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WAVE MOTION 3 (1981) 343-391

NORTH-HOLLAND PUBLISHING COMPANY

A R E V I E W OF W A V E M O T I O N IN A N I S O T R O P I C A N D
CRACKED ELASTIC-MEDIA

Stuart CRAMPIN
Institute of Geological Sciences, Murchison House, WestMains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3LA, Scotland, UK

Received 4 December 1980, Revised 15 April 1981

Recent developments in the theory and calculation of wave propagation in anisotropic media have been published in the
geophysical literature and refer specifically to seismological applications. Anisotropic phenomena are comparatively common,
and it is the intention of this review to present these developments to a wider audience. Few of the results are new, but the
opportunity is taken to tidy up a few loose ends, and present consistent theoretical formulations for the numerical solution of a
number of propagation problems. Such numerical experiments have played a large part in our increasing understanding of wave
motion in anisotropic media. It now appears that the solution of most problems in anisotropic propagation can be formulated, if
the corresponding solution exists for isotropic propagation, and may be solved at the cost of considerably more numerical
computation.
There are two significant results from these developments: the recognition of the importance of body- and surface-wave
polarizations in diagnosing and estimating anisotropy; and the recognition that many two-phase materials, particularly cracked
solids, can be modelled by anisotropic elastic-constants. This last result opens up a new class of materials to wave-motion
analysis, and has applications in a variety of different fields.

CONTENTS

1. Introduction 344
1.1. Notations, conventions, and definitions 345
2. Body waves in homogeneous media 346
2.1. Phase velocities 346
2.2. Shear-wave singularities 348
2.3. Group velocities 352
2.4. P-wave polarizations 354
3. Matrix formulations for multilayered media 356
3.1. Slowness equations 357
3.2. Propagator matrices 358
3.3. Matrix formulations for piezoelectric media 359
4. Synthetic body-wave seismograms 360
4.1. Plane waves 360
4.2. Spherical wavefronts by the reflectivity method 363
4.3. Spherical wavefronts by the ray method 367
5. Surface waves in a multilayered halfspace 368
5.1. Solid surface-layer 369
5.2. Liquid surface-layer 370
6. Approximate velocity-variations for body waves in symmetry planes 371
6.1. Full equations 371
6.2. Reduced equations 373
6.3. A note on velocity variations for surface waves 373
7. Propagation in particular symmetry-systems 373
7.1. Body-wave propagation 374
7.2. Surface-wave propagation 376

0165-2125/81/0000-0000/$02.50 O 1981 North-Holland


344 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media

8. Attenuation 378
8.1. Body-wave attenuation 379
8.2. Approximate equations for the variation of attenuation 380
9. Modelling two-phase materials 381
9.1. Estimating effective elastic-constants 381
9.2. Propagation in cracked solids 382
9.3. Propagation in attenuating solids 384
10. Shear-wave polarization-anomalies 385
11. Discussion, application, and speculation 386
Acknowledgements 389
References 389

1. Introduction There is one important assumption in the


analysis of this review. We maintain that no
Over the last decade a n u m b e r of developments analytical distinction can be m a d e between the
in wave motion in anisotropic layered-media have behaviour of what might be called inherent aniso-
been published largely in the geophysical lit- tropy, such as aligned crystals which are h o m o -
erature and refer specifically to seismological geneously and continuously anisotropic down to
problems. However, anisotropy is a rather com- the smallest particle size, and oriented two-phase
m o n p h e n o m e n o n , and may be caused by a variety materials when the seismic wavelengths are suific-
of mechanisms including crystal alignments, iently large for the dimensions of the inclusions
lithological alignments, stress-induced effects to have no effect on the waves. U n d e r these
(both direct and indirect), regular sequences of fine assumptions, any material displaying variations
layers, and, most commonly, aligned cracks and of properties with direction necessarily has its
other two-phase configurations. These mechan- effective elastic-constants arranged in some form
isms, and possibly others, may cause effective of anisotropic symmetry. Consequently, the
anisotropy in the Earth and in m a n y m a n - m a d e possible elastic variations of properties with
structures. The justification for this review is the direction are limited to the variations of aniso-
presentation of these developments to a wider tropic symmetry-systems. The presence of in-
audience. The review attempts to present a clusions m a y introduce attenuation into the wave
coherent picture of this development, most of propagation, which will vary with direction if the
which has been published by the reviewer and his inclusions possess any alignments. This variation
colleagues in papers [1 to 31]. will also display anisotropic symmetries, and can
T h e r e have been numerous developments in be modelled with techniques wholly consistent
wave propagation in transversely-isotropic media with the purely-elastic wave-motion.
[notably 32, 33, 34, but there are m a n y others], The analysis makes use of matrix techniques.
and in various approximations to full anisotropy The principle, which has made the formulations
[35, 36, 37, and m a n y others]. Unfortunately, it is possible, is the restriction of propagation to a fixed
impossible to approximate to full anisotropic coordinate direction in the full representation of
motion with anything less than the full anisotropic the fourth-order tensor of 81 elastic-constants (21
equations of motion we use here. In particular, being independent in the absence of symmetries).
these other developments cannot determine the W h e n e v e r a new direction of orientation is
polarization anomalies, and other coupling required, the tensor is rotated into another full
p h e n o m e n a , which we demonstrate are such a fourth-order tensor. This greatly simplifies the
diagnostic and characteristic feature of anisotropic analytical expressions, which complicate the m o r e
propagation. conventional analysis using the Kelvin-Christoffel
S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 345

equations [38]. The same principle also has major The major references, from which each section
advantages for numerical calculations. An input is derived, are listed after the section headings.
routine rotates the elastic tensor into the desired The text is intended to be comprehensive, but the
configuration, leaving the main program inde- references should be consulted for discussion of
pendent of direction of propagation and class of the finer points, and for further illustrations of
symmetry system. Restricting the propagation numerical examples.
to a fixed direction, in this way, greatly simplifies
both the analytical and computational tech- 1. I. Notations, conventions, and definitions
niques at no loss of generality, and at the usually
Scalar quantities are lower-case characters,
negligible cost of initial rotation of the elastic
vectors are in bold typeface, and matrices are
tensor.
upper-case characters, except where otherwise
There are two important results of this
indicated.
development:
All non-integer scalar, vector, and matrix
(1) The recognition of the significance of body-
quantities defined below may take complex values
wave and surface-wave polarizations, for both
with the exception of c,/, t, x, 6, ~, x, p, and to. This
understanding propagation in anisotropic media,
means that, in general, the equations apply equally
and providing, in polarization anomalies, a sensi-
well to homogeneous and inhomogeneous waves.
tive diagnostic-phenomenon for recognising the
Superscript '*' indicates the complex conjugate of
presence of anisotropy and mapping its charac-
a complex quantity, which may be specifically
teristics (we use 'anomaly' in this review to mean
denoted by a bar over the variable.
some feature distinguishing anisotropic from iso-
We use the dot notation to indicate differen-
tropic propagation).
tiation with respect to time, and a comma in
(2) The recognition that the velocity and atten-
front of subscripts to indicate differentiation with
tuation in wave propagation in two-phase materi-
respect to space coordinates.
als, particularly cracked solids, can be modelled by
The sagittal plane is the vertical plane through
homogeneous elastic-solids. Such solids will be
the direction of phase-propagation, and this direc-
anisotropic, if the two-phase materials display any
tion has sagittal symmetry if the sagittal plane is a
orientations or variations with direction, as they
plane of mirror symmetry.
commonly do, and the wave motion can then be
Transverse isotropy is Love's [39] name for a
calculated by the techniques reviewed here. This
medium with hexagonal anisotropic-symmetry
opens up a whole new class of materials to wave-
when the axis of circular symmetry is perpendi-
motion computations. Such materials appear
cular to the free surface.
to be comparatively common and there may be
important applications for the techniques in this
We use the following notations, except where
review.
otherwise specified in the text:
The development reviewed here is primarily
a guide to the numerical calculation of wave a is the amplitude vector, with elements {a~.},of
propagation in anisotropic material (henceforth a particular planewave decomposition, usu-
conveniently abbreviated to anisotropic propaga- ally normalized for each wave.
tion). The priority at all times has been to develop c is the phase velocity in the Xl direction, also
computer programs for numerical interpretation referred to as the horizontal phase-velocity,
of anisotropic propagation. The theoretical and the apparent velocity along the surface.
insights have come from numerical experimen- cik,,, are the elements of the elastic tensor, not
tation with these computer programs, and their necessarily referred to the principal axes. The
application to specific examples. elastic tensor has the symmetry relationships
346 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media

Cik,,n = Cik,m = Cmnjk, and x o = 0 is a plane of Xl, x2, and x3 are right handed Cartesian coor-
mirror symmetry if Cjk,,, = 0 whenever one or dinates with x3 vertically downwards.
three of j, k, m, or n, are equal to p. Such x, y, and z are the principal axes of anisotropic
planes of mirror s y m m e t r y are frequently symmetry-systems.
referred to simply as symmetry planes. a and/3 are isotropic P- and S-wave velocities in
f is the vector of excitation functions with ele- km/sec.
ments {~.}, j = 1, 2 . . . . 6. Note that, for con- &j,~ is the K r o n e c k e r delta function: &j,~ = 1 for
venience, the order of upward and downward j=m, 3i,,=Oforj~m.
components is sometimes reversed for parti- E = Na 3/v is the crack density, where N is the
cular problems. n u m b e r of cracks of radius a in volume u.
i = x/L-]-. K is the w a v e - n u m b e r vector with elements {Kj}.
I is the 3 × 3 identity matrix. A and /z are the Lam6 constants in an isotropic
Superscripts I denote the imaginary part, and R medium.
the real part, of a complex quantity. p is density in g m / c m 3.
Subscripts/', k, m, and n run from 1 to 3, and the 0- is the normal-stress vector O'=(O'13, 0"23,
summation convention is assumed for repeated 0"33)T, perpendicular to interfaces x3 =
suffices. constant.
q is the slowness vector, with elements qj, often ~" = (ito/c)0-.
written as q = p/c, which serves to define the to is the angular frequency.
normalized slowness vector p,
qP, qS1, and qS2 are the three body-waves
propagating in anisotropic media: a quasi 2. Body waves in homogeneous media
compressional-wave, and two quasi shear-
waves, where qS1 is the faster, and qS2 the We examine the propagation of body waves in
slower shear-wave, respectively. The prefix anisotropic media, leaving aside the question of
quasi will frequently be omitted when the how plane waves in such media are generated [40],
meaning is clear. The shear waves by assuming that the anisotropy is sufficiently weak
propagating in a plane of s y m m e t r y are for well-proven isotropic-techniques to be appli-
denoted by qSP, polarized parallel to the cable. A p a r t from the question of wave genera-
plane, and qSR, polarized at right angles tion, most of the analysis is general for any degree
to the plane. of anisotropy, with the exceptions of the tech-
1 / O is the specific attenuation-coefficient, also niques which m a k e use of approximate expres-
referred to as the dissipation coefficient. sions in Sections 6, 8.2, and 9.
R, V, and T are submatrices of the full elastic
tensor, with elements {Cj3k3}, {Cjlk3}, and 2.1. Phase velocities [8]
{C~lkl}, respectively.
S = V + V T. The elastodynamic equations of motion in a
t is time. uniform purely-elastic anisotropic-medium are
= T-pc2L
Diij = CikmnUm,nk, for j = 1, 2, 3, (2.1)
Superscript T denotes the transpose of a vector
or tensor quantity. where we have rotated the elastic tensor with
u is the displacement vector, with elements {u~}. elements Cikmn by the usual tensor-transformation
U is the group-velocity vector. t I ! ! /
Cjkmn ~" X j,pX k,qX m,rX n,sCpqrs,
Vqp, Vqs1, Vqs2, Vqsp, and Vqs R a r e the phase
velocities of the qP, qS1, qS2, qSP, and qSR for j, k, m, n, p, q, r, s = 1, 2, 3, (2.2)
waves, respectively.
S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 347

to get the desired direction of phase propagation tuent of the Earth's upper-mantle. The velocities
into the xl-coordinate direction with the xa direc- have been plotted on a rectangular grid, rather
tion vertically downwards. The general expression than a polar diagram, in order to display the
for the harmonic displacement of a homogeneous angular variations more clearly. In planes of
plane-wave is symmetry such as those illustrated in Fig. 2.1, the
form of (2.4) indicates that the polarization of qP
ui = ai exp[ito (t - qkXk)], (2.3)
and of one of the two orthogonal shear-waves
where a is the amplitude vector specifying the (named qSP) is parallel to the symmetry plane, and
polarization of the particle motion; and q is the that the polarization of the other shear-wave
slowness vector. The slowness vector of a plane (named qSR) is at right angles to the plane (the
wave propagating in the xl direction is q -- (1/c, O, notation qSP and qSR is used only in symmetry
0) a', where c is the phase velocity. Substituting the planes).
displacement (2.3) into the equation of motion It is informative to contrast the behaviour in
(2.1) gives three simultaneous-equations, which isotropic media. The isotropic elastic-tensor is
may be solved for c in any direction. However, the invariant with rotation, and T is the diagonal
preferred procedure is to write the solution as a matrix:
linear eigenvalue problem for pcZ:

( T - pc2I)a = 0, (2.4) T= 0 /a, .


0 0
where T is the 3 x 3 matrix with elements {Cjlkl};
and, for convenience, we have omitted the con- The eigen equation (2.4) factorizes, and the well-
stant factor exp(itot). In numerical solutions of the known isotropic velocities can be written down
eigenvalue problem (2.4), we order the roots for immediately: c = a = x/(A + 2 ~ ) / p for the com-
pc 2 . m order of decreasing absolute values. pressional P-wave velocity, and the repeated root
Since the matrix T is a real symmetric positive- c =/3 = ~//~/p for the shear-wave velocities. The
definite submatrix of the full real symmetric posi- P-wave polarization is exactly in the radial xl-
tive-definite matrix of elastic constants from the direction, and the shear-wave polarizations for the
tensor of elastic constants, the eigenvalue problem double root are any two orthogonal-vectors map-
(2.4) has three real positive roots for pc 2, with ping out the plane perpendicular to xl.
orthogonal eigenvectors a. These roots refer to a In anisotropic propagation, we may consider the
quasi P-wave (qP), and two quasi shear waves solutions of the eigenvalue problem (2.4) as trac-
(qS1 and qS2), where quasi indicates that these ing out three slowness-surfaces, or, alternatively,
waves only have superficial resemblence to the three velocity-surfaces (in this review, we shall
isotropic P- and S-waves. refer to them as slowness surfaces or, more usually,
We immediately see fundamental differences velocity surfaces, as convenient). In all mineral and
between isotropic and anisotropic propagation. In two-phase solids we have examined, the qP slow-
every direction of phase propagation in an aniso- ness-sheet is wholly convex and interior to the
tropic medium, there are three body-waves propa- shear-wave slowness-sheets. Intersections of the
gating with velocities varying with direction shear-wave velocity-sheets with symmetry planes
and with orthogonal polarizations fixed for the display largely 20 and 40 variations with direction
particular direction of phase propagation in [22], and they appear to cross each other several
the particular symmetry-system. Fig. 2.1 shows the times as in Fig. 2.1 (but see the next section). The
phase-velocity variations over the three ortho- polarizations and velocities vary slowly along each
gonal symmetry-planes of orthorhombic ortho- section of the velocity surfaces cut by these sym-
pyroxene, which is a possible anisotropic consti- metry planes.
348 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media

a b c
X-CUT Y-CUT Z-CUT
9.8 9.0 9.

f QP
8.0 8.0 ...it 8

klA
~
~.7.~
~ / tlA
UD
~7.0
t.d
tO
~.7.C
% QP

Z Z Z

~- 6 . 0 ~- 6 . 0 6.0
(_3 L3
c3 E3 E3
_J
L~ L~ L~

uJS.0 QSR
"----- //- OSR _~--,.~...._ QSB >
z ~ QSP a:
>- >-
g
o
cnq.0 an Lt.0 clnq.
O 30 60 90 0 30 60 90 0 30 60 90

Fig. 2.1. Intersection of the phase-velocitysurfaces (solid lines) and the wave or group-velocitysurfaces (dashed lines) of the three
body-waves with the three orthogonal symmetry-planesof orthorhombic orthopyroxene (elastic constants from [41]):
(a) x-cut symmetryplane; angles measured over 90° from the y-axis towards z-axis,
(b) y-cut symmetryplane; angles from z-axis towards x-axis, and
(c) z-cut symmetryplane; angles from x-axis towards y-axis.
The qSP waves are shear-waves with polarizations parallel, and qSR at right angles to each symmetry-plane.

Fig. 2.2 shows just more than a solid octant of velocity sheets are analytically continuous: the
the two shear-wave phase-velocity surfaces for shear waves must cross each other an odd number
orthopyroxene. The qP-wave velocity-surface of times (and at least once) on rounding the corner.
(not shown), and the two quasi shear-wave The shear-wave sheets are analytically continuous
velocity surfaces are almost spherical surfaces in all anisotropic media, and the sheets must come
with no marked features, apart from the slight into contact at least twice as the velocities are
indentations and projections associated with unaltered by 180 ° rotation, because of the sym-
the shear-wave singularities discussed in the metry of the tensor transformations. The points of
next section. contact are directions of singularity of the shear-
wave roots. They most commonly occur on planes
2.2. S h e a r - w a v e singularities [22, 23, 24] of mirror symmetry, although they may occur in
off-symmetry directions in trigonal, orthorhombic,
The behaviour of shear waves in symmetry monoclinic, and triclinic systems. It is surprising
planes, such as those shown in Fig. 2.1, appears that, although singularities in the shear-wave
comparatively straight-forward. This apparent sheets are well known (they are usually called
simplicity is misleading. Tracing each shear-wave conical points [38]), the essential analytical con-
round the orthogonal corner in Fig. 2.1, the tinuity of the shear-wave sheets does not appear
polarizations demonstrate that the two phase- to have been recognised before 1977 [8].
S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 349

-Z -Z
QS2

-Z
-Z

X X

il b
i
Fig. 2.2. Projections of just more than a solid octant of the phase-velocity and group-velocity surfaces of the shear waves in
orthopyroxene projected onto a plane from infinity. (a) projections of the faster sheet qS1, and (b) projections of the slower sheet qS2.
The upper octants are of the phase-velocity surfaces, where the arrows mark the positions of point singularities. The lower octants are
of the group-velocity of wave surfaces and include three plane sections of the singular feature associated with the singularity near the y
axis.

T h e r e are t h r e e t y p e s of singularity: kiss c u r v e (such i n t e r s e c t i o n s are o n l y possible in


singularities, w h e r e th e t w o s h e e t s t o u c h t a n g e n - systems of h e x a g o n a l s y m m e t r y , w h e n t h e closed
tially with e i t h e r c o n v e x or c o n c a v e c o n t a c t ; inter- c u r v e is a circle a b o u t t h e s y m m e t r y axis); an d
section singularities, w h e r e t h e t w o s h e e t s m a y b e point singularities, w h e r e t h e t w o s h e e t s h a v e
c o n s i d e r e d as c u t t i n g e a c h o t h e r a l o n g a c l o s e d c o m m o n p o i n t s at t h e v e r t i c e s of c o n e - s h a p e d
350 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media

projections of the surfaces. Singularities are very


common in most systems of anisotropic-symmetry
(see Section 7.1, below); in cubic symmetry, for
example, which in many ways is one of the simplest
(J
bJ
(f]
5.

°I'x a

of the symmetry systems, the shear-wave phase-


velocity surfaces have eight point singularities and Z

six kiss singularities. The orthorhombic system in


q.
Fig. 2.1 has point singularities at 14 ° and 70 ° from
the y-axis in the x-cut, and at 10 ° from the x-axis o

b3
in the z-cut. It is very close to a kiss singularity at >

55 ° from the z-axis in the y-cut, but the sheets do b3


>
(%
not quite come into contact. Z

Shear-wave singularities are well-known fea- g


tures of propagation in anisotropic solids (Duff C23
rn q.,
[42], for example), but what has only recently been 1o 20 30
RNGLE FROM T A X I S
recognised is the effect singularities have on the
polarizations of each shear-wave sheet. The
behaviour at intersection singularities is simple
and obvious. Kiss and point singularities, however,
may cause considerable complications to the
shear-wave behaviour in neighbouring directio.ns. D4 ~ ~ ~, x x

Fig. 2.3 illustrates the behaviour near the point ~: ~ \V, T


singularity at 14 ° from the y-axis in the x-cut
orthopyroxene of Fig. 2.1. The sections of the two t~ 2~ 3O
shear-wave velocity surfaces in Fig. 2.3a have ANGLE FROM T AX]5
point contact in the symmetry plane, but, in off-
Fig. 2,3. Behaviour of the shear-wave velocity-surfaces near
symmetry directions, the velocity variations pinch the point singularity at 14 ° from the y-axis in x-cut ortho-
together with varying degrees of tightness de- pyroxene (Fig. 2.1a):
pending on the distance from the singularity. As (a) Sections of the phase-velocity surface. Solid lines are the
intersections with the x-cut symmetry-plane, and the lines with
the direction of propagation passes such a pinch, increasing length of dash correspond to intersections with
the polarizations of the two shear-wave sheets are planes rotated about the y-axis away from the symmetry plane
exchanged. Fig. 2.3b demonstrates how the by 2 °, 5 °, 10°, 20 °, and 30 °, respectively.
(b) Relative amplitudes of body-wave polarizations of the
polarization of each shear-wave sheet swings
slower shear-wave, qS2, in the off-symmetry planes in (a),
through 90 °. Such pinches cause only minor above, relative to the Normal out of the planes of variation, and
modifications to the behaviour of plane shear- the Radial and Transverse directions in these planes.
waves, but may produce very complicated
behaviour in spherical wavefronts and rays from parallel to symmetry planes, which we have named
point sources [24]. qSP and qSR, may lie partly on one shear-wave
All shear-wave phase-velocities in all aniso- velocity-sheet and partly on the other.
tropic materials lie on one analytically continuous Fig. 2.2 shows the three-dimensional nature of
surface of two sheets [8, 23, 31]. However, for the phenomenon. There are three point-singu-
convenience, we shall treat the surface as having larities, in the solid octant of the phase-velocity
two sheets, which touch in a limited number of sheets illustrated, corresponding to the shear-
singular directions. We call the faster sheet qS1, wave crossings in the plane sections of Fig. 2.1.
and the slower qS2. Shear waves propagating The singularities are marked by shallow conical
x Z-CUT b X Z-CUT x Z-CUT

85 70 50 40 50 4O
z Y-CUT z Y-CUT Z "( -CUT

3"

g~

85 70 50 40 50 40
Y X-CUT "l' X-CUT T X-CUT
g~

¢%

&
Z z Z
~ &

85 70 50 40
/
5O 4O

Fig. 2.4. Stereographic projections of the phase-velocity surfaces of orthopyroxene onto the three symmetry-planes: the z-, y-, and x-cuts (from the top). On the left of
each stereogram is the section of y-, x-, and z-cuts, respectively. The contours are labelled in km/sec x 10, and the small solid circles in the shear-wave stereograms mark
the positions of the shear-wave singularities. The stereograms are:
(a) qP velocity,
(b) faster quasi shear-wave velocity, qS I, and
(c) slower quasi shear-wave velocity, qS2.
The behaviour of the contours and sections is a little blurred near some of the singularities. This is due to the coarseness of grid of points used to obtain the graphs.
352 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media

indentations of the faster sheet qS1, and by shal- direction, 0to/bK1 = c, and, if there is no body-wave
low conical projections of the slower sheet qS2. dispersion, (2.5) becomes
The two sheets are continuous through the singu-
U ~- (c, O0.)/OK2, OW/~K3) T, (2.6)
larities at the vertices of these shallow cones.
Seismic observations of anisotropy are fre- Thus, in non-dispersive anisotropic media, the
quently confined to the variations in one plane energy travels in the propagation direction at the
of the anisotropic medium, as are most obser- phase velocity c, but, in general, also has a
vations of anisotropy in the Earth's upper-mantle component perpendicular to the propagation
[9, 10, 21] and crust [19]. Plane sections of the vector, so that ]UI I> c. For propagation in a plane
velocity surfaces, as in Fig. 2.1, are adequate for of symmetry, x3 = 0 say, symmetry considerations
these applications, and indeed for many three- demonstrate that the energy is confined to the
dimensional modelling studies [15]. However, symmetry plane and 0(.O//0K3 = 0.
plane sections cannot indicate the true three- The deviation of the group-velocity from the
dimensional nature of the variations. Fig. 2.4 phase-velocity direction has a negligible effect on
shows stereographic projections of the variations propagation of body wave in weakly anisotropic
of three velocity-surfaces of the orthopyroxene of material, when Oto/Ox2 and 0to/0K3 are both small
Fig. 2.1, projected onto the three orthogonal [22]. However, the deviation may produce
symmetry-planes by the techniques of [24]. The significant effects, including cusps in the shear-
variation of the qP surface is straightforward, wave slowness-surfaces, for propagation in more
although not wholly predictable from the sections strongly anisotropic material [23, 24]. The convex
of the symmetry planes in Fig. 2.1, but the shear- nature of the qP slowness-surface, when it is
wave velocity-surfaces show unexpectedly wholly interior to the shear-wave surfaces, pro-
complicated patterns caused by the rapid varia- hibits cusps in the qP-wave velocity-variations.
tions in the gradient of the velocities near The surface traced out by the energy radiated
singularities. from a point source in a given time, called the wave
Projections onto generally oriented planes may surface or group-velocity surface, is the envelope
show very asymmetric stereograms. However, all of the wave fronts propagating from a point source
stereograms for a particular wave-type in any in a given time [43]. The general expression for the
particular anisotropic medium are equivalent wave surface is easily obtained from this envelope.
under rotation of the axes. If r = V(O, d~) is a point on the phase velocity
surface in spherical coordinates, the correspond-
2.3. Group velocities [8, 22, 23, 24] ing point on the wave surface has Cartesian
coordinates [24]
A further consequence of the variation of velo-
city with direction in anisotropic media is that the xl =cos(/) cos 0 V - c o s ~b sin 0 dV/dO
wave number, which in isotropic propagation is -(sin 4~/cos 0) d V/d4~,
usually a scalar quantity, becomes a vector, re, for
both body-wave and surface-wave propagation in x2 =sin tb cos 0 V - s i n 4) sin 0 dV/dO
(2.7)
anisotropic media. The classic expression for +(cos ~b/cos 0) d V/dth,
body-wave group-velocity, U = Oto/OK, becomes
x3 =sin 0 V + c o s 0 dV/dO.
U = (&o/OK1, ato/0K2, &o/OK3)T, (2.5)
and energy transport is no longer always parallel to Note that there is a copying error in [24] and the
the body-wave phase-propagation vector, even for sign of the third term of x2 is positive.
non-dispersive media, as it would be in isotropic The intersection of the wave surface with a
propagation. For phase propagation in the Xl symmetry plane takes a particularly simple form.
S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 353

Points on the wave surface have a velocity coordinate system specified by the Kelvin-
Christoffel equation:
U = (V 2 + (dV/dO)2) 1/2, (2.8)
Al-pV 01~1ot~2 °1~1°/3 t (ax)
in a direction
0~1a2 AE-pV 2 O/20~3 [ a2 = 0,
= t a n - l ( ( V sin 0 + (dV/d0) cos 0) 0~10~3 0~20t3 A 3 - 0 " V 2] a3

/ ( V cos 0 - ( d V / d 0 ) sin 0)), and A k and ak are defined by Equation (2.11) at


(2.9) the bottom of this page.
This treatment of group velocity is the only
where V(O) is the phase velocity in a direction 0 in
occasion in this review when we find it convenient
the symmetry plane. Postma [44] first derived this
to use direction cosines and refer elastic constants
expression for transversely-isotropic media, but
to a fixed coordinate system.
the expression is also valid for group velocity in
Cusps in wave surfaces are caused by two types
any anisotropic symmetry-plane. Fig. 2.1 also
of feature on the phase-velocity surfaces (it is
shows the intersections of the wave surfaces with
convenient to speak of features on the phase-
the three orthogonal symmetry-planes of ortho-
velocity surface causing cusps on the wave surface,
pyroxene determined by (2.8) and (2.9).
since analytically and numerically the wave surface
An alternative expression for group velocity,
is derived from the phase-velocity surface). The
which is particularly useful for calculation in a
overall curvature of the velocity surface can caus¢
uniform anisotropic half-space, is given by Mus-
cusps: for example, there are incipient cusps on the
grave [38], which refers parameters to a fixed
qSP curve at 0 ° in x-cut orthopyroxene of Fig.
coordinate system. Musgrave shows that the ele-
2.1a, and 90 ° on the qSP curve in Fig. 2.1c. These
ments of the group-velocity vector are
would be more pronounced if the convex curva-
3 ture of the velocity surface were any greater. The
Ui = (½pV) Z (a 2k / a 2k)[(P V 2 - Ak)Oa 2k/Oni
k=l other features causing cusps in wave surfaces are
the high local curvatures close to shear-wave
+Ct2kOAk/om], (2.10) singularities.
Fig. 2.2 shows an octant of the two shear wave-
for i = 1, 2, 3, where V is phase velocity; nl are surfaces corresponding to the two velocity-
direction cosines, and a k are elements of the surfaces. The uniformity of the phase-
polarization vector, both referred to the fixed velocity surfaces has disappeared completely and

All=
A2
A3
O~20t3
/Cl111
C1212
C1313
C1312
C1212
C2222
C2323
C2223
C1313
C2323
C3333
C3323
1
C1312
C2223
C3323
2(C2233+C2323)
1
Cl113
C2312
C3313
½(C3312+C2313)
C2313 |

C1113 C2312 C3313 2(C33,2"4-C2313)


1
½(C1133+C1313) 12n3n,]
C1112 C2212 C2313 2(C2213"Jf'C2312) ½(C1123+C1312) ½(c,,22+c,2,2)/ 12n,n2/

Equation (2.11), see text.


354 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media

there is considerable three-dimensional distortion. for orthopyroxene in Fig. 2.2b is certainly a very
The overall curvature of the velocity surface leads shallow cone it is not planar.
to cuspidal edges and fins on the slower sheet qS2; One feature of energy propagation in aniso-
we define edges as three-dimensional cuspidal tropic media is unmistakably clear: energy
features with one sharp edge, and fins as three- propagation is a three-dimensional phenomenon.
dimensional features with two sharp edges. The Examination of propagation in one plane, even a
qS2 wave-surface in Fig. 2.2 has cuspidal edges symmetry plane, may give no indication of the
running either side of the y = 0 plane from the x behaviour in neighbouring directions, particularly
axis to midway between the x and z axes, where if there are singularities nearby. Since singularities
they each evolve into fins, one of which runs are very common features of shear-wave velocity
diagonally across the top of the octant. The surfaces (Table 7.1, below), singular features are
behaviour of the two-sheeted shear wave-surfaces common for shear-wave propagation in all aniso-
near shear-wave singularities may be very tropic solids, although, for very weakly anisotropic
complicated. The effects of the singularities near solids, the angular spread of the features may be
the x and z axes appear to be hidden in the very small.
complicated behaviour of the cuspidal edges and We see that the wave surfaces of shear waves are
fins. However, the singularity at about 14 ° from frequently complicated by projecting and over-
the y axis displays the classic behaviour of point lapping cuspidal fins and edges. The expressions
singularities. The faster shear wave-sheet qS1 has (2.7)-(2.9) allow shear-wave propagation to be
an open hole, and there is a corresponding flat computed in homogeneous anisotropic-media, but
inverted-conical lid, resting point-downwards on propagation in more complicated structures must
the slower sheet qS2, which fits exactly into the be interpreted by means of numerical experiments
hole on the faster sheet. The only way of progress- with synthetic seismograms with spherical wave-
ing from one sheet to the other (and the only way fronts.
of crossing the open hole) is by a range of phase-
propagation directions which pass directly through 2.4. P-wave polarizations [29]
the singularity, as in the symmetry planes in Fig.
2.1. The wave directions corresponding to neigh- Analysis of P-wave arrival-times is the major
bouring section of phase propagation go through .seismic technique for investigating the structure of
rapid variations as indicated in Fig. 2.2. In the qS1 the Earth, but is rather insensitive to the smoothly
sheet the directions skirt round the hole, and in the changing angular-variations expected in aniso-
qS2 sheet the directions follow tight convolutions tropic structures. The only occasions, when P -
in the flat inverted-conical lid. wave arrival-times are likely to unambiguously
Cuspidal features associated with overall indicate anisotropy, are in the few places where P
curvature and the features associated with waves can be observed over many directions in
singularities are frequently asymmetrical and one plane.
irregular, and a great many possible combinations One of the main themes of this review is that
of features exist. These have not yet been classified shear-wave polarization-anomalies appear to be
in any way. Miller and Musgrave [45] first recog- an important diagnostic, which can be used for
nised the hole and lid phenomenon, although estimating in situ anisotropy. Unfortunately,
Musgrave makes no direct mention of it in his book shear-wave arrivals are frequently disturbed by
[38]. Burridge [46] examines the hole and lid the coda of the preceding P-wave and by S to P
p h e n o m e n o n for singularities in cubic nickel, and conversions. It would be much easier to recognise
finds that the lid is a plane surface. Although the lid and investigate anisotropy if P-wave polarizations
S. Crampin I Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 355

displayed anomalies. However, [29] shows that, in the same direction and just exceeds the devia-
although P-wave polarizations may deviate signi- tion of the polarization vector. The algebra is
ficantly from the phase-propagation direction, rather specialized for this review, and the reader is
the apparent deviation of the polarization from the referred to [29] for details. However, it is worth
direction of the great circle or ray arrival is small, noting that the quantity that controls the size and
and is likely to be overlooked. This is because direction of both deviations is the constant c1121
seismic energy travels along the ray path traced by referred to the local coordinate system (radial,
the group-velocity vector, which also deviates transverse, and vertical to the phase front). This is
from the phase-propagation vector (see the pre- the off-diagonal element in the T matrix in the
vious Section) in the same direction as the eigenvalue equation (2.4) for the body-wave
polarization deviation. Fig. 2.5 illustrates sche- phase-velocities, when x3 = 0 is a plane of mirror
matically the behaviour in a symmetry plane, symmetry.
where the phase-propagation, group-velocity, and Fig. 2.6 gives some numerical examples of
polarization vectors are coplanar. polarization and group-velocity deviations in
symmetry planes in alpha-quartz, rutile, and
orthopyroxene, showing a range of velocity varia-
tions. The deviations of the P-wave polarizations
from the phase-propagation direction may be
/3-5 large (up to nearly 30 ° in the strong anisotropy in
Fig. 2.6a). However, Fig. 2.6 and numerical
examination of a variety of symmetry planes in all

RAY
OR ~.CL
GBOUP
V
-ELOC
T
I V J~
symmetry systems shows that the group-velocity
deviation is almost the same as the polarization
deviation so that the apparent deviation, the
\ <. difference between them, is small, and likely to be
attributed to noise or local heterogeneities. Note
from Fig. 2.6a that the deviation of the group
velocity is only invariably greater than the
polarization deviation for one of three mutually-
orthogonal symmetry planes.
¢
Algebraic analysis of group-velocity and
Fig. 2.5 (after [29]). Schematic diagram of the deviation of the
polarization deviations has not yet been attempted
polarization and group-velocity vectors from the phase-pro- for general directions of propagation, but
pagation vector. The heavy line is the particle-motion numerical examination of a large number of solids
polarization direction. The polarization deviates from the pro-
from different symmetry systems always indicates
pagation vector by an angle a, and the ray, or group-velocity
vector, deviates by/3, giving an apparent polarization deviation almost the same deviations for group-velocity and
of B - a . polarization deviations. Fig. 2.7 shows stereo-
grams of the horizontal projections of the apparent
P-wave polarizations in anisotropic halfspaces
It can be demonstrated algebraically [29] that, made of the same materials and having the same
for propagation in symmetry planes in the more surface cuts as in Fig. 2.6. In all cases, the horizon-
common anisotropic systems with cubic, hexa- tal projections of the polarizations are nearly
gonal, tetragonal, and orthorhombic symmetry, radial, and are unlikely to be identified in obser-
the deviation of the group-velocity vector is always vations.
356 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media

8.0 10.0
S
. ¢

/
.~ 7.o 7-
"

----..%
...J u
u.l uJ
> 5.B > 7.B
O 30 60 • 90 120 15~ 180 0 38 6° 90 8 30 60 90

W 3o.o =~ 3o.o 3 o . e _ _
,=,
C3

o.o = ~- ~'~X~ ~ 0.0


o=
~= -3a.o ~ -30.0 ~- "~ -30.0
,>, o 38 60 90 120 150 180 0 30 60 90 0 30 60 90
C3 ANGLE FROM Z AXIS C:] ANGLE FROM X RXI5 ANGLE FROM X RXI$

Fig. 2.6 (after [29]). Variation with direction of the qP-wave velocity and deviations of the polarization and group-velocity vectors in
planes of mirror symmetry.
Top figures: Velocity variations. Dotted lines are the phase-velocity variation, and solid lines are the apparent velocity (the group
velocity) plotted in the direction of the ray. Lines join corresponding points at every 10 ° of phase-velocity variation.
Bottom figures: A n g u l a r deviations. Dotted lines are the deviation of the polarization, and dashed lines are the d~viation of the
group velocity, both plotted against the direction of the phase-propagation vector. Solid lines are the apparent deviation of the
polarization, the difference of the two deviations, plotted in the direction of the ray. Lines join corresponding points at every 10 ° of
phase-velocity variation.
T h e variations are: (a) x-cut alpha-quartz (trigonal symmetry), (b) z-cut rutile (tetragonal symmetry), (c) z-cut orthopyroxene
(orthorhombic symmetry) (Solids are specified in [22]).

N N N
\ I
/// \ \ I / /
/ / xkX\ \
/ / /i ////
/ ./.I.t ~ ---.'~ \ I / 1-/._... I
"~"---"- \ I
I I

\ \ ~'- / .// / \ \\

/ // / I t \\ x ////
'i
/It ""~\ // / I \ \
a b c

Fig. 2.7 (after [29]). Stereograms of the horizontal projections of the apparent qP-wave polarizations for propagation from a point
source in an anisotropic halfspace m a d e of the same materials and having the same surface cuts as in Fig. 2.6. The polarizations are
plotted at equal azimuthal intervals of phase propagation. (a), (b), and (c) correspond to Figs. 2.6a, b, and c, respectively.

3. Matrix formulations tor multilayered media layered-media. We consider an m layered half-


space, with the axes, and the layer and interface
This section provides basic matrix-formulations, numbering arranged as in Fig. 3.1. The direction
which are the tools for solving many problems in of the apparent velocity c along the surface is
body- and surface-wave calculations in anisotropic confined to the xl direction, and all the elastic
S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropicand cracked media 357

where R, V, and T are the 3 x 3 matrices {Ci3k3},


X_) X1
i b {Cilk3}, and {Cjlkl}, respectively: S = V + VT; and I
1
2 is the 3 x 3 identity matrix. Since R is non-singular,
2 (3.3) can be written in partitioned matrices as a
linear eigenvalue problem for p:

M.
M-I [[-R-1S --R-z~"~ /l 0 ap
M 0 }-P~0 /)](a) =0 (3.4)
X3
Fig. 3.1. Coordinate axes for multilayered models. Elastic where T = T - p c 2 L The matrix decomposition of
tensors are rotated so that the anisotropicaxescoincidewiththe
space coordinatesand the apparent velocityalong the surface is the full 9 × 9 elastic tensor into the 3 x 3 sub-
in the xl direction. matrices R, S, T, and V was originally due to Stroh
[47], but has been developed independently by
Taylor [17, 18], and has great advantages both
tensors are rotated accordingly. Since most of the
for body-wave, and, particularly, surface-wave
analysis in this section involves complex quan-
calculations.
tities, the distinction between homogeneous and
The linear eigenvalue problem (3.4) is suitable
inhomogeneous waves is unimportant for analy-
for numerical solution, but we continue the analy-
tical and programming manipulations.
sis to demonstrate further computational advan-
tages for the next Section. Expression (3.4) can be
3.1. Slowness equations [1, 8, 17, 18] written in the purely-matrix form:
The general displacement in any of the layers
consists of six waves, three travelling upwards (in -R-'S -R-'7" AP
the direction of negative x3), and three travelling i o )(7
downwards. The displacement can be written
as (2.3):
6
Ui= ~ f#ai(n) exp[ito(t--qk(n)xk)], (3.1) where if the column eigenvector corresponding to
n=l
Pi is (a~pi, aT) T, then
where f is the vector of excitation functions for
P = diag(pl, P2, P3),
the six waves. We take q~ = 1/c, q2 = 0, and p, =
cq3(n) for propagation in the xl direction. /$ = diag(p4, Ps, P6),
The problem is to determine p, for each wave in A = (al, a2, a3),
each layer for a given horizontal phase velocity c.
Substituting (3.1) into the equations of motion = (a,, a5, a6).
(2.1), we obtain three simultaneous equations for The form corresponding to (3.5) for the row
each layer: eigenvectors of (3.3) is:
Fjkak = 0, (3.2)
pATR -AT2r)(-R/-1S -R0-1T)=
where F#~ =--pc 2~$im+Cikmnqkqn; and we have
~6,iTR -iiTt
omitted the common factor exp(itot). This can be
written as a matrix equation for p (dropping
the suffix on p,), frequently called the slowness _(0 ~ j \~,~TR _t~TT]. (3.6)
equation:
The row and column vectors for distinct eigen-
Fa = (Rp 2 + Sp + T - pc2I)a = O, (3.3) values are orthogonal in an n × n linear eigenvalue
358 $. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media

problem, and, providing a set of n independent and the subscript n refers to values in the n th layer.
column vectors can be found, there exists an Similarly, the displacement-stress vector at the
orthogonal set of n row vectors, even when the pj (n + l ) t h interface is related to the excitation
are not distinct. Consequently, the product of vector of the nth layer by:
the row and column vectors is a diagonal matrix.
We have
= E.D.([)., (3.12)
pATR -AT~'~I(Ap At 5
P,U R A 7, J=
where
= diag(yl, y 2 , . . . , y6), (3.7)
D, =diag[exp(-iwpfl,/c)], j = 1, 2 . . . . 6;
and the matrix of column vectors is the inverse of
the matrix of row vectors, if the ai are scaled so that and dn is the thickness of the nth layer.
39 = 1, j = 1, 2 . . . . 6. Since the matrix of row Combining the expressions (3.10) and (3.11)
eigenvectors may be constructed from the column we have a propagator matrix (Gilbert and
eigenvectors: Backus [48]):
pATR -AT~
p~TR -.~TTJ =
'T n+l n'

where G,=E,,D,E~ ~, which allows the dis-


we can obtain the inverse without numerical placement-stress vector at any interface to be
inversion. Taylor [18] discusses these equations in related to that at any other interface by the product
more detail. of appropriate Gj for the intervening layers.
We now scale aj so that yj = 1 in (3.7), and use
3.2. Propagator matrices [1, 8, 17, 18] (3.7) and (3.8) to obtain

The boundary conditions across any internal ~z~P~T(-v I


E:'=(AP A} \-T 0)" (3.14)
welded-interface of the multilayered halfspace are
the continuity of the displacements u, given by
Thus the solution of the slowness equation in the
(3.1), and the continuity of the stresses normal to
form of the eigenvalue problem (3.4), and simple
the interface tr~3, o':s, and o'33, where the stresses
scaling of the eigenvectors at, allows us to construct
are given by
the propagator matrices without numerical inver-
Orik = CtkmnU. . . . (3.9) sion of 6 x 6 double-length complex-matrices.
This gives considerable savings in computer time,
The displacement-stress vector at the n th interface
particularly in surface-wave calculations, where
is related to the excitation vector (f), in the nth
the propagator matrices are calculated within
layer by the expression
iterative cycles (see Section 5, below).
There are a number of new developments in the
(.~.) =E,([),, (3.10) theory of surface waves in anisotropic media,
which have come from the theory of dislocations in
where solid-state physics. These lead to an alternative,
and in some ways more attractive, technique for
7" ---- ( i c / t o ) ( o ' 1 3 , 0"23 , or33)T;
deriving the inverse of E , without numerical
I ](AP AP inversion. The technique requires quite different
E°=( ° V,\A (3.11) analysis from that reviewed here, and we shall not
S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 359

describe it as, in its present stage of development, The equations of motion (3.15) can then be written
it is much less convenient for describing the range
puj = Cjk,,,.U,,,.k,,, for j = 1, 2, 3,
of body- and surface-wave applications we shall (3.18)
discuss in this paper. Chadwick and Smith [49] give C4kranUm,kn = 0
a comprehensive review of these developments.
where u4 = 4); and the implicit summations now
run from 1 to 4. The tensor transformation (2.2),
3.3. Matrix formulations }:or piezoelectric
for rotating to a new coordinate system (x~), is
media [17]
preserved, with summation subscripts again run-
Taylor and Crampin [17] demonstrate that the ning from 1 to 4, and x],t 4 X 4t , ] ----- 0 for J # 4, and
--~

matrix formulations for elastic anisotropy may be x~,4 = 1.


extended to include piezoelectric anisotropy. The equations in Sections 3.1 and 3.2 can now
Here, we briefly indicate how the formulae of the be extended with a few minor changes. The dis-
previous two sections carry over into piezoelec- placements (3.1) become
tricity; [3, 4, 17] contain details and applications. 8
Volume 2 of Wave Electronics (1976) contains ui = • fnaj(n)exp[ito(t--qk(n)Xk)],
n=l
several review papers on Surface Acoustic Wave
for j = l, 2, 3, 4 and k = l, 2 , 3 . (3.19)
(SAW) Devices in piezoelectric media, including a
g e n e r a l review by Farnell [50]. Substituting (3.19) into the equations of motion
The equations of motion in a piezoelectric (3.18) gives four simultaneous equations:
anisotropic solid, with negligible conductivity,
Fj,,a,, = 0, for j = 1, 2, 3, 4, (3.20)
are [51]:
2 A ^
where F/m = - p c 8jr~ +Cjkm,qkq, and 8j,, is the
pU] -~- CikmnUm.kn "[" ekp,,r~.k~,
modified Kronecker function 8i,- = 8jm, for ], m <
for ] = 1, 2, 3, (3.15) 4, and 8i,- = 0, when either j or m = 4. The slow-
ness equation (3.3) becomes
eikmUk,jra -- ~ i m ~ , i m = O,
2 ^
Fa=(Rp2+$p+T-pc I)a =0, (3.21)
where 4) is the electric potential, and ekp, and el,,
are the constants of the piezoelectric and dielectric where R, S, and T are defined as for (3.3) with
tensors, respectively. subscripts now running from 1 to 4; and/~ = diag(1,
The elements of the tensors have the following 1, 1, 0). The remaining equations in Sections 3.1
symmetry relationships [52]: and 3.2 ((3.4) to (3.14)), and many equations
throughout this review, extend directly to piezo-
Cjkran = Ckjran = Cmnjk,
electric propagation with subscripts running from
eik,,= ei,,k, and 1 to 3, 1 to 4, or 1 to 8, as appropriate.
The application of these piezoelectric equations
¢k,, = emk. (3.16)
follows very much as we shall demonstrate, below,
These symmetries are preserved if we contract the for elastic anisotropy. The major difference is that
notation by extending cikm, so that subscripts run there is now a free-surface boundary-condition for
from 1 to 4, as follows: the electric potential. The two cases of most inter-
est are when there is a shorting interface and ~b = 0
C4kmn = ekmn ; C4k4n = --~kn ; at z = 0; and when the surface is free and d~ is
continuous but decays to zero at large distances
C44mn ~- C 4 4 4 n = C4444 = O,
from the surface. Both these conditions can be
fork, m,n=l,2,3. (3.17) accommodated. A program for calculating the
360 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media

properties of micro-acoustic surface-waves in of the anisotropic propagator-matrices (3.13).


multilayered piezoelectric-structures has been Section 4.2 gives an outline of the method. The ray
described in [3, 4]. method is more suited to calculating propagation
in continuously varying media. This technique
requires rather different analysis, and has not yet
4. Synthetic body-wave seismograms been programmed by the reviewer; however,
Cerven~, and his colleagues have written several
The calculation of synthetic seismograms is one papers on anisotropic ray calculations. One of the
of the major techniques for the interpretation of problems in the anisotropic ray method is how to
wave propagation. Numerical experimentation specify and attach meaning to varying anisotropic
allows realistic interpretation of observations from media, where a number of elastic constants vary in
complicated structures, that would have been space. We shall leave this question until we have a
quite impossible a few years ago. Even in the better understanding of anisotropic structures.
largely theoretical developments reviewed here, However, for completeness, we give an outline of
synthetic seismograms and numerical experimen- the anisotropic ray-method in Section 4.3.
tation have been a major aid to understanding
wave propagation in anisotropic media. 4.1. P l a n e w a v e s [11, 12, 13, 15]
The separation of the phase- and group-velocity
A plane body-wave of frequency w impinging
vectors in anisotropic body-wave propagation
from a homogeneous halfspace onto a multi-
means that the propagation of waves depends
layered structure (Fig. 3.1) may be modelled
critically on whether the waves have plane or
immediately by the formalism of Section 3. The
curved (we shall call them spherical) wavefronts.
displacement of the incident wave, of whatever
Synthetic seismograms of plane waves through
type, qP, q S l , or q S 2 , may be written as one of
plane-layered anisotropic-media are compara-
the components of expression (3.1):
tively simple to compute, but have limited appli-
cation to a few very-specific problems. Within uj = a i exp[ko (t - Xl/C - x 3 p / c ) ] ,
these limitations, plane waves have made import-
ant contributions to our understanding of aniso- for] = 1, 2, 3, (4.1)
tropic body-wave propagation, and, in particular, where c is the apparent velocity in the Xl direction;
they have demonstrated the significance of shear- and p / c = q3 is the slowness in the x3 direction. In
wave polarization-anomalies for recognising and an isotropic halfspace, p can be written explicitly
estimating anisotropy. The next Section reviews as a function of the incidence angle and the
applications of plane waves to some simple aniso- constant isotropic velocity a, or/3, as appropriate,
tropic structures. but for an anisotropic halfspace, p is one of the
Almost all realistic problems require finite eigenvalues of the slowness equation (3.4). Both a
seismic-sources, and the modelling of spherical and p are real for a non-attenuating homogeneous
wavefronts. There are, at present, two principal wave, and p is negative for an upward propagating
techniques (with a great many variations) for wave with the axes in Fig. 3.1.
computing synthetic seismograms with spherical The displacement-stress vector at the top sur-
wavefronts in isotropic media. These are the face of the homogeneous halfspace can be written
reflectivity method [53, 54] and the ray method (3.10)
[55, 56]. The reflectivity technique, for calculating
synthetic seismograms in plane uniform aniso-
tropic layers, is particularly suited to the analysis
reviewed in Sections 2 and 3 as it makes direct use
S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 361

where (Jr),, = (fl, f2 . . . . . f6) T is the excitation In isotropic media (4.5) becomes
vector in the halfspace. We order the pj in Em so 1 2 ,
F i =-~to f f (A +2g,)qi
that [j = t~jk for j = 1, 2, 3, where k = 1, 2, or 3, for
the appropriate incident qP, qS1, or qS2 wave, for P waves, and
respectively, and the fj, for j = 4, 5, 6, are the Fj = ½to2f f * p.q,
excitations of the three downward-propagating
for shear waves.
waves.
The three plane body-waves propagating in the
The product of propagator matrices (3.13)
same direction are orthogonaUy-polarized, and
relates the displacement-stress vectors at the top
the polarizations are not, in general, radial or
of the halfspace to those at any other interface.
transverse to the propagation direction [8]. These
The solution is determined by relating the half-
polarizations cause phase conversions at inter-
space vector to the boundary conditions at the free
faces: the anomalous conversions between qP and
surface, where the components of normal stress
the quasi shear-waves are usually small, because
vanish. We have
the qP wave is nearly radially polar-
(8,k, 82k, 83k, /,, fs, f6)~ = ized; but the behaviour of the two shear-waves
causes anomalies at most isotropic/anisotropic
= E~IG(ul, u2, u3, O, O, O)T, (4.3) interfaces.
1 The wavefront of a plane wave is of infinite
where O = I - [ . = . , - t O . from (3.13); and u is the
extent and possesses infinite energy. This severely
displacement vector at the surface. The wave
limits the realism of most models. However,
motion throughout the layered structure is com-
Crampin [15] demonstrated some aspects of
pletely specified by the apparent velocity c of the
anisotropic wave-motion by the propagation of
given incident wave.
plane waves at normal incidence through the
Many details of plane-wave propagation,
vertical slab of anisotropic material set in an
including synthetic seismograms, can be obtained
isotropic solid shown in Fig. 4.1. T h e velocity
directly from (4.3). Synthetic seismograms are
determined by convolving the product of the x x
x
complex spectrum of the incident pulse with x
""x x
x x
frequency-dependent transfer-functions derived x
x
'~x
x
Z ,,\ x
from (4.3). /\ , ",
The behaviour of the energy propagation of xx'~ \x
x x
plane waves may be calculated by using the
expressions for the energy-flux vector, F~, of Synge
[57]. The elements of the flux vector, for both %%

h o m o g e n e o u s and inhomogeneous waves, are [11 ] (jR %%

1 2 , :g DIRECTION OF
F 1 ='&tO f f Cikmn(akqma n +akq*ma*n), PROPAGATION
for j = 1, 2, 3, (4.4)
Fig. 4.1. Structural model for synthetic seismograms: an iso-
where f is the vector of excitation functions; and tropic solid (p = 2.6 gm/cm3, a = 5.8 kin/see, /3 =
the asterisk denotes the complex conjugate. 3.349 km/sec) with an anisotropic slab-shaped volume (the
Vectors q and a are both real for homogeneous anisotropy simulating distributions of aligned cracks) posi-
tioned normal to the propagation vector. The orientation of the
non-attenuating waves, and (4.4) reduces to anisotropy is specified for the initial orientation (top three-
component trace in Fig. 4.3), and is then rotated successivelyby
Fj~_~ 1
~to 2 f!
tt,
Cikmnakqma,~. (4.5) 22.5° about the vertical (Z) axis to give five orientations.
362 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media

8.0 6.8

QP
f gP

5.S / QP S.5 /
J
,/

,.° // S.E 5.~

tt,5

.d ~: tl..C ~ (~ tl.O g~
~ z
OZ
(~Z Z
(.-)Z
w~
tt'(3.~

~m . --.
= ~'q. ~

tlJ
=~G
It
Z ~.5
~ ' - ; = II- Z 3,~
-
;a z3.5
C~ • >.-
QSR
Q$P

=d ,T,
>3,0, . QSP
C~ I,U
,
~ N
== ,~=~

NN g~..~ NN Na.s ~2.S


3g 68 90
30 BO 90

Fig. 4.2 (after [15]). Phase velocity variations through cracked solids for angles of incidence between 0 ° (normal) and 90 ° (tangential) to
a distribution of thin parallel-cracks (solid lines), and through purely-elastic anisotropic-solids with similar velocities (dashed lines).
T h e parameters of the isotropic solid are given 'in the caption to Fig. 4.1.
(a) G K F F 1 ; dry cracks with crack density E = 0.1,
(b) G K F F 6 ; dry cracks w i t h , = 0.025, and
(c) G K L F I ; saturated cracks with E = 0.1.

variations of the materials within the slab are of the anisotropy. The orientations of the aniso-
illustrated by the dashed lines in Fig. 4.2. These tropy in Fig. 4.3a is arranged so that the fixed
materials are purely-elastic solids with hexagonal polarizations of the shear waves in the direction of
symmetry simulating the velocity variations (solid propagation coincides with the polarizations of
lines) of thin parallel-cracks in an isotropic solid the seismograms. This is clearly demonstrated
[15] (the modelling of cracked structures is dis- in the polarization diagrams in Fig. 4.4a, where the
cussed in Section 9.2, below). Figs. 4.2a and 4.2b particle motion is displayed in orthogonal sections
model two distributions of dry cracks with for successive time-intervals along the seismo-
different crack densities, and Fig. 4.2c models a gram. The shear waves split on entering the aniso-
distribution of liquid-filled cracks. tropy into components with fixed polarizations (in
We shall not illustrate P-wave propagation here this case, SH, and SV, polarized parallel to the T
as the anomalies are small (but see [15]). Fig. 4.3 and Z axes, respectively), which are separated and
show synthetic seismograms of plane shear-waves clearly visible on the unprocessed seismograms.
incident from the isotropic solid and propagating These two orthogonally-polarized quasi shear-
through the anisotropic slabs for five orientations waves propagate at different velocities, so that on
$. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 363
leaving the anisotropy the incident wave-form the case for many shear arrivals in the Earth, the
cannot be reconstituted. constructive and destructive interference through
The anisotropic material of the slab in the model an appropriate anisotropic region could result in a
used for Fig. 4.3b is oriented so that the fixed much larger transfer of energy from one polariza-
polarizations are not parallel to the components of tion to another.
the seismogram. This is likely to be the situation The small P-wave components arriving before
for most observations of seismic waves through the main shear-wave arrivals in Fig. 4.3 are from S
anisotropic media. The incident shear-wave splits, to P conversions at the entry and exiting inter-
as before, and separates into two orthogonal faces, and indicate that the seismograms in Fig.
pulses, but this is not immediately obvious from 4.3a were calculated for a receiver (10 km) beyond
the (unrotated) seismograms. However, the split- the slab, and that those in Figs. 4.3b and 4.3c were
ting is clearly seen as cruciform patterns in the calculated for the exiting interface of the slab.
polarization diagrams in Fig. 4.4b. These S to P conversions are very much modified
Observed seismograms usually show shear by the nature of the interface between the isotropy
wavetrains with several cycles of motion, and the and the anisotropy, and would disappear if there
two orthogonally-polarized wavetrains will over- were a transition zone. The behaviour of the split
lap after the initial delay. In such cases, polariza- shear-waves, however, is not very sensitive to the
tion diagrams do not show cruciform patterns, but nature of the interface between the isotropy and
have abrupt changes from linear to elliptical the anisotropy, and, in particular, it is not very
particle-motion. The polarization diagrams in Fig. sensitive to whether the change to anisotropy is
4.4c for the seismograms in Fig. 4.3c demonstrate discontinuous or whether there is a transition
these abrupt changes in particle-motion direction, zone. Crampin [15] discusses and illustrates
where the two shear-wave pulses overlap. Such the phenomena in Figs. 4.3 and 4.4 in more
abrupt changes of direction in polarization detail.
diagrams are strongly diagnostic of anisotropy.
Similar anomalies have been observed in shear
waves propagating through earthquake source 4.2. Spherical wavefronts by the reflectivity
regions [26], and are believed to indicate aniso- method [27]
tropy caused by extended dilatancy--the opening
of existing cracks in stressed rock. The reflectivity technique for synthetic seis-
These seismograms in Fig. 4.4c are for a model mograms was originally developed [53, 54] to
with much weaker anisotropy than in the other two calculate spherical wavefronts from explosive
figures, and show an interesting effect. The delay sources at the surface of a plane-layered isotropic-
between the two split shear-waves, after passing model (as in Fig. 3.1). The waves reflected and
through the anisotropy, is approximately half the refracted from the layers are evaluated, again
dominant period of the pulse (or the length of the on the surface, at a number of points to form a
anisotropic path is half the dominant wavelength), record section modelling observations from deep
and the effective polarization of the incident shear- reflection and refraction surveys. The technique is
wave is changed by 90 ° by passage through particularly valuable for interpretation as it can
the anisotropy. This phenomenon is caused demonstrate arrivals, phases, and amplitudes,
by the constructive and destructive interference of which otherwise could not be easily estimated.
the two orthogonally-polarized waves from the The presence of anisotropy in the continental
decomposition of the original incident pulse. If uppermantle [58, 59] was the original motiva-
the incident shear-waves were a nearly harmonic tion for developing an anisotropic reflectivity-
wavetrain lasting several cycles, as is frequently method [27].
364 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media

C
a I ,I ~1 31 i ,i 21 I ,J 21
Z.
a .~ R
T T

R
T
z
R__
T
i

-'r

Z T ~V--

T
R L
1 SEC

5 HZ SH NRVE THROUGH
t SEC TILTED FFI f i t S ORIENTNS. 1 SEE
S HZ Sq5 NRVE THROUGH
S HZ SV ~JRVE THROUGH
LF1 RT 5 0 R I E N T N S ,
FF6 TILTED RT S ORIENTNS.

Fig. 4.3 (after [15]). Syntheticseismograms of 5 Hz shear-waves through a 10 km thick slab (Fig. 4.1):
(a) •ncident shear-waves with p••arizati•n intermediate between SH and •V pr•pagating thr•ugh a s•ab •f GKLF•• with the initia•
orientation so that the axis of cylindrical symmetryis transverse horizontal (parallel to the T direction in Fig. 4.1). The seismograms
are calculated for a position 10 km beyond the slab.
(b) Incident SH-waves propagating through GKFF1, with the initial orientation having the axis of symmetrydipping 45° to the
transverse direction. Seismogramscalculated for the exit interface of the slab.
(c) Incident SV-wavespropagating through GKFF6. Orientations as in (b), above.

The procedure for propagation in isotropic wave representation, evaluated at the required
m e d i a is to form a plane-wave decomposition distance along the surface, and then integrated
of a point source, usually in a potential-function twice: once over the appropriate range of wave
representation, as a Sommerfeld integral over numbers (apparent velocities) to obtain the spher-
wave number at a given frequency. A variety of ical wavefront; and finally convolved with the
explosion and earthquake source-mechanisms can source spectrum to give the synthetic seismogram
be specified by wave-type, phase, and amplitude of at the specified distance from the source.
the plane waves. Each plane-wave is transformed The procedure for anisotropic propagation is
through the various layers in the model structure similar in broad outline, but differs considerably in
by using isotropic propagator-matrices [48] to detail: for example, the three-component coupling
obtain the appropriate reflectivity-coefficients that is such a distinctive feature of anisotropic
(plane-wave reflection coefficients) for upward propagation requires that all three components of
propagating waves in the surface layer. The motion are calculated simultaneously, instead of
reflectivity coefficients are inserted into the plane- separating the P and S V , and the independent S H
S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 365

I 2 3 1 2 I 2

T RT R

O0 O0 Ot o 0 D 1 O 0 D I
V U U U

R ilL" " "~

D 0 D 1
U U

D tO 0 l
O tO 0 l
V U
U U

0 tO O 1 O !0 O 1
D lO D 1
U V

T I e R T R

0 10 n 1
O tl 0 t
U O U
U U
L RL R

O lO D 1
- -d" . . . . "G . . . . . u- - 0 ~ O t
U V
T AT A
T R
O 1o O 10 0 l 0 tO 0 1

U U

--~ I0 o to o 1 0 I0 O t
0 1~ 0 t
U !
u v

O 0 O t 0 l0 !
D 0 D I
O U

[ ~ 0 0 0 t 0 ~ C t O l0 1

a b
Fig. 4.4 (after [15]). Polarization diagrams: cross sections of the particle motion, for the n u m b e r e d time intervals above the synthetic
seismograms in Fig. 4.3, with directions Up, Down, and Towards and Away from the source, and U, D, and Left and Right facing the
source (the Z axis is vertical). Five sets of diagrams correspond to the five sets of seismograms in Fig. 4.3 for (a), (b), and (c),
respectively.
366 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media

calculations, as in isotropic propagation. We reflectivity. Kind [60] makes use of the redun-
assume, for the sake of simplicity, that the source is dancy in the isotropic propagator matrices, and
in a layer of isotropic material. In the notation of manipulates minors of the matrices to produce a
Section 3, the excitation vector in the top layer faster program which reduces the loss of precision.
(label 1) containing the sources is related to the The direct extension of Kind's technique is not
excitation vector in the halfspace (label m) by appropriate to the 6 x 6 anisotropic propagator-
matrices, and alternative matrix-manipulations
( f l , f 2 , f 3 , O, O, O)Tm= have not yet been developed. Kennett [61]
develops an iterative technique for calculating
= K(3'l, 3'2, 3"3,f4, fs, f6) T, (4.6)
isotropic reflectivity-coefficients, which leads to
where the first three elements of the excitation increased accuracy and speed of computation, as
vectors are downward, and the last three upward well as permitting calculations of synthetic seis-
propagating qP-, q S l - , qS2-waves (if the layer is mograms with and without reverberations inclu-
anisotropic), or P-, SH-, and SV-waves (if the ded, which is a valuable interpretative facility.
layer is isotropic), respectively; Kennett's iterative technique can be adapted to
anisotropic reflectivity and is used in the program
K = E ~ I E m _ I D m - I E ~ I - 1 . • . E1D1 under development [27].
The reflectivity method is very flexible, within
in the notation of Section 3.2; and 3'1, 3'2, y3 are the the limitation of parallel layering, and can model
excitations of the downward propagating waves many different propagation paths by manipulating
from the source. Equation (4.6) can be solved, for the basic structure in Fig. 3.1, and by modifying the
specified yj, for the upward propagating (f)l in form of the propagator representation in equa-
the surface layer. These (f)l are the reflectivity tions (4.6) and (4.7). Thus we are currently using
coefficients. Thus, by setting yl = 1, and y2 = 3'3 = the anisotropic reflectivity-method to model
0 for a P-wave source, for example, we have record sections for deep refraction surveys of
(/4)1 = Re, e, (f5)I = Rp,$H, and (/6)1 = Re, sv, for the anisotropy in the upper mantle, and the propaga-
reflectivity coefficients in the usual notation [53, tion from acoustic events through the crack aniso-
54]. Once the reflectivity coefficients have been tropy in hot-dry-rock geothermal-heat reservoirs.
determined, the displacements and stresses at the The underlying assumption in the anisotropic
surface can be obtained from reflectivity technique, as set out above, is that the
energy radiating from a point source is confined to
(Ul, U2, U3, 7"13, 7"23, 7"33)T =
the sagittal plane. This is wholly true only when
(4.7) there is sagittal symmetry, and, in general, rays will
= E~(O, O, O, f4, fs, f6)T,
deviate from the sagittal plane. However, in most
where we have omitted the direct waves from the cases the seismogram will be a good first approx-
source. Integrations over wave number and fre- imation, even without sagittal symmetry. The
quency then yield the required three-component exact seismogram would require an integration
synthetic seismograms. over a vector horizontal-wavenumber K =
The major difficulty of this anisotropic (K~, K2)T, for a range of directions either side of
reflectivity-method, as we have outlined it here, the sagittal plane. In principle, this is straight-
is that calculation of several large matrices of forward, but has not yet been done as it would
reflectivity coefficients is a very lengthy compu- add considerably to the running time of an
tation, and can frequently result in considerable already lengthy program, and, in general,
loss of numerical precision. There are two ways would lead to only minor modifications to the
these difficulties can be avoided in isotropic seismograms.
S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 367

4.3. Spherical wavefronts by the ray method [56] the polarization vectors of the three body-waves
(compare with (2.4)).
The ray method for tracing ray paths and cal-
Clearly (4.11) has a non-trivial solution only
culating synthetic seismograms with spherical
when
wavefronts, originally proposed by Babich and
Alekseev [55], has been extensively developed by G,(x, q ) = 1, (4.12)
(~erven~, Molotkov and P~en~ik [56] and their for i = 1, 2, or 3, corresponding to each of the body
colleagues in Prague. This brief outline of the waves. Since q is the wavefront normal, (4.12) is a
technique has been written for this review by Mat non-linear partial-differential equation defining
Yedlin for which I am very grateful. The many the propagation of the three wavefronts. The
original papers by Babich and (~erven~ should be system of ordinary differential equations for the
referred to for details of the method. This is the first-order rays can be written as
only part of the anisotropic development reviewed
here that has not been investigated numerically by d x i / d r = ½0GdOqi ,
the author. dqi/ d r = -½0Gi/ Ox]. (4.13)
The equations of motion in a possibly non-
uniform anisotropic media are Expressions for the partial derivatives of Gi in
(4.6) can be evaluated by implicitly differentiating
aiij = ( Cjkm~U,.,. ).k, (4.8)
det(F - G I ) = 0. (4.14)
where p, Cjkm., and their derivatives are continuous
functions of the space coordinate. A solution is The resulting ray-tracing equations are
sought in the form of a ray expansion:
dxj/ d z = aikm.qnDkm/ D,
(4.15)
u(x, t ) = ~. u ( " ) ( x ) F . ( t - r ( x ) ) , (4.9) d q i / d r = --'~(Oakr,,,,JOxi)qkqpD,,.,/D
1 ,
n=O

where
where the functions u(")(x) are the vector ampli-
tude-coefficients of the ray series; r(x) is the phase
D l l -- (/'22 - 1)(/'33 - 1 ) - F23,
function or eikonal such that t = r(x) describes the
wavefront; and F.(~') satisfies the relationship D12 = D21 = -/'13F23 - -F'I2(-F'33- 1)
F.-I(~) = F ' . (~), where F " (~') = 0F.(~')/0~.
022 = ( / ' 1 1 - 1 ) ( r 3 3 - 1 ) - r h ,
Substitution of (4.9) into (4.8) yields several
systems of equations. Equating coefficients of the D13 = D31 = r12F23 - r13(r22 - 1),
functions F . yields a system of recurrence rela- D33 --- (Ell - 1)(]"22 - 1 ) - F22,
tionships for u ("), where U(-1)=U(-2)----0. The
lowest order equation D23 ---D32 --- F12/'31 -F23(F11 - 1),

(rkm - - O° k m ) U, ~o)
m = 0, (4,10) and the trace D = D l l + D 2 2 + D a a .
Cerven# et al. [56] show that synthetic seis-
provides three algebraic equations for u ~°), mograms are the sum of the elementary seis-
where Fkm = aik,..qiqn, ajk,.. = Cik.,./P, 8k,. is the mograms u ("), which may be obtained from the
Kronecker delta, and q is the slowness vector. above equations, when the wave type has been
The eigenvalue equation for the matrix Fkm is specified at the source. There are a variety of
(F-GI)g=O, fori=l, 2,3, (4.11) numerical methods for solving these equations.
An increasingly popular method for the solution
which has eigen values G~, G2, and G3, and the is by implicit finite-differences when the source-
corresponding eigenvectors g(:), g(2), and g(3) are receiver offset has been specified [62].
368 s. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media

These various ray-techniques work unambig- 5. Surface waves in a multilayered haltspace


uously for qP waves and for quasi shear-waves, The calculation of surface-wave dispersion in
when the eigen values of (4.11) are distinct; that is plane-layered structures has played a major part in
D ~ 0 in (4.15). However, we have seen in Section analysing isotropic Earth structure for over 20
2.2 that quasi shear-waves have singularities, with years (sometimes with an approximation cor-
identical eigenvalues, for several directions of recting for the curvature of the Earth at long
propagation in every anisotropic solid. The velo- wavelengths). The effects on surface waves of
city and polarizations of the quasi shear-waves anisotropy in the Earth's upper-mantle, although
vary slowly along any path that takes the waves suspected for sometime [63], have only recently
through a singularity, if the path lies in a symmetry been confirmed both for continental [10] and
plane. The seismograms and ray tracings for such oceanic [21, 64] paths, and appropriate compu-
paths will display no unusual features, even though tational procedures have been developed [10, 20].
the waves will have passed from one to the other of A parallel, although largely independent, develop-
the slowness sheets of the analytically continuous ment with extensive literature has been the cal-
shear-wave slowness surface. culation of surface waves in unlayered or single-
The situation will be quite different for shear layered piezoelectric halfspaces for surface-
waves whose path comes close to the direction of a acoustic-wave devices in the electronic industry
point singularity, say, but does not pass through [50].
the singularity (the other types of singularity will Isotropic calculations have now reached a high
have similar effects). Along such a path, l~he degree of sophistication based on various matrix-
polarizations of each shear-wave will change by manipulations [65] not available for anisotropic
nearly 90 ° for a very small change in the direction calculations. Crampin [1] originally proposed a
of propagation (see Fig. 2.2b). The physical effects simple extension of the Thompson-Haskell iso-
of this phenomenon will be to transfer energy tropic-matrix formulation [66] to anisotropic
continuously to the other slowness sheet while the multilayered halfspaces. A significant improve-
polarizations are varying, and energy will be radi- ment to the formulation since [1] has been the
ated (diffracted) in a comparatively wide, but decomposition of the full 3 x 3 x 3 × 3 elastic-
limited, range of directions. In some circum- tensor into the 3 × 3 submatrices of (3.3) [17, 18].
stances, almost all the energy will be transferred Surface waves in anisotropic media have some
from one sheet to the other. We do not know how distinctive differences from propagation in iso-
this behaviour can be incorporated into the ray tropic" media, although the difference between
method without rather unsatisfactory approxima- single-component seismograms from anisotropic
tions. One such approximation would be to divide and isotropic media may be subtle and easily over-
the structure into very fine, but discrete, layers looked. The two independent families of isotropic
near the point where the wave is passing near the Rayleigh-modes and Love-modes coalesce in
direction of the singularity. Since the polarization anisotropic media into one family of Generalized
may change rapidly over very small changes in modes propagating with elliptical particle-motion
direction, these subdivisions would need to be very in three dimensions [1, 5]. In structures with weak
fine indeed. anisotropy, alternate modes usually correspond to
Such problems involving singularities only arise isotropic Rayleigh- and Love-mode particle-
in continuously varying media, and do not occur in motion, although only in directions of sagittal
the reflectivity method, which has been suggested symmetry do the Generalized waves have strictly
in Section 4.2, for modelling propagation through Rayleigh- or Love-type particle-motion. The
discrete uniform-layers. polarization anomalies caused by this three-
S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 369
dimensional particle-motion are the most /kll k12 k131
distinctive recognisable features of anisotropic J= ~k2, k22 k23~. (5.3)
surface-wave propagation. \k31 k32 k33/
The problem in surface-wave calculations is to
determine the phase velocity at a given frequency Equation (5.2) can be solved by recalculating
(or frequency at a given phase velocity) for any matrix K, for different values of frequency and
particular mode. The search procedure for multi- velocity c, until the position of the determinant
layered models is usually an iterative trial and zero can be estimated [2].
error technique. Once this dispersion relationship Solutions have been calculated for a variety of
has been found, all the other parameters of the isotropic structures with internal anisotropic-
propagation, with the exception of the group layers modelling anisotropy in the upper mantle of
velocity, can be determined by direct substitution the Earth. It is clear that different structures can
in the appropriate equations. Group velocity in show a very wide range of phenomena, and the
anisotropic media cannot be directly determined following comments are drawn from this limited
from the equations, as it can for isotropic media sample of calculations modelling Earth structures,
[65], but must be calculated either from (2.5) by whose major feature is a low-velocity crust over
differentiating the phase velocity with respect to a high-velocity mantle at a depth of about 30 km
frequency and direction of propagation [2], or beneath continents and about 8 km beneath oceans.
from integration of the energy flux over depth [57]. The dispersion of any single anisotropic-mode
The formalism of Section 3 applies throughout. of propagation can usually be modelled reasonably
well over a comparatively wide frequency-band by
5.1. Solid surface-layer [1, 2, 5, 8, 10]
an equivalent isotropic-structure. Thus inversion,
The boundary conditions at the free surface of a
for structure, of the dispersion of a single mode
solid multilayered-halfspace (Fig. 3.1) are the
alone is unlikely to distinguish between isotropic
vanishing of the normal stresses, and the radiation
and anisotropic propagation. Isotropic inversion
condition for normal-mode propagation is that
of two modes, usually Rayleigh- and Love-modes,
there are no waves propagating upwards in the
which do not lead to a unique model are frequently
homogeneous halfspace. In the notation of Section
cited as evidence of anisotropy in the Earth (see
3, the conditions at the free surface and in the
for example [67, 68]); however, this reasoning is
lower halfspace are related by
suspect on two grounds. Any irregularities in the
T ideal plane-layered isotropic model will lead to
(o,o,o,f.,f~,f~).,=
ambiguous Rayleigh and Love wave inversions;
=E~,IG(ul, u2, u3, 0, 0, 0)1T, (5.1) and, if the structure has significant anisotropy, it
where f4, ]5, [6 are the excitation functions of the would be impossible to draw any conclusions as to
three downward propagating waves in the half- the exact depth or degree of anisotropy present,
space; E,, is the E matrix (3.11) for the halfspace; because isotropic inversion techniques are inap-
G is the product of the propagator matrices (3.13) propriate for anisotropic structures [6, 8, 16].
for the intermediate layers; and (u)l is the dis- Structures with weak anisotropy frequently
placement vector at the free surface. show very little azimuthal variation of dispersion,
A non-trivial solution to (5.1) exists only if and the most distinctive feature of Generalized-
mode surface-waves appears to be the three-
det(J) = 0, (5.2)
dimensional nature of the particle motion, just as it
where, if matrix K = E~IG has elements {kik}, for is for anisotropic body-wave propagation. These
] , k = l , 2 . . . . 6, polarization anomalies may be pronounced for
370 S. Crampin / Wave motion in an&otropic and cracked media

those one or two modes having a large proportion layer of thickness d. The interface conditions at
of their energies at the depth of the anisotropy, the solid/liquid interface are the continuity of
despite the family of surface waves displaying few the normal displacement, u3, and the normal
other signs of anisotropic propagation. Thus in c.0mponent of stress, 0"33, and the vanishing of the
models with anisotropy in an internal layer, the remaining components of stress. The boundary
only significant difference from isotropic propa- conditions on the solid part of the structure,
gation may be the pronounced three-dimensional equivalent to (5.1), can be written as
polarization of one of the higher modes, as has
(0, O, O, f4, fs, f6) T =
been observed for Third Generalized-mode pro-
pagation across Eurasia (see Section 7.2). =g(ul, u2, u3, 0, 0, "/'33) T, (5.4)
The family of Generalized modes has further
where 7"33 = (ic/to)O'33 in the notation of Sections
complexities. Directions of sagittal symmetry
3.2 and 5.1.
are singularities of wave propagation. In such
The slowness equation for propagation in the
directions, the Rayleigh- and Love-type motion
liquid layer can be solved by the methods of
separates, and the two sets of dispersion curves
Section 3.1 using the elastic constants Cjkmn =
may cross each other, as frequently happens in
8ikSm,A, where A is the Lam6 constant for the
isotropic propagation. Away from sagittal sym-
liquid. The normal displacement and stress can be
metry, the two families coalesce into one family
written, in the formulation of Section 3, as
and the dispersion curves can no longer intersect
each other. Instead, the modes approach each u3 = qc[f l exp(-itoqx3)-f 2 exp(itoqx3)],
other in a pinch, and at the pinch exchange
"/'33 : (ic/w)0-33 = (5.5)
polarizations and dispersion characteristics. These
pinches cause irregularities on both phase- and = pc2[fl exp(-itoqx3) +f2 exp(itoqx3)],
group-velocity dispersion curves, and have some where we have omitted the common factor
similarities with the pinches associated with
exp[ito (t - x 1/ c)]; and
singularities of the quasi-shear body-waves
described in Section 2.2. The pinches between q = [(nc 2 - x ) l X c 2 ] 1/2.
surface-wave modes may be extremely tight, and
cause problems in computation: if the search- The relationship between the displacement-
increments for the zero of the determinant (5.2) stress vectors at the top (x3 = 0) and bottom (x3 =
are too coarse near a pinch, two (pinching) modes d) of the liquid layer can be written
may be missed, and the iteration proceed on a
mode two mode-numbers away, unless pre-
(u3) 0 )
7"33 1 pC /9C 2 \ 0 exp(itoqd)
cautions are taken.
The nature of the polarization anomalies of 2
surface waves in any given structure are very pc qc u3 3
dependent on the anisotropic symmetry of the " ( - p c 2 qc)(7.33)o/(2pc q),
structure, and we reserve further discussions of (5.6)
surface-wave propagation to Section 7.2.
where we have given the liquid free-surface the
label '0'. The stress vanishes at the free surface of
the liquid, and we have
5.2. Liquid surface-layer [20]
(U3)l = A ( u 3 ) o ,
We consider a multilayered solid halfspace, x3 i> (5.7)
d, and numbered as in Fig. 3.1, underlying a liquid ('/'33)1 = B ( u 3 ) o ,
s. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropicand cracked media 371

where A = cos(toqd), and horizontal interfaces, the value of other polariza-


tions of split shear-waves for diagnosing general
B = (-itoc/q) sin(toqd).
anisotropy has not been recognised. The approx-
The matrix K in (5.4) can now be replaced by a imate equations given below are valid only in
matrix K ' which has elements: symmetry planes, but are of fundamental
importance in many modelling studies.
k ' a =k,,3+Bk,,6/A, for m =1, 2 . . . . 6,
These approximate equations for the velocity
k ' . = k.,., for m, n = 1, 2, 4, 5, 6. (5,8) variations in anisotropic symmetry-planes as a
function of the direction of propagation are the
Equation (5.4) now becomes
first five terms of a Fourier-series expansion of a
(0, O, O, f,, fs, f6)~ = function which repeats every 180 °. The coefficients
=K'(ul, u2, u3, 0, 0, 0)T. (5.9) of the sine and cosine terms are linear combina-
tions of the elastic constants. This makes the
This is in exactly the same form as (5.1) for a equations very useful for modelling studies, as they
multilayered solid halfspace, and may be solved in provide a simple direct link between the velocities
the same way. and the elastic constants, which is easily exploited
This formulation has been used to calculate the [9, 15, 19, 25]. Anisotropic symmetry-systems
characteristics of surface waves crossing an ocean have sufficient symmetry planes to make the
basin with anisotropy in the upper mantle [20]. expressions easily applicable with judicious choice
Just as for a continental path, the most distinctive of planes of variation.
effect of a layer of anisotropy in the oceanic upper- The equations below refer to the velocities in
mantle is on the particle motion of particular symmetry planes, and if the shear-wave velocities
Generalized-modes. The likely anisotropy present happen to intersect, as they frequently do, these
in the oceanic upper-mantle has most effect on the equations refer to variations partly on one velocity
Second Generalized-mode, the equivalent of the sheet and partly on the other. This naturally causes
Fundamental Love-mode, and such anomalous problems in notation. We have tried to resolve
polarizations have been observed in surface waves these by naming the faster velocity sheet qS1, and
propagating across the Pacific Basin [21]. the slower qS2. However, when we are specifically
We again reserve further discussion to referring to velocity variations in a symmetry
Section 7.2. plane, the quasi shear-waves polarized parallel to
the plane is named qSP, and those polarized at
right angles named qSR, where we recognise that
6. Approximate velocity-variations for body the qSP and qSR waves in any symmetry plane
waves in symmetry planes may lie partially on the inner sheet, qS2, of the
shear wave velocity-surface and partially on the
Many authors have attempted to approximate to outer, qS1. In an earlier notation, waves qSP and
anisotropic propagation by modelling only trans- qSR were called qSH and qSV, respectively, but
verse isotropy (hexagonal symmetry, with a verti- that led to conflicting notations for transversely-
cal symmetry axis). Unfortunately, shear-wave isotropic structures, and has now been abandoned.
splitting, which is such a characteristic and diag-
nostic feature of full anisotropic propagation, 6. I. Full equations [8, 22]
separates only into S H and S V waves in trans-
versely isotropic structures. Since these polariza- The phase velocities and polarizations of the
tions can occur in isotropic structures from inter- three body-waves propagating in the xl direction
actions at liquid layers, and P to S V conversions at in an anisotropic solid may be obtained from the
372 S. Crampin / Wave motion in an~otropic and cracked media

eigenvalues and eigenvectors of (2.4): F = (¢1313+C2323)/2,


a c = (c1313-c2323)/2,
( T - pc2I)a = O.
Gs=c2313 .
We take x3 = 0 as a symmetry plane, so that Cjkmn =
0 whenever either one or three of/', k, m, and n are
These equations are valid for an arbitrary origin of
equal to 3 [39]. The single off-diagonal constant in
0 in any symmetry plane, and are known as the
T, c2all = c1121, is necessarily small if the anisotropy
is weak, and the velocities are approximately full equations.
The above equations for approximate P-wave
velocity-variations was first derived by Backus
oV~--~-c1111+X,
[69]. It is correct to the first order in the difference
p V ~ p = C 2 1 2 1 + Y, (6.1) between the anisotropic and isotropic tensors, and
is a good approximation in all symmetry planes,
P V 2SR = C3131,
and for most off-symmetry cuts whenever the
second-order differences can be neglected.
where Vp, Vsp, and VsR are the velocities of the However, it has been noted [22, 31] that the 20
qP, qSP, and qSR waves, respectively; and X and and 40 variations of equation (6.2) cannot
Y are small. approximate to the 60 variations found, parti-
We obtain the velocity variations in the x3 = 0 cularly, in the z-cut of trigonal crystals, as in Fig.
plane by rotating the elastic tensor about the x3 7.2c, below. This is because, in a few off-symmetry
axis. The particular constants in (6.1), in the new cuts, notably in systems with trigonal symmetry,
coordinate system after a rotation 0, can be the first-order differences are small (and in one
expressed in terms of the constants referred to th, case vanish) and the second-order terms
original coordinate system and multiples of 0: contribute a significant part of the qP-wave
velocity-variation [31]. Thus the expression
for qP-wave velocities in (6.2) is not of
pV~ = A + B c cos 2 0 + B s sin 20
universal application even for weak anisotropy.
+Co cos 40 + Cs sin 40, However, it is a good approximation in all
(6.2) symmetry planes, even in systems with quite
oV~P = D +Ec cos 40 +Es sin 40,
strong anisotropy [22].
2
pVsn = F + Gc cos 20 + Gs sin 20, The two expressions for quasi shear-wave velo-
city-variations are also strictly applicable only to
where symmetry planes, where the polarizations are
parallel, qSP, and perpendicular, qSR, to the
A = (3(c1111 + c2222) + 2 ( c l 1 2 2 + 2 ¢ 1 2 1 2 ) ) / 8 ,
symmetry plane. The equations for shear waves in
Bc = (e1111 -- C2222)/2, off-symmetry planes may fail completely to model
the phase-velocity variations, particularly the
Bs = (c2111 + c1222),
rapid changes in gradient associated with direc-
Cc = ( C l l l l + c2222 - 2(c1122 + 2 c 1 2 1 2 ) ) / 8 , tions near to singularities, as in Fig. 2.2a. Very
occasionally in off-symmetry planes avoiding
Cs = (C2111 -- C1222)/2,
shear-wave singularities, the expressions are good
D = ( C l l l l --Fc2222 - 2 ( c 1 1 2 2 - 2 ¢ 1 2 1 2 ) ) / 8 , approximations for the shear velocities. In such
planes the polarizations will be nearly parallel and
Ec=-¢. perpendicular, respectively, to the plane of varia-
E,=-C. tion [22].
$. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 373

6.2. Reduced equations [8, 22] tropic halfspace. The coefficients of each term of
the series can only be determined numerically,
The coefficients of the sine terms in (6.2) are
even for surface waves propagating in a homo-
identically zero, when 0 is measured from a direc-
geneous anisotropic halfspace [18], and for a
tion of sagittal symmetry (x2 = 0 a plane of mirror
layered halfspace the coefficients will also vary
symmetry). The full equations then contract to the
with frequency. Thus, approximations to the
reduced equations:
velocity variations of surface waves have little
p V 2 = A +Be cos 20 + Cc cos 40, generality apart from being a Fourier-series
expansion of a particular angular variation.
pV2se = D + Ec cos 40, (6.3)
p V s2R = F + G c c o s 2 0 ,
7. Propagation in particular symmetry-systems
where the coefficients are the same functions of the
elastic constants as in (6.2).
One of the classical problems of seismology is to
These reduced equations are the first three
determine (Earth) stucture from the observations
terms of Fourier-series expansions of functions,
of seismic waves. This inverse problem is usually
which have mirror symmetry every 90 °. It is easy to
difficult, even for isotropic structures, and obser-
show that if two planes of mirror symmetry are
vations are seldom sufficient to yield unique solu-
orthogonal then the third mutually-orthogonal
tions. Consequently, seismologists frequently
plane is also a plane of mirror symmetry. Many of
resort to the direct problem of calculating wave
the most commonly occurring systems of aniso-
propagation through assumed models to aid in the
tropic symmetry possess three such mutually-
interpretation of the observations.
orthogonal symmetry-planes (cubic, hexagonal,
The difficulties of interpreting observations of
tetragonal, and orthorhombic), and in many
seismic waves propagating in anisotropic struc-
modelling studies [9, 15, 25] the reduced equa-
tures are increased by the greater number of elastic
tions are more appropriate than the full equations.
constants [6, 16], and by the complications asso-
Both full and reduced equations are derived
ciated with shear-wave singularities in body-wave
only for symmetry planes in weakly anisotropic
propagation and with directions of sagittal sym-
media. However, the equations prove to be good
metry in surface -wave propagation. These
approximations for symmetry planes in most
difficulties make interpretation by means of direct
systems with quite strong anisotropy [22]. Any
calculations particularly important for anisotropic
velocity variations in off-symmetry planes can be
propagation. Recognising the directions in which
modelled by Fourier-series expansions (even shear
the various singularities occur is essential for the
waves with tight pinches associated with singulari-
numerical evaluation of wave propagation in order
ties), if enough terms of the series are taken.
to avoid, or make allowance for, the anomalous
However, the coefficients of these higher terms
behaviour associated with singularities. Point and
would not be linear combinations of the elastic
kiss singularities in body-wave propagation may
constants, and the simplicity and utility of both the
cause shear-wave polarizations to vary rapidly
full and the reduced equations will be lost.
along nearby paths [23], and, in directions of
sagittal symmetry in surface wave propagation, the
6.3. A note on velocity variations for surface waves
generalized surface-wave modes decompose into
Is]
separate Rayleigh- and Love-type motion requir-
Similar Fourier-series expansions in terms of ing separate computation.
azimuth angle have been suggested [70] for the Many of the distinctive characteristics of
velocity variations of surface waves in an aniso- both body- and surface-wave propagation in
374 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media

anisotropic media are determined by the relation- ISOTROPIC CUBIC ~AGONAL

ship of the propagation path to the symmetry a b b . . , a b b • • , a b e . .

b a b . . , b a b . . , b a c • . .
structure of the particular medium. Two of the b b a . b b a . . , c c d . . .
most important features of both body- and sur- • x . . . c . . . . . e . .

face-waves in anisotropic media are the variation . . . . x . . . . . c . . . . . e .

. . . . . x . . . . . c . . . . . x
with direction of the velocity and the particle- where x = (a-h)/2 where x : (a-b)/2
motion polarization. These are often characteristic
of particular symmetry structures, and much TRIGONAL (1) TRIGONAL (2)* ~TRAGONAL (I)

information about these structures can be inferred a b e d . a b e d g , a b c . . .

h a c - d , b a c - d - g , b a c . . .
from the analysis of these variations.
c c e c c e . . , c c d . . .
The properties of anisotropic symmetry-systems d-d f. d - d . f ' . z . . . e .

vary in three dimensions. However, we shall . . . . f y g - g . . f y . . . . e .

. . . . y x z y x . . . . . f
confine our attention to the variation in planes of
where x = (a-b)/2, where x : (a-b)/2,
mirror symmetry, or very simple off-symmetry andy=d y=d, andz:-g

orientations. This restriction is sufficient for many


~T~GONAL (2)" ORTHORHOMBIC MONOCLINIC
anisotropic applications [9, 15, 19, 25], because in
a b c d a b e . . , a h c . . d
most situations the planes of symmetry are defined b a c .-d b d e . . , b e f . . g

by the symmetry of the mechanisms which cause c c e c e f . . , c f h . . i

f. . g . . . . . j k
the anisotropic alignments, and these are usually
. . . . f . . . . . h . . . . k l
known before the analysis starts. d-d . g . . . . . i d g i . . m

7.1. B o d y - w a v e propagation [22] Fig. 7.1. The elastic tensors of the six most symmetric aniso-
tropic symmetry-systemsreferred to their principal axes. The
The observed velocities of propagation and isotropic tensor is included for completeness. The tensors
labelled '(2)*' are more complicated versions of the similarly
polarizations of body-waves are determined by the named tensors labelled (1). These complicatedversionsdo not
structure within a few wavelengths of the recorder, commonlyoccur and we shall not discuss them here.
and local symmetry is important. Crampin and
Kirkwood [22] summarize the properties of the
three body-waves propagating in a range of struc- not arrange themselves in any natural order of
tures with six of the seven named systems of complexity. Listing the systems by number of
anisotropic symmetry. The seventh, triclinic independent elastic-constants, number of sym-
symmetry, may have up to 21 independent elastic- metry planes, or number of shear-wave singulari-
constants [52], and the possible velocity-variations ties, would each give a different order.
are too general to be usefully summarized• Fig. 7.1 Fig. 7.2 shows examples of the velocity varia-
shows the elastic tensors of these six symmetry- tions in several planes of solids from the six aniso-
systems referred to their principal axes. tropic symmetry-systems; the solids chosen have
The number and orientation of symmetry planes the minimum number of shear-wave singularities
in each of the symmetry systems, listed in Table for the particular symmetry-system. The solid lines
7.1, are characteristic of the particular system. The give the exact velocity variations and the dashed
number and position of the m i n i m u m number of the approximate variations from (6.2) and (6.3).
shear-wave singularities are also characteristic of When propagation is in a symmetry plane, the
each system, but several systems can have more polarizations of qP and one of the quasi shear-
complex patterns of singularities for varying waves (qSP) are parallel, and that of the other
amplitudes of elastic constants. Each symmetry shear-wave (qSR) is at right angles to the plane.
system has features unique to itself, and they do The variations are 20 and 40 functions of the
S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 375

Table 7.1
Symmetryplanes and shear-wave singularities in anisotropic symmetry-systems

Symmetrysystem Number of Number and orientation of Number of shear-wave singularities


independent symmetryplanes (referred
elastic- to principal axes) Kiss Inter- Point
constants section

36 identical:x-, y-, and z-cuts }


Cubic 3 identical: planes joining opposite 6 0 8 (see Fig. 7.2a)
sides of cube
Hexagonal 5 (loo z-cut 0 (Fig. 7.2b)
planes through axisof symmetry(z-axis)} 2 ( (20)d~

Trigonal 6(7)a 3 identical:sides of triangular prism 0 0 2b+6 (Fig. 7.2c)


(2b+18)¢
etc.
2 identical:x-, and y-cuts t
Tetragonal

Orthorhombic
6(7)a

9
I1
2

3
z -cut
identical:planes joining opposite
edges of prism
distinct:x-, y-, and z-cuts
2

0
0

0
8 (Fig. 7.2d)

4 (Fig. 7.2e)
(12{ (Fig. 2.1)
etc.
Monoelinic 13 1 z-cut 0 0 8 (Fig. 7.2f) etc.c

a The names of these systems refer to two possible elastic-tensors: we consider the system with fewer constants.
b Point singularities on axes.
c Systemswith more complicatedpatterns of singularities (usuallyof less common occurrence).
d A possible but rarely occurringconfiguration.

azimuthal angle 0, and in these planes the approx- At first glance, it might seem that the symmetry
imate equations give good estimates of the velocity systems in Fig. 7.2 display a wide variety of velo-
variations even for quite strong anisotropy [22]. city variations, particularly as the polarities and
The approximate equations may give good esti- amplitudes of the various 20 and 40 variations are
mates of the velocity variations for some off- determined by linear combinations of the elastic
symmetry planes, such as y-cut monoclinic constants, and can vary within each symmetry
B I P H P Q (Fig. 7.2f), but, in general, the approx- system, and in some cases have different numbers
imate equations are not good estimates in off- of shear-wave singularities. One of the few
symmetry planes. All three body waves in z-cut restrictions on the velocity variations is the near
trigonal a-quartz (Fig. 7.2c) have pronounced 60 equality but opposite sign of the squares of the 40
variations, with no 20 or 40 component, and components of the qP and q S P variations in planes
demonstrate the complete failure of the approxi- of mirror symmetry, as indicated by (6.2) and (6.3).
mate equations, including the Backus equation for However, the variety of the velocity variations
qP-waves [31], to model the variations in this does not seem so great when it is realized that the
off-symmetry plane. The shear waves in off:sym- six symmetry-systems (plus isotropy) embrace all
metry planes may show very rapid variations near possible purely-elastic velocity-variations that
pinches associated with shear-wave singularities; have planes of symmetry. This means that, if the
for example, the very tight pinches in Fig. 2.2; and planes of symmetry in any anisotropic solid can be
the pinches in y-cut quartz (Fig. 7.2c), which are recognised (usually by the symmetry of the forces
associated with the point singularities in the x-cut. aligning the anisotropy), the choice of possible
376 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media

a X-CLIT T -CUT Z-CUT DIAG. -CUT X-CUT T-CUT Z-CUT OIRG.-CUT


d

Mop
CUB;C [ETRRGONRL
9.S i !
!Qp
[--" Qp
~ i QP

uJ
> I
' i BSP i i

~
i
SP aSP

QSF g
! ~ DSP
BSR , : ~ S P

g~,d__ i 35R
b
HEXRGONRL
e {
OR THORHOMB l C

/ OP _ _ ) QP Z
Z

o
OP

>
~sB: IQsP
- QsP gSP - - OSR
~2. QSR __1
c
TRIGONIqL MONOCLINIC
?.5 T

L Qp
i i
S
~ ~ QsP > ' ! '! i
osa QS] i

°g2.si I I" ~ 1 0 S Z

{ { {
-Z Y Z × X T Y Z Z X X Y X

Fig. 7.2. Examples of velocity variations of the three body-waves over planes in six anisotropic symmetry-systems. The variations are
shown over quadrants in the x-, y-, and z-cuts (these are symmetry planes unless otherwise indicated), and those symmetry planes not
included in this corner. The principal axes are indicated below the variations. Solid lines are exact phase velocities derived from (2.4),
and dashed lines are approximate values from (6.2) and (6.3).
(a) cubic silicon;
(b) hexagonal GKFF1 (see also Fig. 4.2);
(c) trigonal a-quartz: the two other sides of the triangular prism are symmetry planes with the same variations as the x-cut, where
two quadrants of the variations are shown;
(d) tetragonal futile;
(e) orthorhombic olivine (compare with orthorhombic medium with more shear-wave singularities in Fig. 2.l); and
(f) monoclinic BtPHPQ: a biplanar cracked structure observed by [19], where two quadrants of the z-cut variations are shown.

symmetry-systems is severely restricted, if not properties of the structure along the path down to
uniquely identified. The variations are then the depth that the particular mode penetrates. One
determined by a known number of elastic of the most important parameters of propagation
constants, which can often be calculated by equat- in isotropic multilayered-media is the dispersion of
ing (6.2), or more usually (6.3), to the velocities in velocity with frequency, and inversion of observed
a fixed number of directions. We shall make dispersion for structural constants is an important
extensive use of this property in the modelling technique for determining Earth structure. The
crack structures, which is reviewed in Section 9. dispersion of surface waves in anisotropic multi-
layered media can be calculated for specific models
7.2. Surface-wave propagation [1, 2, 5, 10, 20] [10, 20], but the interpretation is difficult, and
unlikely to be unique to anisotropic structures
The characteristics of surface-wave propagation [16]. Formal inversion of anisotropic dispersion to
are determined by a complicated function of the determine structure has not yet been attempted,
$. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 377

because of the large number of elastic constants to in the continental upper-mantle with a horizontal
be estimated, and the large amount of computer- symmetry plane. Further observations and
time required. However, several indirect attempts numerical analysis strongly support this hypothesis
have been made by using isotropic inversion- I;10].
techniques [64, 68] and by comparison with a Fig. 7.4 shows the calculated dispersion charac-
limited number of computed anisotropic models teristic of the first four Generalized-modes in such
[16]. a continental Earth structure having a thin layer of
The polarizations of surface waves, just like weak anisotropy in the upper mantle. The effects
those of body waves, are diagnostic of anisotropic of the anisotropy are almost wholly confined to the
propagation. Generalized-mode surface-waves. behaviour of the polarization of the Third
have elliptical particle-motion in three dimen- Generalized-mode, 3 G, equivalent to the isotropic
sions, and characteristic polarization-patterns are Second Rayleigh mode, which has most of its
possible, when there is just one homogeneous energy propagating in the top few kilometres of
anisotropic layer present, or when all the aniso- the upper mantle where the anisotropy is situated.
tropic layers in a multilayered structure have some The 10-km thick layer of anisotropy is made up of
overall similarity of orientations. a weak mixture (7% P-wave velocity-anisotropy)
Fig. 7.3 shows the characteristic polarizations of aligned olivine crystals in an isotropic matrix,
for three simple orientations of symmetry planes and the whole structure has effectively ortho-
[5] that may be used to identify such anisotropic rhombic symmetry with a horizontal plane of
orientations from observations of surface-wave symmetry. Consequently, the polarization of the
particle-motion. One of these polarizations, the Third mode is the Inclined-Rayleigh motion of
Inclined-Rayleigh motion in Fig. 7.3a, is charac- Fig. 7.3a. The inclination angle 8 (Fig. 7.3a) of 3G,
teristic of higher-mode surface-waves propagating in the second graph from the top in Fig. 7.4, swings
across Eurasia [63] suggesting aligned anisotropy rapidly through 60 ° and back again as the period
varies by two or three seconds, for directions of
propagation away from directions of sagittal
symmetry. This qualitatively models the polariza-
tions of Third Generalized-modes observed along
most paths in the continent of Eurasia [10, 63].
More complicated orientations of anisotropy
may also display characteristic patterns of surface-
wave polarizations. Fig. 7.5 shows the surface-
wave polarization-pattern for orientations of
(c) "~
orthorhombic olivine in the oceanic upper-mantle
as a result of syntectonic recrystallization in the
Propaglition
direction presence of shear stress [71], where the upward
pointing x-axis (the a-axis in the Figure) is in the
direction of rotation of the shear stress. The sur-
Fig. 7.3 (after [5]). Three types of Generalized surface-wave face-wave polarizations fall into patterns, which
particle-motion characteristic of propagation in particular
symmetry-directions:
are characteristic of the quadrant of the anisotro-
(a) [nclined-Rayleigh motion--propagation in a horizontal pic orientation, Similar patterns have been obser-
plane of symmetry, ved in surface waves crossing the Pacific Ocean
(b) Tilted-Rayleigh motion--propagation at right angles to a
vertical plane of symmetry, and
[21], indicating that the a-axis is pointing upwards
(c) $1oping-Rayleigh motion--propagation in a sagittal in the direction of movement of the oceanic plates,
plane of symmetry. which implies that the lithosphere is dragging the
378 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media

aesthenosphere. Other distinctive orientations of


axes would give other characteristic polarization-
patterns for known systems of anisotropic sym-
metry.

8. Attenuation

Many of the proposed mechanisms for attenua-


tion of wave motion would cause the attenuation
to vary with the direction of propagation through
L. 2.E
the imperfectly-elastic material. Attenuation may
0 I0 20 3~ q0 S0
101 be caused by scattering at the faces of cracks or
pores [72], bubble movements in partially
saturated cracks [73], liquid squirting in fully
2G saturated cracks [74], and friction in thin cracks
~a6
and along grain boundaries [75]. Clearly, a variety
of mechanisms are possible, and their only com-
3G~ t
F'G mon feature is that most of them depend on the
L presence of cracks or pores. Most systems of cracks
0 I0 2~ ,50 II0 S0
in the Earth are not randomly aligned, but display
overall alignments [15], such as systems of joints
I 3G and fractures. Attenuation caused by such aligned
inclusions will result in anisotropy of the specific
~ ~ F~ attenuation-coefficient, 1/Q. Such anisotropic
¢¢ : :uJ 2G attenuation can be modelled immediately with a
> O.C
20 20 kfJ 50
0 10 small modification to the notations of the previous
-5
sections.
The following equations allow synthetic seis-
mograms and other parameters of wave motion in
attenuating media to be calculated by established
t0 20
routines for purely-elastic anisotropic-propaga-
PEfllOD ,XH S E C Q f l g $
tion, with the minor modification of changing real
Fig. 7.4 (after [10]). Variation with period of the first four to complex elastic-constants. The only restriction
Generalized-mode surface-waves propagating in an isotropic on the discussion is that the attenuation should be
continental structure with a 10 km thick layer of weak aniso- small within any wavelength. Since this review of
tropy with orthorhombic symmetry at 30 km depth. Properties
are calculated for four directions of propagation: 0 ° and 90 ° wave motion is about propagating waves, which do
(solid lines), 30 ° (long dash), and 600 (short dash) from one of not decay very rapidly, the restriction is not severe.
the directions of sagittal symmetry (the x-axis in the anisotropic
medium). The diagrams show (from the top): (1) Phase- and
group-velocity dispersion, where the mode identifier of the
group velocity is underlined; (2) Inclination in degrees of the Figure 7.4 (cont.)
vertical plane of retrograde-elliptical motion to the propaga-
tion vector--the prograde motion is hatched; (3) Ratio of the Note: In directions of sagittal symmetry (0 ° and 90°); the
vertical amplitude to the horizontal amplitude; and (4) Diver- inclination of the particle motion is either 0 ° for Rayleigh-type
gence in degrees of energy propagation to the right of the motion, or 90 ° for Love-type motion, and the divergence of the
propagation vector. group velocity is 0 °.
$. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 379

-90"

Fig. 7.5 (after [20]). Characteristic polarizations of surface waves in (oceanic) Earth structures with olivine in the upper mantle,
oriented with one vertical symmetry-plane.

This development has not been previously pub- and the specific dissipation coefficient is [65]
lished, although it was presented at the Con-
1 / O = 2cI/c R. (8.2)
ference on Seismic Wave Attenuation at Stanford
University in May 1979. Attenuation may be introduced into anisotropic
wave motion by specifying imaginary parts to the
8.I. B o d y - w a v e attenuation elastic constants. Following the formulations of
Section 2.1, we substitute plane-wave displace-
The usual way that attenuation is introduced
ments for propagation in the xl direction:
into isotropic wave motion [65] is by specifying the
attenuation by the imaginary part of a complex uj = a i exp[ito ( t - x l / F) ],
velocity F = c a + i c x (the alternative of specifying
for ] = 1, 2, 3, (8.3)
complex frequencies leads to similar results). The
displacement of a plane wave propagating in the x into the equations of motion (2.1), and obtain a
direction can then be written: similar eigenvalue problem to (2.4):
u = exp[ito (t - x / 6 ) ] ( T - OF2I)a = 0, (8.4)

---exp ( - a x ) exp[ito (t - x~ ca)], (8.1) where 2P is the 3 x 3 matrix with complex elements
{Filkl}; and
where we have expanded the complex slowness
- R • I
1 / F and neglected squares of e I / c a ; a = t o / 2 Q c a ; Cjkmn = C jkmn + lC jkm n.
380 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media

The complex 7~ matrix in (8.4) results in three where AI, B ~ , . . . , G ~ are the same linear
complex-eigenvalues for the velocities of the three combinations of the imaginary elastic-constants
1
body-waves. For each wave we have Cikm, as A, B . . . . . . Gs are of the real constants in
(6.2); and E~ = -CIc andE~ = - C ,i corresponding
pt~ 2 = e R + ie I, (8.5)
to Ec = -C¢ and E~ = - C s in (6.2).
The dissipation coefficient for quasi P-waves can
where F is one of the three eigenvalues of
be written as
Expanding (8.5), and neglecting squares of eI/e R,
1/Op = e~p/ep
i R
the velocity is

6 = (eR/p)l/2+il(eI/eR)(eR/p) 1/2, (8.6) = (AI+B~ cos 20+B~ sin 20

+C2 cos 40 + C~ sin 40)


and the dissipation coefficient corresponding to
(8.2) is then / ( A +Be cos 20 + B~ sin 20

1/Q = e I / e R. (8.7) +C~ cos 40 + Cs sin 40), (8,9)


with similar expressions for 1 / Q s . and 1/OsR.
Since most of the numerical formulations in
Since B / A , C/A, E/D, and G / F are small (writing
previous sections are in complex arithmetic,
B for B~ and B . etc.), being no greater than p/100,
almost the only alteration needed to change pro-
where p is the maximum percentage of velocity
grams for calculating wave motion in purely-elas-
anisotropy, we have as a first approximation the
tic media into calculating wave motion in anelastic
full equations for the dissipation coefficients:
media is to allow the input routines to accept
complex elastic-constants, 1/Qp = (AI+B~ cos 20 +B~ sin 20
+C~ cos 40 + CI~ sin 4 0 ) / A ,
8.2. Approximate equations for the variation of
a tten ua tion 1/ Qsp = (D~ + E~ cos 40 + E l sin 4 0 )/ D,
(8.10)
The derivation of the approximate equations
(6.2) for the velocity variation in planes of mirror 1/ QR = (FI + G~ cos 20 + G~ sin 20 ) / F.
symmetry is unaltered by taking complex rather
In the same way that the full equations (6.2) for
than real elastic-constants. The coefficients in (6.2)
approximate velocity-variations contract to the
are linear in the elastic constants. Consequently,
reduced equations (6.3), when the angle 0 is
replacing real Cikm, by complex Cikmn , the real and
measured from a direction of sagittal symmetry,
imaginary parts separate, and the imaginary parts
the full equations for the dissipation coefficient
satisfy a similar equation for the variation with
(8.10) contract, under the same conditions, to the
direction as the real parts in (6.2). We have
reduced equations
e~ = (p 17"2)I
1/Op = (A I + B~ cos 20 + C~ cos 40)/A,
=AI+B~ cos 20 +BsI sin 20
1/Ose = (DI + E~ cos 40)/D, (8.11)
+C~ cos 40 + C] sin 40,
1/ QsR = (FI + G~ cos 20)/F,
I --2 I
ese = (pVse) (8.8)
where the constants have the same values as in the
=DI +EIc cos 40 +E~ sin 40, previous equations.
I ~2 )i These approximate equations demonstrate that
eSR = (p SR
the variations with direction of the dissipation
= F I + G~ cos 20 + G~ sin 20, coefficients have similar dependence on the angle
S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 381

of azimuth as the velocity variations. The polarities We shall be concerned here with modelling
and relative amplitudes of these dissipation wave propagation through aligned materials
coefficients may of course be completely different whose properties vary with direction, although
from the velocities, and there are no a priori many of the same principles equally apply to
conditions to be imposed on the imaginary parts of randomly oriented distributions. The important
the elastic constants. advantages of modelling inhomogeneous material
These various equations are as useful for by homogeneous elastic-solids are that:
modelling attenuation as the equations (6.2) and (1) Anisotropy imposes considerable con-
(6.3) are for modelling velocity-variations. In straints on the possible variations;
media where the variation of attenuation with (2) Anisotropy can be used to approximate to
direction is known, either from observations, or mixtures of several phases that cannot be easily
from theoretical equations, equations (8.10) and modelled in any other way;
(8.11) allow effective complex elastic-constants to (3) Once the equivalent elastic-constants have
be estimated. Synthetic seismograms and other been estimated, the properties of the wave motion,
characteristics of wave motion in the attenuating including synthetic seismograms, can be calculated
media can then be calculated by established pro- by the established techniques reviewed in the
grams. previous sections.
It is worth noting that the approximate equa-
tions (8.8) and (8.11) imply that anisotropic dis- 9.1. Estimating effective elastic-constants [15, 19]
sipation coefficients 1 / Q obey the same tensor
transformation for rotation as the purely-elastic Any two-phased material, in so far as it has a
constants. All the transformations are linear in the weak concentration of the minor phase and is
constants and the real and imaginary parts observed by long wavelengths, must have the same
separate and transform independently. orientations of symmetry planes as one of the
anisotropic symmetry-systems of Table 7.1.
Examination of the material, or the forces acting
9. Modelling two-phase materials on it, should indicate the orientations of these
planes, and the choice of the appropriate sym-
The presence of aligned inclusions, such as metry-system. If the symmetry planes of the
cracks, pores, or impurities, is probably the most material do not fit any particular system allowing
common cause of effective anisotropy within the for possible orientations of the principal axes, the
Earth, and possibly within many other solid elastic properties will be those of the system with
materials. We shall model wave propagation the nearest subset of symmetry planes and the
through such two-phased materials by approxi- remaining planes will not be individually dis-
mating to the inhomogeneous material by a tinguishable in the elastic behaviour. Once the
homogeneous solid with effective elastic-constants appropriate symmetry-system has been identified,
having the same variation of velocity (and attenu- a fixed n u m b e r of elastic constants, suitably
ation) with direction as the two-phase material. rotated, will specify the complete elastic-proper-
Assuming the distribution of inclusions is uniform, ties of the two-phase material. Thus modelling a
it is always possible to make this approximation for three-dimensional velocity-distribution, with
weak concentrations of the minor phase, when the unknown limitations on the variations, can be
dimensions of the minor phase are small in reduced to solving for a finite number of elastic
comparison with the seismic wavelength, and it constants in a known symmetry system.
may well be quite a good approximation even for These constants can be found by equating
strong concentrations of large inclusions. the approximate equations (6.2) or (6.3) to the
382 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media

velocities in a few directions in symmetry planes. It responding directions can be found, the fixed
can usually be arranged that the angle is measured number of constants for the appropriate sym-
from a direction of sagittal symmetry. The reduced metry-system can be determined, and the aniso-
equations (6.3) then apply, and are completely tropic tensor necessarily specifies the velocity
specified, and up to seven elastic constants deter- variations in all other directions. These techniques
mined, by the velocities at 0 °, 45 °, and 90 ° for qP; have allowed velocity variations to be determined
0 ° and 45 ° for qSP; and 0 ° and 90 ° for qSR, This for biplanar and triplanar crack-systems [15],
process is repeated for other symmetry planes until cracks with co-planar normals [25], and mixtures
all the required constants are specified. There is of interleaved dry and saturated cracks [19]. Such
usually a great deal of redundancy, and in some intersecting systems of cracks are very common,
systems of symmetry all the constants are deter- and this technique of determining constants from a
mined from a very few specified directions. In a few corresponding directions and allowing the
material with cubic symmetry, for example, the anisotropic tensor to specify the velocities in the
three elastic constants are determined by the remaining directions is a very effective way of
velocities in directions 0 ° and 45 ° for qP, and 0 ° for modelling complicated two-phase systems.
the quasi shear-waves in any of the symmetry
planes. 9.2. Propagation in cracked solids [15]
Equations (6.2) and (6.3) are quite good
approximations even for strong anisotropy [22]. Crampin [15] applied these techniques for
However, the exact velocity-variations for a set of modelling two-phase materials to cracked iso-
elastic constants, determined by the eigenvalue tropic-solids. Elastic constants were derived for
technique of Section 2, for example, may be a little homogeneous purely-elastic solids possessing the
different from those of the approximate equations. same velocity variations as the theoretical expres-
A few empirical adjustments in the procedure for sions of Garbin and Knopoff [76, 77, 78] for waves
determining the elastic constants, in order to scattered by propagation through an isotropic
balance the 40 contributions to the qP a n d qSP media with weak concentrations of small, thin,
variations, may improve the fit of the elastic parallel penny-shaped cracks. Garbin and Knopoff
constants to the velocity variations of the two- gave expressions for the velocity variations in
phase material. terms of angle of incidence to the cracks and the
In modelling the combination of several dis- polarization of the wave, and made neither direct
tributions of inclusions in an isotropic matrix (such nor indirect assumptions of anisotropy. Note that
as an intersecting system of cracks), we make the the techniques presented here are not dependent
assumption that, to a first approximation, the on these particular determinations of Garbin and
effects may be obtained by directly combining the Knopoff. Any valid velocity-variations can be
effects of the separate distributions in specified treated in the same way.
directions. In such corresponding directions, shear The solid lines in Fig. 4.2 show the theoretical
waves have the same polarizations in each separate velocity-variations for dry and saturated dis-
distribution, and their properties may be tributions of thin parallel cracks. The largest crack
combined, so that the proportional reduction (or density of e = 0.1 is equivalent to, say, one 1 cm 2
increase) in the velocity of the isotropic matrix crack in every 1 cm 3 (crack densities in competent
caused by each distribution separately may be rock can certainly exceed this crack density). Such
multiplied together to give the reduction (or crack distributions of parallel cracks possess
increase) in velocity of the combined system. hexagonal symmetry (transversely-isotropic
Elastic constants are determined in the same way symmetry, if the axis is vertical), and are described
as in simple two-phase media. If sufficient cor- by five elastic-constants (see Fig. 7.1).
S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 383

Consequently, the constants can be determined by a 6.~


b 6.C

equating the reduced equations of five velocities in


directions: 0°, 45 °, and 90 ° for qP; 0° for qSP or
qSR ; and 90 ° for qSR, where the angles are angle 5.5 S.E

of incidence to the cracks measured from the


symmetry-axis normal to the crack faces. The
exact velocity variations of the derived aniso- 5.0 5.[
tropic-tensors are indicated by the dashed lines
in Fig. 4.2.
The agreement between the solid and dashed
lines is good, although some empirical adjustment
to the constants improved the fit for dry cracks. It is
worth noting the agreement, despite being derived
by completely different techniques, between the ti.~ q.0

velocity variations through parallel cracks of g


Garbin and Knopoff, and the approximate equa-
tions (6.2) and (6.3) for the anisotropic velocity- 3.5 7-3.5

variations. Both variations have approximately


equal but opposite sign 40 contributions to the
squares of qP and qSP velocity variations.
Velocity variations have also been derived [15]
3.8 ~ ~P"-~ QSR
°Z\
~3.C
QSP
QSR
for propagation through various intersecting - I
systems of parallel cracks with the techniques of 2.5 03 2...
the previous Section. As examples: Fig. 9. la shows 8 38 68 9~ 8 30 68 S0
the theoretical and purely-elastic variations, in the
Fig. 9.1 (after [15]). (a) Velocity variations over the plane
plane perpendicular to the intersection, of a normal to the axis of intersection of an orthogonal biplanar-
biplanar system of dry cracks with equal crack- system of two sets of dry parallel-cracks with the same crack-
density of 0.08 in the isotropic solid of Fig. 4.1. Angles of
densities intersecting at 90 °, and Fig. 9.1b shows
incidence are m e a s u r e d from one of the crack faces.
the variations, in a plane parallel to one of the (b) Velocity variations over the plane parallel to one of the
crack systems, of a triplanar system of saturated cracks of an orthogonal triplanar-system of three sets of
cracks with equal crack-densities intersecting in an saturated parallel-cracks with the same crack-density of 0.07 in
the isotropic solid of Fig. 4.1. Angles of incidence are m e a s u r e d
orthogonal corner. These examples show crack from one of the crack faces.
systems with equal crack-densities intersecting at The notation is the same as in Fig. 4.2.
90 °, but all variations of biplanar systems can be
modelled [19], as can all combinations of triplanar tions they observed to differential closure of cracks
systems, for which one of the systems is perpendi- normal to the direction of stress, producing a
cular to the intersection of the other two systems. system of cracks with co-planar normals. Very
Many naturally occurring systems of cracks have similar velocity-variations can be obtained by
various biplanar and triplanar distributions. integrating the theoretical variations for parallel
There are very few observations of velocity cracks about an axis in one of the planes to produce
variations in any sort of crack system to compare a co-planar normal crack distribution [25].
with these theoretically derived determinations: Bamford and Nunn [80] observed P-wave velo-
Nur and Simmons [79] subjected Barre granite, city anisotropy in 70-m diameter experiments over
which possessed a nearly random crack-system, to Carboniferous Limestone with a pronounced
uniaxial stress. They attributed the velocity varia- system of vertical cracks. They found variations
384 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media
a b
differing by over 0.5 k m / s e c at three sites within 8,5 ff.fflff

3 k m of each other, despite crack alignments being OSP

8.ff
consistent over a very large region. These obser-
vations were inverted [19] to yield crack dis- 7.5
flip O. 0 0 8
tributions with similar densities and alignments at
the three sites. The differences in the velocity
variations were attributed to different percentages
6.5 CI. ~06
of water saturation in interleaved dry and

1,,
saturated cracks. Such interleafing may occur
above the watertable, whenever there is a large
zS. O. OOtl
variation in the size of the cracks in an otherwise
>-
i m p e r m e a b l e solid. Wide cracks will be dry, HS.
q
whereas fine cracks m a y retain water f o r long o
d
periods of time by surface tension and capillary z ft. 0 0 2
Ld
>
action. CE OSB o:
z
>--
C~ OSP w

9.3. Propagation in attenuating solids ~3 ff 3(] 6(] gO 0 35 68 9~

M a n y of the techniques discussed in the pre- Fig. 9.2. Variations with angle from the vertical of (a) phase
vious two sections also apply, with minor velocities, and (b) attenuation coefficients, I/Q, of 1 Hz body-
modifications, to modelling attenuation in two- waves propagating through QST001, which is a structure, with
hexagonal symmetry, of circular parallel viscous-filled cracks
phase materials with the equations of Section 8. with density, radius, aspect-ratio, and coefficientsof viscosityof
Chatterjee, Mal, Knopoff and Hudson [72] 0.1, 100 m, 0.1 and 5 x l0 s poise, respectively, in an isotropic
determined theoretical expressions for the varia- solid: p = 3.4 gm/cm3, a = 7.6 km/sec, and ~ = 4.2 km/sec.
Solid lines are from the theoretical expressions of [72], and
tion of both velocity and attenuation of waves
dashed lines are exact values from the complex elastic-tensor
propagating through parallel cracks filled with a derived by fitting the approximate equations (6.3) and (8.11) to
viscous fluid, and included both the effects of the theoretical values.
scattering at the crack faces, by a technique similar
to that used previously in [76, 77, 78], and the
effects of the viscous attenuation within the cracks. form of the velocity variations is similar to those in
The variations are expressed in terms of the angle the saturated cracks in Fig. 4.2c (the derivations of
of incidence to the cracks and the polarization of the formulae are similar), although the average
each wave. We illustrate the techniques of model- velocities are very different due to the different
ling by showing the variations with direction of velocities in the uncracked solids.
velocity and attenuation in QST001, and calculat- Fig. 9.3 shows synthetic seismograms of 1 Hz
ing synthetic seismograms. QST001 is a structure shear-wave pulses propagating at normal
of parallel viscous-filled cracks (parameters in incidence through a 100 km thick slab of QST001
caption to Fig. 9.2) very approximately modelling for a range of crack orientations. The initial shear
lenses of melt in the Earth's low-velocity-channel. pulses have polarizations intermediate between
Fig. 9.2 shows the variation with direction of the the Z and T axes. Fig. 9.3 shows a m a r k e d varia-
velocity and attenuation of a 1 Hz wave in tion of pulse amplitude with the crack orientation,
QST001. The values of velocity and attenuation and can be contrasted with the seismograms in Fig.
are, in some sense, reciprocals of each other: the 4.3a, for propagation through a non-attenuating
attenuation of each wave type is greatest in direc- structure, which have a very similar pattern of
tions where the velocity is least and vice versa. The arrivals, but with equal-amplitude pulses.
s. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropicand cracked media 385

Note that the attenuated seismograms in Fig. 9.3 attenuation over any given length of path, and the
are calculated for 1 / Q corresponding to the 1 H z transient arrival is smoothed.
values in Fig. 9.2, and the frequency dependence This phenomenon of pulse broadening may
of the expressions of [72] has not been taken into occur for any wave and path direction for which
account in the calculation. The incident pulse, to/Qc (8.1) is frequency dependent. In the formu-
lation of Chatterjee et aL [72], to/Qc is
u(t) = t 2 exp -(tot/k) 2 sin tot,
independent of frequency only for purely viscous
where t is time, and k (=3) controls the damping, damping. We conclude that the absence of pulse
has a dominant 1 Hz component, and smaller- broadening in attenuated waves through cracked
amplitude higher-frequency components associ- media may be diagnostic of viscous attenuation.
ated with the transient nature of the pulse [12].
The higher-frequency components are evident in
the broadening of the pulse in the more attenuated 10, Shear-wave polarization-anomalies [8, 13,
signals (particularly noticeable in the top and 15, 24, 26]
bottom records of Fig. 9.3). This is because the
specific attenuation coefficient 1 / Q represents a The existence of shear-wave polarization-
proportional decrease in amplitude per anomalies can be inferred from theory, but it is
wavelength. The higher frequencies have more difficult to realize the subtle yet characteristic
wavelengths, and correspondingly greater effect these anomalies have on the particle motion
of the shear wavetrain without numerical or
z observational experiments.
B The behaviour of shear waves crossing an
T anisotropic region is illustrated schematically in
Fig. 10.1. The shear wave necessarily has to split,
R
on entry into the anisotropic region, into two
T phases with polarizations orthogonal with respect
to the propagation direction and fixed for the
Z particular direction through the anisotropy. This
R
splitting phenomenon is also called shear-wave
T
birefringence, and shear-wave double-refraction.
Z
R
ISOTROPIC
T REGION

Z
R
Z ~

-I SEC
1 HZ Su,5 THRO' IOOKH
QSTOOt fiT 5 0 R I E N T N S

Fig. 9.3. Synthetic seismograms of 1 Hz shear-waves with


intermediate polarizations propagating at normal incidence /
through a 100 km thick slab (Fig.4.1) with fiveorientationsof
QST001, with the initial (top) orientation with the symmetry
axis in the Radial direction, and then successivelyrotated by
22.5° about the Z axis. Fig. 10.1. Schematic representation of shear-wave splitting.
386 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media

In general, the two shear-waves with distinct and polarizations are calculated for the group-
polarizations will travel at different velocities and velocity arrivals, by the techniques of Crampin and
arrive at the exit interface at different times. The McGonigle [24], since it is the group velocity
delay is proportional to the degree of differential which is observed in all cases. It is easy to plot
shear-wave anisotropy in that particular direction, observations of shear-wave delays and polariza-
and to the length of the path through the aniso- tions in such stereograms, whether they are
tropic region. The delay between the shear arrivals observations of rays surrounding a point source, or
results in a polarization anomaly in the shear of teleseisms propagating through a layer of
wavetrain, which will be preserved unchanged for anisotropy in the upper mantle. Generally orien-
any following isotropic propagation, since the ted anisotropy (or generally oriented planes of
velocity of shear waves in isotropic solids is projection) may lead to complicated asymmetrical
independent of the polarization. Since it is difficult patterns in the stereograms, such as those in Fig.
to devise isotropic structures that can split shear 10.2c. However, once observations of delays and
body-waves, the recognition of split arrivals in a polarizations in one plane of projection have been
shear wavetrain is a strong indication of anisotropy tabulated in machine-readable form, they can
somewhere along the path, particularly if the easily be rotated into stereograms for other planes
splitting is not into SH and SV waves. of projection in order to search for symmetry
Note that the delay between the two split shear- planes and other identifiable properties of the
waves is a rather more direct measurement of anisotropy. It is suggested that such stereograrns
physical parameters than is the case with many are a powerful technique for estimating anisotropy
seismic observations. The delay between the two from observations.
phases is measured directly from the seismogram,
and is directly proportional to the two things of
particular interest to us here: the length of the path 11. Discussion, application, and speculation
through the anisotropie region; and the relative
difference in the slownesses of the two split shear- Many of the properties of wave motion in
waves for that particular direction of propagation. anisotropic media have been known for many
This suggests techniques for estimating both the years, although it is only since the numerical
degree of anisotropy and its symmetry structure, if modelling-programs, outlined in this review, have
there are enough observations of the shear-waves been developed that the effects of these proper-
propagating in a variety of directions through the ties can be properly evaluated. One of the major
anisotropic medium. There are two quantities results of this development is the recognition that
easily determined from any seismogram displaying quasi shear-wave polarization-anomalies are a
shear-wave splitting: the time delay between the powerful technique for both diagnosing the
two shear arrivals; and the polarization of the first presence of anisotropy and for estimating some of
(faster) shear-wave. The later arriving shear-wave its parameters. The technique involves analysing
is usually superimposed on the first arrival, and the particle motion in shear-wavetrains. Particle
although its arrival time may be picked from motion has been neglected in conventional seis-
polarization diagrams, its polarization will be more mology, and part of the reason may well be that
difficult to determine reliably. unsuspected anisotropy has frequently introduced
Fig. 10.2 displays shear-wave delays and previously-uninterpretable complications. It is
polarizations in stereograms for shear-wave delays hoped that one of the effects of these aniso-
and polarizations for propagation in a 10-km tropic developments will be to reopen interest
sphere of orthopyroxene projected on to the z-cut in studies of, particularly shear-wave, particle-
and two more generally oriented cuts. The delays motion.
S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 387

N N
./- I

a
.1" ,1" -I" -I" + 1- 1-
•\" ,/" .~" -/" 4"
÷ -1- -1- -I-
i
-V + -V q -
"I, 1, 1. "1- "1- + -\" .I" .I" ,t" ,\"
1, "1- 1. I- ,__ -I- .I" .I" ,I"
1. 1- ~I'- +
:I: :I:
1. % +./-
.1"

20 o

11 N i
d. /" "v- % %

¢ ,l" -1" -I" + "l- t- 1. \


/,P -I"-l"-I" + "I-I- I- I,',,
I -1- -1- -I- + - I - -V -I- t
;4, "/, t. -I- 4- -- -1- -I- .I- ,\" ,'4
•,, -/. -/. -I- -- .V .V X /
-~.\.,.
, , 7,,,. > -x - i:- .'.< /,

2o

N N
C
I,-" .-,< .\. -\" % % % \
I / × -\"-V -\" % "\-% "\-~,
I. \ -I- -I- -I- -I- -]- -I- "I.
~, \ ~'I,'[- -\- ~, -I--I-.I'./"
\ ' , . >: "I" ~ - - ./" d" I

2o o

Fig. 10.2. Stereographic projections of the relative shear-wave delays (in hundredths of a second) and polarizations (projected on to
the horizontal plane) for propagation through a 10 km focal sphere of orthopyroxene. On the left of each delay stereogram is a
north-south section. The solid bar of the polarizations is the projection of the faster (first arrival) quasi shear-wave, qS1, and the
broken bar is the polarization of the slower shear-wave, qS2. The small solid circles on the delay stereograms mark the zero positions
of point singularities on the equivalent phase-velocity stereograms. The orientations are:
(a) z-cut horizontal, with x axis pointing north;
(b) as in (a), but rotated 40 ° about the y axis; and
(c) as in (b), but rotated 20 ° about the x axis.
Note: there are irregularities in the contours of delays near some of the singularities due to the grid points of the systems routines
being too coarse.
388 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media

The anisotropic developments reviewed here The developments reviewed here may be
cover a wide field, and demonstrate that the solu- applied wherever anisotropy or aligned cracks
tion of almost any problem in anisotropic pro- exist in any solid structure. A number of possible
pagation can at least be formulated, and very often applications have been identified:
solved (at the cost of considerable numerical (1) Velocity anisotropy has been widely
analysis), if the solution exists for isotropic pro- identified in the oceanic, and some continental,
pagation. This opens the possibility of using seis- upper mantle, and is probably due to preferred
mic waves to examine the internal structure of the crystal orientations. There are reasons to believe
medium through which they propagate. It is that this anisotropy may be more extensive in the
suggested that the presence of anisotropy should upper mantle than is usually observed [14, 81]. In
not be though of as an unnecessary and complicat- that case, every wave that penetrates the upper
ing nuisance, but should be valued as a means of mantle may require anisotropy to be considered in
investigating the internal constitution of the the interpretation, if the observations have
medium [9], its present or previous stress-dis- sufficient resolution.
tribution [14, 81], and, perhaps most important, Most applications, however, are likely to be
the presence, orientation, and distribution of associated with the effective anisotropy caused by
aligned cracks [15, 19, 26]. the presence of aligned cracks, which is probably a
The other major result of the developments very common phenomenon.
reviewed here is that modelling propagation (2) Extensive dilatancy-anisotropy appears to
through material with aligned cracks by propaga- be associated with active seismic-regions [26, 82].
tion through homogeneous anisotropic solids, in If this hypothesis can be confirmed, it seems that
effect, opens up a whole new class of material to investigations of shear-wave polarization anomal-
wave-propagation calculations. Since cracks in ies may be one of the most promising techniques
solids are a very common, if not ubiquitous for monitoring changes of stress before ear-
phenomenon, which are usually aligned by stress thquakes that has yet been suggested. There are
at some stage in their growth, this development possible applications to earthquake prediction
may have very wide applications. Modelling cracks [26], and monitoring induced seismicity associated
by determining the effective real elastic-constants, with reservoir loading, and with rock bursts and
when the dimensions of the cracks are sufficiently acoustic emission in mines.
small compared with the seismic wavelength, (3) Hot-dry-rock geothermal-heat extraction
allows the velocity and amplitude variations of sets up aligned cracks deep in hot competent-rock.
both P and shear-waves to be calculated, as well as The actual geometry of the cracks is important for
the delays and polarizations of the split shear- understanding the processes involved, as well as
waves. If the dimensions of the cracks are for the continued exploitation of each reservoir.
sufficiently large for attenuation to be important, Since the interpretation of seismograms from
the velocity variations are probably not seriously down-weU three-component geophones is one of
disturbed [19], and the attenuation can be the principal techniques for mapping the crack
modelled, by the equations for anisotropic anelas- geometry, modelling synthetic seismograms by
tic wave-motion using complex elastic-constants. suitable anisotropic structures may well be
All the analytical results, computing techniques, important for interpreting the crack geometry
and computer programs for purely-elastic aniso- correctly.
tropic wave-motion, apply equally well to attenu- (4) Many oil and water resources are in rock
ating media, with the one modification: that the with aligned cracks or pores. Investigations of
elastic constants are changed from real to complex shear waves propagating through such structures
quantities. may give estimates of the degree of cracking, the
$. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 389

alignment of the cracks, and the proportion of The work reviewed here is the outcome of
liquid-filled cracks [19]. In addition, many oil collaboration with many people, too numerous to
reservoirs lie beneath great thicknesses of oil mention individually. They are the authors or
shale, which may be anisotropic [83], and, unless coauthors of the first 31 items of the reference list,
the anisotropy is correctly modelled, the structures and have each contributed significantly to this
below the shales will be difficult to interpret cor- development. I particularly thank David B. Taylor
rectly. of the Edinburgh Regional Computing Centre,
(5) Non-destructive testing for stress is increas- who has contributed in innumerable ways over
ingly important for monitoring many engineering many years through discussion, programming,
projects. A major technique for investigating the analytical advice, and in commenting on this
stress is examining the effects of the stress-induced manuscript--without him this development would
anisotropy on seismic microwaves. At pesent, the not have been possible. I am grateful to Robert
techniques usually involve P-waves, but this McGonigle for his comments on the manuscript
review demonstrates that the delays and polariza- and for providing much assistance in computing. I
tions in shear-wavetrains contain much additional also thank Tolya Levshin of the Institute of Physics
and easily accessible information. of the Earth, Moscow, for suggesting I write this
review, and for commenting on the manuscript,
The above applications, although largely much of which was written at the Institute of
unconfirmed, have considerable promise, as some Physics of the Earth, while on an exchange visit
degree of effective anisotropy certainly exists in a arranged by the Royal Society and the Academy of
great many structures and there are now tech- Sciences of the USSR. This work is supported by
niques by which it can be examined. Many other, the Natural Environment Research Council and is
more speculative applications could also be published with the approval of the Director of the
suggested. Institute of Geological Sciences (N.E.R.C.).
This is a review of work currently in progress,
some new results have been obtained while the
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