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PVP2013

July 14-18, 2013, Paris, France

PVP2013-97930

STRESS STATE OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

RAN GROUP JSC VNIINEFTEMASH

Senior Research Fellow, PhD Head of the Department of Strength Calculation

6/5 Barklai str. Moscow 121087 and Mathematical Modeling of Oil and Gas

Russia Equipment

th

E-mail: igor_las@rambler.ru 115191 19 4 Roschinsky pr., Moscow, Russia

Tel./Fax:7(495)9525985 E-mail: volfsonb2@asme.org

ABSTRACT shell side and channel, tube sheet, transitional part “shell side

Nowadays, a stress calculation of shell and tube heat channel”, shell side nozzles and heat exchanger tubes.

exchangers’ elements is based either on analytic methods

described in ASME, TEMA, EN, GOST and other standards or

on numerical modeling using FEA. The main disadvantage of

the analytic methods is that they can be applied only to certain

apparatuses’ designs and it is very difficult or even impossible

to use them with non-typical constructions. Otherwise, such a

calculation is easy to perform with modeling by FEA. However,

a direct finite element simulation of several thousands of tubes,

which can be designed in one heat exchanger, makes the task

very time-consuming and the resulting model very big and

computation-intensive. This paper examines a typical model,

which includes 3.5 million nodes and more than 3 million

elements. We offer a numerical analytic solution of this task,

which consists in modeling of a tube bundle by an orthotropic Fig. 1 Considered model of the heat exchanger

continuum with equivalent properties. The comparison of the

results of a temperature distribution calculation and the stress- The proposed simplified calculation methodology is based

strain distribution calculation using direct numerical modeling on the substitution of a tube bundle with an equivalent solid

of the tubes in the tube bundle by shell elements from one hand, body with orthotropic properties (Fig. 2).

and of the suggested numerical analytic solution from another,

shows that these results do match closely enough to practice.

INTRODUCTION

There are many cases, when finite element modeling

allows to simplify a design model significantly and to decrease

the dimension of a problem by using various approximations

based on analytical solutions or experimental outcomes. This

paper presents the results of a verification of a shortcut

methodology of the numerical analysis of stress-strain state on

the example of high-temperature tube-and-shell heat exchanger Fig. 2 Tube bundle as equivalent solid body

calculation. Figure 1 presents the considered model. It includes

This analysis was performed with ANSYS software. part of the models A and B are presented on Figures 5 and 6

Figure 3 and Figure 4 presents two types of finite element respectively.

models. The first type (hereafter defined as “model A”) is to

simulate a tube bundle with shell elements SHELL 131 and

other parts of the heat exchanger – solid elements SOLID 185.

The model A includes more than 3 million elements and 3.5

millions nodes.

Model A, °С

body (cylinder) with orthotropic properties, and a tube sheet as

a solid plate of the equivalent thickness and the adjusted

elasticity modulus (hereafter defined as “model B”). The model

B uses only solid finite elements SOLID 185. It includes 565

thousand elements and 481.5 thousand nodes. It is one-seventh

the size of the solution A model.

EQUIVALENT SIMPLIFIED MODEL

solid plate of the same thickness. The Russian standard for

strength calculation of heat exchangers, GOST R 52857.7 [1]

uses a stiffness factor of perforated plate to value elastic

properties of a perforated plate in comparison with a solid one.

This factor is determined by the following formula:

Fig. 4 Solution B of the finite element model

During the first phase of work we performed technological ψ 0 = ηt7 / 3 = 0.49, (1)

thermal analysis using the HTRI software. The resulting

thermal fields were used in the strength calculation by finite where ηt – influence factor of pressure on a tube sheet from a

element method. Temperature distribution in the most heated tube side

π (d t − 2 ⋅ st ) 2 The tubesheet is under tube-side pressure, which is

ηt = 1 − ⋅ = 0.73, (2) determined by following formula:

4 t1 ⋅ t 2

где t1 = 26 mm – horizontal tube pitch; Pt = ηt ⋅ P = 0.438 MPa,

t 2 = 22.52 mm – vertical tube pitch;

The tubesheet is under shell side pressure, which is

d t = 20 mm – tube diameter; determined by following formula:

st = 3 mm – tube wall thickness.

According to GOST R 52857.7 design stresses in tube Pm = η m ⋅ P = 0.276 MPa,

sheets with tubes, fixed in a part of the tubesheet thickness, are

in 1/ϕЕ times larger than stresses in a solid plate of the same

thickness. Herein ϕЕ is the effective attenuation factor,

COMPARISON OF CALCULATIONS’ RESULTS

determined by a formula:

The calculations’ results are shown on Figures 7-10 and in

t1 − d t the Table 1.

ϕE = = 0.23 (3)

t1

Figure 7 shows Von Mises distribution of equivalent

stresses in the area of maximum stress values in finite element

Taking into account that a condition of a stress-strained

‘A model’, and Figure 8 – in finite element ‘B model’.

tube sheet is like pure bending, we can exchange a perforated

part of a tube sheet on the equivalent solid plate of the effective

Figure 9 shows Von Mises distribution of equivalent

thickness in the calculation model:

stresses in the area of maximum temperature values in finite

element ‘A model’, and Figure 10 – in finite element ‘B

S рпр = S p ϕE = 24.04 mm (4) model’.

the effective thickness equal with bending stiffness of the

perforated part of a tube sheet we will exchange the elasticity

modulus Ep=132 MPa for this part on the equivalent effective

value:

ψо

Enp = E = 2.81*105 MPa (5)

ϕE p

Furthermore elastic modulus of the bundle’s material in

directions transverse to the apparatus axis are taken as zero. In

the direction along apparatus axis an effective bundle elasticity

modulus is taken as:

Fig. 7 Von Mises distribution of equivalent stresses in the

ET*= (ηt - ηm) ET = 3.6*104 MPa (6)

area of maximum stress values in finite element ‘A model’

where: ηm,– influence factor of pressure on a tube sheet from

a tube side:

π d t2

ηm = 1 − ⋅ = 0.4634 (7)

4 t1 ⋅ t2

in mind, that there are no tube holes in the model B. We can

make allowance for the lack of holes in the tubesheet

calculation model and the tubes section area by using influence

factors of pressure ηt и ηm.

within the “precise” Model A and within the approximate

Model B differed less than 3%.

stresses, which serves to evaluate the construction strength

according to ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section

VIII, Division 2 [ 2 ]. Fig. 11 shows the most loaded sections,

for which stress linearization was calculated.

area of maximum stress values in finite element ‘B model’

combinations in sections 1 to 3, which serves to evaluate the

construction strength according to ASME Boiler and Pressure

Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 2 [ 2 ],

Table 1

Calculated stress The finite The finite

Section combinations, element element

MPa model A model B

Fig. 9 Von Mises distribution of equivalent stresses in the

Pl+Pb = 10.34 10.96

area of maximum temperature values, Model A 1

Pl+Pb+Q = 18.44 19.49

Pl+Pb = 23.5 25.19

2

Pl+Pb+Q = 43.34 45.97

Pl+Pb = 36.59 37.62

3

Pl+Pb+Q = 73.12 75.12

Table 1, shows that calculated stress combinations in

accordance with ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code,

Section VIII, Division 2, 2010 differs in the «precise» Model A

and «approximate» Model B calculations by the value of 2% to

7%. Besides, the more stress value, the less difference between

the results.

CONCLUSION

Fig. 10 Von Mises distribution of equivalent stresses in the The comparison of the results of “precise” modeling and of

area of maximum temperature values, Model B suggested by this article “approximate” modeling of a tube

As it appears from results presented on figures 7 to 10, bundle of a heat exchanger demonstrates that the difference

maximum values of Von Mises equivalent stresses, calculated between maximum stresses in the construction, calculated

within Model A and Model B, is less than 3%. It allows to use

the suggested approximate model in practical calculations.

construction and loading are close to axisymmetric ones. Since

the suggested approximate model allows to use flat elements of

PLANE type, that simplify the task significantly allows to

decrease its dimension in several orders.

in this article may be used effectively in stress calculation of

non-typical constructions of shell and tube heat exchangers.

REFERENCES

1. Nationalnyi Standart Rossiiskoi Federatsii GOST R

52857.7-2007 “Sosudy i Apparaty. Normy i Metody

Rascheta na Prochnost. Teploobmennye Apparaty”,

Moscow, 2008, (National Standard of Russian

Federation GOST R 52857.7-2007 “Vessels and

Apparatus. Norms and Methods of Strength

Calculation. Heat Exchangers”, in Russian).

2. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII,

Division 2, 2010, American Society of Mechanical

Engineers, New York.

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