A R E V I E W OF W A V E M O T I O N IN A N I S O T R O P I C A N D
CRACKED ELASTICMEDIA
Stuart CRAMPIN
Institute of Geological Sciences, Murchison House, WestMains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3LA, Scotland, UK
Recent developments in the theory and calculation of wave propagation in anisotropic media have been published in the
geophysical literature and refer specifically to seismological applications. Anisotropic phenomena are comparatively common,
and it is the intention of this review to present these developments to a wider audience. Few of the results are new, but the
opportunity is taken to tidy up a few loose ends, and present consistent theoretical formulations for the numerical solution of a
number of propagation problems. Such numerical experiments have played a large part in our increasing understanding of wave
motion in anisotropic media. It now appears that the solution of most problems in anisotropic propagation can be formulated, if
the corresponding solution exists for isotropic propagation, and may be solved at the cost of considerably more numerical
computation.
There are two significant results from these developments: the recognition of the importance of body and surfacewave
polarizations in diagnosing and estimating anisotropy; and the recognition that many twophase materials, particularly cracked
solids, can be modelled by anisotropic elasticconstants. This last result opens up a new class of materials to wavemotion
analysis, and has applications in a variety of different fields.
CONTENTS
1. Introduction 344
1.1. Notations, conventions, and definitions 345
2. Body waves in homogeneous media 346
2.1. Phase velocities 346
2.2. Shearwave singularities 348
2.3. Group velocities 352
2.4. Pwave polarizations 354
3. Matrix formulations for multilayered media 356
3.1. Slowness equations 357
3.2. Propagator matrices 358
3.3. Matrix formulations for piezoelectric media 359
4. Synthetic bodywave seismograms 360
4.1. Plane waves 360
4.2. Spherical wavefronts by the reflectivity method 363
4.3. Spherical wavefronts by the ray method 367
5. Surface waves in a multilayered halfspace 368
5.1. Solid surfacelayer 369
5.2. Liquid surfacelayer 370
6. Approximate velocityvariations for body waves in symmetry planes 371
6.1. Full equations 371
6.2. Reduced equations 373
6.3. A note on velocity variations for surface waves 373
7. Propagation in particular symmetrysystems 373
7.1. Bodywave propagation 374
7.2. Surfacewave propagation 376
8. Attenuation 378
8.1. Bodywave attenuation 379
8.2. Approximate equations for the variation of attenuation 380
9. Modelling twophase materials 381
9.1. Estimating effective elasticconstants 381
9.2. Propagation in cracked solids 382
9.3. Propagation in attenuating solids 384
10. Shearwave polarizationanomalies 385
11. Discussion, application, and speculation 386
Acknowledgements 389
References 389
equations [38]. The same principle also has major The major references, from which each section
advantages for numerical calculations. An input is derived, are listed after the section headings.
routine rotates the elastic tensor into the desired The text is intended to be comprehensive, but the
configuration, leaving the main program inde references should be consulted for discussion of
pendent of direction of propagation and class of the finer points, and for further illustrations of
symmetry system. Restricting the propagation numerical examples.
to a fixed direction, in this way, greatly simplifies
both the analytical and computational tech 1. I. Notations, conventions, and definitions
niques at no loss of generality, and at the usually
Scalar quantities are lowercase characters,
negligible cost of initial rotation of the elastic
vectors are in bold typeface, and matrices are
tensor.
uppercase characters, except where otherwise
There are two important results of this
indicated.
development:
All noninteger scalar, vector, and matrix
(1) The recognition of the significance of body
quantities defined below may take complex values
wave and surfacewave polarizations, for both
with the exception of c,/, t, x, 6, ~, x, p, and to. This
understanding propagation in anisotropic media,
means that, in general, the equations apply equally
and providing, in polarization anomalies, a sensi
well to homogeneous and inhomogeneous waves.
tive diagnosticphenomenon for recognising the
Superscript '*' indicates the complex conjugate of
presence of anisotropy and mapping its charac
a complex quantity, which may be specifically
teristics (we use 'anomaly' in this review to mean
denoted by a bar over the variable.
some feature distinguishing anisotropic from iso
We use the dot notation to indicate differen
tropic propagation).
tiation with respect to time, and a comma in
(2) The recognition that the velocity and atten
front of subscripts to indicate differentiation with
tuation in wave propagation in twophase materi
respect to space coordinates.
als, particularly cracked solids, can be modelled by
The sagittal plane is the vertical plane through
homogeneous elasticsolids. Such solids will be
the direction of phasepropagation, and this direc
anisotropic, if the twophase materials display any
tion has sagittal symmetry if the sagittal plane is a
orientations or variations with direction, as they
plane of mirror symmetry.
commonly do, and the wave motion can then be
Transverse isotropy is Love's [39] name for a
calculated by the techniques reviewed here. This
medium with hexagonal anisotropicsymmetry
opens up a whole new class of materials to wave
when the axis of circular symmetry is perpendi
motion computations. Such materials appear
cular to the free surface.
to be comparatively common and there may be
important applications for the techniques in this
We use the following notations, except where
review.
otherwise specified in the text:
The development reviewed here is primarily
a guide to the numerical calculation of wave a is the amplitude vector, with elements {a~.},of
propagation in anisotropic material (henceforth a particular planewave decomposition, usu
conveniently abbreviated to anisotropic propaga ally normalized for each wave.
tion). The priority at all times has been to develop c is the phase velocity in the Xl direction, also
computer programs for numerical interpretation referred to as the horizontal phasevelocity,
of anisotropic propagation. The theoretical and the apparent velocity along the surface.
insights have come from numerical experimen cik,,, are the elements of the elastic tensor, not
tation with these computer programs, and their necessarily referred to the principal axes. The
application to specific examples. elastic tensor has the symmetry relationships
346 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media
Cik,,n = Cik,m = Cmnjk, and x o = 0 is a plane of Xl, x2, and x3 are right handed Cartesian coor
mirror symmetry if Cjk,,, = 0 whenever one or dinates with x3 vertically downwards.
three of j, k, m, or n, are equal to p. Such x, y, and z are the principal axes of anisotropic
planes of mirror s y m m e t r y are frequently symmetrysystems.
referred to simply as symmetry planes. a and/3 are isotropic P and Swave velocities in
f is the vector of excitation functions with ele km/sec.
ments {~.}, j = 1, 2 . . . . 6. Note that, for con &j,~ is the K r o n e c k e r delta function: &j,~ = 1 for
venience, the order of upward and downward j=m, 3i,,=Oforj~m.
components is sometimes reversed for parti E = Na 3/v is the crack density, where N is the
cular problems. n u m b e r of cracks of radius a in volume u.
i = x/L]. K is the w a v e  n u m b e r vector with elements {Kj}.
I is the 3 × 3 identity matrix. A and /z are the Lam6 constants in an isotropic
Superscripts I denote the imaginary part, and R medium.
the real part, of a complex quantity. p is density in g m / c m 3.
Subscripts/', k, m, and n run from 1 to 3, and the 0 is the normalstress vector O'=(O'13, 0"23,
summation convention is assumed for repeated 0"33)T, perpendicular to interfaces x3 =
suffices. constant.
q is the slowness vector, with elements qj, often ~" = (ito/c)0.
written as q = p/c, which serves to define the to is the angular frequency.
normalized slowness vector p,
qP, qS1, and qS2 are the three bodywaves
propagating in anisotropic media: a quasi 2. Body waves in homogeneous media
compressionalwave, and two quasi shear
waves, where qS1 is the faster, and qS2 the We examine the propagation of body waves in
slower shearwave, respectively. The prefix anisotropic media, leaving aside the question of
quasi will frequently be omitted when the how plane waves in such media are generated [40],
meaning is clear. The shear waves by assuming that the anisotropy is sufficiently weak
propagating in a plane of s y m m e t r y are for wellproven isotropictechniques to be appli
denoted by qSP, polarized parallel to the cable. A p a r t from the question of wave genera
plane, and qSR, polarized at right angles tion, most of the analysis is general for any degree
to the plane. of anisotropy, with the exceptions of the tech
1 / O is the specific attenuationcoefficient, also niques which m a k e use of approximate expres
referred to as the dissipation coefficient. sions in Sections 6, 8.2, and 9.
R, V, and T are submatrices of the full elastic
tensor, with elements {Cj3k3}, {Cjlk3}, and 2.1. Phase velocities [8]
{C~lkl}, respectively.
S = V + V T. The elastodynamic equations of motion in a
t is time. uniform purelyelastic anisotropicmedium are
= Tpc2L
Diij = CikmnUm,nk, for j = 1, 2, 3, (2.1)
Superscript T denotes the transpose of a vector
or tensor quantity. where we have rotated the elastic tensor with
u is the displacement vector, with elements {u~}. elements Cikmn by the usual tensortransformation
U is the groupvelocity vector. t I ! ! /
Cjkmn ~" X j,pX k,qX m,rX n,sCpqrs,
Vqp, Vqs1, Vqs2, Vqsp, and Vqs R a r e the phase
velocities of the qP, qS1, qS2, qSP, and qSR for j, k, m, n, p, q, r, s = 1, 2, 3, (2.2)
waves, respectively.
S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 347
to get the desired direction of phase propagation tuent of the Earth's uppermantle. The velocities
into the xlcoordinate direction with the xa direc have been plotted on a rectangular grid, rather
tion vertically downwards. The general expression than a polar diagram, in order to display the
for the harmonic displacement of a homogeneous angular variations more clearly. In planes of
planewave is symmetry such as those illustrated in Fig. 2.1, the
form of (2.4) indicates that the polarization of qP
ui = ai exp[ito (t  qkXk)], (2.3)
and of one of the two orthogonal shearwaves
where a is the amplitude vector specifying the (named qSP) is parallel to the symmetry plane, and
polarization of the particle motion; and q is the that the polarization of the other shearwave
slowness vector. The slowness vector of a plane (named qSR) is at right angles to the plane (the
wave propagating in the xl direction is q  (1/c, O, notation qSP and qSR is used only in symmetry
0) a', where c is the phase velocity. Substituting the planes).
displacement (2.3) into the equation of motion It is informative to contrast the behaviour in
(2.1) gives three simultaneousequations, which isotropic media. The isotropic elastictensor is
may be solved for c in any direction. However, the invariant with rotation, and T is the diagonal
preferred procedure is to write the solution as a matrix:
linear eigenvalue problem for pcZ:
a b c
XCUT YCUT ZCUT
9.8 9.0 9.
f QP
8.0 8.0 ...it 8
klA
~
~.7.~
~ / tlA
UD
~7.0
t.d
tO
~.7.C
% QP
Z Z Z
~ 6 . 0 ~ 6 . 0 6.0
(_3 L3
c3 E3 E3
_J
L~ L~ L~
uJS.0 QSR
" // OSR _~,.~...._ QSB >
z ~ QSP a:
> >
g
o
cnq.0 an Lt.0 clnq.
O 30 60 90 0 30 60 90 0 30 60 90
Fig. 2.1. Intersection of the phasevelocitysurfaces (solid lines) and the wave or groupvelocitysurfaces (dashed lines) of the three
bodywaves with the three orthogonal symmetryplanesof orthorhombic orthopyroxene (elastic constants from [41]):
(a) xcut symmetryplane; angles measured over 90° from the yaxis towards zaxis,
(b) ycut symmetryplane; angles from zaxis towards xaxis, and
(c) zcut symmetryplane; angles from xaxis towards yaxis.
The qSP waves are shearwaves with polarizations parallel, and qSR at right angles to each symmetryplane.
Fig. 2.2 shows just more than a solid octant of velocity sheets are analytically continuous: the
the two shearwave phasevelocity surfaces for shear waves must cross each other an odd number
orthopyroxene. The qPwave velocitysurface of times (and at least once) on rounding the corner.
(not shown), and the two quasi shearwave The shearwave sheets are analytically continuous
velocity surfaces are almost spherical surfaces in all anisotropic media, and the sheets must come
with no marked features, apart from the slight into contact at least twice as the velocities are
indentations and projections associated with unaltered by 180 ° rotation, because of the sym
the shearwave singularities discussed in the metry of the tensor transformations. The points of
next section. contact are directions of singularity of the shear
wave roots. They most commonly occur on planes
2.2. S h e a r  w a v e singularities [22, 23, 24] of mirror symmetry, although they may occur in
offsymmetry directions in trigonal, orthorhombic,
The behaviour of shear waves in symmetry monoclinic, and triclinic systems. It is surprising
planes, such as those shown in Fig. 2.1, appears that, although singularities in the shearwave
comparatively straightforward. This apparent sheets are well known (they are usually called
simplicity is misleading. Tracing each shearwave conical points [38]), the essential analytical con
round the orthogonal corner in Fig. 2.1, the tinuity of the shearwave sheets does not appear
polarizations demonstrate that the two phase to have been recognised before 1977 [8].
S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 349
Z Z
QS2
Z
Z
X X
il b
i
Fig. 2.2. Projections of just more than a solid octant of the phasevelocity and groupvelocity surfaces of the shear waves in
orthopyroxene projected onto a plane from infinity. (a) projections of the faster sheet qS1, and (b) projections of the slower sheet qS2.
The upper octants are of the phasevelocity surfaces, where the arrows mark the positions of point singularities. The lower octants are
of the groupvelocity of wave surfaces and include three plane sections of the singular feature associated with the singularity near the y
axis.
°I'x a
b3
in the zcut. It is very close to a kiss singularity at >
85 70 50 40 50 4O
z YCUT z YCUT Z "( CUT
3"
g~
85 70 50 40 50 40
Y XCUT "l' XCUT T XCUT
g~
¢%
&
Z z Z
~ &
85 70 50 40
/
5O 4O
Fig. 2.4. Stereographic projections of the phasevelocity surfaces of orthopyroxene onto the three symmetryplanes: the z, y, and xcuts (from the top). On the left of
each stereogram is the section of y, x, and zcuts, respectively. The contours are labelled in km/sec x 10, and the small solid circles in the shearwave stereograms mark
the positions of the shearwave singularities. The stereograms are:
(a) qP velocity,
(b) faster quasi shearwave velocity, qS I, and
(c) slower quasi shearwave velocity, qS2.
The behaviour of the contours and sections is a little blurred near some of the singularities. This is due to the coarseness of grid of points used to obtain the graphs.
352 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media
indentations of the faster sheet qS1, and by shal direction, 0to/bK1 = c, and, if there is no bodywave
low conical projections of the slower sheet qS2. dispersion, (2.5) becomes
The two sheets are continuous through the singu
U ~ (c, O0.)/OK2, OW/~K3) T, (2.6)
larities at the vertices of these shallow cones.
Seismic observations of anisotropy are fre Thus, in nondispersive anisotropic media, the
quently confined to the variations in one plane energy travels in the propagation direction at the
of the anisotropic medium, as are most obser phase velocity c, but, in general, also has a
vations of anisotropy in the Earth's uppermantle component perpendicular to the propagation
[9, 10, 21] and crust [19]. Plane sections of the vector, so that ]UI I> c. For propagation in a plane
velocity surfaces, as in Fig. 2.1, are adequate for of symmetry, x3 = 0 say, symmetry considerations
these applications, and indeed for many three demonstrate that the energy is confined to the
dimensional modelling studies [15]. However, symmetry plane and 0(.O//0K3 = 0.
plane sections cannot indicate the true three The deviation of the groupvelocity from the
dimensional nature of the variations. Fig. 2.4 phasevelocity direction has a negligible effect on
shows stereographic projections of the variations propagation of body wave in weakly anisotropic
of three velocitysurfaces of the orthopyroxene of material, when Oto/Ox2 and 0to/0K3 are both small
Fig. 2.1, projected onto the three orthogonal [22]. However, the deviation may produce
symmetryplanes by the techniques of [24]. The significant effects, including cusps in the shear
variation of the qP surface is straightforward, wave slownesssurfaces, for propagation in more
although not wholly predictable from the sections strongly anisotropic material [23, 24]. The convex
of the symmetry planes in Fig. 2.1, but the shear nature of the qP slownesssurface, when it is
wave velocitysurfaces show unexpectedly wholly interior to the shearwave surfaces, pro
complicated patterns caused by the rapid varia hibits cusps in the qPwave velocityvariations.
tions in the gradient of the velocities near The surface traced out by the energy radiated
singularities. from a point source in a given time, called the wave
Projections onto generally oriented planes may surface or groupvelocity surface, is the envelope
show very asymmetric stereograms. However, all of the wave fronts propagating from a point source
stereograms for a particular wavetype in any in a given time [43]. The general expression for the
particular anisotropic medium are equivalent wave surface is easily obtained from this envelope.
under rotation of the axes. If r = V(O, d~) is a point on the phase velocity
surface in spherical coordinates, the correspond
2.3. Group velocities [8, 22, 23, 24] ing point on the wave surface has Cartesian
coordinates [24]
A further consequence of the variation of velo
city with direction in anisotropic media is that the xl =cos(/) cos 0 V  c o s ~b sin 0 dV/dO
wave number, which in isotropic propagation is (sin 4~/cos 0) d V/d4~,
usually a scalar quantity, becomes a vector, re, for
both bodywave and surfacewave propagation in x2 =sin tb cos 0 V  s i n 4) sin 0 dV/dO
(2.7)
anisotropic media. The classic expression for +(cos ~b/cos 0) d V/dth,
bodywave groupvelocity, U = Oto/OK, becomes
x3 =sin 0 V + c o s 0 dV/dO.
U = (&o/OK1, ato/0K2, &o/OK3)T, (2.5)
and energy transport is no longer always parallel to Note that there is a copying error in [24] and the
the bodywave phasepropagation vector, even for sign of the third term of x2 is positive.
nondispersive media, as it would be in isotropic The intersection of the wave surface with a
propagation. For phase propagation in the Xl symmetry plane takes a particularly simple form.
S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 353
Points on the wave surface have a velocity coordinate system specified by the Kelvin
Christoffel equation:
U = (V 2 + (dV/dO)2) 1/2, (2.8)
AlpV 01~1ot~2 °1~1°/3 t (ax)
in a direction
0~1a2 AEpV 2 O/20~3 [ a2 = 0,
= t a n  l ( ( V sin 0 + (dV/d0) cos 0) 0~10~3 0~20t3 A 3  0 " V 2] a3
All=
A2
A3
O~20t3
/Cl111
C1212
C1313
C1312
C1212
C2222
C2323
C2223
C1313
C2323
C3333
C3323
1
C1312
C2223
C3323
2(C2233+C2323)
1
Cl113
C2312
C3313
½(C3312+C2313)
C2313 
there is considerable threedimensional distortion. for orthopyroxene in Fig. 2.2b is certainly a very
The overall curvature of the velocity surface leads shallow cone it is not planar.
to cuspidal edges and fins on the slower sheet qS2; One feature of energy propagation in aniso
we define edges as threedimensional cuspidal tropic media is unmistakably clear: energy
features with one sharp edge, and fins as three propagation is a threedimensional phenomenon.
dimensional features with two sharp edges. The Examination of propagation in one plane, even a
qS2 wavesurface in Fig. 2.2 has cuspidal edges symmetry plane, may give no indication of the
running either side of the y = 0 plane from the x behaviour in neighbouring directions, particularly
axis to midway between the x and z axes, where if there are singularities nearby. Since singularities
they each evolve into fins, one of which runs are very common features of shearwave velocity
diagonally across the top of the octant. The surfaces (Table 7.1, below), singular features are
behaviour of the twosheeted shear wavesurfaces common for shearwave propagation in all aniso
near shearwave singularities may be very tropic solids, although, for very weakly anisotropic
complicated. The effects of the singularities near solids, the angular spread of the features may be
the x and z axes appear to be hidden in the very small.
complicated behaviour of the cuspidal edges and We see that the wave surfaces of shear waves are
fins. However, the singularity at about 14 ° from frequently complicated by projecting and over
the y axis displays the classic behaviour of point lapping cuspidal fins and edges. The expressions
singularities. The faster shear wavesheet qS1 has (2.7)(2.9) allow shearwave propagation to be
an open hole, and there is a corresponding flat computed in homogeneous anisotropicmedia, but
invertedconical lid, resting pointdownwards on propagation in more complicated structures must
the slower sheet qS2, which fits exactly into the be interpreted by means of numerical experiments
hole on the faster sheet. The only way of progress with synthetic seismograms with spherical wave
ing from one sheet to the other (and the only way fronts.
of crossing the open hole) is by a range of phase
propagation directions which pass directly through 2.4. Pwave polarizations [29]
the singularity, as in the symmetry planes in Fig.
2.1. The wave directions corresponding to neigh Analysis of Pwave arrivaltimes is the major
bouring section of phase propagation go through .seismic technique for investigating the structure of
rapid variations as indicated in Fig. 2.2. In the qS1 the Earth, but is rather insensitive to the smoothly
sheet the directions skirt round the hole, and in the changing angularvariations expected in aniso
qS2 sheet the directions follow tight convolutions tropic structures. The only occasions, when P 
in the flat invertedconical lid. wave arrivaltimes are likely to unambiguously
Cuspidal features associated with overall indicate anisotropy, are in the few places where P
curvature and the features associated with waves can be observed over many directions in
singularities are frequently asymmetrical and one plane.
irregular, and a great many possible combinations One of the main themes of this review is that
of features exist. These have not yet been classified shearwave polarizationanomalies appear to be
in any way. Miller and Musgrave [45] first recog an important diagnostic, which can be used for
nised the hole and lid phenomenon, although estimating in situ anisotropy. Unfortunately,
Musgrave makes no direct mention of it in his book shearwave arrivals are frequently disturbed by
[38]. Burridge [46] examines the hole and lid the coda of the preceding Pwave and by S to P
p h e n o m e n o n for singularities in cubic nickel, and conversions. It would be much easier to recognise
finds that the lid is a plane surface. Although the lid and investigate anisotropy if Pwave polarizations
S. Crampin I Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 355
displayed anomalies. However, [29] shows that, in the same direction and just exceeds the devia
although Pwave polarizations may deviate signi tion of the polarization vector. The algebra is
ficantly from the phasepropagation direction, rather specialized for this review, and the reader is
the apparent deviation of the polarization from the referred to [29] for details. However, it is worth
direction of the great circle or ray arrival is small, noting that the quantity that controls the size and
and is likely to be overlooked. This is because direction of both deviations is the constant c1121
seismic energy travels along the ray path traced by referred to the local coordinate system (radial,
the groupvelocity vector, which also deviates transverse, and vertical to the phase front). This is
from the phasepropagation vector (see the pre the offdiagonal element in the T matrix in the
vious Section) in the same direction as the eigenvalue equation (2.4) for the bodywave
polarization deviation. Fig. 2.5 illustrates sche phasevelocities, when x3 = 0 is a plane of mirror
matically the behaviour in a symmetry plane, symmetry.
where the phasepropagation, groupvelocity, and Fig. 2.6 gives some numerical examples of
polarization vectors are coplanar. polarization and groupvelocity deviations in
symmetry planes in alphaquartz, rutile, and
orthopyroxene, showing a range of velocity varia
tions. The deviations of the Pwave polarizations
from the phasepropagation direction may be
/35 large (up to nearly 30 ° in the strong anisotropy in
Fig. 2.6a). However, Fig. 2.6 and numerical
examination of a variety of symmetry planes in all
RAY
OR ~.CL
GBOUP
V
ELOC
T
I V J~
symmetry systems shows that the groupvelocity
deviation is almost the same as the polarization
deviation so that the apparent deviation, the
\ <. difference between them, is small, and likely to be
attributed to noise or local heterogeneities. Note
from Fig. 2.6a that the deviation of the group
velocity is only invariably greater than the
polarization deviation for one of three mutually
orthogonal symmetry planes.
¢
Algebraic analysis of groupvelocity and
Fig. 2.5 (after [29]). Schematic diagram of the deviation of the
polarization deviations has not yet been attempted
polarization and groupvelocity vectors from the phasepro for general directions of propagation, but
pagation vector. The heavy line is the particlemotion numerical examination of a large number of solids
polarization direction. The polarization deviates from the pro
from different symmetry systems always indicates
pagation vector by an angle a, and the ray, or groupvelocity
vector, deviates by/3, giving an apparent polarization deviation almost the same deviations for groupvelocity and
of B  a . polarization deviations. Fig. 2.7 shows stereo
grams of the horizontal projections of the apparent
Pwave polarizations in anisotropic halfspaces
It can be demonstrated algebraically [29] that, made of the same materials and having the same
for propagation in symmetry planes in the more surface cuts as in Fig. 2.6. In all cases, the horizon
common anisotropic systems with cubic, hexa tal projections of the polarizations are nearly
gonal, tetragonal, and orthorhombic symmetry, radial, and are unlikely to be identified in obser
the deviation of the groupvelocity vector is always vations.
356 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media
8.0 10.0
S
. ¢
/
.~ 7.o 7
"
..%
...J u
u.l uJ
> 5.B > 7.B
O 30 60 • 90 120 15~ 180 0 38 6° 90 8 30 60 90
W 3o.o =~ 3o.o 3 o . e _ _
,=,
C3
Fig. 2.6 (after [29]). Variation with direction of the qPwave velocity and deviations of the polarization and groupvelocity vectors in
planes of mirror symmetry.
Top figures: Velocity variations. Dotted lines are the phasevelocity variation, and solid lines are the apparent velocity (the group
velocity) plotted in the direction of the ray. Lines join corresponding points at every 10 ° of phasevelocity variation.
Bottom figures: A n g u l a r deviations. Dotted lines are the deviation of the polarization, and dashed lines are the d~viation of the
group velocity, both plotted against the direction of the phasepropagation vector. Solid lines are the apparent deviation of the
polarization, the difference of the two deviations, plotted in the direction of the ray. Lines join corresponding points at every 10 ° of
phasevelocity variation.
T h e variations are: (a) xcut alphaquartz (trigonal symmetry), (b) zcut rutile (tetragonal symmetry), (c) zcut orthopyroxene
(orthorhombic symmetry) (Solids are specified in [22]).
N N N
\ I
/// \ \ I / /
/ / xkX\ \
/ / /i ////
/ ./.I.t ~ .'~ \ I / 1/._... I
"~"" \ I
I I
\ \ ~' / .// / \ \\
/ // / I t \\ x ////
'i
/It ""~\ // / I \ \
a b c
Fig. 2.7 (after [29]). Stereograms of the horizontal projections of the apparent qPwave polarizations for propagation from a point
source in an anisotropic halfspace m a d e of the same materials and having the same surface cuts as in Fig. 2.6. The polarizations are
plotted at equal azimuthal intervals of phase propagation. (a), (b), and (c) correspond to Figs. 2.6a, b, and c, respectively.
M.
MI [[R1S Rz~"~ /l 0 ap
M 0 }P~0 /)](a) =0 (3.4)
X3
Fig. 3.1. Coordinate axes for multilayered models. Elastic where T = T  p c 2 L The matrix decomposition of
tensors are rotated so that the anisotropicaxescoincidewiththe
space coordinatesand the apparent velocityalong the surface is the full 9 × 9 elastic tensor into the 3 x 3 sub
in the xl direction. matrices R, S, T, and V was originally due to Stroh
[47], but has been developed independently by
Taylor [17, 18], and has great advantages both
tensors are rotated accordingly. Since most of the
for bodywave, and, particularly, surfacewave
analysis in this section involves complex quan
calculations.
tities, the distinction between homogeneous and
The linear eigenvalue problem (3.4) is suitable
inhomogeneous waves is unimportant for analy
for numerical solution, but we continue the analy
tical and programming manipulations.
sis to demonstrate further computational advan
tages for the next Section. Expression (3.4) can be
3.1. Slowness equations [1, 8, 17, 18] written in the purelymatrix form:
The general displacement in any of the layers
consists of six waves, three travelling upwards (in R'S R'7" AP
the direction of negative x3), and three travelling i o )(7
downwards. The displacement can be written
as (2.3):
6
Ui= ~ f#ai(n) exp[ito(tqk(n)xk)], (3.1) where if the column eigenvector corresponding to
n=l
Pi is (a~pi, aT) T, then
where f is the vector of excitation functions for
P = diag(pl, P2, P3),
the six waves. We take q~ = 1/c, q2 = 0, and p, =
cq3(n) for propagation in the xl direction. /$ = diag(p4, Ps, P6),
The problem is to determine p, for each wave in A = (al, a2, a3),
each layer for a given horizontal phase velocity c.
Substituting (3.1) into the equations of motion = (a,, a5, a6).
(2.1), we obtain three simultaneous equations for The form corresponding to (3.5) for the row
each layer: eigenvectors of (3.3) is:
Fjkak = 0, (3.2)
pATR AT2r)(R/1S R01T)=
where F#~ =pc 2~$im+Cikmnqkqn; and we have
~6,iTR iiTt
omitted the common factor exp(itot). This can be
written as a matrix equation for p (dropping
the suffix on p,), frequently called the slowness _(0 ~ j \~,~TR _t~TT]. (3.6)
equation:
The row and column vectors for distinct eigen
Fa = (Rp 2 + Sp + T  pc2I)a = O, (3.3) values are orthogonal in an n × n linear eigenvalue
358 $. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media
problem, and, providing a set of n independent and the subscript n refers to values in the n th layer.
column vectors can be found, there exists an Similarly, the displacementstress vector at the
orthogonal set of n row vectors, even when the pj (n + l ) t h interface is related to the excitation
are not distinct. Consequently, the product of vector of the nth layer by:
the row and column vectors is a diagonal matrix.
We have
= E.D.([)., (3.12)
pATR AT~'~I(Ap At 5
P,U R A 7, J=
where
= diag(yl, y 2 , . . . , y6), (3.7)
D, =diag[exp(iwpfl,/c)], j = 1, 2 . . . . 6;
and the matrix of column vectors is the inverse of
the matrix of row vectors, if the ai are scaled so that and dn is the thickness of the nth layer.
39 = 1, j = 1, 2 . . . . 6. Since the matrix of row Combining the expressions (3.10) and (3.11)
eigenvectors may be constructed from the column we have a propagator matrix (Gilbert and
eigenvectors: Backus [48]):
pATR AT~
p~TR .~TTJ =
'T n+l n'
describe it as, in its present stage of development, The equations of motion (3.15) can then be written
it is much less convenient for describing the range
puj = Cjk,,,.U,,,.k,,, for j = 1, 2, 3,
of body and surfacewave applications we shall (3.18)
discuss in this paper. Chadwick and Smith [49] give C4kranUm,kn = 0
a comprehensive review of these developments.
where u4 = 4); and the implicit summations now
run from 1 to 4. The tensor transformation (2.2),
3.3. Matrix formulations }:or piezoelectric
for rotating to a new coordinate system (x~), is
media [17]
preserved, with summation subscripts again run
Taylor and Crampin [17] demonstrate that the ning from 1 to 4, and x],t 4 X 4t , ]  0 for J # 4, and
~
where (Jr),, = (fl, f2 . . . . . f6) T is the excitation In isotropic media (4.5) becomes
vector in the halfspace. We order the pj in Em so 1 2 ,
F i =~to f f (A +2g,)qi
that [j = t~jk for j = 1, 2, 3, where k = 1, 2, or 3, for
the appropriate incident qP, qS1, or qS2 wave, for P waves, and
respectively, and the fj, for j = 4, 5, 6, are the Fj = ½to2f f * p.q,
excitations of the three downwardpropagating
for shear waves.
waves.
The three plane bodywaves propagating in the
The product of propagator matrices (3.13)
same direction are orthogonaUypolarized, and
relates the displacementstress vectors at the top
the polarizations are not, in general, radial or
of the halfspace to those at any other interface.
transverse to the propagation direction [8]. These
The solution is determined by relating the half
polarizations cause phase conversions at inter
space vector to the boundary conditions at the free
faces: the anomalous conversions between qP and
surface, where the components of normal stress
the quasi shearwaves are usually small, because
vanish. We have
the qP wave is nearly radially polar
(8,k, 82k, 83k, /,, fs, f6)~ = ized; but the behaviour of the two shearwaves
causes anomalies at most isotropic/anisotropic
= E~IG(ul, u2, u3, O, O, O)T, (4.3) interfaces.
1 The wavefront of a plane wave is of infinite
where O = I  [ . = . ,  t O . from (3.13); and u is the
extent and possesses infinite energy. This severely
displacement vector at the surface. The wave
limits the realism of most models. However,
motion throughout the layered structure is com
Crampin [15] demonstrated some aspects of
pletely specified by the apparent velocity c of the
anisotropic wavemotion by the propagation of
given incident wave.
plane waves at normal incidence through the
Many details of planewave propagation,
vertical slab of anisotropic material set in an
including synthetic seismograms, can be obtained
isotropic solid shown in Fig. 4.1. T h e velocity
directly from (4.3). Synthetic seismograms are
determined by convolving the product of the x x
x
complex spectrum of the incident pulse with x
""x x
x x
frequencydependent transferfunctions derived x
x
'~x
x
Z ,,\ x
from (4.3). /\ , ",
The behaviour of the energy propagation of xx'~ \x
x x
plane waves may be calculated by using the
expressions for the energyflux vector, F~, of Synge
[57]. The elements of the flux vector, for both %%
1 2 , :g DIRECTION OF
F 1 ='&tO f f Cikmn(akqma n +akq*ma*n), PROPAGATION
for j = 1, 2, 3, (4.4)
Fig. 4.1. Structural model for synthetic seismograms: an iso
where f is the vector of excitation functions; and tropic solid (p = 2.6 gm/cm3, a = 5.8 kin/see, /3 =
the asterisk denotes the complex conjugate. 3.349 km/sec) with an anisotropic slabshaped volume (the
Vectors q and a are both real for homogeneous anisotropy simulating distributions of aligned cracks) posi
tioned normal to the propagation vector. The orientation of the
nonattenuating waves, and (4.4) reduces to anisotropy is specified for the initial orientation (top three
component trace in Fig. 4.3), and is then rotated successivelyby
Fj~_~ 1
~to 2 f!
tt,
Cikmnakqma,~. (4.5) 22.5° about the vertical (Z) axis to give five orientations.
362 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media
8.0 6.8
QP
f gP
5.S / QP S.5 /
J
,/
tt,5
.d ~: tl..C ~ (~ tl.O g~
~ z
OZ
(~Z Z
(.)Z
w~
tt'(3.~
~m . .
= ~'q. ~
tlJ
=~G
It
Z ~.5
~ '  ; = II Z 3,~

;a z3.5
C~ • >.
QSR
Q$P
=d ,T,
>3,0, . QSP
C~ I,U
,
~ N
== ,~=~
Fig. 4.2 (after [15]). Phase velocity variations through cracked solids for angles of incidence between 0 ° (normal) and 90 ° (tangential) to
a distribution of thin parallelcracks (solid lines), and through purelyelastic anisotropicsolids with similar velocities (dashed lines).
T h e parameters of the isotropic solid are given 'in the caption to Fig. 4.1.
(a) G K F F 1 ; dry cracks with crack density E = 0.1,
(b) G K F F 6 ; dry cracks w i t h , = 0.025, and
(c) G K L F I ; saturated cracks with E = 0.1.
variations of the materials within the slab are of the anisotropy. The orientations of the aniso
illustrated by the dashed lines in Fig. 4.2. These tropy in Fig. 4.3a is arranged so that the fixed
materials are purelyelastic solids with hexagonal polarizations of the shear waves in the direction of
symmetry simulating the velocity variations (solid propagation coincides with the polarizations of
lines) of thin parallelcracks in an isotropic solid the seismograms. This is clearly demonstrated
[15] (the modelling of cracked structures is dis in the polarization diagrams in Fig. 4.4a, where the
cussed in Section 9.2, below). Figs. 4.2a and 4.2b particle motion is displayed in orthogonal sections
model two distributions of dry cracks with for successive timeintervals along the seismo
different crack densities, and Fig. 4.2c models a gram. The shear waves split on entering the aniso
distribution of liquidfilled cracks. tropy into components with fixed polarizations (in
We shall not illustrate Pwave propagation here this case, SH, and SV, polarized parallel to the T
as the anomalies are small (but see [15]). Fig. 4.3 and Z axes, respectively), which are separated and
show synthetic seismograms of plane shearwaves clearly visible on the unprocessed seismograms.
incident from the isotropic solid and propagating These two orthogonallypolarized quasi shear
through the anisotropic slabs for five orientations waves propagate at different velocities, so that on
$. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 363
leaving the anisotropy the incident waveform the case for many shear arrivals in the Earth, the
cannot be reconstituted. constructive and destructive interference through
The anisotropic material of the slab in the model an appropriate anisotropic region could result in a
used for Fig. 4.3b is oriented so that the fixed much larger transfer of energy from one polariza
polarizations are not parallel to the components of tion to another.
the seismogram. This is likely to be the situation The small Pwave components arriving before
for most observations of seismic waves through the main shearwave arrivals in Fig. 4.3 are from S
anisotropic media. The incident shearwave splits, to P conversions at the entry and exiting inter
as before, and separates into two orthogonal faces, and indicate that the seismograms in Fig.
pulses, but this is not immediately obvious from 4.3a were calculated for a receiver (10 km) beyond
the (unrotated) seismograms. However, the split the slab, and that those in Figs. 4.3b and 4.3c were
ting is clearly seen as cruciform patterns in the calculated for the exiting interface of the slab.
polarization diagrams in Fig. 4.4b. These S to P conversions are very much modified
Observed seismograms usually show shear by the nature of the interface between the isotropy
wavetrains with several cycles of motion, and the and the anisotropy, and would disappear if there
two orthogonallypolarized wavetrains will over were a transition zone. The behaviour of the split
lap after the initial delay. In such cases, polariza shearwaves, however, is not very sensitive to the
tion diagrams do not show cruciform patterns, but nature of the interface between the isotropy and
have abrupt changes from linear to elliptical the anisotropy, and, in particular, it is not very
particlemotion. The polarization diagrams in Fig. sensitive to whether the change to anisotropy is
4.4c for the seismograms in Fig. 4.3c demonstrate discontinuous or whether there is a transition
these abrupt changes in particlemotion direction, zone. Crampin [15] discusses and illustrates
where the two shearwave pulses overlap. Such the phenomena in Figs. 4.3 and 4.4 in more
abrupt changes of direction in polarization detail.
diagrams are strongly diagnostic of anisotropy.
Similar anomalies have been observed in shear
waves propagating through earthquake source 4.2. Spherical wavefronts by the reflectivity
regions [26], and are believed to indicate aniso method [27]
tropy caused by extended dilatancythe opening
of existing cracks in stressed rock. The reflectivity technique for synthetic seis
These seismograms in Fig. 4.4c are for a model mograms was originally developed [53, 54] to
with much weaker anisotropy than in the other two calculate spherical wavefronts from explosive
figures, and show an interesting effect. The delay sources at the surface of a planelayered isotropic
between the two split shearwaves, after passing model (as in Fig. 3.1). The waves reflected and
through the anisotropy, is approximately half the refracted from the layers are evaluated, again
dominant period of the pulse (or the length of the on the surface, at a number of points to form a
anisotropic path is half the dominant wavelength), record section modelling observations from deep
and the effective polarization of the incident shear reflection and refraction surveys. The technique is
wave is changed by 90 ° by passage through particularly valuable for interpretation as it can
the anisotropy. This phenomenon is caused demonstrate arrivals, phases, and amplitudes,
by the constructive and destructive interference of which otherwise could not be easily estimated.
the two orthogonallypolarized waves from the The presence of anisotropy in the continental
decomposition of the original incident pulse. If uppermantle [58, 59] was the original motiva
the incident shearwaves were a nearly harmonic tion for developing an anisotropic reflectivity
wavetrain lasting several cycles, as is frequently method [27].
364 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media
C
a I ,I ~1 31 i ,i 21 I ,J 21
Z.
a .~ R
T T
R
T
z
R__
T
i
'r
Z T ~V
T
R L
1 SEC
5 HZ SH NRVE THROUGH
t SEC TILTED FFI f i t S ORIENTNS. 1 SEE
S HZ Sq5 NRVE THROUGH
S HZ SV ~JRVE THROUGH
LF1 RT 5 0 R I E N T N S ,
FF6 TILTED RT S ORIENTNS.
Fig. 4.3 (after [15]). Syntheticseismograms of 5 Hz shearwaves through a 10 km thick slab (Fig. 4.1):
(a) •ncident shearwaves with p••arizati•n intermediate between SH and •V pr•pagating thr•ugh a s•ab •f GKLF•• with the initia•
orientation so that the axis of cylindrical symmetryis transverse horizontal (parallel to the T direction in Fig. 4.1). The seismograms
are calculated for a position 10 km beyond the slab.
(b) Incident SHwaves propagating through GKFF1, with the initial orientation having the axis of symmetrydipping 45° to the
transverse direction. Seismogramscalculated for the exit interface of the slab.
(c) Incident SVwavespropagating through GKFF6. Orientations as in (b), above.
The procedure for propagation in isotropic wave representation, evaluated at the required
m e d i a is to form a planewave decomposition distance along the surface, and then integrated
of a point source, usually in a potentialfunction twice: once over the appropriate range of wave
representation, as a Sommerfeld integral over numbers (apparent velocities) to obtain the spher
wave number at a given frequency. A variety of ical wavefront; and finally convolved with the
explosion and earthquake sourcemechanisms can source spectrum to give the synthetic seismogram
be specified by wavetype, phase, and amplitude of at the specified distance from the source.
the plane waves. Each planewave is transformed The procedure for anisotropic propagation is
through the various layers in the model structure similar in broad outline, but differs considerably in
by using isotropic propagatormatrices [48] to detail: for example, the threecomponent coupling
obtain the appropriate reflectivitycoefficients that is such a distinctive feature of anisotropic
(planewave reflection coefficients) for upward propagation requires that all three components of
propagating waves in the surface layer. The motion are calculated simultaneously, instead of
reflectivity coefficients are inserted into the plane separating the P and S V , and the independent S H
S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 365
I 2 3 1 2 I 2
T RT R
O0 O0 Ot o 0 D 1 O 0 D I
V U U U
D 0 D 1
U U
D tO 0 l
O tO 0 l
V U
U U
0 tO O 1 O !0 O 1
D lO D 1
U V
T I e R T R
0 10 n 1
O tl 0 t
U O U
U U
L RL R
O lO D 1
 d" . . . . "G . . . . . u  0 ~ O t
U V
T AT A
T R
O 1o O 10 0 l 0 tO 0 1
U U
~ I0 o to o 1 0 I0 O t
0 1~ 0 t
U !
u v
O 0 O t 0 l0 !
D 0 D I
O U
[ ~ 0 0 0 t 0 ~ C t O l0 1
a b
Fig. 4.4 (after [15]). Polarization diagrams: cross sections of the particle motion, for the n u m b e r e d time intervals above the synthetic
seismograms in Fig. 4.3, with directions Up, Down, and Towards and Away from the source, and U, D, and Left and Right facing the
source (the Z axis is vertical). Five sets of diagrams correspond to the five sets of seismograms in Fig. 4.3 for (a), (b), and (c),
respectively.
366 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media
calculations, as in isotropic propagation. We reflectivity. Kind [60] makes use of the redun
assume, for the sake of simplicity, that the source is dancy in the isotropic propagator matrices, and
in a layer of isotropic material. In the notation of manipulates minors of the matrices to produce a
Section 3, the excitation vector in the top layer faster program which reduces the loss of precision.
(label 1) containing the sources is related to the The direct extension of Kind's technique is not
excitation vector in the halfspace (label m) by appropriate to the 6 x 6 anisotropic propagator
matrices, and alternative matrixmanipulations
( f l , f 2 , f 3 , O, O, O)Tm= have not yet been developed. Kennett [61]
develops an iterative technique for calculating
= K(3'l, 3'2, 3"3,f4, fs, f6) T, (4.6)
isotropic reflectivitycoefficients, which leads to
where the first three elements of the excitation increased accuracy and speed of computation, as
vectors are downward, and the last three upward well as permitting calculations of synthetic seis
propagating qP, q S l  , qS2waves (if the layer is mograms with and without reverberations inclu
anisotropic), or P, SH, and SVwaves (if the ded, which is a valuable interpretative facility.
layer is isotropic), respectively; Kennett's iterative technique can be adapted to
anisotropic reflectivity and is used in the program
K = E ~ I E m _ I D m  I E ~ I  1 . • . E1D1 under development [27].
The reflectivity method is very flexible, within
in the notation of Section 3.2; and 3'1, 3'2, y3 are the the limitation of parallel layering, and can model
excitations of the downward propagating waves many different propagation paths by manipulating
from the source. Equation (4.6) can be solved, for the basic structure in Fig. 3.1, and by modifying the
specified yj, for the upward propagating (f)l in form of the propagator representation in equa
the surface layer. These (f)l are the reflectivity tions (4.6) and (4.7). Thus we are currently using
coefficients. Thus, by setting yl = 1, and y2 = 3'3 = the anisotropic reflectivitymethod to model
0 for a Pwave source, for example, we have record sections for deep refraction surveys of
(/4)1 = Re, e, (f5)I = Rp,$H, and (/6)1 = Re, sv, for the anisotropy in the upper mantle, and the propaga
reflectivity coefficients in the usual notation [53, tion from acoustic events through the crack aniso
54]. Once the reflectivity coefficients have been tropy in hotdryrock geothermalheat reservoirs.
determined, the displacements and stresses at the The underlying assumption in the anisotropic
surface can be obtained from reflectivity technique, as set out above, is that the
energy radiating from a point source is confined to
(Ul, U2, U3, 7"13, 7"23, 7"33)T =
the sagittal plane. This is wholly true only when
(4.7) there is sagittal symmetry, and, in general, rays will
= E~(O, O, O, f4, fs, f6)T,
deviate from the sagittal plane. However, in most
where we have omitted the direct waves from the cases the seismogram will be a good first approx
source. Integrations over wave number and fre imation, even without sagittal symmetry. The
quency then yield the required threecomponent exact seismogram would require an integration
synthetic seismograms. over a vector horizontalwavenumber K =
The major difficulty of this anisotropic (K~, K2)T, for a range of directions either side of
reflectivitymethod, as we have outlined it here, the sagittal plane. In principle, this is straight
is that calculation of several large matrices of forward, but has not yet been done as it would
reflectivity coefficients is a very lengthy compu add considerably to the running time of an
tation, and can frequently result in considerable already lengthy program, and, in general,
loss of numerical precision. There are two ways would lead to only minor modifications to the
these difficulties can be avoided in isotropic seismograms.
S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 367
4.3. Spherical wavefronts by the ray method [56] the polarization vectors of the three bodywaves
(compare with (2.4)).
The ray method for tracing ray paths and cal
Clearly (4.11) has a nontrivial solution only
culating synthetic seismograms with spherical
when
wavefronts, originally proposed by Babich and
Alekseev [55], has been extensively developed by G,(x, q ) = 1, (4.12)
(~erven~, Molotkov and P~en~ik [56] and their for i = 1, 2, or 3, corresponding to each of the body
colleagues in Prague. This brief outline of the waves. Since q is the wavefront normal, (4.12) is a
technique has been written for this review by Mat nonlinear partialdifferential equation defining
Yedlin for which I am very grateful. The many the propagation of the three wavefronts. The
original papers by Babich and (~erven~ should be system of ordinary differential equations for the
referred to for details of the method. This is the firstorder rays can be written as
only part of the anisotropic development reviewed
here that has not been investigated numerically by d x i / d r = ½0GdOqi ,
the author. dqi/ d r = ½0Gi/ Ox]. (4.13)
The equations of motion in a possibly non
uniform anisotropic media are Expressions for the partial derivatives of Gi in
(4.6) can be evaluated by implicitly differentiating
aiij = ( Cjkm~U,.,. ).k, (4.8)
det(F  G I ) = 0. (4.14)
where p, Cjkm., and their derivatives are continuous
functions of the space coordinate. A solution is The resulting raytracing equations are
sought in the form of a ray expansion:
dxj/ d z = aikm.qnDkm/ D,
(4.15)
u(x, t ) = ~. u ( " ) ( x ) F . ( t  r ( x ) ) , (4.9) d q i / d r = '~(Oakr,,,,JOxi)qkqpD,,.,/D
1 ,
n=O
where
where the functions u(")(x) are the vector ampli
tudecoefficients of the ray series; r(x) is the phase
D l l  (/'22  1)(/'33  1 )  F23,
function or eikonal such that t = r(x) describes the
wavefront; and F.(~') satisfies the relationship D12 = D21 = /'13F23  F'I2(F'33 1)
F.I(~) = F ' . (~), where F " (~') = 0F.(~')/0~.
022 = ( / ' 1 1  1 ) ( r 3 3  1 )  r h ,
Substitution of (4.9) into (4.8) yields several
systems of equations. Equating coefficients of the D13 = D31 = r12F23  r13(r22  1),
functions F . yields a system of recurrence rela D33  (Ell  1)(]"22  1 )  F22,
tionships for u ("), where U(1)=U(2)0. The
lowest order equation D23 D32  F12/'31 F23(F11  1),
(rkm   O° k m ) U, ~o)
m = 0, (4,10) and the trace D = D l l + D 2 2 + D a a .
Cerven# et al. [56] show that synthetic seis
provides three algebraic equations for u ~°), mograms are the sum of the elementary seis
where Fkm = aik,..qiqn, ajk,.. = Cik.,./P, 8k,. is the mograms u ("), which may be obtained from the
Kronecker delta, and q is the slowness vector. above equations, when the wave type has been
The eigenvalue equation for the matrix Fkm is specified at the source. There are a variety of
(FGI)g=O, fori=l, 2,3, (4.11) numerical methods for solving these equations.
An increasingly popular method for the solution
which has eigen values G~, G2, and G3, and the is by implicit finitedifferences when the source
corresponding eigenvectors g(:), g(2), and g(3) are receiver offset has been specified [62].
368 s. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media
those one or two modes having a large proportion layer of thickness d. The interface conditions at
of their energies at the depth of the anisotropy, the solid/liquid interface are the continuity of
despite the family of surface waves displaying few the normal displacement, u3, and the normal
other signs of anisotropic propagation. Thus in c.0mponent of stress, 0"33, and the vanishing of the
models with anisotropy in an internal layer, the remaining components of stress. The boundary
only significant difference from isotropic propa conditions on the solid part of the structure,
gation may be the pronounced threedimensional equivalent to (5.1), can be written as
polarization of one of the higher modes, as has
(0, O, O, f4, fs, f6) T =
been observed for Third Generalizedmode pro
pagation across Eurasia (see Section 7.2). =g(ul, u2, u3, 0, 0, "/'33) T, (5.4)
The family of Generalized modes has further
where 7"33 = (ic/to)O'33 in the notation of Sections
complexities. Directions of sagittal symmetry
3.2 and 5.1.
are singularities of wave propagation. In such
The slowness equation for propagation in the
directions, the Rayleigh and Lovetype motion
liquid layer can be solved by the methods of
separates, and the two sets of dispersion curves
Section 3.1 using the elastic constants Cjkmn =
may cross each other, as frequently happens in
8ikSm,A, where A is the Lam6 constant for the
isotropic propagation. Away from sagittal sym
liquid. The normal displacement and stress can be
metry, the two families coalesce into one family
written, in the formulation of Section 3, as
and the dispersion curves can no longer intersect
each other. Instead, the modes approach each u3 = qc[f l exp(itoqx3)f 2 exp(itoqx3)],
other in a pinch, and at the pinch exchange
"/'33 : (ic/w)033 = (5.5)
polarizations and dispersion characteristics. These
pinches cause irregularities on both phase and = pc2[fl exp(itoqx3) +f2 exp(itoqx3)],
groupvelocity dispersion curves, and have some where we have omitted the common factor
similarities with the pinches associated with
exp[ito (t  x 1/ c)]; and
singularities of the quasishear bodywaves
described in Section 2.2. The pinches between q = [(nc 2  x ) l X c 2 ] 1/2.
surfacewave modes may be extremely tight, and
cause problems in computation: if the search The relationship between the displacement
increments for the zero of the determinant (5.2) stress vectors at the top (x3 = 0) and bottom (x3 =
are too coarse near a pinch, two (pinching) modes d) of the liquid layer can be written
may be missed, and the iteration proceed on a
mode two modenumbers away, unless pre
(u3) 0 )
7"33 1 pC /9C 2 \ 0 exp(itoqd)
cautions are taken.
The nature of the polarization anomalies of 2
surface waves in any given structure are very pc qc u3 3
dependent on the anisotropic symmetry of the " (  p c 2 qc)(7.33)o/(2pc q),
structure, and we reserve further discussions of (5.6)
surfacewave propagation to Section 7.2.
where we have given the liquid freesurface the
label '0'. The stress vanishes at the free surface of
the liquid, and we have
5.2. Liquid surfacelayer [20]
(U3)l = A ( u 3 ) o ,
We consider a multilayered solid halfspace, x3 i> (5.7)
d, and numbered as in Fig. 3.1, underlying a liquid ('/'33)1 = B ( u 3 ) o ,
s. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropicand cracked media 371
6.2. Reduced equations [8, 22] tropic halfspace. The coefficients of each term of
the series can only be determined numerically,
The coefficients of the sine terms in (6.2) are
even for surface waves propagating in a homo
identically zero, when 0 is measured from a direc
geneous anisotropic halfspace [18], and for a
tion of sagittal symmetry (x2 = 0 a plane of mirror
layered halfspace the coefficients will also vary
symmetry). The full equations then contract to the
with frequency. Thus, approximations to the
reduced equations:
velocity variations of surface waves have little
p V 2 = A +Be cos 20 + Cc cos 40, generality apart from being a Fourierseries
expansion of a particular angular variation.
pV2se = D + Ec cos 40, (6.3)
p V s2R = F + G c c o s 2 0 ,
7. Propagation in particular symmetrysystems
where the coefficients are the same functions of the
elastic constants as in (6.2).
One of the classical problems of seismology is to
These reduced equations are the first three
determine (Earth) stucture from the observations
terms of Fourierseries expansions of functions,
of seismic waves. This inverse problem is usually
which have mirror symmetry every 90 °. It is easy to
difficult, even for isotropic structures, and obser
show that if two planes of mirror symmetry are
vations are seldom sufficient to yield unique solu
orthogonal then the third mutuallyorthogonal
tions. Consequently, seismologists frequently
plane is also a plane of mirror symmetry. Many of
resort to the direct problem of calculating wave
the most commonly occurring systems of aniso
propagation through assumed models to aid in the
tropic symmetry possess three such mutually
interpretation of the observations.
orthogonal symmetryplanes (cubic, hexagonal,
The difficulties of interpreting observations of
tetragonal, and orthorhombic), and in many
seismic waves propagating in anisotropic struc
modelling studies [9, 15, 25] the reduced equa
tures are increased by the greater number of elastic
tions are more appropriate than the full equations.
constants [6, 16], and by the complications asso
Both full and reduced equations are derived
ciated with shearwave singularities in bodywave
only for symmetry planes in weakly anisotropic
propagation and with directions of sagittal sym
media. However, the equations prove to be good
metry in surface wave propagation. These
approximations for symmetry planes in most
difficulties make interpretation by means of direct
systems with quite strong anisotropy [22]. Any
calculations particularly important for anisotropic
velocity variations in offsymmetry planes can be
propagation. Recognising the directions in which
modelled by Fourierseries expansions (even shear
the various singularities occur is essential for the
waves with tight pinches associated with singulari
numerical evaluation of wave propagation in order
ties), if enough terms of the series are taken.
to avoid, or make allowance for, the anomalous
However, the coefficients of these higher terms
behaviour associated with singularities. Point and
would not be linear combinations of the elastic
kiss singularities in bodywave propagation may
constants, and the simplicity and utility of both the
cause shearwave polarizations to vary rapidly
full and the reduced equations will be lost.
along nearby paths [23], and, in directions of
sagittal symmetry in surface wave propagation, the
6.3. A note on velocity variations for surface waves
generalized surfacewave modes decompose into
Is]
separate Rayleigh and Lovetype motion requir
Similar Fourierseries expansions in terms of ing separate computation.
azimuth angle have been suggested [70] for the Many of the distinctive characteristics of
velocity variations of surface waves in an aniso both body and surfacewave propagation in
374 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media
b a b . . , b a b . . , b a c • . .
structure of the particular medium. Two of the b b a . b b a . . , c c d . . .
most important features of both body and sur • x . . . c . . . . . e . .
. . . . . x . . . . . c . . . . . x
with direction of the velocity and the particle where x = (ah)/2 where x : (ab)/2
motion polarization. These are often characteristic
of particular symmetry structures, and much TRIGONAL (1) TRIGONAL (2)* ~TRAGONAL (I)
h a c  d , b a c  d  g , b a c . . .
from the analysis of these variations.
c c e c c e . . , c c d . . .
The properties of anisotropic symmetrysystems dd f. d  d . f ' . z . . . e .
. . . . y x z y x . . . . . f
confine our attention to the variation in planes of
where x = (ab)/2, where x : (ab)/2,
mirror symmetry, or very simple offsymmetry andy=d y=d, andz:g
f. . g . . . . . j k
the anisotropic alignments, and these are usually
. . . . f . . . . . h . . . . k l
known before the analysis starts. dd . g . . . . . i d g i . . m
7.1. B o d y  w a v e propagation [22] Fig. 7.1. The elastic tensors of the six most symmetric aniso
tropic symmetrysystemsreferred to their principal axes. The
The observed velocities of propagation and isotropic tensor is included for completeness. The tensors
labelled '(2)*' are more complicated versions of the similarly
polarizations of bodywaves are determined by the named tensors labelled (1). These complicatedversionsdo not
structure within a few wavelengths of the recorder, commonlyoccur and we shall not discuss them here.
and local symmetry is important. Crampin and
Kirkwood [22] summarize the properties of the
three bodywaves propagating in a range of struc not arrange themselves in any natural order of
tures with six of the seven named systems of complexity. Listing the systems by number of
anisotropic symmetry. The seventh, triclinic independent elasticconstants, number of sym
symmetry, may have up to 21 independent elastic metry planes, or number of shearwave singulari
constants [52], and the possible velocityvariations ties, would each give a different order.
are too general to be usefully summarized• Fig. 7.1 Fig. 7.2 shows examples of the velocity varia
shows the elastic tensors of these six symmetry tions in several planes of solids from the six aniso
systems referred to their principal axes. tropic symmetrysystems; the solids chosen have
The number and orientation of symmetry planes the minimum number of shearwave singularities
in each of the symmetry systems, listed in Table for the particular symmetrysystem. The solid lines
7.1, are characteristic of the particular system. The give the exact velocity variations and the dashed
number and position of the m i n i m u m number of the approximate variations from (6.2) and (6.3).
shearwave singularities are also characteristic of When propagation is in a symmetry plane, the
each system, but several systems can have more polarizations of qP and one of the quasi shear
complex patterns of singularities for varying waves (qSP) are parallel, and that of the other
amplitudes of elastic constants. Each symmetry shearwave (qSR) is at right angles to the plane.
system has features unique to itself, and they do The variations are 20 and 40 functions of the
S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 375
Table 7.1
Symmetryplanes and shearwave singularities in anisotropic symmetrysystems
Orthorhombic
6(7)a
9
I1
2
3
z cut
identical:planes joining opposite
edges of prism
distinct:x, y, and zcuts
2
0
0
0
8 (Fig. 7.2d)
4 (Fig. 7.2e)
(12{ (Fig. 2.1)
etc.
Monoelinic 13 1 zcut 0 0 8 (Fig. 7.2f) etc.c
a The names of these systems refer to two possible elastictensors: we consider the system with fewer constants.
b Point singularities on axes.
c Systemswith more complicatedpatterns of singularities (usuallyof less common occurrence).
d A possible but rarely occurringconfiguration.
azimuthal angle 0, and in these planes the approx At first glance, it might seem that the symmetry
imate equations give good estimates of the velocity systems in Fig. 7.2 display a wide variety of velo
variations even for quite strong anisotropy [22]. city variations, particularly as the polarities and
The approximate equations may give good esti amplitudes of the various 20 and 40 variations are
mates of the velocity variations for some off determined by linear combinations of the elastic
symmetry planes, such as ycut monoclinic constants, and can vary within each symmetry
B I P H P Q (Fig. 7.2f), but, in general, the approx system, and in some cases have different numbers
imate equations are not good estimates in off of shearwave singularities. One of the few
symmetry planes. All three body waves in zcut restrictions on the velocity variations is the near
trigonal aquartz (Fig. 7.2c) have pronounced 60 equality but opposite sign of the squares of the 40
variations, with no 20 or 40 component, and components of the qP and q S P variations in planes
demonstrate the complete failure of the approxi of mirror symmetry, as indicated by (6.2) and (6.3).
mate equations, including the Backus equation for However, the variety of the velocity variations
qPwaves [31], to model the variations in this does not seem so great when it is realized that the
offsymmetry plane. The shear waves in off:sym six symmetrysystems (plus isotropy) embrace all
metry planes may show very rapid variations near possible purelyelastic velocityvariations that
pinches associated with shearwave singularities; have planes of symmetry. This means that, if the
for example, the very tight pinches in Fig. 2.2; and planes of symmetry in any anisotropic solid can be
the pinches in ycut quartz (Fig. 7.2c), which are recognised (usually by the symmetry of the forces
associated with the point singularities in the xcut. aligning the anisotropy), the choice of possible
376 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media
Mop
CUB;C [ETRRGONRL
9.S i !
!Qp
[" Qp
~ i QP
uJ
> I
' i BSP i i
~
i
SP aSP
QSF g
! ~ DSP
BSR , : ~ S P
g~,d__ i 35R
b
HEXRGONRL
e {
OR THORHOMB l C
/ OP _ _ ) QP Z
Z
o
OP
>
~sB: IQsP
 QsP gSP   OSR
~2. QSR __1
c
TRIGONIqL MONOCLINIC
?.5 T
L Qp
i i
S
~ ~ QsP > ' ! '! i
osa QS] i
°g2.si I I" ~ 1 0 S Z
{ { {
Z Y Z × X T Y Z Z X X Y X
Fig. 7.2. Examples of velocity variations of the three bodywaves over planes in six anisotropic symmetrysystems. The variations are
shown over quadrants in the x, y, and zcuts (these are symmetry planes unless otherwise indicated), and those symmetry planes not
included in this corner. The principal axes are indicated below the variations. Solid lines are exact phase velocities derived from (2.4),
and dashed lines are approximate values from (6.2) and (6.3).
(a) cubic silicon;
(b) hexagonal GKFF1 (see also Fig. 4.2);
(c) trigonal aquartz: the two other sides of the triangular prism are symmetry planes with the same variations as the xcut, where
two quadrants of the variations are shown;
(d) tetragonal futile;
(e) orthorhombic olivine (compare with orthorhombic medium with more shearwave singularities in Fig. 2.l); and
(f) monoclinic BtPHPQ: a biplanar cracked structure observed by [19], where two quadrants of the zcut variations are shown.
symmetrysystems is severely restricted, if not properties of the structure along the path down to
uniquely identified. The variations are then the depth that the particular mode penetrates. One
determined by a known number of elastic of the most important parameters of propagation
constants, which can often be calculated by equat in isotropic multilayeredmedia is the dispersion of
ing (6.2), or more usually (6.3), to the velocities in velocity with frequency, and inversion of observed
a fixed number of directions. We shall make dispersion for structural constants is an important
extensive use of this property in the modelling technique for determining Earth structure. The
crack structures, which is reviewed in Section 9. dispersion of surface waves in anisotropic multi
layered media can be calculated for specific models
7.2. Surfacewave propagation [1, 2, 5, 10, 20] [10, 20], but the interpretation is difficult, and
unlikely to be unique to anisotropic structures
The characteristics of surfacewave propagation [16]. Formal inversion of anisotropic dispersion to
are determined by a complicated function of the determine structure has not yet been attempted,
$. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 377
because of the large number of elastic constants to in the continental uppermantle with a horizontal
be estimated, and the large amount of computer symmetry plane. Further observations and
time required. However, several indirect attempts numerical analysis strongly support this hypothesis
have been made by using isotropic inversion I;10].
techniques [64, 68] and by comparison with a Fig. 7.4 shows the calculated dispersion charac
limited number of computed anisotropic models teristic of the first four Generalizedmodes in such
[16]. a continental Earth structure having a thin layer of
The polarizations of surface waves, just like weak anisotropy in the upper mantle. The effects
those of body waves, are diagnostic of anisotropic of the anisotropy are almost wholly confined to the
propagation. Generalizedmode surfacewaves. behaviour of the polarization of the Third
have elliptical particlemotion in three dimen Generalizedmode, 3 G, equivalent to the isotropic
sions, and characteristic polarizationpatterns are Second Rayleigh mode, which has most of its
possible, when there is just one homogeneous energy propagating in the top few kilometres of
anisotropic layer present, or when all the aniso the upper mantle where the anisotropy is situated.
tropic layers in a multilayered structure have some The 10km thick layer of anisotropy is made up of
overall similarity of orientations. a weak mixture (7% Pwave velocityanisotropy)
Fig. 7.3 shows the characteristic polarizations of aligned olivine crystals in an isotropic matrix,
for three simple orientations of symmetry planes and the whole structure has effectively ortho
[5] that may be used to identify such anisotropic rhombic symmetry with a horizontal plane of
orientations from observations of surfacewave symmetry. Consequently, the polarization of the
particlemotion. One of these polarizations, the Third mode is the InclinedRayleigh motion of
InclinedRayleigh motion in Fig. 7.3a, is charac Fig. 7.3a. The inclination angle 8 (Fig. 7.3a) of 3G,
teristic of highermode surfacewaves propagating in the second graph from the top in Fig. 7.4, swings
across Eurasia [63] suggesting aligned anisotropy rapidly through 60 ° and back again as the period
varies by two or three seconds, for directions of
propagation away from directions of sagittal
symmetry. This qualitatively models the polariza
tions of Third Generalizedmodes observed along
most paths in the continent of Eurasia [10, 63].
More complicated orientations of anisotropy
may also display characteristic patterns of surface
wave polarizations. Fig. 7.5 shows the surface
wave polarizationpattern for orientations of
(c) "~
orthorhombic olivine in the oceanic uppermantle
as a result of syntectonic recrystallization in the
Propaglition
direction presence of shear stress [71], where the upward
pointing xaxis (the aaxis in the Figure) is in the
direction of rotation of the shear stress. The sur
Fig. 7.3 (after [5]). Three types of Generalized surfacewave facewave polarizations fall into patterns, which
particlemotion characteristic of propagation in particular
symmetrydirections:
are characteristic of the quadrant of the anisotro
(a) [nclinedRayleigh motionpropagation in a horizontal pic orientation, Similar patterns have been obser
plane of symmetry, ved in surface waves crossing the Pacific Ocean
(b) TiltedRayleigh motionpropagation at right angles to a
vertical plane of symmetry, and
[21], indicating that the aaxis is pointing upwards
(c) $1opingRayleigh motionpropagation in a sagittal in the direction of movement of the oceanic plates,
plane of symmetry. which implies that the lithosphere is dragging the
378 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media
8. Attenuation
90"
Fig. 7.5 (after [20]). Characteristic polarizations of surface waves in (oceanic) Earth structures with olivine in the upper mantle,
oriented with one vertical symmetryplane.
This development has not been previously pub and the specific dissipation coefficient is [65]
lished, although it was presented at the Con
1 / O = 2cI/c R. (8.2)
ference on Seismic Wave Attenuation at Stanford
University in May 1979. Attenuation may be introduced into anisotropic
wave motion by specifying imaginary parts to the
8.I. B o d y  w a v e attenuation elastic constants. Following the formulations of
Section 2.1, we substitute planewave displace
The usual way that attenuation is introduced
ments for propagation in the xl direction:
into isotropic wave motion [65] is by specifying the
attenuation by the imaginary part of a complex uj = a i exp[ito ( t  x l / F) ],
velocity F = c a + i c x (the alternative of specifying
for ] = 1, 2, 3, (8.3)
complex frequencies leads to similar results). The
displacement of a plane wave propagating in the x into the equations of motion (2.1), and obtain a
direction can then be written: similar eigenvalue problem to (2.4):
u = exp[ito (t  x / 6 ) ] ( T  OF2I)a = 0, (8.4)
exp (  a x ) exp[ito (t  x~ ca)], (8.1) where 2P is the 3 x 3 matrix with complex elements
{Filkl}; and
where we have expanded the complex slowness
 R • I
1 / F and neglected squares of e I / c a ; a = t o / 2 Q c a ; Cjkmn = C jkmn + lC jkm n.
380 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media
The complex 7~ matrix in (8.4) results in three where AI, B ~ , . . . , G ~ are the same linear
complexeigenvalues for the velocities of the three combinations of the imaginary elasticconstants
1
bodywaves. For each wave we have Cikm, as A, B . . . . . . Gs are of the real constants in
(6.2); and E~ = CIc andE~ =  C ,i corresponding
pt~ 2 = e R + ie I, (8.5)
to Ec = C¢ and E~ =  C s in (6.2).
The dissipation coefficient for quasi Pwaves can
where F is one of the three eigenvalues of
be written as
Expanding (8.5), and neglecting squares of eI/e R,
1/Op = e~p/ep
i R
the velocity is
of azimuth as the velocity variations. The polarities We shall be concerned here with modelling
and relative amplitudes of these dissipation wave propagation through aligned materials
coefficients may of course be completely different whose properties vary with direction, although
from the velocities, and there are no a priori many of the same principles equally apply to
conditions to be imposed on the imaginary parts of randomly oriented distributions. The important
the elastic constants. advantages of modelling inhomogeneous material
These various equations are as useful for by homogeneous elasticsolids are that:
modelling attenuation as the equations (6.2) and (1) Anisotropy imposes considerable con
(6.3) are for modelling velocityvariations. In straints on the possible variations;
media where the variation of attenuation with (2) Anisotropy can be used to approximate to
direction is known, either from observations, or mixtures of several phases that cannot be easily
from theoretical equations, equations (8.10) and modelled in any other way;
(8.11) allow effective complex elasticconstants to (3) Once the equivalent elasticconstants have
be estimated. Synthetic seismograms and other been estimated, the properties of the wave motion,
characteristics of wave motion in the attenuating including synthetic seismograms, can be calculated
media can then be calculated by established pro by the established techniques reviewed in the
grams. previous sections.
It is worth noting that the approximate equa
tions (8.8) and (8.11) imply that anisotropic dis 9.1. Estimating effective elasticconstants [15, 19]
sipation coefficients 1 / Q obey the same tensor
transformation for rotation as the purelyelastic Any twophased material, in so far as it has a
constants. All the transformations are linear in the weak concentration of the minor phase and is
constants and the real and imaginary parts observed by long wavelengths, must have the same
separate and transform independently. orientations of symmetry planes as one of the
anisotropic symmetrysystems of Table 7.1.
Examination of the material, or the forces acting
9. Modelling twophase materials on it, should indicate the orientations of these
planes, and the choice of the appropriate sym
The presence of aligned inclusions, such as metrysystem. If the symmetry planes of the
cracks, pores, or impurities, is probably the most material do not fit any particular system allowing
common cause of effective anisotropy within the for possible orientations of the principal axes, the
Earth, and possibly within many other solid elastic properties will be those of the system with
materials. We shall model wave propagation the nearest subset of symmetry planes and the
through such twophased materials by approxi remaining planes will not be individually dis
mating to the inhomogeneous material by a tinguishable in the elastic behaviour. Once the
homogeneous solid with effective elasticconstants appropriate symmetrysystem has been identified,
having the same variation of velocity (and attenu a fixed n u m b e r of elastic constants, suitably
ation) with direction as the twophase material. rotated, will specify the complete elasticproper
Assuming the distribution of inclusions is uniform, ties of the twophase material. Thus modelling a
it is always possible to make this approximation for threedimensional velocitydistribution, with
weak concentrations of the minor phase, when the unknown limitations on the variations, can be
dimensions of the minor phase are small in reduced to solving for a finite number of elastic
comparison with the seismic wavelength, and it constants in a known symmetry system.
may well be quite a good approximation even for These constants can be found by equating
strong concentrations of large inclusions. the approximate equations (6.2) or (6.3) to the
382 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media
velocities in a few directions in symmetry planes. It responding directions can be found, the fixed
can usually be arranged that the angle is measured number of constants for the appropriate sym
from a direction of sagittal symmetry. The reduced metrysystem can be determined, and the aniso
equations (6.3) then apply, and are completely tropic tensor necessarily specifies the velocity
specified, and up to seven elastic constants deter variations in all other directions. These techniques
mined, by the velocities at 0 °, 45 °, and 90 ° for qP; have allowed velocity variations to be determined
0 ° and 45 ° for qSP; and 0 ° and 90 ° for qSR, This for biplanar and triplanar cracksystems [15],
process is repeated for other symmetry planes until cracks with coplanar normals [25], and mixtures
all the required constants are specified. There is of interleaved dry and saturated cracks [19]. Such
usually a great deal of redundancy, and in some intersecting systems of cracks are very common,
systems of symmetry all the constants are deter and this technique of determining constants from a
mined from a very few specified directions. In a few corresponding directions and allowing the
material with cubic symmetry, for example, the anisotropic tensor to specify the velocities in the
three elastic constants are determined by the remaining directions is a very effective way of
velocities in directions 0 ° and 45 ° for qP, and 0 ° for modelling complicated twophase systems.
the quasi shearwaves in any of the symmetry
planes. 9.2. Propagation in cracked solids [15]
Equations (6.2) and (6.3) are quite good
approximations even for strong anisotropy [22]. Crampin [15] applied these techniques for
However, the exact velocityvariations for a set of modelling twophase materials to cracked iso
elastic constants, determined by the eigenvalue tropicsolids. Elastic constants were derived for
technique of Section 2, for example, may be a little homogeneous purelyelastic solids possessing the
different from those of the approximate equations. same velocity variations as the theoretical expres
A few empirical adjustments in the procedure for sions of Garbin and Knopoff [76, 77, 78] for waves
determining the elastic constants, in order to scattered by propagation through an isotropic
balance the 40 contributions to the qP a n d qSP media with weak concentrations of small, thin,
variations, may improve the fit of the elastic parallel pennyshaped cracks. Garbin and Knopoff
constants to the velocity variations of the two gave expressions for the velocity variations in
phase material. terms of angle of incidence to the cracks and the
In modelling the combination of several dis polarization of the wave, and made neither direct
tributions of inclusions in an isotropic matrix (such nor indirect assumptions of anisotropy. Note that
as an intersecting system of cracks), we make the the techniques presented here are not dependent
assumption that, to a first approximation, the on these particular determinations of Garbin and
effects may be obtained by directly combining the Knopoff. Any valid velocityvariations can be
effects of the separate distributions in specified treated in the same way.
directions. In such corresponding directions, shear The solid lines in Fig. 4.2 show the theoretical
waves have the same polarizations in each separate velocityvariations for dry and saturated dis
distribution, and their properties may be tributions of thin parallel cracks. The largest crack
combined, so that the proportional reduction (or density of e = 0.1 is equivalent to, say, one 1 cm 2
increase) in the velocity of the isotropic matrix crack in every 1 cm 3 (crack densities in competent
caused by each distribution separately may be rock can certainly exceed this crack density). Such
multiplied together to give the reduction (or crack distributions of parallel cracks possess
increase) in velocity of the combined system. hexagonal symmetry (transverselyisotropic
Elastic constants are determined in the same way symmetry, if the axis is vertical), and are described
as in simple twophase media. If sufficient cor by five elasticconstants (see Fig. 7.1).
S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 383
8.ff
consistent over a very large region. These obser
vations were inverted [19] to yield crack dis 7.5
flip O. 0 0 8
tributions with similar densities and alignments at
the three sites. The differences in the velocity
variations were attributed to different percentages
6.5 CI. ~06
of water saturation in interleaved dry and
1,,
saturated cracks. Such interleafing may occur
above the watertable, whenever there is a large
zS. O. OOtl
variation in the size of the cracks in an otherwise
>
i m p e r m e a b l e solid. Wide cracks will be dry, HS.
q
whereas fine cracks m a y retain water f o r long o
d
periods of time by surface tension and capillary z ft. 0 0 2
Ld
>
action. CE OSB o:
z
>
C~ OSP w
M a n y of the techniques discussed in the pre Fig. 9.2. Variations with angle from the vertical of (a) phase
vious two sections also apply, with minor velocities, and (b) attenuation coefficients, I/Q, of 1 Hz body
modifications, to modelling attenuation in two waves propagating through QST001, which is a structure, with
hexagonal symmetry, of circular parallel viscousfilled cracks
phase materials with the equations of Section 8. with density, radius, aspectratio, and coefficientsof viscosityof
Chatterjee, Mal, Knopoff and Hudson [72] 0.1, 100 m, 0.1 and 5 x l0 s poise, respectively, in an isotropic
determined theoretical expressions for the varia solid: p = 3.4 gm/cm3, a = 7.6 km/sec, and ~ = 4.2 km/sec.
Solid lines are from the theoretical expressions of [72], and
tion of both velocity and attenuation of waves
dashed lines are exact values from the complex elastictensor
propagating through parallel cracks filled with a derived by fitting the approximate equations (6.3) and (8.11) to
viscous fluid, and included both the effects of the theoretical values.
scattering at the crack faces, by a technique similar
to that used previously in [76, 77, 78], and the
effects of the viscous attenuation within the cracks. form of the velocity variations is similar to those in
The variations are expressed in terms of the angle the saturated cracks in Fig. 4.2c (the derivations of
of incidence to the cracks and the polarization of the formulae are similar), although the average
each wave. We illustrate the techniques of model velocities are very different due to the different
ling by showing the variations with direction of velocities in the uncracked solids.
velocity and attenuation in QST001, and calculat Fig. 9.3 shows synthetic seismograms of 1 Hz
ing synthetic seismograms. QST001 is a structure shearwave pulses propagating at normal
of parallel viscousfilled cracks (parameters in incidence through a 100 km thick slab of QST001
caption to Fig. 9.2) very approximately modelling for a range of crack orientations. The initial shear
lenses of melt in the Earth's lowvelocitychannel. pulses have polarizations intermediate between
Fig. 9.2 shows the variation with direction of the the Z and T axes. Fig. 9.3 shows a m a r k e d varia
velocity and attenuation of a 1 Hz wave in tion of pulse amplitude with the crack orientation,
QST001. The values of velocity and attenuation and can be contrasted with the seismograms in Fig.
are, in some sense, reciprocals of each other: the 4.3a, for propagation through a nonattenuating
attenuation of each wave type is greatest in direc structure, which have a very similar pattern of
tions where the velocity is least and vice versa. The arrivals, but with equalamplitude pulses.
s. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropicand cracked media 385
Note that the attenuated seismograms in Fig. 9.3 attenuation over any given length of path, and the
are calculated for 1 / Q corresponding to the 1 H z transient arrival is smoothed.
values in Fig. 9.2, and the frequency dependence This phenomenon of pulse broadening may
of the expressions of [72] has not been taken into occur for any wave and path direction for which
account in the calculation. The incident pulse, to/Qc (8.1) is frequency dependent. In the formu
lation of Chatterjee et aL [72], to/Qc is
u(t) = t 2 exp (tot/k) 2 sin tot,
independent of frequency only for purely viscous
where t is time, and k (=3) controls the damping, damping. We conclude that the absence of pulse
has a dominant 1 Hz component, and smaller broadening in attenuated waves through cracked
amplitude higherfrequency components associ media may be diagnostic of viscous attenuation.
ated with the transient nature of the pulse [12].
The higherfrequency components are evident in
the broadening of the pulse in the more attenuated 10, Shearwave polarizationanomalies [8, 13,
signals (particularly noticeable in the top and 15, 24, 26]
bottom records of Fig. 9.3). This is because the
specific attenuation coefficient 1 / Q represents a The existence of shearwave polarization
proportional decrease in amplitude per anomalies can be inferred from theory, but it is
wavelength. The higher frequencies have more difficult to realize the subtle yet characteristic
wavelengths, and correspondingly greater effect these anomalies have on the particle motion
of the shear wavetrain without numerical or
z observational experiments.
B The behaviour of shear waves crossing an
T anisotropic region is illustrated schematically in
Fig. 10.1. The shear wave necessarily has to split,
R
on entry into the anisotropic region, into two
T phases with polarizations orthogonal with respect
to the propagation direction and fixed for the
Z particular direction through the anisotropy. This
R
splitting phenomenon is also called shearwave
T
birefringence, and shearwave doublerefraction.
Z
R
ISOTROPIC
T REGION
Z
R
Z ~
I SEC
1 HZ Su,5 THRO' IOOKH
QSTOOt fiT 5 0 R I E N T N S
In general, the two shearwaves with distinct and polarizations are calculated for the group
polarizations will travel at different velocities and velocity arrivals, by the techniques of Crampin and
arrive at the exit interface at different times. The McGonigle [24], since it is the group velocity
delay is proportional to the degree of differential which is observed in all cases. It is easy to plot
shearwave anisotropy in that particular direction, observations of shearwave delays and polariza
and to the length of the path through the aniso tions in such stereograms, whether they are
tropic region. The delay between the shear arrivals observations of rays surrounding a point source, or
results in a polarization anomaly in the shear of teleseisms propagating through a layer of
wavetrain, which will be preserved unchanged for anisotropy in the upper mantle. Generally orien
any following isotropic propagation, since the ted anisotropy (or generally oriented planes of
velocity of shear waves in isotropic solids is projection) may lead to complicated asymmetrical
independent of the polarization. Since it is difficult patterns in the stereograms, such as those in Fig.
to devise isotropic structures that can split shear 10.2c. However, once observations of delays and
bodywaves, the recognition of split arrivals in a polarizations in one plane of projection have been
shear wavetrain is a strong indication of anisotropy tabulated in machinereadable form, they can
somewhere along the path, particularly if the easily be rotated into stereograms for other planes
splitting is not into SH and SV waves. of projection in order to search for symmetry
Note that the delay between the two split shear planes and other identifiable properties of the
waves is a rather more direct measurement of anisotropy. It is suggested that such stereograrns
physical parameters than is the case with many are a powerful technique for estimating anisotropy
seismic observations. The delay between the two from observations.
phases is measured directly from the seismogram,
and is directly proportional to the two things of
particular interest to us here: the length of the path 11. Discussion, application, and speculation
through the anisotropie region; and the relative
difference in the slownesses of the two split shear Many of the properties of wave motion in
waves for that particular direction of propagation. anisotropic media have been known for many
This suggests techniques for estimating both the years, although it is only since the numerical
degree of anisotropy and its symmetry structure, if modellingprograms, outlined in this review, have
there are enough observations of the shearwaves been developed that the effects of these proper
propagating in a variety of directions through the ties can be properly evaluated. One of the major
anisotropic medium. There are two quantities results of this development is the recognition that
easily determined from any seismogram displaying quasi shearwave polarizationanomalies are a
shearwave splitting: the time delay between the powerful technique for both diagnosing the
two shear arrivals; and the polarization of the first presence of anisotropy and for estimating some of
(faster) shearwave. The later arriving shearwave its parameters. The technique involves analysing
is usually superimposed on the first arrival, and the particle motion in shearwavetrains. Particle
although its arrival time may be picked from motion has been neglected in conventional seis
polarization diagrams, its polarization will be more mology, and part of the reason may well be that
difficult to determine reliably. unsuspected anisotropy has frequently introduced
Fig. 10.2 displays shearwave delays and previouslyuninterpretable complications. It is
polarizations in stereograms for shearwave delays hoped that one of the effects of these aniso
and polarizations for propagation in a 10km tropic developments will be to reopen interest
sphere of orthopyroxene projected on to the zcut in studies of, particularly shearwave, particle
and two more generally oriented cuts. The delays motion.
S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 387
N N
./ I
a
.1" ,1" I" I" + 1 1
•\" ,/" .~" /" 4"
÷ 1 1 I
i
V + V q 
"I, 1, 1. "1 "1 + \" .I" .I" ,t" ,\"
1, "1 1. I ,__ I .I" .I" ,I"
1. 1 ~I' +
:I: :I:
1. % +./
.1"
20 o
11 N i
d. /" "v % %
2o
N N
C
I," .,< .\. \" % % % \
I / × \"V \" % "\% "\~,
I. \ I I I I ] I "I.
~, \ ~'I,'[ \ ~, II.I'./"
\ ' , . >: "I" ~   ./" d" I
2o o
Fig. 10.2. Stereographic projections of the relative shearwave delays (in hundredths of a second) and polarizations (projected on to
the horizontal plane) for propagation through a 10 km focal sphere of orthopyroxene. On the left of each delay stereogram is a
northsouth section. The solid bar of the polarizations is the projection of the faster (first arrival) quasi shearwave, qS1, and the
broken bar is the polarization of the slower shearwave, qS2. The small solid circles on the delay stereograms mark the zero positions
of point singularities on the equivalent phasevelocity stereograms. The orientations are:
(a) zcut horizontal, with x axis pointing north;
(b) as in (a), but rotated 40 ° about the y axis; and
(c) as in (b), but rotated 20 ° about the x axis.
Note: there are irregularities in the contours of delays near some of the singularities due to the grid points of the systems routines
being too coarse.
388 S. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media
The anisotropic developments reviewed here The developments reviewed here may be
cover a wide field, and demonstrate that the solu applied wherever anisotropy or aligned cracks
tion of almost any problem in anisotropic pro exist in any solid structure. A number of possible
pagation can at least be formulated, and very often applications have been identified:
solved (at the cost of considerable numerical (1) Velocity anisotropy has been widely
analysis), if the solution exists for isotropic pro identified in the oceanic, and some continental,
pagation. This opens the possibility of using seis upper mantle, and is probably due to preferred
mic waves to examine the internal structure of the crystal orientations. There are reasons to believe
medium through which they propagate. It is that this anisotropy may be more extensive in the
suggested that the presence of anisotropy should upper mantle than is usually observed [14, 81]. In
not be though of as an unnecessary and complicat that case, every wave that penetrates the upper
ing nuisance, but should be valued as a means of mantle may require anisotropy to be considered in
investigating the internal constitution of the the interpretation, if the observations have
medium [9], its present or previous stressdis sufficient resolution.
tribution [14, 81], and, perhaps most important, Most applications, however, are likely to be
the presence, orientation, and distribution of associated with the effective anisotropy caused by
aligned cracks [15, 19, 26]. the presence of aligned cracks, which is probably a
The other major result of the developments very common phenomenon.
reviewed here is that modelling propagation (2) Extensive dilatancyanisotropy appears to
through material with aligned cracks by propaga be associated with active seismicregions [26, 82].
tion through homogeneous anisotropic solids, in If this hypothesis can be confirmed, it seems that
effect, opens up a whole new class of material to investigations of shearwave polarization anomal
wavepropagation calculations. Since cracks in ies may be one of the most promising techniques
solids are a very common, if not ubiquitous for monitoring changes of stress before ear
phenomenon, which are usually aligned by stress thquakes that has yet been suggested. There are
at some stage in their growth, this development possible applications to earthquake prediction
may have very wide applications. Modelling cracks [26], and monitoring induced seismicity associated
by determining the effective real elasticconstants, with reservoir loading, and with rock bursts and
when the dimensions of the cracks are sufficiently acoustic emission in mines.
small compared with the seismic wavelength, (3) Hotdryrock geothermalheat extraction
allows the velocity and amplitude variations of sets up aligned cracks deep in hot competentrock.
both P and shearwaves to be calculated, as well as The actual geometry of the cracks is important for
the delays and polarizations of the split shear understanding the processes involved, as well as
waves. If the dimensions of the cracks are for the continued exploitation of each reservoir.
sufficiently large for attenuation to be important, Since the interpretation of seismograms from
the velocity variations are probably not seriously downweU threecomponent geophones is one of
disturbed [19], and the attenuation can be the principal techniques for mapping the crack
modelled, by the equations for anisotropic anelas geometry, modelling synthetic seismograms by
tic wavemotion using complex elasticconstants. suitable anisotropic structures may well be
All the analytical results, computing techniques, important for interpreting the crack geometry
and computer programs for purelyelastic aniso correctly.
tropic wavemotion, apply equally well to attenu (4) Many oil and water resources are in rock
ating media, with the one modification: that the with aligned cracks or pores. Investigations of
elastic constants are changed from real to complex shear waves propagating through such structures
quantities. may give estimates of the degree of cracking, the
$. Crampin / Wave motion in anisotropic and cracked media 389
alignment of the cracks, and the proportion of The work reviewed here is the outcome of
liquidfilled cracks [19]. In addition, many oil collaboration with many people, too numerous to
reservoirs lie beneath great thicknesses of oil mention individually. They are the authors or
shale, which may be anisotropic [83], and, unless coauthors of the first 31 items of the reference list,
the anisotropy is correctly modelled, the structures and have each contributed significantly to this
below the shales will be difficult to interpret cor development. I particularly thank David B. Taylor
rectly. of the Edinburgh Regional Computing Centre,
(5) Nondestructive testing for stress is increas who has contributed in innumerable ways over
ingly important for monitoring many engineering many years through discussion, programming,
projects. A major technique for investigating the analytical advice, and in commenting on this
stress is examining the effects of the stressinduced manuscriptwithout him this development would
anisotropy on seismic microwaves. At pesent, the not have been possible. I am grateful to Robert
techniques usually involve Pwaves, but this McGonigle for his comments on the manuscript
review demonstrates that the delays and polariza and for providing much assistance in computing. I
tions in shearwavetrains contain much additional also thank Tolya Levshin of the Institute of Physics
and easily accessible information. of the Earth, Moscow, for suggesting I write this
review, and for commenting on the manuscript,
The above applications, although largely much of which was written at the Institute of
unconfirmed, have considerable promise, as some Physics of the Earth, while on an exchange visit
degree of effective anisotropy certainly exists in a arranged by the Royal Society and the Academy of
great many structures and there are now tech Sciences of the USSR. This work is supported by
niques by which it can be examined. Many other, the Natural Environment Research Council and is
more speculative applications could also be published with the approval of the Director of the
suggested. Institute of Geological Sciences (N.E.R.C.).
This is a review of work currently in progress,
some new results have been obtained while the
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