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# 3.

## 0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

To date, there are few sections of the chemical industry that do not, at some stage, utilize
crystallization as method of production, purification or recovery of solid material (Mullin, 1960). In
the chemical engineering sense, crystallization must surely rank as the oldest unit operation.
Crystallization is a process where solid particles are formed from a homogenous phase (Geankoplis,
2003). During recrystallization, epsom salt which is impure substance is used in this experiment is
taken up in a volume of solvent and when the solution is cooled, it crystallize, or precipitate, the
desired substance in a purer form (Boundless, 2015). A crystal is a solid composed of atoms, ions or
molecules which are arranged in an orderly and repetitive manner. It is a highly organized type of
matter.

## Table 3.1: Dissolution Enthalpy and Entropy of Epsom Salt

Weight (g)
Dissolution Dissolution
Substances Temperature Mass of Wet Dry weight Solubility
Enthalpy, ∆H Entropy, ∆S
(°C) empty weight
crucible
Ethanol 35 29.8426 34.4337 29.8367 -0.0013
40 26.9030 30.7122 26.8748 -0.0065 180721.41 532.8276
80
45 28.9211 32.8370 28.8741 -0.0119
Acetone 35 27.7789 43.3505 39.6633 3.2232
40 36.3775 41.4599 37.2984 0.2213 - -
540343.4900 1742.6975
45 30.3789 34.8061 30.3603 -0.0042
Toluene 35 28.6212 32.6691 28.6147 -0.0016
40 27.4341 37.8134 33.5525 1.4359 595282.40 1887.693
00 7
45 29.2058 42.8690 38.7478 2.3153

From the results, the mass of crystal is calculated according to the equations below.

Calculation:

1) Mass of crystal
= [Mass of crucible + crystal] – [Mass of empty crucible]

## 2) Mass of Epsom salt solution

= [Mass of crucible + Epsom salt solution] – [Mass of empty crucible]
3) Solubility

From Table 3.1, it can be seen that the mass of crystal collected in ethanol decrease at 40°C and
slightly increase on temperature of 45 °C. The mass of crystal collected in acetone decrease from
43.35 to 34.80 g to 1.4 g while for toluene, the mass of crystal collected increases from 32.6691 g to
42.8690 g when the temperature is increased from 35 °C to 45 °C.

## Graph of Equilibrium Constant vs Temperature

3
2
y = 64992x - 209.61
1
0
0.00312
-1 0.00314 0.00316 0.00318 0.0032 0.00322 0.00324 0.00326
Linear (Ethanol)
ln Keq

-2
-3 y = -71600x + 227.05 Linear (Acetone)
-4 Linear (Toluene)
-5
-6
y = -21737x + 64.088
-7
-8
temperature

The graphs of equilibrium constant versus temperature for ethanol, acetone and toluene are
shown in graph 3. The results for ethanol, and toluene show same trend, when the temperature
increases, the amount of salt dissolve increases. Meanwhile, for the acetone that graph trend is
when the temperature increase, the equlibrium constant or solubility also increase. The solubility of
a solid depends on temperature and is generally found to increase with increasing temperature
(Plambeck, 1996). This is because heating a solution of a solid makes it easier for the particles of
solid to move between the solution and the solid phase. The particles will shift to the more
disordered, more highly dispersed, and therefore, more soluble in the solvent (Bishop, 2013). The
results show that Epsom salt dissolve more in toluene, follow by ethanol.

Epsom salt is an inorganic salt that consist of magnesium, sulphur and oxygen. Magnesium ions and
sulphur ions attracted by coulombic charge. These properties make Epsom salts a polar compound.
Meanwhile, ethanol, acetone and toluene are organic solvents that made up of covalent bond.
However, ionic compound like Epsom salts typically have a ascending in the extent of solubility in
solvents from toluene, acetone and ethanol. This is because toluene is non-polar solvent which has
bonds between atoms that have related electro negativities only, such as carbon and hydrogen.
Acetone is slightly polar as the polar properties due to the formation of hydrogen bond in water
whereas the non-polar properties given by the presence of carbonyl functional group. Meanwhile,
the electro negativity of the oxygen atom which polarize hydroxyl group make ethanol a good polar
solvent.

Crystallization is a process where solid particles are formed from a homogenous phase
(Geankoplis, 2003). It can occur in the freezing of water to form ice, in the formation of snow
particles from a vapor, in the formation of solid particles from a liquid melt, or in the formation of
solid crystals from a liquid solution. A useful application of solubility is recrystallizaton. During
recrystallization, an impure substance which is epsom salt in this experiment is taken up in
a volume of solvent and when the solution is cooled, it crystallize, or precipitate, the desired
substance in a purer form (Boundless, 2015).

A crystal is a solid composed of atoms, ions or molecules which are arranged in an orderly
and repetitive manner. It is a highly organized type of matter. The salt crystal collected from the
crash cooling crystallization contain a tetrahedral structure [SO4] and octahedral of [Mg2+].
References
Boundless (2015). “Solid Solubility and Temperature.” Boundless Chemistry. Boundless, 21 Jan. 2015.
Retrieved 23 Apr. 2015 from https://www.boundless.com/chemistry/textbooks/boundless-
chemistry-textbook/solutions-12/factors-affecting-solubility-94/solid-solubility-and-temperature-
403-5138/

Geankoplis, C. J. (2003). Transport Processes and Seperation Process Principles. United States of
America: PEARSON