS (mode A & C) REPLY REPLY ATCRBS/ MODE
REPLY
REPLY
REPLY
REPLY

ATCRBS/MODE S TRANSPONDERS

(mode A & C) REPLY REPLY ATCRBS/ MODE S TRANSPONDERS REPLY ATCRBS NO REPLY P1 P3
REPLY ATCRBS
REPLY
ATCRBS
NO REPLY
NO REPLY
P1 P3 P4 P2
P1
P3
P4
P2
P1 P2 P5 P6
P1
P2
P5
P6
P1 P2 P5 P6
P1
P2
P5
P6
REPLY
REPLY
NO REPLY
NO REPLY
NO REPLY
NO REPLY
P4 P2 P1 P2 P5 P6 P1 P2 P5 P6 REPLY NO REPLY NO REPLY REPLY

REPLY MODE S (UNLESS LOCKED OUT)

P6 REPLY NO REPLY NO REPLY REPLY MODE S (UNLESS LOCKED OUT) REPLY MODE S (UNLESS
P6 REPLY NO REPLY NO REPLY REPLY MODE S (UNLESS LOCKED OUT) REPLY MODE S (UNLESS

REPLY MODE S (UNLESS LOCKED OUT)

S (UNLESS LOCKED OUT) REPLY MODE S (UNLESS LOCKED OUT) ONLY MODE S DISCREETLY ADDRESSED REPLIES
ONLY MODE S DISCREETLY ADDRESSED REPLIES
ONLY MODE S
DISCREETLY
ADDRESSED
REPLIES

INTERROGATION SIGNALS

۱۰۳
۱۰۳
Air traffic transponder (ATC) SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  Frequency:   The ground station

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC) SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  Frequency:   The ground station
SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):
SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):

transponder (ATC) SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  Frequency:   The ground station
transponder (ATC) SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar):  Frequency:   The ground station
Frequency:   The ground station transmits/interrogates on 1030 MHZ and receives on 1090 MHZ.
Frequency:
The ground station transmits/interrogates on 1030 MHZ and
receives on 1090 MHZ.
The aircraft receives on 1030 MHZ and transmits on 1090 MHZ.
The SSR ground station transmits a narrow (unidirectional)
beam with a rotating antenna.
The aircraft transmits Omni-directionally.
The transponder switches between the top and bottom antenna
according to the characteristics of the received signals.
۱۰٤
Air traffic transponder (ATC) ۱۰٥
Air traffic transponder (ATC) ۱۰٥

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC)
۱۰٥
۱۰٥

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC)
Air traffic transponder (ATC) Transponder (Aircraft) RECEIVER DECODER CONTROL ENCODER PANEL DUPLEXER AIR DATA
Air traffic transponder (ATC) Transponder (Aircraft) RECEIVER DECODER CONTROL ENCODER PANEL DUPLEXER AIR DATA
Air traffic transponder (ATC) Transponder (Aircraft) RECEIVER DECODER CONTROL ENCODER PANEL DUPLEXER AIR DATA
Transponder (Aircraft) RECEIVER DECODER CONTROL ENCODER PANEL DUPLEXER AIR DATA COMPUTER TRANSMITTER MODULATOR
Transponder (Aircraft)
RECEIVER
DECODER
CONTROL
ENCODER
PANEL
DUPLEXER
AIR DATA
COMPUTER
TRANSMITTER
MODULATOR
Code/ altitude
information
۱۰٦
TO SUPPRESSOR BUS
Air traffic transponder (ATC) ۱۰۷

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC) ۱۰۷
Air traffic transponder (ATC) ۱۰۷
۱۰۷
۱۰۷

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC)
Air traffic transponder (ATC) ATC (2x2) ۱۰۸
Air traffic transponder (ATC) ATC (2x2) ۱۰۸
ATC (2x2) ۱۰۸
ATC (2x2)
۱۰۸
Air traffic transponder (ATC) ۱۰۹

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC) ۱۰۹
Air traffic transponder (ATC) ۱۰۹
Air traffic transponder (ATC) ۱۰۹
۱۰۹
۱۰۹

Air traffic transponder (ATC)

Air traffic transponder (ATC)
Air traffic transponder (ATC) ۱۱۰
Air traffic transponder (ATC) ۱۱۰
Air traffic transponder (ATC) ۱۱۰
۱۱۰
۱۱۰

Navigation Systems

Radio altimeter (RA). Instrument landing system (ILS). Marker beacon System. Distance measuring equipment (DME). Air traffic transponder radar beacon system (ATCRBS). Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS). Weather radar (WXR). Ground proximity warning system (GPWS). Automatic direction finder (ADF). VHF Omni-directional range (VOR). Inertial navigation system (INS). Area navigation (RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).

 
management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).         
management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).         
management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).         
   
management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).         
    
management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).         
management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).         
management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).         
۱۱۱
۱۱۱
(TCAS) ۱۱۲

(TCAS)

(TCAS) ۱۱۲
(TCAS) ۱۱۲
(TCAS) ۱۱۲
۱۱۲
۱۱۲

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

 Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) TCAS COMMUNICATION TCAS operates on the secondary surveillance
TCAS COMMUNICATION
TCAS
COMMUNICATION
and collision avoidance system (TCAS) TCAS COMMUNICATION TCAS operates on the secondary surveillance radar (SSR)
TCAS operates on the secondary surveillance radar (SSR) principle using the normal SSR frequencies of
TCAS operates on the secondary surveillance radar (SSR)
principle using the normal SSR frequencies of 1030 and 1090
MHZ but in an air to air role.
۱۱۳

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

 Function:  Detects any aircraft equipped with transponder flying in its vicinity.  Display
 Function:
 Detects any aircraft equipped with transponder flying in its
vicinity.
 Display potential and predicted collision targets.
 Issues vertical orders to avoid conflict.
Note:

- TCAS II never offers collision avoidance commands in horizontal

plane. Only in the form of descent or climb.
plane. Only in the form of descent or climb.
in horizontal plane. Only in the form of descent or climb. - For future development ,

- For future development, TCAS III requires the accurate tracking of an intruder to enable avoidance to be carried out in the horizontal plane as well as the vertical plane.

۱۱٤
۱۱٤

 Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) INTRUDER 2700ft AIRCRAFT 30NM 2700ft TCAS II detection

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

 Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) INTRUDER 2700ft AIRCRAFT 30NM 2700ft TCAS II detection
 Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) INTRUDER 2700ft AIRCRAFT 30NM 2700ft TCAS II detection
 Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) INTRUDER 2700ft AIRCRAFT 30NM 2700ft TCAS II detection
INTRUDER 2700ft AIRCRAFT 30NM 2700ft
INTRUDER
2700ft
AIRCRAFT
30NM
2700ft
TCAS II detection capability is limited to intruders flying within a range of 30 NM
TCAS II detection capability is limited to intruders flying
within a range of 30 NM and a relative altitude of +-2700 ft.
۱۱٥
Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) Principle of operation:    TCAS system

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Principle of operation:
Principle of operation:

TCAS system continuously interrogates the SSR transponder of other aircraft in the vicinity.

From the received information TCAS computes range, bearing, range rate of change, relative altitude of the intruder and display predicted and potential collision threats to the flight crew.

The range of the other aircraft is determined (as in DME) by using echo principle.
The range of the other aircraft is determined (as in DME) by
using echo principle.
۱۱٦

The relative altitude can only be determined for mode C and mode S equipped aircrafts By computing the barometric altitude difference using the intruder received altitude information.

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Principle of operation: The relative bearing of the transponder replies are determined automatically using directional
Principle of operation:
The relative bearing of the transponder replies are determined
automatically using directional antennas (search light principle).
Antenna consists of four independent elements.
In reception the amplitude of the signals received by each
element depends on the direction of the signal source which
permits the relative bearing of the transmitting aircraft to be
determined.
In transmission the antenna is considered. as Omni-directional
antenna as it transmits constant power in all directions

۱۱۷
۱۱۷

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) ۱۱۸
۱۱۸
۱۱۸
Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)  Tracking:  The intruders are tracked by

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)  Tracking:  The intruders are tracked by a
Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)  Tracking:  The intruders are tracked by a

Tracking:

The intruders are tracked by a series of interrogation/replies.
The intruders are tracked by a series of interrogation/replies.

These exchanges permit the TCAS to update the altitude, range, bearing for each intruder and to compute the range rate of change, altitude rate variations.

Each threat is treated individually but the TCAS determines the best collision avoidance possibility with respect to all aircraft in its vicinity.

possibility with respect to all aircraft in its vicinity. These data are used to determine the
These data are used to determine the time separating the two aircrafts from their closest
These data are used to determine the time separating the two
aircrafts from their closest point to approach (CPA).
۱۱۹
۱۱۹
Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)  Time to intercept (TAU): The TCAS does

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)  Time to intercept (TAU): The TCAS does not
Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)  Time to intercept (TAU): The TCAS does not

Time to intercept (TAU):
Time to intercept (TAU):

The TCAS does not need to locate the CPA in space, but rather i needs to know the time to intercept for two aircraft.

i needs to know the time to intercept for two aircraft. TIME TO GO TO TAU
TIME TO GO TO TAU (sec) = 3600 X SLANT RANGE (NM) CLOSING SPEED (kts)
TIME TO GO TO
TAU (sec) = 3600 X SLANT RANGE (NM)
CLOSING SPEED (kts)
= CLOSEST POINT OF
APPROACH
۱۲۰ ۱۲۰

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Aircraft with mode S transponder: The TCAS listens for squitter message transmitted by mode S
Aircraft with mode S transponder:
The TCAS listens for squitter message transmitted by mode S
equipped aircraft every second.

A squitter message contains its specific mode S address. The TCAS replies to a squitter
A squitter message contains its specific mode S address.
The TCAS replies to a squitter message by mode S discrete
interrogation with the mode S address of the interrogated A/C
(Selective).
When a mode S intruder detects an interrogation with its
address. It replies according to the interrogation.
The mode S intruders are tracked one by one (after locking-out
each) by their mode S address.
۱۲۱

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) ۱۲۲
۱۲۲
۱۲۲

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Aural and visual advisories are provided to the flight crew to assure adequate separation when
Aural and visual advisories are provided to the flight
crew to assure adequate separation when the system
predict an intruder penetration into the protected
airspace

Principle of operation:

Two type of advisories are provided:
Two type of advisories are provided:

1) traffic alert (TA). 2) Resolution advisory (RA) ۱۲۳
1) traffic alert (TA).
2) Resolution advisory (RA)
۱۲۳

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

۱۲٤
۱۲٤

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Principle of operation:
Principle of operation:

1) traffic advisory (TA):
1) traffic advisory (TA):
(TCAS) Principle of operation:  1) traffic advisory (TA): Provides the flight crew with the relative

Provides the flight crew with the relative bearing and distance to intruding aircraft that approximately 40 seconds from CPA.

intruding aircraft that approximately 40 seconds from CPA.  No maneuvers are commanded. 2) Resolution advisory

aircraft that approximately 40 seconds from CPA.  No maneuvers are commanded. 2) Resolution advisory (RA):
No maneuvers are commanded. 2) Resolution advisory (RA): Either corrective or preventive will provide threat
No maneuvers are commanded.
2) Resolution advisory (RA):
Either corrective or preventive will provide threat resolution
information in the form of a vertical maneuvers (corrective) or
restricted vertical speed ranges (preventive).

۱۲٥
۱۲٥

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Principle of operation: The RA advisory will increase aircraft separation when the threat aircraft is
Principle of operation:
The RA advisory will increase aircraft separation when the
threat aircraft is within approximately 25 seconds from CPA.
a) Preventive advisory:
- This is an RA that occurs when the TCAS has determined
that a threat exists but the current vertical speed will result
in adequate separation from the intruder to avoid the threat.
- The advisory occurs when the intruder is within 100 to 900 ft
relative altitude.
- The flight crew should monitor their aircraft vertical speed.
۱۲٦

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Principle of operation:
Principle of operation:

avoidance system (TCAS) Principle of operation:   b) corrective advisory: - This is an RA
 b) corrective advisory: -
 b) corrective advisory:
-

This is an RA that occurs when the TCAS has determined that the flight crew should take action to avoid conflict where the aircraft is operating at a vertical speed will result in a threat.

-
-

The advisory occurs when the intruder is within 300 ft relative altitude.

- The TCAS will provide the crew with a recommended vertical speed, either climb or
- The TCAS will provide the crew with a recommended vertical
speed, either climb or descent to avoid collision.
۱۲۷

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

۱۲۸
۱۲۸

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) FORBIDDEN VERTICAL SPEED (V/S) ‘FLY TO’ V/S ۱۲۹
FORBIDDEN VERTICAL SPEED (V/S) ‘FLY TO’ V/S ۱۲۹
FORBIDDEN VERTICAL SPEED (V/S)
‘FLY TO’ V/S
۱۲۹
Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) FORBIDDEN VERTICAL SPEED (V/S) ‘FLY TO’ V/S ۱۲۹
Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)  Note:  This allows both TCAS equipped

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)  Note:  This allows both TCAS equipped aircraft
Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)  Note:  This allows both TCAS equipped aircraft

Note:

alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)  Note:  This allows both TCAS equipped aircraft to
alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)  Note:  This allows both TCAS equipped aircraft to

This allows both TCAS equipped aircraft to coordinate the resolution advisory to avoid both aircraft performing the same maneuver.

When a resolution advisory occurred between two TCAS equipped aircraft, a maneuver coordination message will be transmitted to the intruding aircraft via the mode S transponder.

to the intruding aircraft via the mode S transponder .  The first detecting TCAS will

The first detecting TCAS will decide the maneuvers coordination If each TCAS detects the other
The first detecting TCAS will decide the maneuvers coordination
If each TCAS detects the other one at the same time, the lowest
mode S address has the priority.
۱۳۰

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)  Visual Indication: - Four types of symbols,

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

 Visual Indication:
 Visual Indication:

- Four types of symbols, differentiated by both shape and color, are used to display traffic around your own aircraft. The different symbols represent:

Other traffic Proximate traffic Traffic alert (TA)
Other traffic
Proximate traffic
Traffic alert (TA)

Resolution advisory (RA)
Resolution advisory (RA)

۱۳۱
۱۳۱
Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) Resolution advisory (RA) Traffic These symbols are displayed

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Resolution advisory (RA) Traffic These symbols are displayed as a solid red square. They represent
Resolution advisory (RA) Traffic
These symbols are displayed as a solid red square. They
represent aircraft that have become a threat and are within
approximately 25 seconds from CPA.

۱۳۲
۱۳۲

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Traffic Alert (TA) traffic These aircraft are displayed as a yellow or amber solid circle.
Traffic Alert (TA) traffic
These aircraft are displayed as a yellow or amber solid circle.
They represent aircraft that are approximately 40 seconds from
CPA.

No maneuvers are commanded by the TCAS during this time. Traffic alert traffic may be
No maneuvers are commanded by the TCAS during this time.
Traffic alert traffic may be upgraded to resolution advisory
traffic, depending upon its continued flight path.
۱۳۳

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Proximate Traffic These aircraft are not considered a threat, but will always be displayed when
Proximate Traffic
These aircraft are not considered a threat, but will always be
displayed when a TA or an RA is present.
Other Traffic

These aircraft are displayed as a white solid diamond. They represent those aircraft within ± 1200 feet, relative altitude, and within the selected traffic display range.

These aircraft are displayed as a white open diamond. They represent those aircraft within ± 2700 feet relative altitude, and within the selected traffic display range.

The TCAS does not consider Other traffic as a threat. ۱۳٤
The TCAS does not consider Other traffic as a threat.
۱۳٤
 Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) Arrow to the right of the symbol
 Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) Arrow to the right of the symbol

 Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) Arrow to the right of the symbol indicating

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Arrow to the right of the symbol indicating the vertical trend of the target.

of the symbol indicating the vertical trend of the target.  Data tag consisting of digital
of the symbol indicating the vertical trend of the target.  Data tag consisting of digital
of the symbol indicating the vertical trend of the target.  Data tag consisting of digital

the symbol indicating the vertical trend of the target.  Data tag consisting of digital data

Data tag consisting of digital data and + or – sign indicating the barometric alt diff between two aircrafts in hundreds of feet.

of digital data and + or – sign indicating the barometric alt diff between two aircrafts
of digital data and + or – sign indicating the barometric alt diff between two aircrafts

+11

۱۳٥
۱۳٥

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

INTRUDERS OTHER TRAFFIC PROXIMATE TRAFFIC TRAFFIC ADVISORY RESOLUTION ADVISORY
INTRUDERS
OTHER TRAFFIC
PROXIMATE TRAFFIC
TRAFFIC ADVISORY
RESOLUTION ADVISORY
۱۳٦
۱۳٦

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

۱۳۷
۱۳۷

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

۱۳۸
۱۳۸

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

TCAS aural messages: ۱۳۹
TCAS aural messages:
۱۳۹

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

 TCAS aural messages:  Traffic alert annunciation “TRAFFIC,TRAFFIC,TRAFFIC” traffic has entered 45 second
 TCAS aural messages:
 Traffic alert annunciation
“TRAFFIC,TRAFFIC,TRAFFIC” traffic has entered 45 second
envelope (symbol has changed to solid yellow circle)
 Resolution advisory annunciation
“MONITOR VERTICAL SPEED, MONITOR VERTICAL
SPEED” monitor present vertical speed to prevent entering
restricted (red arc) speed….Preventive action
- means that’s the aircraft can fly in the grey area (no green
area) without risk of conflict.
۱٤۰
Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) ۱٤۱

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) ۱٤۱
۱٤۱
۱٤۱

  Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) TCAS aural messages: Resolution advisory annunciation (ctd.)

  Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) TCAS aural messages: Resolution advisory annunciation (ctd.)

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

TCAS aural messages: Resolution advisory annunciation (ctd.)
TCAS aural messages:
Resolution advisory annunciation (ctd.)
aural messages: Resolution advisory annunciation (ctd.) “ ADJUST VETRICAL SPEED, ADJUST” - require the pilot to

“ ADJUST VETRICAL SPEED, ADJUST”

- require the pilot to reduce the vertical rate of the aircraft, i.e. to climb more slowly, or to descend more slowly, or to level off. The required vertical rate is indicated on the RA display. shown by the green arc on the VSI.

on the RA display. shown by the green arc on the VSI. “ MAINTAIN VETRICAL SPEED,

“ MAINTAIN VETRICAL SPEED, MAINTAIN”

- Maintain the current vertical speed shown by the green arc on the VSI.

current vertical speed shown by the green arc on the VSI. “ MAINTAIN VETRICAL SPEED, CROSSING

“ MAINTAIN VETRICAL SPEED, CROSSING MAINTAIN”

- Maintain the current vertical speed shown by the green arc on the VSI, indicated that you will cross through the intruder altitude.

۱٤۲
۱٤۲

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) TCAS aural messages:

 Resolution advisory annunciation (ctd.) “ CLIMB, CLIMB, CLIMB. ”
 Resolution advisory annunciation (ctd.)
“ CLIMB, CLIMB, CLIMB. ”

-

Climb at the rate shown by the green arc on the VSI

” - Climb at the rate shown by the green arc on the VSI “ CLIMB,
“ CLIMB, CROSSING CLIMB, CLIMB, CROSSING CLIMB. ”
“ CLIMB, CROSSING CLIMB, CLIMB, CROSSING CLIMB. ”

- As above except that flight path will cross through that of the intruder

“ REDUCE CLIMB, REDUCE CLIMB. ”
“ REDUCE CLIMB, REDUCE CLIMB. ”

- Reduce rate of climb to that shown on VSI

Wednesday, September 26, ۱٤۳ ۱٤۳ 2018
Wednesday, September 26,
۱٤۳ ۱٤۳
2018

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)  TCAS aural messages: Resolution advisory annunciation (ctd.) 

TCAS aural messages:

Resolution advisory annunciation (ctd.)  “ DESCEND, DESCEND, DESCEND” (-1500 ft/mn)
Resolution advisory annunciation (ctd.)
“ DESCEND, DESCEND, DESCEND” (-1500 ft/mn)

- Descend at the rate shown by the green arc on the VSI

- Descend at the rate shown by the green arc on the VSI “ DESCEND, CROSSING
“ DESCEND, CROSSING DESCEND, DESCEND, CROSSING DESCEND” -
DESCEND, CROSSING DESCEND, DESCEND, CROSSING
DESCEND”
-

As above except that flight path will cross through that of the intruder

“ REDUCE DESCENT, REDUCE DESCENT” -
REDUCE DESCENT, REDUCE DESCENT”
-

Reduce rate of decent to that shown on VSI

۱٤٤
۱٤٤

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)  TCAS aural messages: Resolution advisory annunciation (ctd.) 

TCAS aural messages:

collision avoidance system (TCAS)  TCAS aural messages: Resolution advisory annunciation (ctd.)   An increase
Resolution advisory annunciation (ctd.)
Resolution advisory annunciation (ctd.)

An increase advisory, either climb or descend at 2500 fpm to 3000 fpm, will occur if the previous 1500 fpm to 2000 fpm rate of climb/descent is no longer adequate.

fpm to 2000 fpm rate of climb/descent is no longer adequate.  This display will be

This display will be accompanied by an audio annunciation of “INCREASE CLIMB; INCREASE CLIMB” or “ INCREASE DESCENT; INCREASE DESCENT,” as appropriate for the advisory.

CLIMB; INCREASE CLIMB” or “ INCREASE DESCENT; INCREASE DESCENT,” as appropriate for the advisory . ۱٤٥
۱٤٥
۱٤٥

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) ۱٤٦
۱٤٦
۱٤٦

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Resolution advisory annunciation (ctd.)
Resolution advisory annunciation (ctd.)

TCAS aural messages:

Alternately a reversal advisory

aural messages:   Alternately a reversal advisory - A climb advisory after a descend advisory,

- A climb advisory after a descend advisory, or a descend advisory after a climb advisory – will occur if the TCAS system determines that the initial advisory should be reversed for adequate separation.

Reversal advisory displays are accompanied by an audio annunciation of :

- “Climb-Climb Now; Climb-Climb Now” follows “descend” advisory - “Descend-Descend Now; Descend-Descend
-
“Climb-Climb Now; Climb-Climb Now” follows “descend” advisory
-
“Descend-Descend Now; Descend-Descend Now,” follows “climb”
advisory.
۱٤۷
Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)  TCAS aural messages: Resolution advisory annunciation (ctd.)

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

 TCAS aural messages: Resolution advisory annunciation (ctd.)  
 TCAS aural messages:
Resolution advisory annunciation (ctd.)

“CLEAR OF CONFLICT” When the range of the intruder aircraft responsible for causing an RA begins to increase, the conflict is considered to be resolved.

If more than one intruder is causing an RA, the clear-of-conflict message will not be annunciated until all conflicts are resolved.

۱٤۸
۱٤۸

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

 Synthetic voice prioritization:  Modern aircraft use a synthetic voice to give warning advice
 Synthetic voice prioritization:
 Modern aircraft use a synthetic voice to give warning advice to the
crew. The synthetic voice is prioritized as follows:
1- Stall
2- Windshear
3- GPWS
4- TCAS
۱٤۹
۱٤۹
Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) Example Conflict Scenario Intruder (TCAS II Equipped) TRAFFIC,

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

Example Conflict Scenario
Example Conflict Scenario
collision avoidance system (TCAS) Example Conflict Scenario Intruder (TCAS II Equipped) TRAFFIC, TRAFFIC CLIMB, CLIMB
collision avoidance system (TCAS) Example Conflict Scenario Intruder (TCAS II Equipped) TRAFFIC, TRAFFIC CLIMB, CLIMB

Intruder (TCAS II Equipped)

TRAFFIC, TRAFFIC CLIMB, CLIMB DESCEND, DESCEND TRAFFIC, TRAFFIC CLEAR OF CONFLICT ConflictConflict Ownship (TCAS II
TRAFFIC, TRAFFIC
CLIMB, CLIMB
DESCEND, DESCEND
TRAFFIC, TRAFFIC
CLEAR OF CONFLICT
ConflictConflict
Ownship
(TCAS II Equipped)
CLEAR OF CONFLICT
۱٥۰
VSI TCAS INDICATIONS ۱٥۱
VSI TCAS INDICATIONS ۱٥۱
VSI TCAS INDICATIONS ۱٥۱
VSI TCAS INDICATIONS ۱٥۱
VSI TCAS INDICATIONS ۱٥۱
VSI TCAS INDICATIONS
۱٥۱
VSI TCAS INDICATIONS ۱٥۲
VSI TCAS INDICATIONS ۱٥۲
VSI TCAS INDICATIONS ۱٥۲
VSI TCAS INDICATIONS ۱٥۲
VSI TCAS INDICATIONS ۱٥۲
VSI TCAS INDICATIONS
۱٥۲

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

۱٥۳
۱٥۳
Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)  TCAS components: 1- One TCAS computer 2-

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

 TCAS components:
 TCAS components:

1- One TCAS computer 2- Upper and lower directional TCAS antenna . 3- ATC/TCAS control panel 4- Two mode S ATC transponders (One active and other is standby) 5- Indicator

۱٥٥
۱٥٥
TCAS TOP ANTENNA TCAS ۱٥٦
TCAS TOP ANTENNA
TCAS TOP ANTENNA
TCAS TOP ANTENNA TCAS ۱٥٦
TCAS ۱٥٦
TCAS
۱٥٦
۱٥۷
۱٥۷
۱٥۷
۱٥۷
۱٥۷

Navigation Systems

Radio altimeter (RA). Instrument landing system (ILS). Marker beacon System. Distance measuring equipment (DME). Air traffic transponder radar beacon system (ATCRBS). Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS). Weather radar (WXR). Ground proximity warning system (GPWS). Automatic direction finder (ADF). VHF Omni-directional range (VOR). Inertial navigation system (INS). Area navigation (RNAV). Flight management system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).

 
system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).          
system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).          
system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).          
   
system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).          
    
system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).          
system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).          
system (FMS). Global positioning system (GPS).          
۱٥۸ ۱٥۸
۱٥۸
۱٥۸
Airborne weather radar (AWR) ۱٥۹
Airborne weather radar (AWR) ۱٥۹

Airborne weather radar (AWR)

Airborne weather radar (AWR) ۱٥۹
Airborne weather radar (AWR) ۱٥۹
۱٥۹
۱٥۹

Airborne weather radar (AWR)

Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Function:  The airborne weather radar is used to provide the
Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Function:  The airborne weather radar is used to provide the
 Function: 
 Function:

The airborne weather radar is used to provide the pilots with information regarding weather ahead to avoid turbulent areas as well as used as a back-up navigation.

 The main functions of an AWR are to: -
 The main functions of an AWR are to:
-

Detects the size of water droplets and hence indicate where the areas of turbulence are within the cloud.

- Provides the range and bearing (azimuth) of these areas. - Map the terrain below
- Provides the range and bearing (azimuth) of these areas.
- Map the terrain below the aircraft to provide navigational
information.
۱٦۰
۱٦۰

Airborne weather radar (AWR)

Airborne weather radar (AWR) Principles of operation:   AWR is a primary radar use the
Airborne weather radar (AWR) Principles of operation:   AWR is a primary radar use the
Principles of operation:
Principles of operation:

AWR is a primary radar use the echo principle to determine range and the searchlight principle to determine relative bearing of the targets.

Frequency: 9375 MHz – SHF band. The optimum radar frequency is one that has a
Frequency:
9375 MHz – SHF band.
The optimum radar frequency is one that has a wavelength
comparable to the size of the objects which we wish to detect,
namely the large water droplets which associated with severe
turbulence which about 3 cm across.

۱٦۱
۱٦۱

Airborne weather radar (AWR)

Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Modes of operation: 1- Normal mode: the difference between very turbulent
 Modes of operation: 1- Normal mode: the difference between very turbulent cloud and less
 Modes of operation:
1-
Normal mode: the difference between very turbulent cloud
and less turbulent cloud is the difference between the intensity
of the target paint on the screen.
2- Contour mode: selected for a black and white display. An iso-
echo circuitry used to invert the target signal above a given
level.
used to invert the target signal above a given level. - This results in particularly turbulent

- This results in particularly turbulent cloud painting on the screen with a black hole in the middle, the hole indicating the area of intense turbulence like a heavy rainfall or storm centers.

۱٦۲
۱٦۲
Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Normal mode: ۱٦۳

Airborne weather radar (AWR)

Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Normal mode: ۱٦۳

Normal mode:

۱٦۳
۱٦۳
Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Normal mode: ۱٦٤

Airborne weather radar (AWR)

Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Normal mode: ۱٦٤

Normal mode:

۱٦٤
۱٦٤
Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Contour mode: ۱٦٥

Airborne weather radar (AWR)

Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Contour mode: ۱٦٥

Contour mode:

۱٦٥
۱٦٥
Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Contour mode: ۱٦٦

Airborne weather radar (AWR)

Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Contour mode: ۱٦٦

Contour mode:

۱٦٦
۱٦٦

Airborne weather radar (AWR)

 Modes of operation: - In both normal and contour modes the radiated beam is
 Modes of operation:
- In both normal and contour modes the radiated beam is a
pencil beam (horizontally polarized).
3-
Map mode: used to provide a presentation of the ground
surface.
- The transmitted power is progressively reduced as distance
decreases so that the power directed to the closest object is
minimum.
- This reduction in power with decreasing range is a function
of the cosecant (csc^2) cos of the depression angle - hence the
name cosecant beam also called fan-shaped beam (vertically
polarized).
۱٦۷
Airborne weather radar (AWR) ۱٦۸  Modes of operation:

Airborne weather radar (AWR)

۱٦۸
۱٦۸

Modes of operation:

Airborne weather radar (AWR)

Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Modes of operation: - A spoiler grid in the antenna will
 Modes of operation: - A spoiler grid in the antenna will cause the beam
 Modes of operation:
- A spoiler grid in the antenna will cause the beam to be fanned-
out forming a fan beam.
۱٦۹
۱٦۹
Airborne weather radar (AWR)  System components:  Transceiver.  Waveguide.  Antenna.  Control

Airborne weather radar (AWR)

Airborne weather radar (AWR)  System components:  Transceiver.  Waveguide.  Antenna.  Control panel.
Airborne weather radar (AWR)  System components:  Transceiver.  Waveguide.  Antenna.  Control panel.
 System components:  Transceiver.  Waveguide.  Antenna.  Control panel.  Indicator. ۱۷۰
 System components:
 Transceiver.
 Waveguide.
 Antenna.
 Control panel.
 Indicator.
۱۷۰
Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Transceiver: for the transmission and reception of µw energy. The
Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Transceiver: for the transmission and reception of µw energy. The
Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Transceiver: for the transmission and reception of µw energy. The

Airborne weather radar (AWR)

Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Transceiver: for the transmission and reception of µw energy. The transceiver
Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Transceiver: for the transmission and reception of µw energy. The transceiver

Transceiver:

for the transmission and reception of µw energy. The transceiver operates in the X-band frequency
for the transmission and reception of µw energy. The
transceiver operates in the X-band frequency at 9345 MHZ.

operates in the X-band frequency at 9345 MHZ.   It uses the principle of radio

It uses the principle of radio echoing to detect the concentration of the moisture and the principle of Doppler effect to detect the turbulence areas.

to detect the concentration of the moisture and the principle of Doppler effect to detect the
۱۷۱
۱۷۱

Airborne weather radar (AWR)

Airborne weather radar (AWR)
Airborne weather radar (AWR) ۱۷۲
Airborne weather radar (AWR) ۱۷۲
Airborne weather radar (AWR) ۱۷۲
۱۷۲
۱۷۲
۱۷۳
۱۷۳
۱۷۳
Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Waveguide:  It is a standard rectangular section. It connects
Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Waveguide:  It is a standard rectangular section. It connects
Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Waveguide:  It is a standard rectangular section. It connects

Airborne weather radar (AWR)

Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Waveguide:  It is a standard rectangular section. It connects the
Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Waveguide:  It is a standard rectangular section. It connects the

Waveguide:

Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Waveguide:  It is a standard rectangular section. It connects the

Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Waveguide:  It is a standard rectangular section. It connects the

It is a standard rectangular section. It connects the µw energy radiated by the transmitter to the antenna.

the µw energy radiated by the transmitter to the antenna.  In dual system installation a

µw energy radiated by the transmitter to the antenna.  In dual system installation a waveguide

In dual system installation a waveguide switch is used to select the transceiver to be connected to the antenna.

۱۷٤
۱۷٤
Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Antenna:  the antenna is located at the nose of
Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Antenna:  the antenna is located at the nose of

Airborne weather radar (AWR)

Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Antenna:  the antenna is located at the nose of the
Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Antenna:  the antenna is located at the nose of the

Antenna:

Airborne weather radar (AWR)  Antenna:  the antenna is located at the nose of the

the antenna is located at the nose of the airplane covered by the nose radome.

The antenna has +,- 90 degree scan in azimuth direction.
The antenna has +,- 90 degree scan in azimuth direction.
The antenna has +,- 90 degree scan in azimuth direction.  The antenna has a tilt
The antenna has +,- 90 degree scan in azimuth direction.  The antenna has a tilt

The antenna has a tilt (elevation) coverage of +,- 15 degree with ¼ degree step.

in azimuth direction.  The antenna has a tilt (elevation) coverage of +,- 15 degree with
in azimuth direction.  The antenna has a tilt (elevation) coverage of +,- 15 degree with
in azimuth direction.  The antenna has a tilt (elevation) coverage of +,- 15 degree with
۱۷٥
۱۷٥
Airborne weather radar (AWR) The antenna is stabilized in pitch and roll to maintain antenna
Airborne weather radar (AWR) The antenna is stabilized in pitch and roll to maintain antenna

Airborne weather radar (AWR)

Airborne weather radar (AWR) The antenna is stabilized in pitch and roll to maintain antenna position
The antenna is stabilized in pitch and roll to maintain antenna position relative to the
The antenna is stabilized in pitch and roll to maintain antenna
position relative to the earth’s horizon regardless of aircraft
attitude variations.
Stabilization data are:
1- Aircraft pitch and roll angle.
2- Selected tilt angle.
3- Antenna azimuth and elevation angles.

Antenna:

۱۷٦
۱۷٦
۱۷۷
۱۷۷
۱۷۷
۱۷۷
۱۷۷
Weather radar antenna ۱۷۸
Weather radar antenna ۱۷۸
Weather radar antenna ۱۷۸
Weather radar antenna ۱۷۸
Weather radar
antenna
۱۷۸
Airborne weather radar (AWR) Control panel (For monochrome screen weather radar):  ۱۷۹
Airborne weather radar (AWR) Control panel (For monochrome screen weather radar):  ۱۷۹

Airborne weather radar (AWR)

Airborne weather radar (AWR) Control panel (For monochrome screen weather radar):  ۱۷۹
Control panel (For monochrome screen weather radar):
Control panel (For monochrome screen weather radar):

۱۷۹
۱۷۹