Sie sind auf Seite 1von 174

Philippine Copyright 2016

by Rex Book Store, Inc.

Esther L. Baraceros

RBS Practical Research 1

First Edition
ISBN 978-971-23-8077-8
Classification: Worktext (89-AA-00005-0A)
Published, copyrighted 2016, and distributed by Rex Book Store, Inc. (RBSI) with main office at 856 Nicanor Reyes Sr. St., Sampaloc,
Manila / Tel. Nos.: 735-1364, 736-0567
RBSI Branches:
•MORAYTA: 856 N. Reyes Sr. St., Sampaloc, Manila / Tel. Nos.: 736-0169, 733-6746; Telefax: 736-4191 •RECTO: 2161-65 Freedom
Building, C.M. Recto Avenue, Sampaloc, Manila / Tel. Nos.: 522-4521, 522-4305, 522-4107, 733-8637 •RECTO (La Consolacion): Mendiola,
Manila • MAKATI: Unit UG-2, Star Centrum Bldg., Sen. Gil Puyat Ave., Makati City / Tel. No.: 818-5363; Telefax: 893-3744 •ROCKWELL:
1st Floor, Ateneo Professional School, Rockwell Center, Bel-Air, Makati City / Tel. No.: 729-2015 •CUBAO: Unit 10 UGF, Doña
Consolacion Bldg., Gen. Santos Ave., Araneta Center, Cubao, Quezon City /Telefax: 911-1070 •ORTIGAS: G/F East Tower, Philippine Stock
Exchange Center, Exchange Road, Ortigas Center, Pasig City / Tel. No.: (02) 650-4347 •CAVITE: Block 4, Lot 20 Don Gregorio Heights
2, Zone 1-A Aguinaldo Highway, Dasmariñas, Cavite / Telefax: (046) 416-1824 •CAVITE (Tanza): (Display Area) Block 5, Lot 6, City
View 4 and 5, Brgy. Tanauan, Tanza, Cavite •NAGA: 1-1A Geronimo Bldg., Barlin St., Sta. Cruz, Naga City, Camarines Sur/Telefax: (054)
811-6878 •LEGAZPI: Unit 6, 3rd Floor, A. Bichara Silverscreen, Legazpi City, Albay / Telefax: (052) 480-2244 •CALAPAN: Brgy. Salong,
National Highway, Calapan City, Oriental Mindoro / Telefax: (043) 288-1650 •BATANES: L. Lopez St., Kayvalugan, Basco, Batanes
•TUGUEGARAO: 10 Arellano Ext., Brgy. Ugac Sur, Tuguegarao, Cagayan / Telefax: (078) 844-8072 •CABANATUAN: Fontelera Building,
1271 Del Pilar Ext., Sangitan East, Cabanatuan City, Nueva Ecija / Tel. No.: (044) 464-2151; Telefax: (044) 600-5684 •URDANETA:
Zone 6, Pinmaludpod, Urdaneta City, Pangasinan / Telefax: (075) 568-3975 •ANGELES: Unit H, JMS Bldg., MacArthur Highway, Brgy.
Salapungan, Angeles City, Pampanga/Telefax: (045) 887-5371 • BAGUIO: Rex Hall Student Residences, Upper Gen. Luna cor. A. Bonifacio St.,
Baguio City, Benguet / Tel. No.: (074) 422-0574
•TACLOBAN: Brgy. 74 Marasbaras, Tacloban City, Leyte / Tel. No.: (053) 323-8976; Telefax: (053) 523-1784 •ILOILO: 75 Lopez Jaena St.,
Brgy. San Isidro, Jaro, Iloilo City, Iloilo / Tel. No.: (033) 329-0332; Telefax: (033) 329-0336 •BACOLOD: 28 Brgy. 36, Purok Immaculada,
Quezon Ave., Bacolod City, Negros Occidental •CEBU: 11 Sanciangko St., Cebu City / Tel. Nos.: (032) 416-9684, 254-6773, 505-4313;
Telefax: (032) 254-6466
•CAGAYAN DE ORO: J. Seriña St. cor. Vamenta Blvd., Carmen, Cagayan de Oro City, Misamis Oriental / Telefax: (088) 858-6775, 309-5881
•DAVAO: 156 C.M. Recto St., Davao City, Davao / Tel. Nos.: (082) 300-5422, 305-5772; Telefax: (082) 221-0272 •GENERAL SANTOS:
Aparente St., Dadiangas Heights, General Santos City, South Cotabato / Telefax: (083) 554-7102 • ZAMBOANGA: San Francisco Loop,
Mayor Agan Ave., Camino Nuevo B, Zamboanga City / Tel. No.: (062) 955–0887

No portion of this book may be copied or reproduced in books, pamphlets, outlines, or notes—whether printed, mimeographed,
typewritten, photocopied, or in any form—for distribution or sale, without the written permission of the Publisher and
Author/s. The infringer shall be prosecuted in compliance with copyright, trademark, patent, and other pertinent laws.


REX PUBLISHING is not responsible for the accuracy, legality or content of the external sites and for that of subsequent links. These links
are being provided as a convenience and for informational purposes only. Although verified at the date of publication, the publisher
cannot guarantee that these links will work all of the time nor does it have control over the availability of linked pages.
Moreover, the publisher does not warrant sites or the servers that make them available are free of viruses or other harmful components.
REX PUBLISHING does not warrant or make any representations regarding the use or the results of the use of the materials in these sites
or in third-party sites in terms of their correctness, accuracy, timeliness, reliability or otherwise.
RBSI’s Book Association Memberships: Philippine Booksellers Association, Inc. (PBAI); Book Development Association of the Philippines
(BDAP); Philippine Educational Publishers Association (PEPA); Book Exporters Association of the Philippines (BEAP); Academic Booksellers
Association of the Philippines (ABAP); Children’s Literature Association of the Philippines, Inc. (CLAPI); Asian Publishers Resources Center
PEPA’s International Book Association Memberships: International Publishers Association (IPA); Asia Pacific Publishers Association
(APPA); ASEAN Book Publishers Association (ABPA); Philippine Book Publishing Development Federation (Philbook)

Printed by rex printing company, inc.

84-86 P. Florentino St., Sta. Mesa Heights, Quezon City / Tel. No.: 857-7777

Acknowledgments ix

UNIT I Nature of Inquiry and Research

Lesson 1 Nature of Inquiry 1
Meaning of Inquiry
Governing Principles or Foundation of Inquiry
Benefits of Inquiry-Based Learning
Lesson 2 Nature of Research 8
Meaning of Research
Characteristics of Research
Purposes of Research
Types of Research
Approaches to Research

UNIT II Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life

Lesson 3 Qualitative Research 19
Definition of Qualitative Research
Characteristics of Qualitative Research
Types of Qualitative Research
Advantages or Strengths of Qualitative Research
Disadvantages or Weaknesses of Qualitative Research
Lesson 4 Qualitative Research in Different Areas of Knowledge 28
Subject Area Research Approaches
Hard Sciences vs. Soft Sciences

UNIT III Identifying the Inquiry and Stating the Problem

Lesson 5 Subject Matter of the Inquiry or Research 35
Guidelines in Choosing a Research Topic
Research Topics to be Avoided
Sources of Research Topics
Lesson 6 Research Problem and Research Question 45
Meaning of Research Problem
Background of the Problem
Research Questions
Guidelines in Formulating Research Questions

UNIT IV Learning from Others and Reviewing the Literature
Lesson 7 Review of Related Literature (RRL) 55
Meaning of Review of Related Literature
Purposes of Review of Related Literature
Styles or Approaches of RRL or Review of Related Literature
1. Traditional Review of Literature
2. Systematic Review of Literature
Structure of the RRL
Lesson 8 The Process of Review of Related Literature 65
Stage 1: Search for the Literature
Stage 2: Reading the Source Material
Stage 3: Writing the Review
Lesson 9 Standard Styles in Review of Related Literature,
Citation, or References 73
Purposes of Citation
Styles of Citation
Patterns of Citation

UNIT V Understanding Data and Ways to Systematically Collect Data

Lesson 10 Qualitative Research Designs 81
1. Case Study
2. Ethnography
3. Historical Study
4. Phenomenology
5. Grounded Theory
Lesson 11 Sampling 92
Probability Sampling or Unbiased Sampling
Types of Probability Sampling
Non-Probability Sampling
Types of Non-Probability Sampling

UNIT VI Finding Answers through Data Collection

Lesson 12 Observation 101
Methods of Observation
Methods of Indirect Observation

Lesson 13 Interview 110
Steps in Conducting an Interview

UNIT VII  Analyzing the Meaning of the Data and Drawing Conclusions
Lesson 14 Data Analysis 119
Data Matrix
Qualitative Data Analysis
Lesson 15 Drawing of Conclusions 127
Meaning of Conclusion
Drawing Conclusions
Pointers in Writing Conclusions

UNIT VIII  Reporting and Sharing the Findings

Lesson 16 Reporting and Sharing the Findings 135
Meaning of Reporting and Sharing the Findings
Structure or Format of the Research Report
Referencing Your Research
MLA Style
Examples of MLA Referencing Style
APA Style
Examples of APA Referencing Style
Index 159


Wishing to know more about the world—its people, things, places,

and more—is one aspect of your life that you want to realize through and
through. You strive to know more about a lot of things because you are
aware that knowledge is power. If you are knowledgeable, you are capable
of doing great things for yourself, your loved ones, and the whole world.
Imagine having knowledge in all areas of discipline from A to Z:
Architecture, Biology, Commerce, Education, Geology, Law, Medicine, and
so on. You will have enough knowledge to be successful in many aspects of
your life. Apart from this, you will also be influential, powerful, rich, and
capable of uplifting the living conditions of the people around you. How
can you be this type of person, you ask? The answer is research!
Research on things you want to know. To do this, you have to
investigate, inquire, and ask things that you are curious about or find
troublesome in your life. When you wonder or question certain ideas, you
will feel the urge to discover ways and means to derive answers to them.
And what do you think is the method to make you more knowledgeable
about these things?
Qualitative research is a type of research that will satisfy your curiosity.
In your day-to-day life, you get to immerse yourself in different activities
such as meeting people, doing business, appreciating things, visiting
places, etc. All these activities will make you experience the positive and
negative sides of life.
Problems may connote the ugly side of life, but these are part and
parcel of human life that you have to deal with. In order to succeed solving
your problems, you must first discover how to overcome them, and at
the same time, know how to become a better thinker as you go through
the process of solving them. This is what this reading material, Practical
Research 1, is about.
As a reading material on research, particularly on qualitative research,
this book aims not only to help you acquire declarative knowledge or
ideas from varied sources of information, but also procedural knowledge
or methods and techniques to hone your higher-order thinking strategies

(HOTS), such as interpreting, criticizing, synthesizing, and creating, as
you go through the stages of research in finding answers to your research
questions or life problems.
Each lesson in this book will increase your knowledge about research,
in general, and qualitative research, in particular. It will require you to
learn and do things using a discovery technique. Utilizing this learning
technique, aided by your schemata or background knowledge about the
topic, you will learn the concepts behind the subject matter and master
them through individual and collaborative activities, requiring you to
explain, elaborate, and transform the learned concepts and competencies
of things that will be instrumental in achieving a more qualitative life or
bringing positive changes in society. Hence, this book serves as your way
of expanding your world perceptions, much more, of making yourself
more intelligent as you strive to wrestle with confusing things in your life.

E. L. B.


The author would like to thank all the writers and other sources of
knowledge and information, where the research ideas and examples in this
book came from.
Special thanks go to the experts who evaluated this book to make this
a worthy reading material on research, specifically on qualitative research.
Likewise, I am grateful to the librarians of the University of Santo
Tomas and other schools for assistance in the author’s search for varied
sources of knowledge and information to complete this reading material.

I Nature of Inquiry and Research

Inquiry and Research are two terms that are almost the same in meaning. Both
involve investigative work in which you seek information about something by
searching or examining the object of your search. Inquiry is to look for information by
asking various questions about the thing you are curious about while research is to
discover truths by investigating on your chosen topic scientifically; meaning, by going
through a systematic way of doing things wherein you are to begin from the simplest
to the most complex modes or patterns of thinking.

LESSON 1   Nature of Inquiry

Intended Learning Outcomes

After this lesson, you should be able to:
1. use some new terms you have learned in expressing their worldviews freely;
2. explain your understanding of the term “inquiry”;
3. outline all the ideas you have learned about inquiry;
4. infer about societal issues through speculative thinking;
5. enumerate the benefits of inquiry-based learning;
6. identify a question as simple or complex based on the kind of thinking it
elicits from you; and
7. compose an essay to prove the extent of your understanding of inquiry.

Connecting Concepts
Linking Old and New Knowledge

Activity 1: Making Words Meaningful

Directions: INDIVIDUAL WORK. Complete the bubble graph or concept map by

writing words associated with the middle word. Be guided by the clues in the
sentences below each graph.



The detectives need more time to inquire about the case.


The witness’ statement is crucial to the solution of the case.


The continuous presence of your name on the Dean’s List guarantees a good future
for you.

Activity 2: Using Newly Learned Words

Directions: Use the new words in sentences and write them below.

Stirring Up Imagination
What comes to your mind upon reading the selection’s title, Inquiry-based
Learning? Make inferences about this selection.

Discovering More Concepts

Read the following selection to see how correct your guesses are about the inquiry.


Meaning of Inquiry
Learning is your way of obtaining knowledge about your surroundings. This
takes place in many ways, and one of these is inquiry, which many people in the
field of education consider effective. Inquiry is a learning process that motivates you
to obtain knowledge or information about people, things, places, or events. You do
this by investigating or asking questions about something you are inquisitive about.
It requires you to collect data, meaning, facts, and information about the object of
your inquiry, and examine such data carefully. In your analysis, you execute varied
thinking strategies that range from lower-order to higher-order thinking skills such
as inferential, critical, integrative, and creative thinking. These are top-level thinking
strategies that you ought to perform in discovering and understanding the object of
your inquiry. Engaging yourself in many ways of thinking, you come to conclude that
inquiry is an active learning process.
Putting you in a situation where you need to probe, investigate, or ask questions
to find answers or solutions to what you are worried or doubtful about, inquiry is a
problem-solving technique. Solving a problem by being inquisitive, you tend to act
like scientists who are inclined to think logically or systematically in seeking evidence
to support their conclusions about something. Beginning with whatever experience
or background knowledge you have, you proceed like scientists with your inquiry by
imagining, speculating, interpreting, criticizing, and creating something out of what
you discovered.

Inquiry elevates your thinking power. It makes you think in different ways,
enabling you to arrive at a particular idea or understanding that will motivate you
to create something unique, new, or innovative for your personal growth as well as
for the world. Inquisitive thinking allows you to shift from one level of thought to
another. It does not go in a linear fashion; rather, it operates in an interactive manner.
Solving a problem, especially social issues, does not only involve yourself but
other members of the society too. Hence, inquiry, as a problem-solving technique,
includes cooperative learning because any knowledge from members of the society
can help to make the solution. Whatever knowledge you have about your world bears
the influence of your cultural, sociological, institutional, or ideological understanding
of the world. (Badke 2012)

Governing Principles or Foundation of Inquiry

Inquiry-based Learning gets its support from these three educational theories
serving as its foundation: John Dewey’s theory of connected experiences for
exploratory and reflective thinking; Lev Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development
(ZPD) that stresses the essence of provocation and scaffolding in learning; and Jerome
Bruner’s theory on learners’ varied world perceptions for their own interpretative
thinking of people and things around them. Backed up by all these theories, inquiry, as
a way of learning, concerns itself with these elements: changing knowledge, creativity,
subjectivity, socio-cultural factors, sensory experience, and higher-order thinking
strategies. All of these are achievable through the inquiry methods of fieldwork, case
studies, investigations, individual group project, and research work. (Small 2012)

Benefits of Inquiry-Based Learning

In conclusion, you can say that Inquiry-based Learning gives you the following
1. Elevates interpretative thinking through graphic skills
2. Improves student learning abilities
3. Widens learners’ vocabulary
4. Facilitates problem-solving acts
5. Increases social awareness and cultural knowledge
6. Encourages cooperative learning
7. Provides mastery of procedural knowledge
8. Encourages higher-order thinking strategies
9. Hastens conceptual understanding
Educators, businessmen, and other professionals consider all these benefits of
Inquiry-based Learning in various fields of knowledge to be crucial to the success of
anyone in the 21st Century.
Therefore, knowing the ins and outs of Inquiry-based Learning will greatly guide
you in deciding which learning method will guarantee successful learning in the
present world, which is tagged by many as the Era of Globalization, Age of Knowledge
Explosion, Age of Consumerism, Digital Age, Age of Instant World, etc.

Explaining Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: WHOLE-CLASS ACTIVITY. Explain your understanding of inquiry by

answering the following questions intelligently. (Depending on the teacher,
the students may do this in a socialized recitation or in a small group-writing
1. Compare and contrast the three foundation theories behind Inquiry-based
2. Describe one who thinks in a linear fashion.
3. How do you learn something through inquiry?
4. Why is inquiry a scientific way of thinking?
5. In your opinion, is this an effective learning method? Why or why not?
6. What kind of thinking is involved in this learning method?
7. Do you agree that inquiring on something means you are researching about
it? Explain your point.
8. Was there an instance in your life when you, too, did a sort of an inquiry or
research? Describe your experience.
9. Do you know someone in your school or community who often does this
kind of learning? Describe how he or she did it.

10. Characterize the person you are referring to in number 9.


Activity 2

Directions: PAIR WORK. Some of the following questions will require more complex
thinking while some demand simple or less thinking. Put a check (ü) on the
questions that require more complex thinking and put an X to those that trigger
simple and less thinking.
������� 1. What’s the color of your gown?
������� 2. Who bought your gown?
������� 3. Why are some graduating students not willing to wear gowns?
������� 4. Which memo are you talking about?
������� 5. Do you agree that Mr. Cruz was the one who wrote the memo?
������� 6. Which article seems intriguing to the graduates?
������� 7. What is inside the pocket of the green gown?
������� 8. Who owns the gown?
������� 9. How can the gown make you look more attractive?
������� 10. Should you wear a gown during the graduation ball?

Elaborating Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: INDIVIDUAL WORK. On a one whole sheet of paper, present your

understanding of inquiry through a topical outline that uses either the traditional
system (using Roman numerals, letters, and numbers) or the modern numbering
system (using Arabic numbers).

Activity 2

Directions: GROUP WORK. Form a group of four members. Choose any of the
following group activities.
1. Speculations: Recall the hottest issue in town. Prove how inquisitive you
are by raising top-level probing questions about it.
2. Role-Playing: Two will act as police authorities investigating a criminal
case while the other two will play the role of suspected law violators. Ask
probing questions.

Assessing the Extent of Concept Learning

Using numbers 1 to 5, rank the following based on how much you understood
each given topic.
_______ Elements of Inquiry
_______ Process of Inquiry
_______ Definition of Inquiry
_______ Underlying Theories of Inquiry
_______ Scientific Thinking

Transforming Learned Competencies

Activity 1: Municipal Hall Visit

Find time to visit your municipal hall and inquire about the holding of inquisitions
in your area. Ask how you can witness such investigative activity. Make a brief report
explaining or describing facts and information you have gathered about it and their
connection with what you have learned about Inquiry.

Activity 2: Email

Create an essay about inquiry-based learning and email this to some of your
teachers, classmates, or friends. Request them to send also their comments or reactions
about your email on inquiry.
LESSON 2   of Research

Intended Learning Outcomes

After this lesson, you should be able to:
1. widen your vocabulary through contextual clues;
2. examine things appealing to senses to hone your investigative thinking;
3. discuss the characteristics of research;
4. classify research based on a set of criteria;
5. differentiate the various types of research; and
6. describe completed or published research studies based on concepts learned
about research.

Connecting Concepts
Linking Old and New Knowledge

Activity 1: Making Words Meaningful

Directions: INDIVIDUAL WORK. Relying on your stock knowledge, write on the

lines provided the meaning of the following words used in the selection that you
will read later. Be guided by some clues in the given sentences.
1. Absolute__________________________________________________________
Man has no absolute power over something; God has.
2. Abstract__________________________________________________________
A stone is concrete; intelligence is abstract.
3. Portrayal__________________________________________________________
Give a clearer portrayal of what is in your mind by drawing it on that paper.
4. Adopt____________________________________________________________
Adopt a lawful procedure in adopting those orphans.
5. Hallmark_________________________________________________________
One hallmark you ought to treasure is your golden trophy.
6. Perspective________________________________________________________
Change your sitting position to have a better perspective about the whole


7. Hone_____________________________________________________________
Hone your reading skills by spending more time in reading books.
8. Superb___________________________________________________________
For the actor’s superb performance, he won an award.
9. Ins and outs_______________________________________________________
First, know the ins and outs of marriage before deciding to tie the knot with
10. Trigger___________________________________________________________
Say a line on love to trigger off a conversation between those two people.

Activity 2: Using the Newly Learned Words

Directions: PAIR WORK. Have a conversation with your seatmate about one topic
familiar to both of you. Use the newly learned words in your conversation.

Stirring Up Imagination
Directions: Picture Analysis. Examine these different scenic places. Which of these
places interest you the most? Why? Would you like to know more about them?
How do you think will you be more knowledgeable about your favorite or most
loved places?

Discovering More Concepts

Will the following text tell you a certain method or technique to learn more about
the place you find interesting? Read it to find out.


Meaning of Research
In college, you involve yourself in varied school activities such as academic
contests, sports fests, elocution contest, music festivals, college week celebrations, art
exhibits, research work, debate competitions, and many more. All of these activities
are aimed to let you develop a well-rounded personality. But one or two of them gave
emphasis in honing a particular ability (e.g., making you excel in mathematics, science,
arts, music, and many more).
One school activity that every college student has to excel in is research. This is a
hallmark of a university or college education. Your research abilities reflect the quality
of your school. If you graduate from a school with superb knowledge of research work,
you can tell yourself that, “I am a product of a quality college or university.” Hence,
the greatness of a higher education institution depends on how knowledgeable its
faculty and students are about the ins and outs of research; more so, on the application
of this to their everyday life for the progress of the whole world.
What is research? A number of books on research define this term in many
ways, but such varied definitions boil down to the primary meaning of this word,
which is:
Research is a process of executing various mental acts for discovering and
examining facts and information to prove the accuracy or truthfulness of your
claims or conclusions about the topic of your research. Research requires you to
inquire or investigate about your chosen research topic by asking questions that will
make you engage yourself in top-level thinking strategies of interpreting, analyzing,
synthesizing, criticizing, appreciating, or creating to enable you to discover truths
about the many things you tend to wonder about the topic of your research work.
(Litchman 2013)
Research is analogous to inquiry, in that, both involve investigation of something
through questioning. However, the meaning of research is more complicated than
inquiry because it does not center mainly on raising questions about the topic, but
also on carrying out a particular order of research stages. Each stage of the research
process is not an individual task because the knowledge you obtain through each
stage comes not only from yourself but other people as well. Thus, similar to inquiry,
research involves cooperative learning.
Central to research is your way of discovering new knowledge, applying
knowledge in various ways as well as seeing relationships of ideas, events, and
situations. Research then puts you in a context where a problem exists. You have
to collect facts or information, study such data, and come up with a solution to the
problem based on the results of your analysis. It is a process requiring you to work
logically or systematically and collaboratively with others.
To sum up your concepts about the nature of research, the following will give
you the characteristics, purposes, classification, types of, and approaches to research.
(Badke 2012; Silverman 2013; De Mey 2013)

Characteristics of Research
1. Accuracy. It must give correct or accurate data, which the footnotes, notes,
and bibliographical entries should honestly and appropriately documented
or acknowledged.
2. Objectiveness. It must deal with facts, not with mere opinions arising from
assumptions, generalizations, predictions, or conclusions.
3. Timeliness. It must work on a topic that is fresh, new, and interesting to the
present society.
4. Relevance. Its topic must be instrumental in improving society or in solving
problems affecting the lives of people in a community.
5. Clarity. It must succeed in expressing its central point or discoveries by using
simple, direct, concise, and correct language.
6. Systematic. It must take place in an organized or orderly manner.

Purposes of Research
1. To learn how to work independently
2. To learn how to work scientifically or systematically
3. To have an in-depth knowledge of something
4. To elevate your mental abilities by letting you think in higher-order thinking
strategies (HOTS) of inferring, evaluating, synthesizing, appreciating,
applying, and creating
5. To improve your reading and writing skills
6. To be familiar with the basic tools of research and the various techniques of
gathering data and of presenting research findings
7. To free yourself, to a certain extent, from the domination or strong influence
of a single textbook or of the professor’s lone viewpoint or spoon feeding

Types of Research
1. Based on Application of Research Method
Is the research applied to theoretical or practical issues? If it deals with
concepts, principles, or abstract things, it is a pure research. This type of re-
search aims to increase your knowledge about something. However, if your
intention is to apply your chosen research to societal problems or issues,
finding ways to make positive changes in society, you call your research,
applied research.
2. Based on Purpose of the Research
Depending on your objective or goal in conducting research, you
do any of these types of research: descriptive, correlational, explanatory,
exploratory, or action.

Descriptive Research – This type of research aims at defining or giving

a verbal portrayal or picture of a person, thing, event, group, situation,
etc. This is liable to repeated research because its topic relates itself only
to a certain period or a limited number of years. Based on the results of
your descriptive studies about a subject, you develop the inclination of
conducting further studies on such topic.
Correlational Research – A correlational research shows relationships
or connectedness of two factors, circumstances, or agents called variables
that affect the research. It is only concerned in indicating the existence
of a relationship, not the causes and ways of the development of such
Explanatory Research – This type of research elaborates or explains
not just the reasons behind the relationship of two factors, but also the ways
by which such relationship exists.
Exploratory Research – An exploratory research’s purpose is to find
out how reasonable or possible it is to conduct a research study on a certain
topic. Here, you will discover ideas on topics that could trigger your interest
in conducting research studies.
Action Research – This type of research studies an ongoing practice of a
school, organization, community, or institution for the purpose of obtaining
results that will bring improvements in the system.
3. Based on Types of Data Needed
The kind of data you want to work on reflects whether you wish to do
a quantitative or a qualitative research.
Qualitative research requires non-numerical data, which means that the
research uses words rather than numbers to express the results, the inquiry,
or investigation about people’s thoughts, beliefs, feelings, views, and
lifestyles regarding the object of the study. These opinionated answers from
people are not measurable; so, verbal language is the right way to express
your findings in a qualitative research.
Meanwhile, quantitative research involves measurement of data.
Thus, it presents research findings referring to the number or frequency
of something in numerical forms (i.e., using percentages, fractions,
The data you deal with in research are either primary or secondary
data. Primary data are obtained through direct observation or contact with
people, objects, artifacts, paintings, etc. Primary data are new and original
information resulting from your sensory experience. However, if such data
have already been written about or reported on and are available for reading
purposes, they exist as secondary data.

Approaches to Research
After choosing your topic for research, what is your next move? In other words,
how are you going to approach or begin your research, deal with your data, and
establish a connection among all things or activities involved in your research? There
are three approaches that you can choose from.
The first is the scientific or positive approach, in which you discover and measure
information as well as observe and control variables in an impersonal manner. It
allows control of variables. Therefore, the data gathering techniques appropriate for
this approach are structured interviews, questionnaires, and observational checklists.
Data given by these techniques are expressed through numbers, which means that this
method is suitable for quantitative research.
The second approach is the naturalistic approach. In contrast to the scientific
approach that uses numbers to express data, the naturalistic approach uses words.
This research approach directs you to deal with qualitative data that speak of how
people behave toward their surroundings. These are non-numerical data that express
truths about the way people perceive or understand the world. Since people look
at their world in a subjective or personal basis in an uncontrolled or unstructured
manner, a naturalistic approach happens in a natural setting.
Is it possible to plan your research activities based on these two approaches?
Combining these two approaches in designing your research leads you to the third one,
called triangulation approach. In this case, you are free to gather and analyze data using
multiple methods, allowing you to combine or mix up research approaches, research
types, data gathering, and data analysis techniques. Triangulation approach gives
you the opportunity to view every angle of the research from different perspectives.
(Badke 2012; Silverman 2013)

Explaining Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: INDIVIDUAL WORK. Express your judgment or decision about each line
by checking the box representing your choice. On the lines provided, write your
reasons to justify your agreement or disagreement on the given statement.

1. Your zero or poor knowledge of research means you are not in a quality

Agree Disagree

2. To have a rich understanding of every aspect of your research means to

approach it in a naturalistic way.

Agree Disagree

3. You can quantify people’s worldviews.

Agree Disagree

4. Research is exactly the same as inquiry.

Agree Disagree

5. You behave like a scientist in research.

Agree Disagree

Activity 2

Directions: WHOLE-CLASS ACTIVITY – QUESTION HOUR. Raise your questions

about research—its characteristics, types, and importance to your everyday
life. Direct your inquiry to any of your classmates, who, in turn, will also ask a
question after succeeding in answering the question given to him or her.

Elaborating Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: PAIR WORK. Do the following activities with a partner:

1. Identify the specific type of research for each given topic by entering the
letter of the research type in the correct column. Likewise, below the letter
representing your answer, write the importance of such research in your
day-to-day life.

Action Pure Applied Descriptive Explanatory Correlation

a. Theory of Relativity
b. University Belt Street Foods
c. Landline vs. Cellphone
d. Reasons Behind Tuition Fee Increases
e. Manila Flash Flood Solutions
f. College Assessment Practices
g. Critical Thinking and Creative Thinking in Learning-Teaching
h. The Why and How of Internet Use
i. Effects of Korean Telenovelas on Filipino TV Viewers
j. Digital Age
k. Teaching Through PowerPoint Presentations
l. Archimedes’ Principle of Buoyancy

2. In the space provided, make a graphical presentation of the classification

and types of research.

Activity 2

Directions: GROUP WORK. Form a group of three. Think of your own topics for each
research type. Keeping in mind what you have learned from this lesson, come
to an agreement about the reasons to justify the specific research type for each
chosen topic.

Activity 3

Directions: WHOLE-CLASS ACTIVITY. Make a group presentation of the results of

your discussions in Activity 3. Critique each other’s presentation on the basis of
learned concepts about research types.

Assessing the Extent of Concept Learning

Directions: Grade yourself on how well you have learned each topic below. Rank it
from 3.0 (lowest) to 1.0 (highest).
Classification of research types _____________
School reputation vs. Research _____________
Scientific thinking _____________
The role of higher-order thinking in research _____________
Approaches to research _____________
Why people do a research _____________
Inquiry in Research _____________
Triangulation _____________
Determining the quality of research _____________

Transforming Learned Competencies

Visit your school library. Find out which library section has been keeping research
studies done by academic members. Examine five of these research studies. Based
on what you have learned about research, make a report on each book containing
information or descriptions about these aspects of the study: topic, approach,
importance, and type based on different methods of classifying research. Share your
discoveries about these research studies with your teacher and classmates by giving
them a copy of your report.
Unit Qualitative Research and Its
II Importance in Daily Life

Around you are different people, things, and places. All these vary from one
another as regards character or qualities. Curious about a person or a thing, you are
inclined to conduct a qualitative research to discover such individual’s thoughts,
feelings, and attitudes about a certain topic, or to find out something beneath the surface
of an inanimate thing or the effects of such object or place to some people. To discover
facts and information about the object of your interest is to work collaboratively with
some people, for the answers to your questions about your topic do not come only
from yourself but from others as well. Here lies the importance of qualitative research.
It promotes people’s interdependence or interpersonal relationships that the world
needs for solving its societal problems.

LESSON 3   Qualitative Research

Intended Learning Outcomes
After this lesson, you should be able to:
1. analyze the use of an unfamiliar term in a sentence to know its meaning;
2. obtain a thorough or in-depth knowledge of qualitative research;
3. clarify your understanding of qualitative research;
4. explain the elements or characteristics of qualitative research;
5. justify the usefulness of qualitative research;
6. compare and contrast the types of qualitative research; and
7. match a given research topic with the right research type.

Connecting Concepts
Linking Old and New Knowledge

Activity 1: Making Words Meaningful

Directions: INDIVIDUAL WORK. You will encounter the following words in the
reading selection that you will read a few minutes from now. Recall whatever
previous knowledge you have about them to know their meanings. Get clues also
from how they were used in the sentences.


1. Premium – Which must you put a premium on, good reputation or material
2. Emanating – Feelings that are emanating from the orphan reflect his social
3. Constantly – Pray constantly as if it was an act of breathing and eating.
4. Fixated − Don’t allow yourself to be fixated on such line of thinking.
5. Abound − Cultivate an area abound with earthworms for hamburger
6. Vision − He has a vision in life that makes him see himself sitting in a palace.
7. Gear − To whom will he gear such ironical line, to Brutus or Augustus
8. Yield − Watering it daily will make that tree yield fruits.
9. Diverse − You may choose one from those diverse Chinese products.
10. Indispensable − In general, rice is indispensable to Filipinos like pizza is to

Activity 2: Using the Newly Learned Words

Directions: GROUP WORK. Form a triad. Exchange ideas with one another about the
hottest issue in town. Use the newly learned words in your conversation.

Stirring Up Imagination

Directions: How knowledgeable are you about your surroundings? How can you
know more about people, places, and things in this world? Share with your
classmates some ways and techniques you know about becoming knowledgeable
about a lot of things in this world such as those within your own world, among
your friends, schoolmates, loved ones, and so on.
What do you know about qualitative research as a method of understanding
your surroundings better?

Discovering More Concepts

Read this text to find out more about qualitative research.


Definition of Qualitative Research

As a curious student, you want to know so many things about your surroundings
as well as the people, places, and things you find interesting, intriguing, mysterious,

or unique. Try looking at the people around you. Perhaps, you are interested in
knowing these people’s ideas, views, feelings, attitudes, or lifestyle. The information
these people give you reflect their mental, spiritual, emotional, or social upbringing,
which in turn, show how they view the world.
Resulting from internal aspects, people cannot measure worldviews but can
know them through numbers. Obtaining world knowledge in this manner directs you
to do a research called Qualitative Research. This is a research type that puts premium or
high value on people’s thinking or point of view conditioned by their personal traits.
As such, it usually takes place in soft sciences like social sciences, politics, economics,
humanities, education, psychology, nursing, and all business-related subjects.
Subjectivity in qualitative research is true, not only for an individual or a group under
study, but also for you, the researcher, because of your personal involvement in every
stage of your research. For instance, during interviews, you tend to admire or appreciate
people’s ideas based on their answers or your observations and analysis of certain objects.
By carefully looking at or listening to the subject or object in a natural setting, you become
affected by their expressions of what they think and feel about a topic. (Coghan 2014)
In a qualitative research, the reality is conditioned by society and people’s
intentions are involved in explaining cause-effect relationships. Things are studied
in their natural setting, enough for you to conclude that qualitative research is an
act of inquiry or investigation of real-life events. Giving you more concepts about a
qualitative research are the following paragraphs that comprehensively present the
elements or characteristics, types, and advantages of this kind of research (Silverman
2013; Litchman 2013; Walliman 2014; Suter 2012):

Characteristics of a Qualitative Research

1. Human understanding and interpretation
Data analysis results show an individual’s mental, social, and spiritual
understanding of the world. Hence, through their worldviews, you come to
know what kind of human being he or she is, including his or her values,
beliefs, likes, and dislikes.
2. Active, powerful, and forceful
A lot of changes occur continuously in every stage of a qualitative
research. As you go through the research process, you find the need to
amend or rephrase interview questions and consider varied ways of getting
answers, like shifting from mere speculating to traveling to places for data
gathering. You are not fixated to a certain plan. Rather, you are inclined to
discover your qualitative research design as your study gradually unfolds
or reveals itself in accordance with your research objectives.
3. Multiple research approaches and methods
Qualitative research allows you to approach or plan your study in
varied ways. You are free to combine this with quantitative research and use
all gathered data and analysis techniques. Being a multi-method research,
a qualitative study applies to all research types: descriptive, exploratory,
explanatory, case study, etc.

4. Specificity to generalization
Specific ideas in a qualitative research are directed to a general
understanding of something. It follows an inductive or scientific method
of thinking, where you start thinking of particular or specific concept that
will eventually lead you to more complex ideas such as generalizations or
5. Contextualization
A quantitative research involves all variables, factors, or conditions
affecting the study. Your goal here is to understand human behavior. Thus,
it is crucial for you to examine the context or situation of an individual’s
life—the who, what, why, how, and other circumstances—affecting his or
her way of life.
6. Diversified data in real-life situations
A qualitative researcher prefers collecting data in a natural setting like
observing people as they live and work, analyzing photographs or videos as
they genuinely appear to people, and looking at classrooms unchanged or
adjusted to people’s intentional observations.
7. Abounds with words and visuals
Words, words, and more words come in big quantity in this kind of
research. Data gathering through interviews or library reading, as well as
the presentation of data analysis results, is done verbally. In some cases, it
resorts to quoting some respondents’ answers. Likewise, presenting people’s
world views through visual presentation (i.e., pictures, videos, drawings,
and graphs) are significantly used in a qualitative research.
8. Internal analysis
Here, you examine the data yielded by the internal traits of the subject
individuals (i.e., emotional, mental, spiritual characteristics). You study
people’s perception or views about your topic, not the effects of their physical
existence on your study. In case of objects (e.g., books and artworks) that are
subjected to a qualitative research, the investigation centers on underlying
theories or principles that govern these materials and their usefulness to

Types of Qualitative Research

1. Case Study
This type of qualitative research usually takes place in the field of
social care, nursing, psychology, rehabilitation centers, education, etc. This
involves a long-time study of a person, group, organization, or situation. It
seeks to find answers to why such thing occurs to the subject. Finding the
reason/s behind such occurrence drives you to also delve into relationships
of people related to the case under study. Varieties of data collection methods

such as interviews, questionnaires, observations, and documentary analysis

are used in a case study.
2. Ethnography
Falling in the field of anthropology, ethnography is the study of a
particular cultural group to get a clear understanding of its organizational
set-up, internal operation, and lifestyle. A particular group reveals the nature
or characteristics of their own culture through the world perceptions of the
cultural group’s members.
3. Phenomenology
Coming from the word “phenomenon,” which means something
known through sensory experience, phenomenology refers to the study of
how people find their experiences meaningful. Its primary goal is to make
people understand their experiences about death of loved ones, care for
handicapped persons, friendliness of people, etc. In doing so, other people
will likewise understand the meanings attached to their experiences. Those
engaged in assisting people to manage their own lives properly often do this
qualitative kind of research.
4. Content and Discourse Analysis
Content analysis is a method of quantitative research that requires
an analysis or examination of the substance or content of the mode of
communication (letters, books, journals, photos, video recordings, SMS,
online messages, emails, audio-visual materials, etc.) used by a person,
group, organization, or any institution in communicating. A study of
language structures used in the medium of communication to discover the
effects of sociological, cultural, institutional, and ideological factors on the
content makes it a discourse analysis. In studying the content or structures
of the material, you need a question or a set of questions to guide you in
your analysis.
5. Historical Analysis
Central to this qualitative research method is the examination of
primary documents to make you understand the connection of past events
to the present time. The results of your content analysis will help you specify
phenomenological changes in unchanged aspects of society through the
6. Grounded Theory
Grounded theory takes place when you discover a new theory to
underlie your study at the time of data collection and analysis. Through
your observation on your subjects, you will happen to find a theory that
applies to your current study. Interview, observation, and documentary
analysis are the data gathering techniques for this type of qualitative

Advantages or Strengths of Qualitative Research

1. It adopts a naturalistic approach to its subject matter, which means that
those involve in the research understand things based on what they find
2. It promotes a full understanding of human behavior or personality traits in
their natural setting.
3. It is instrumental for positive societal changes.
4. It engenders respect for people’s individuality as it demands the researcher’s
careful and attentive stand toward people’s world views.
5. It is a way of understanding and interpreting social interactions.
6. It increases the researcher’s interest in the study as it includes the researcher’s
experience or background knowledge in interpreting verbal and visual data.
7. It offers multiple ways of acquiring and examining knowledge about

Disadvantages or Weaknesses of Qualitative Research

1. It involves a lot of researcher’s subjectivity in data analysis.
2. It is hard to know the validity or reliability of the data.
3. Its open-ended questions yield “data overload” that requires long-time
4. It is time-consuming.
5. It involves several processes, which results greatly depend on the researcher’s
views or interpretations.

Explaining Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: INDIVIDUAL WORK. Explain the concepts you have learned by answer-
ing the following questions.
1. What comes to your mind the moment you hear qualitative research?
2. If you want to conduct a research study about your favorite restaurant in
town, what method of qualitative research is appropriate for your study?
Explain your choice.

3. Differentiate subjectivity from objectivity.

4. Explain the connection between subjectivity/objectivity and your research
5. How is grounded theory different from other qualitative research methods?
6. Is the researcher himself the data gathering instrument? Why? Why not?
7. Can all research methods be used in one research study? Give reasons for
your answer.
8. Pretend you are the subject of a phenomenological study, how will the
researcher obtain data through you?
9. Given the chance to research, would you right away choose qualitative
research? Give reasons for your answers.
10. If you will do a qualitative research about the area in which your house is
situated, what could be your research problem or topic?

Activity 2

Directions: Name the type of qualitative research best suited for the following topics.
1. The Mangyans’ Burial Practices��������������������������������������
2. Relatives of Typhoon Victims����������������������������������������
3. The Effectiveness of the K–12 Curriculum ����������������������������

4. Spiderman: The Very First Film in the 21st Century���������������������

5. Philippines’ Political Party System: Then and Now���������������������
6. Filipino Caregivers in Japan�����������������������������������������
7. Travails of Senior Citizens at the LRT/MRT Stations��������������������
8. The Lone Grade VI Speed Reader of UST High School������������������
9. Grade 11 Science Textbook������������������������������������������
10. Student Activism Since the Marcos Era �������������������������������

Elaborating Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: GROUP WORK. Form a group of five. Using a Manila paper, do any of the
following activities.
A. Do a semantic map showing your imagination of the way a researcher
conducts his or her ethnographic research in a certain place.
B. Sketch the varied observational activities the researcher will do to gather
data about this topic: “The Favorite Brand of Sardines of Residents in the Happy
Nook Subdivision.”
C. Draw a table with three columns where you can list down topics of your
own for a qualitative research. The first column is for the topic, second, for
the purpose, and third, for the type of qualitative research to be used.

Assessing the Extent of Concept Learning

Directions: Enter in the right column the topic that corresponds to the right headword
indicating how much you have learned.

Topics Poor Good Better Best

1.  Definition of Qualitative Research

2.  Types of Qualitative Research

3.  Characteristics of Qualitative


4.  Advantages of Qualitative


Transforming Learned Competencies

Directions: Ponder on things in your surroundings—the construction of your house,
your computer, the composition of your family, TV programs, social networking
(Facebook, Instagram, Twitter), cell phones, tablets, destructive plastic bags,
religious groups, your classmates, your school, fast food restaurants, etc.

Mulling over these things, think of one good topic you can research on qualitatively.
But before doing an actual research, write a descriptive essay about the application
of qualitative research on your chosen topic. Let your teacher or classmates have an
idea of your thoughts or plans on a qualitative research by giving them a copy of
your descriptive essay that explains the connection of your topic with all the essential
things you have learned about qualitative research.
LESSON 4   Qualitative Research in Different
Areas of Knowledge

Intended Learning Outcomes

After this lesson, you should be able to:
1. widen your vocabulary;
2. express your worldviews using newly learned words;
3. explain how qualitative studies take place in other areas of knowledge;
4. differentiate hard sciences from soft sciences concerning research studies; and
5. specify the data collecting technique for a certain area of knowledge.

Connecting Concepts
Linking Old and New Knowledge

Activity 1: Making Words Meaningful

Directions: INDIVIDUAL WORK. Using the other words in the cluster as clues, give
the meaning of the underlined word in each set.
1. granted, yielded, given, imparted
2. real, true, certain, actual
3. ethical, decent, moral, righteous
4. essential, basic, necessary, indispensable
5. dichotomy, opposition, separation, division
6. mutual, symbiotic, reciprocal, complementary
7. believed, derived, concluded, deduced

Activity 2: Using Newly Learned Words

Directions: Do the KIM (Key, Information, Memory). Complete the following grid
with ideas or pieces of information indicated by the headings.

KEY TERMS Information/Meaning Memory Clues (sentence expressing

your experience about the key term)
1. yielded
2. actual
3. ethical


4. indispensable
5. dichotomy
6. symbiotic
7. deduced

Stirring Up Imagination
What course would you like to take after finishing high school? Are you interested
in becoming a businessman, an engineer, a nurse, a lawyer, a doctor, a teacher, or other
professions? How do you think is research done in these areas of discipline?

Discovering More Concepts

How similar are your guesses to what the following reading material presents
about research?
Read to discover more about research in different fields of knowledge.


Subject Area Research Approaches

Research studies happen in any field of knowledge. Anthropology, Business,
Communication, Education, Engineering, Law, and Nursing, among others, turn in
a big number of research studies that reflect varied interests of people. Don’t you
wonder how people in these areas conduct their research studies?
Belonging to a certain area of discipline, you have the option to choose one
from these three basic research approaches: positive or scientific, naturalistic, and
triangulation or mixed method. The scientific approach gives stress to measurable
and observable facts instead of personal views, feelings, or attitudes. It can be used
in researches under the hard sciences or STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering,
Medicine) and natural sciences (Biology, Physics, Chemistry). The positive or scientific
approach allows control of variables or factors affecting the study. (Laursen 2010)
To become positivist or scientific in conducting your research study, you must
collect data in controlled ways through questionnaires or structured interviews. For
instance, in the field of medicine, to produce a new medicine, a medical researcher
subjects the data to a controlled laboratory experiment. These factual data collected are
recorded in numerical or statistical forms using numbers, percentages, fractions, and
the like. Expressed in measurable ways, these types of data are called quantitative data.
The naturalistic approach, on the other hand, is people-oriented. Data collected,
in this case, represent personal views, attitudes, thoughts, emotions, and other
subjective traits of people in a natural setting. Collecting data is done in family
homes, playground, workplaces, or schools. In these places, people’s personal traits
or qualities naturally surface in the way they manage themselves or interact with one

another. The naturalistic approach focuses on discovering the real concept or meaning
behind people’s lifestyles and social relations.
Unlike the scientific approach that makes you express and record your findings
quantitatively, which means in numerical forms, the naturalistic approach lets you
present things qualitatively through verbal language. Using words rather than
numbers as the unit of analysis, this second research approach concerns itself with
qualitative data—one type of data that exists in abundance in social sciences, which to
others exists as soft sciences. Considered as soft sciences are Anthropology, Business,
Education, Economics, Law, Politics, and all subjects aligned with business and all
those focused on helping professions such as, Nursing, Counseling, Physical Therapy,
and the like. (Babbie 2013)
Having the intention to collect data from people situated in a natural setting,
social researchers use unstructured interviews and participant observations. These
two data gathering techniques yield opinionated data through the use of open-ended
questions and actual participation of the researcher in the subjects’ activities. Collecting
data through these subjective-prone research methods indispensably results in the
gathering of qualitative data.
All in all, from a social science researcher’s viewpoint, these qualitative data
resulting from naturalistic approach of research serves as the basis for determining
universal social values to define ethical or unethical behavior that society ought to
know, not only for the benefit of every individual and community but also for the
satisfaction of man’s quest for knowledge. (Sarantakos 2013; Ransome 2013)
In the field of Humanities, man’s social life is also subjected to research studies.
However, researchers in this area give emphasis not to man’s social life, but to the
study of the meanings, significance, and visualizations of human experiences in the
fields of Fine Arts, Literature, Music, Drama, Dance, and other artistically inclined
subjects. Researches in these subjects happen in any of the following humanistic
1. Literature and Art Criticism where the researchers, using well-chosen
language and appropriate organizational pattern, depend greatly on their
interpretative and reflective thinking in evaluating the object of their study
2. Philosophical Research where the focus of inquiry is on knowledge and principles
of being and on the manner human beings conduct themselves on earth.
3. Historical Research where the investigation centers on events and ideas that
took place in man’s life at a particular period.

Hard Sciences vs. Soft Sciences

Just like in other subjects under soft sciences such as marketing, man’s thoughts
and feelings still take center stage in any research studies. The purposes of any
researches in any of these two areas in business are to increase man’s understanding of
the truths in line with markets and marketing activities, making him more intelligent
in arriving at decisions about these aspects of his life. Research types that are useful
for these areas are the basic and applied research. (Feinberg 2013)

A quantitative or qualitative kind of research is not exclusive to hard sciences

or soft sciences. These two research methods can go together in a research approach
called triangulation or mixed method approach. This is the third approach to research
that allows a combination or a mixture of research designs, data collection and data
analysis techniques.
Thus, there is no such thing as a clear dichotomy between qualitative and
quantitative research methods because some authorities on research claim that
a symbiotic relationship, in which they reinforce or strengthen each other, exists
between these two research methods. Moreover, any form of knowledge, factual or
opinionated, and any statistical or verbal expression of this knowledge are deduced
from human experience that by nature is subjective. (Hollway 2013; Letherby 2013)

Explaining Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: PAIR WORK. With your partner, think of the correct expression to complete
each sentence.
1. Numerical data are true for the _____________ approach.
2. For the naturalistic approach, ________ is the unit of analysis.
3. The focus of social research is _________ for the common good.
4. _________ is the focus of a humanistic research.
5. Quantitative is to scientific approach; ___________ to naturalistic approach.
6. A researcher in Humanities studies his subject with the use of his __________.
7. Playgrounds, classrooms, workplaces make up the __________ to yield
qualitative data.
8. Laboratory experiments give way to a ________ way of collecting data.
9. Hard sciences present research findings in __________ forms.
10. _________ is to hard sciences; subjectivity is to soft sciences.

Activity 2

Directions: With the same partner, check the right column representing your decisions
about each statement in the first column. Accomplish the last column, too.

Statements Agree Disagree Reasons/Reactions/Comments

1. Reasons happen in just one field
of knowledge.
2. All research types apply to all
data collecting techniques.

Statements Agree Disagree Reasons/Reactions/Comments

3. Sticking to one data collection
technique is the best research method.
4. Subjectivity exists in any social
science research.
5. Subjectivity and objectivity are
6. Quantitative research tends to be
more objective than subjective.
7. Past events in a person’s life are
the focus of triangulation.
8. Biology and Chemistry are hard
9. It is necessary for the qualitative
researcher to conduct his or her
research in a laboratory.
10. The mixed method of research
happens only in a quantitative

Elaborating Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: Categorize the given research topic inside the triangle representing the
science under which such chosen topic is researchable. Write only the number of
the topic inside the triangle.

Research Topics
1. Iron Contents of Oregano Plants
2. Aling Bebs: A Filipino Centenarian
3. Electrical Wirings of a Japanese Car
4. Microorganisms in a Canal
5. Parents’ Views About the K–12 Curriculum
6. St. Joseph’s Grade 8 Teachers’ Questioning Techniques
7. Medicinal Elements of Guava Leaves
8. Historical Development of Filipino Novels in English
9. Muslim Wedding Rites
10. The Nature of Ebola Virus

Activity 2

Directions: Name the specific subject under which each topic in the triangle may
prosper as the focus of research work. Do this with your partner. Also, opposite
each subject, give the importance of researching on such topic in a person’s
daily life.

Subject Importance of the Research in One’s Daily Life

Topic 1 ���������������������������������������������������������������
Topic 2 ���������������������������������������������������������������
Topic 3 ���������������������������������������������������������������
Topic 4 ���������������������������������������������������������������
Topic 5 ���������������������������������������������������������������
Topic 6 ���������������������������������������������������������������
Topic 7 ���������������������������������������������������������������
Topic 8 ���������������������������������������������������������������
Topic 9 ���������������������������������������������������������������
Topic 10 ��������������������������������������������������������������

Assessing the Extent of Concept Learning

Directions: Put a check mark () under the heading that speaks of the extent of your
concept learning.

Concepts Very Much To a certain extent Not at all

1. I can now differentiate quantitative and
qualitative research.
2. I have learned the essence of participant
observation in social science researches.
3. Now, I know the difference between hard
sciences and soft sciences.
4. I could compare and contrast the different
humanistic research methods.
5. I learned about the primary goals of
social science researchers.

Transforming Learned Competencies

Ask some people whom you know have already done a research work or who are
currently conducting a research study. Get to know the title, research method (data
gathering and data analysis) of his or her research study including the importance of
such research work in the subject area under which it belongs. Present the results of
your inquiry through a table.
Unit Identifying the Inquiry and
III Stating the Problem

Inquiry or research drives you to a thorough or an in-depth analysis of a certain

subject matter. This kind of study involves several stages that require much time
and effort. You need to spend some time in finalizing your mind about a particular
topic to research on or in determining the appropriateness of such topic, in obtaining
background knowledge about it, and in raising some specific questions that you want
your research work to answer. Focusing seriously on these aspects of your study is
laying a good foundation or beginning of your research work.

LESSON 5   Subject Matter of the

Inquiry or Research

Intended Learning Outcomes

After this lesson, you should be able to:
1. widen your vocabulary;
2. communicate with one another using newly learned words;
3. distinguish a good research topic from a bad one;
4. characterize a researchable topic;
5. narrow down a general topic into a smaller one; and
6. choose a good research topic.

Connecting Concepts
Linking Old and New Knowledge

Activity 1: Making Words Meaningful


Directions: GROUP WORK. Working in triads, answer the questions about the
italicized word in the middle of the graph. Get some clues about the nature of
this target word by discovering its use in the following selection.


What is it? What is it like?


What are some examples?

What is it? What is it like?


What are some examples?

What is it? What is it like?


What are some examples?


What is it? What is it like?


What are some examples?

Activity 2: Using the Newly Learned Words

Directions: On the lines provided, use each new term in a sentence.

Stirring Up Imagination
Directions: Examine the following list of topics. If you decide to talk or write about
any of these topics, which among them would you like to focus on? Why do you
like that and not the others?
1. Systemic Functional Grammar
2. Forensic Linguistics
3. Social Media Network
4. Ho Chi Minh City
5. Mt. Kilimanjaro
6. Ku Klux Klan
7. Philippines’ Underground River
8. Climate Change
9. The Digital Era
10. Carcinogenic Foods

Discovering More Concepts

What do you think does the following selection tell you about topics people love
to read, listen to, speak, and write about? Read it to know more about topics of any
communicative activity.


You begin your research work with a problem; that is, having a problem or topic
to work on. Mulling over a topic for your research work drives you to perform HOTS
or higher-order thinking strategies of inferential, critical, integrative, and creative
thinking in finalizing your mind on one topic among several choices. A topic is
researchable if the knowledge and information about it are supported by evidence
that is observable, factual, and logical. Here are some pointers you have to keep in
mind in selecting a research topic (Babbie 2013):

Guidelines in Choosing a Research Topic

1. Interest in the subject matter
Your interest in a topic may be caused by your rich background
knowledge about it and by its novelty; meaning, its unfamiliarity to you.
Being curious about a subject, like a conundrum or a puzzle, makes you
determined to unravel the mystery or intriguing thing behind it. Your real
interest in a subject pushes you to research, investigate, or inquire about it
with full motivation, enthusiasm, and energy.
2. Availability of information
Collecting a lot of information as evidence to support your claims about
your subject matter from varied forms of literature like books, journals, and
newspapers, among others, is a part and parcel of any research work. Hence,
in choosing a research topic, visit your library to check the availability of
reading materials on your chosen topic. Included in your investigation of
the availability of reading materials are questions on how updated and
authoritative the materials are. Let these questions linger as you tour the
library: What are the copyright dates of the materials? How old or new are
they? How expert or qualified the writers are in coming out with such kind
of reading materials about your topic?
3. Timeliness and relevance of the topic
The topic is relevant if it yields results that are instrumental in societal
improvement. It is timely if it is related to the present. For instance,
unless it is a pure or historical research, a research on the ins and outs of
people’s revolutionary acts will prosper more if it tackles the contemporary
revolutionary actions rather than those in the ancient time.
4. Limitations on the subject
This makes you link your choosing with course requirements. For
example, to make you complete the requirements, your teacher instructs you
to submit a paper that will apply the key principles you learned in business,

psychology, education, and so on. In this case, you have no freedom to

choose your topic based on your interest, but has to decide on one topic to
finish your course.
5. Personal resources
Before sticking fully to your final choice, assess your research abilities in
terms of your financial standing, health condition, mental capacity, needed
facilities, and time allotment to enable you to complete your research. Imagine
yourself pouring much time and effort into its initial stage, only to find out
later that you are unable to complete it because of your failure to raise the
amount needed for questionnaire printing and interview trips. (Barbour 2014)

Research Topics to be Avoided

1. Controversial topics. These are topics that depend greatly on the writer’s
opinion, which may tend to be biased or prejudicial. Facts cannot support
topics like these.
2. Highly technical subjects. For a beginner, researching on topics that require
an advanced study, technical knowledge, and vast experience is a very
difficult task.
3. Hard-to-investigate subjects. A subject is hard to investigate if there are no
available reading materials about it and if such materials are not up-to-date.
4. Too broad subjects. Topics that are too broad will prevent you from giving a
concentrated or an in-depth analysis of the subject matter of the paper. The
remedy to this is to narrow or limit the topic to a smaller one.
5. Too narrow subjects. These subjects are so limited or specific that an
extensive or thorough searching or reading for information about these
is necessary.
6. Vague subjects. Choosing topics like these will prevent you from having
a clear focus on your paper. For instance, titles beginning with indefinite
adjectives such as several, many, some, etc., as in “Some Remarkable Traits
of a Filipino” or “ Several People’s Comments on the RH Law,” are vague
enough to decrease the readers’ interests and curiosity.

Sources of Research Topics

This time, you already have ideas on some factors that affect your process of
choosing a researchable topic. It is also necessary for you to know where a good
research topic may come from. Knowing some sources of probable research topics
could hasten your choosing; thereby, freeing you from a prolonged time of pondering
over a problem of knowing which problem is good for you to research on. The
following can help you generate ideas about a good research topic. (Silverman 2013)
1. Mass media communication – press (newspapers, ads, TV, radio, films, etc.)
2. Books, Internet, peer-reviewed journals, government publications
3. Professional periodicals like College English Language Teaching Forum, English
Forum, The Economist, Academia, Business Circle, Law Review, etc.

4. General periodicals such as Readers’ Digest, Women’s Magazine, Panorama

Magazine, Time Magazine, World Mission Magazine, etc.
5. Previous reading assignments in your other subjects
6. Work experience – clues to a researchable topic from full-time or part-time
jobs, OJT (on-the-job training) experience, fieldwork, etc.

Explaining Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: INDIVIDUAL WORK. Identify the word or phrase referred to by the

following expressions.
1. A descriptive word for a topic useful to society’s progress
2. The effect of a topic you like so much or find close to your heart
3. Topics appealing solely to a person’s thoughts and feelings
4. Topics needing an intensive reading in the library
5. A remedy against a very broad topic
6. The effect of working on a vague or not-so-clear topic
7. The reason behind a topic hard to investigate
8. Very easy research topics
9. Topics not needing factual data
10. An adjective for a topic attuned to current happenings

Activity 2

Directions: PAIR WORK. Put a check () under the column of the right descriptive
word for each number.

Highly Hard-to-
Research Topics Controversial Vague Narrow Broad
Technical Investigate

1.  Filipinos’ Admiration

for the Current First Lady
of the Philippines

2.  Some Excessively

Priced Imported Vehicles

3.  The Rise and Fall of All

Kings and Queens

4.  Labor Unions before

the Coming of Jesus Christ

5.  Pluses and Minuses of

all English 2 Textbooks

6.  Definition of Research

7.  The Extent of Filipinos’

Faith in God

8.  The Structure of a

Nuclear Weapon

9.  Comma as a Punctua-

tion Mark

10.  Spaceship Building

Elaborating Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: INDIVIDUAL WORK. Check the title that appears to be the best in terms
of narrowing down a broad topic.
1.  _______ Symptoms of AIDS
_______ Physical Symptoms of AIDS
_______ Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS

2.  _______ History of Traditional Grammar

_______ History of American Traditional Grammar
_______ Traditional Grammar

3.  _______ The Psychology of Reading

_______ A Study of Human Behavior
_______ Sensory Experience in Reading

4.  _______ World Ideologies

_______ Feminism in the Digital Era
_______ Feminism in Nick Joaquin’s Latest Novel

5.  _______ Communication Skills

_______ The Writing Process
_______ Pre-writing Strategies

6.  _______ War Among Nations

_______ World War II
_______ Japan’s Role in World War II

7.  _______ Hotel and Restaurant Management

_______ Food Serving Techniques
_______ Russian-Plate Service

8.  _______ The University of the Philippines

_______ The History of the University of the Philippines
_______ The University of the Philippines in the 1960s

9.  _______ Philippine Transportation System

_______ Metro Manila’s Transportation System
_______ Manila’s LRT/MRT Systems

10.  _______ The Enactment of Laws in Congress

_______ The Governing Bodies of the Philippines
_______ The Congress of the Philippines

Activity 2

Directions: Use numbers 1 to 5 to show the order of these topics if you narrow them
down from general to the most limited topic.
1.  _______ Man’s Personality
_______ The Right Lobe of the Brain
_______ The Five Aspects of Personality
_______ The Intellectual Aspect of a Person
_______ Brain Components

2.  _______ Prose and Poetry

_______ Fiction
_______ The Legend of Mayon Volcano
_______ Philippine Literature
_______ Legends

3.  _______ Pluses and Minuses of Teenage Marriage

_______ Teenage Marriage
_______ The Advantages of Early Marriage
_______ Marriage
_______ Human Relationships

Activity 3

Directions: GROUP WORK. As you work in a triad, narrow down each of the following
general subjects to make it a good research topic.
1. General subject: Communications
NARROWED _________________________
Narrowed further _________________________
Narrowed further _________________________
Narrowed further _________________________
Narrowed further _________________________
Narrowed further _________________________
Narrowed further _________________________
2. General subject: The Philippine Government
NARROWED _________________________
Narrowed further _________________________
Narrowed further _________________________
Narrowed further _________________________
Narrowed further _________________________
Narrowed further _________________________
Narrowed further _________________________

Assessing the Extent of Concept Learning

Check the right column to assess how much you have learned the concept on
each topic.

Concepts Learned 1.0 1.25 1.5 1.75 2.0 2.25 2.5 2.75 3.0 5.0
Interesting topic
Vague topic
Hard-to- investigate-topic
Narrow topic
Timely topic
Relevant topic
Highly technical topic
Broad topic
Topic-selection pointers
Sources of suitable research

Transforming Learned Competencies

Using your favorite online social communication network, ask your friends what
college they belong to and what research experience they have already gone through.
Specifically, ask about the title of any research paper they have already done, plus
their reasons for having conducted such research studies. If they have not done any
research work yet, express your curiosity as to what subject matter they may want to
work on in the nearest future. Ask them, too, of their reasons for desiring to embark
on such kind of academic endeavor. Ponder on their justifications on the basis of what
you know are good reasons for doing any research work. Request each of them to try
formulating an appropriate title for his or her topic. Based on the title given, determine
the quality of the topic expressed by the title with respect to the guidelines or pointers
you have learned about research topic selection.
LESSON 6   Research Problem and
Research Question

Intended Learning Outcomes

After this lesson, you should be able to:
1. expand your vocabulary;
2. communicate your worldviews using newly learned words;
3. define a research question and a research problem;
4. give the relationship between research problem and research question;
5. formulate correct research questions;
6. identify the sources of research problem and research question; and
7. justify the essence of having background knowledge of the problem.

Connecting Concepts
Linking Old and New Knowledge

Activity 1: Making Words Meaningful

Directions: INDIVIDUAL WORK. From the box, choose the expression that
corresponds to the meaning of the italicized word in the sentence.

Driving force .................. felt uncertain or doubtful result from

Final Permanent decision riddle
Being in a relative position Taking things as factual
Deep coming before

1. You will be perplexed by something you know nothing about.
2. Their closeness stems from their two-month togetherness in the 2015 Climate-
Change Summit in Alaska.
3. Why don’t you give me a clue to that conundrum you want me answer
4. Coming from different cultural backgrounds, you can’t have an alignment of
beliefs and ideas about that matter.


5. Wanting to graduate as a valedictorian could be the impetus behind that

student’s frequent library work.
6. Try to get an intense understanding of that theory to avoid flunking the test.
7. Preceding number seven is eight.
8. You’ve already heard my conclusive statement; hence, close the deal now.
9. What you see around you, what you read in papers, and what you hear from
people help you adopt an objective view of the case.
10. I’ve joined so many singing competitions already, this time, I’ll try The Voice,
the ultimate contest I’ll be participating in.

Activity 2: Using the Newly Learned Words

Directions: Write a paragraph with seven to ten sentences about an interesting topic
to you. Use some of the newly learned words in your short composition and give
an interesting title to your work. Write this on the lines provided.

Stirring Up Imagination
What immediately comes to your mind the moment you hear these two words:
PROBLEM and QUESTION? How would you compare and contrast the two? In the
space below, make an appropriate graph (e.g., table or a Venn diagram) to show their
similarities and differences.



Discovering More Concepts

How do you think are your thoughts about problems and questions similar to or
different from what the following text discusses? Read the selection below to find out
more about these words.


Meaning of Research Problem

The ultimate goal of the research is not only to propose ways of studying
things, people, places, and events, but also to discover and introduce new practices,
strategies, or techniques in solving a problem. The word “problem” makes you worry
and pushes you to exert considerable effort in finding a solution for it. When you feel
perplexed or anxious about what to do about something you are doubtful of or about
a question you are incapable of answering, you then come to think of conducting
research, an investigation, or inquiry. You consider research as the remedy for getting
over any problem.
When you decide to do research, you begin with a problem that will lead you to
a specific topic to focus on. For instance, you are beset by a problem of year-by-year
flash floods in your community. This problem drives you to think of one topic you
can investigate or focus on for the solution to your community’s flood problem.
Perhaps, you can research only one aspect of the flood problem, like examining only
the neighborhood lifestyle in relation to floods in the area, the need to construct anti-
flood structures, or the practicability of more footbridges in the area. (Gray 2013)

Background of the Problem

You must not rush into gathering ideas and information about your topic. First,
spend time getting background knowledge about the problem that triggered off your
research topic to discover its relation to what the world, particularly the experts,
professionals, and learned people know about your topic. Also, reading for rich
background ideas about the problem is also another way to discover some theories or
principles to support your study. (Braun 2014; Woodwell 2014)

Research Questions
The research problem enables you to generate a set of research questions. However,
your ability to identify your research problem and to formulate the questions depends
on the background knowledge you have about the topic. To get a good idea of the
problem, you must have a rich background knowledge about the topic through the
RRL (Review of Related Literature), which requires intensive reading about your topic.
Apart from having a clearer picture of the topic, it will also help you in adopting an
appropriate research method and have a thorough understanding of the knowledge
area of your research.
A research problem serving as an impetus behind your desire to carry out a research
study comes from many sources. Difficulties in life are arising from social relationships,
governmental affairs, institutional practices, cultural patterns, environmental issues,

marketing strategies, etc. are problematic situations that will lead you to identify one
topic to research on. Centering your mind on the problem, you can formulate one
general or mother problem of your research work. (Punch 2014)
To give your study a clear direction, you have to break this big, overreaching,
general question into several smaller or specific research questions. The specific
questions, also called sub-problems, identify or direct you to the exact aspect of the
problem that your study has to focus on. Beset by many factors, the general question
or research problem is prone to reducing itself to several specific questions, seeking
conclusive answers to the problem.
The following shows you the link among the following: research problem,
research topic, research question, and the construction of one general question and
specific questions in a research paper.
Research Problem: The need to have a safer, comfortable, and healthful walk or
transfer of students from place to place in the UST campus
Research Topic: The Construction of a Covered Pathway in the UST Campus
General Question: What kind of covered path should UST construct in its campus?

Specific Questions:
1. What materials are needed for the construction of the covered pathway in
the UST campus?
2. What roofing material is appropriate for the covered path?
3. In what way can the covered pathway link all buildings in the campus?
4. What is the width and height of the covered path?
5. How can the covered path realize green architecture?
Research questions aim at investigating specific aspects of the research problem.
Though deduced from the general or mother question, one specific question may lead
to another sub-problem or sub-question, requiring a different data-gathering technique
and directing the research to a triangulation or mixed method approach. Referring to
varied aspects of the general problem, a set of research questions plays a crucial part
in the entire research work. They lay the foundation for the research study. Therefore,
they determine the research design or plan of the research. Through sub-questions,
you can precisely determine the type of data and the method of collecting, analyzing,
and presenting data.
Any method or technique of collecting, collating, and analyzing data specified by
the research design depends greatly on the research questions. The correct formulation
of research questions warrants not only excellent collection, analysis, and presentation
of data, but a credible conclusion as well. (Layder 2013)
Hence, the following are things you have to remember in research question
formulation. (Barbie 2013; Litchman 2013; Silverman 2013)

Guidelines in Formulating Research Questions

1. Establish a clear relation between the research questions and the problem or
2. Base your research questions on your RRL or Review of Related Literature
because existing published works help you get good background
knowledge of the research problem and help you gauge the people’s current
understanding or unfamiliarity about the topic, as well as the extent of their
knowledge and interest in it. Convincing solutions to research problems
or answers to research questions stem from their alignment with what
the world already knows or what previous research studies have already
discovered about the research problem or topic.
3. Formulate research questions that can arouse your curiosity and surprise
you with your discoveries or findings. This is true for research questions
asked about a problem that was never investigated upon.
4. State your research questions in such a way that they include all dependent
and independent variables referred to by the theories, principles, or concepts
underlying your research work.
5. Let the set of research questions or sub-problems be preceded by one
question expressing the main problem of the research.
6. Avoid asking research questions that are answerable with “yes” or “no” and
use the “how” questions only in a quantitative research.
7. Be guided by the acronym SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic,
time-bound) in formulating the research questions. Applying SMART, you
must deal with exact answers and observable things, determine the extent
or limit of the data collected, be aware of the timeframe and completion
period of the study, and endeavor to have your research study arrive at a
particular conclusion that is indicative of what are objective, factual, or real
in this world.

Explaining Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: WHOLE-CLASS ACTIVITY. Share with your classmates your

understanding of the following expressions.
1. Research questions are comparable to a compass.
2. Research questions are inseparable from the research problem.
3. There are two kinds of questions to be asked in a research work.
4. The keyword in research question formulation is SMART.
5. You cannot ask any question in your research study.
6. Your research questions are linked to your RRL (Review of Related Literature).

7. No research problem means no research questions.

8. Data not referred to by the research questions can be collected.
9. Collecting data immediately comes after pondering on the research problem.
10. You derive your research topic from your research questions.

Activity 2: Question Hour for Speculative Thinking

Ask one another thought-provoking questions about the text you have read.
Your recitation grade will depend on the quality of your questions and answers. Thus,
remember the HOTS (higher-order thinking strategies) of interpretative, critical,
integrative/synthesis, and creative thinking as you formulate your questions. Have a
draft of your questions on the lines provided to prepare yourself for asking questions
worth 10 points each.

Elaborating Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: INDIVIDUAL WORK. Put a check mark (✓) in the box that represents your
judgment on the quality of the research question asked about the following research
problem or topic: “Promoting Intercultural Competence through SFG or Systemic
Functional Grammar.” Justify your choice by writing your reasons, comments,
reactions, etc.

Research Questions
1. Is SFG a contemporary language theory?

Correct Incorrect

2. To what particular subject is SFG applicable?

Correct Incorrect


3. What is intercultural competence?

Correct Incorrect

4. Do you agree that SFG increases intercultural competence?

Correct Incorrect

5. How does SFG promote intercultural competence?

Correct Incorrect

6. In what way is SFG similar to intercultural competence?

Correct Incorrect

7. What Filipino cultural practices reflect Spanish influence on Filipinos’


Correct Incorrect

8. How is SFG applicable to Greek mythological characters?

Correct Incorrect

9. How does context, an SFG component, promote intercultural competence?

Correct Incorrect

10. What are the effects of SFG on the cultural practices of future graduates
of UST?

Correct Incorrect

Activity 2

Directions: PAIR WORK. Keeping in mind what you learned in this lesson, do the
following with your partner.
1. On a piece of paper, make a list of some problems in your environment that
need immediate solutions.
2. Choose one problem in the list. Based on this problem you selected, identify
your research topic, give or describe the justifications/reasons behind
your decision to do a research work, and mention, too, the benefits and the
beneficiaries of your research work
3. Formulate one general or “mother” question to reflect your research problem
or topic.
4. Banking on whatever background knowledge you have about your chosen
topic, formulate five research questions or sub-problems that are closely
related to the general question.

Assessing the Extent of Concept Learning

Using the range of 50% to 100%, rate how much you learned the concepts behind
the following topics.
1. Research problem __________________________________________________
2. Research questions _________________________________________________
3. Research problem in relation to research topic __________________________
4. Background knowledge about the topic _______________________________
5. Formulating research questions ______________________________________
6. Sources of research problems ________________________________________
7. Importance of RRL to research question formulation ____________________
8. Link between the RRL and the research problem ________________________
9. Link between the research design and research questions ________________
10. General questions vs. Research questions _______________________________

Transforming Learned Competencies

Engage yourself in a conversation with some of your teachers. Ask them what
research problem they worked on in their graduate studies, the research questions they
formulated, and their reasons for engaging themselves in such kind of academic work.
Keeping in mind what make people carry out research studies, describe or comment on
their justifications for conducting the research. Subject the result of your inquiry to critical
evaluation based on what you learned about research problem, research questions, and
research goals or objectives. Share with your teacher and classmates a written report of
your findings.
Unit Learning from Others and
IV Reviewing the Literature

You want to discover truths about an animate creature or an inanimate thing
you find wonderful or puzzling. Thinking speculatively, you tend to bombard your
mind with varieties of questions about the object of your curiosity. Where do you get
the answers to your questions? Get them from yourself and from other published
written works containing people’s ideas, facts, and information about your subject
matter. Aligning what you already know with what others know or have already
done about your chosen topic indicates the timeliness and relevance of your work.
Moreover, reading extensively about your subject matter enables you to obtain a rich
background knowledge that will help you establish a good foundation or direction of
your research work.

LESSON 7   Review of Related

Literature (RRL)

Intended Learning Outcomes

After this lesson, you should be able to:
1. increase the number of English words you know;
2. use the newly learned words in expressing your worldviews;
3. explain the meaning of review of related literature;
4. carry out a review of related literature properly;
5. compare and contrast the styles of review of related literature; and
6. critically evaluate review of related literature reports.

Connecting Concepts
Linking Old and New Knowledge

Activity 1: Making Words Meaningful

Directions: INDIVIDUAL WORK. Give the meaning of the underlined word in each
sentence. Be guided by the contextual clues.
1. Your facial expressions and gestures could easily convey your reactions to
his statement. ________________


2. Poems use poetic language; newspaper, prosaic language for an easy

understanding of the news item by all kinds of readers, highly learned
or not. ______________________
3. I don’t need a catalog of ideas on a piece of paper. What I need is an
application of ideas. _____________
4. Myriad of people from all over the world witnessed the historical demolition
of the Berlin Wall. _______________
5. Through your facial expression, I will try to infer, rather than directly state
the meaning of your sentence. _______________
6. I would rather opt to stay here than go home at this time of the night.
7. Your performance of higher-order thinking strategies will ensure your
victory in the academic contest. ___________________
8. All those in Grade 6 belong to a peer group that excludes those not within
their age bracket. __________________
9. Love reading books to widen your world perception. ___________
10. Embodied in the introduction are the major parts of your paper.

Activity 2: Using the Newly Learned Words

Directions: Use the newly learned words in narrating one incident in your life. Try
combining or mixing them up in only one sentence. Write them on the lines


Stirring Up Imagination

Directions: PICTURE ANALYSIS. Examine the picture above. What comes to your
mind upon seeing it? Explain.

Discovering More Concepts

Establish a link between the image and the title of the selection below.


Meaning of Review of Related Literature

Literature is an oral or written record of man’s significant experiences that are
artistically conveyed in a prosaic manner. Embodied in any literary work like essay,
novel, journal, story, biography, etc. are man’s best thoughts and feelings about the
world. These recorded or preserved world perceptions of man are expressed directly
and indirectly. Direct expressions of man’s knowledge of the world are in books,
periodicals, and online reading materials. Indirect expressions are his inferences or
reflections of his surroundings that are not written or spoken at all. (Ridley 2012)
A review of related literature is an analysis of man’s written or spoken knowledge
of the world. You examine representations of man’s thinking about the world to
determine the connection of your research with what people already know about it.
In your analysis or reading of recorded knowledge, you just do not catalog ideas in
your research paper, but also interpret them or merge your thinking with the author’s
ideas. Hence, in doing the RRL, you deal with both formal or direct and informal
or indirect expressions of man’s knowledge. Fusing your world understanding with
the authors’ world perceptions enables you to get a good analysis of existing written
works that are related to your research study. (Wallman 2014)

Purposes of Review of Related Literature (RRL)

1. To obtain background knowledge of your research
2. To relate your study to the current condition or situation of the world

3. To show the capacity of your research work to introduce new knowledge

4. To expand, prove, or disprove the findings of previous research studies
5. To increase your understanding of the underlying theories, principles, or
concepts of your research
6. To explain technical terms involved in your research study
7. To highlight the significance of your work with the kind of evidence it
gathered to support the conclusion of your research
8. To avoid repeating previous research studies
9. To recommend the necessity of further research on a certain topic

Styles or Approaches of RRL or Review of Related Literature

1. Traditional Review of Literature
To do a review of literature in a traditional way is to summarize
present forms of knowledge on a specific subject. Your aim here is to give
an expanded or new understanding of an existing work. Being necessarily
descriptive, interpretative, evaluative, and methodically unclear and
uncertain, a traditional review is prone to your subjectivity. This kind of
review does not require you to describe your method of reviewing literature
but expects you to state your intentions in conducting the review and to
name the sources of information.
You experience much freedom or flexibility in doing a traditional RRL,
so as an undergraduate student taking BA, BSE, BSEED, or any four-year
bachelor degree and lacking much knowledge and expertise in research
work, this is the appropriate method for you. Attaining mastery in doing a
traditional RRL is an excellent preparation for the more demanding, second
style of RRL called systematic review that is required at the graduate level.
Hence, being unprepared for a systematic review, you have no other way
but to do the traditional review to complete the requirements of your course.
(Jesson 2011)
Traditional review is of different types that are as follows:
1. Conceptual review – analysis of concepts or ideas to give meaning to
some national or world issues
2. Critical review – focuses on theories or hypotheses and examines
meanings and results of their application to situations
3. State-of-the-Art review – makes the researcher deal with the latest
research studies on the subject
4. Expert review – encourages a well-known expert to do the RRL because
of the influence of a certain ideology, paradigm, or belief on him/her
5. Scoping review – prepares a situation for a future research work in the
form of project making about community development, government
policies, and health services, among others

2. Systematic Review of Literature

As indicated by its name, systematic, which means methodical, is a style
of RRL that involves sequential acts of a review of related literature. Unlike
the traditional review that has no particular method, systematic review
requires you to go through the following RRL steps (Ridley 2012):
1. Have a clear understanding of the research questions. Serving as the
compass to direct your research activities, the research questions tell
you what to collect and where to obtain those data you want to collect.
2. Plan your manner of obtaining the data. Imagining how you will get
to where the data are, you will come to think also of what keywords
to use for easy searching and how to accord courtesy and respect to
people or institutions from where the data will come such as planning
how to communicate your request to these sources of data.
3. Do the literature search. Using keywords, you look for the needed
information from all sources of knowledge: Internet, books, journals
periodicals, government publications, general references, and the like.
4. Using a certain standard, determine which data, studies, or sources of
knowledge are valuable or not to warrant the reasonableness of your
decision to take some data and junk the rest.
5. Determine the methodological soundness of the research studies. Use
a checklist or a certain set of criteria in assessing the ways researchers
conduct their studies to arrive at a certain conclusion.
6. Summarize what you have gathered from various sources of data. To
concisely present a synthesis of your report, use a graph such as a table
and other presentation formats that are not prone to verbosity.
A systematic review of literature is a rigorous way of obtaining data from written
works. It is a bias-free style that every researcher wanting to be a research expert
should experience. Limiting itself to peer-reviewed journals, academically written
works, and quantitative assessment of data through statistical methods, this style of
literature review ensures objectivity in every stage of the research. (Fraenbell 2012)
The following table shows the way several books on RRL compare and contrast
the two styles of RRL.

Standards Traditional Review Systematic Review

Purpose To have a thorough and clear To meet a certain objective based

understanding of the field on specific research questions
Scope Comprehensive, wide picture Restricted focus
Review Design Indefinite plan, permits creative Viewable process and paper trail
and exploratory plan
Choice of studies Purposeful selection by the Prepared standards for studies
reviewer selection

Standards Traditional Review Systematic Review

Nature of studies Inquiry-based techniques Wide and thorough search for all
involving several studies studies
Quality appraisal Reviewers’ views Assessment checklists
Summary Narrative Graphical and short summary

Structure of the RRL

The structure of the whole literature review indicates the organizational
pattern or order of the components of the summary of the RRL results. For the
traditional review, the structure of the summary resembles that of an essay where
series of united sentences presents the RRL results. However, this structure of
traditional review varies based on your subject and area of specialization. For the
systematic review, the structure is based on the research questions; so much so,
that, if your RRL does not adhere to a certain method to make you begin your
RRL with research questions, your RRL is headed toward a traditional literature
review structure.
Regardless of what RRL structure you opt to use, you must see to it that the
organizational pattern of the results of your review contains these three elements: an
introduction to explain the organizational method of your literature review; headings
and subheadings to indicate the right placement of your supporting statements and a
summary to concisely restate your main point. (Ridley 2013)

Explaining Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITY. Circle the letter of the correct answer.

1. An informal or indirect expression of knowledge happens through
a. gestures  c. words
b. books d. sentences
2. Between world knowledge and RRL, the second serves as the
a. summary  c. conclusion
b. linker d. symbol
3. Your direction in your RRL is given by your research
a. data  c. problem
b. design d. question

4. Your purpose in doing RRL is

a. dual  c. specific
b. plural d. singular
5. Research question is a must in a literature review called
a. traditional  c. systematic
b. optional d. structural
6. Subjective literature review takes place in a review that is
a. scoping  c. systematic
b. statistical d. scientific
7. Among the types of traditional review, these two share some similarities.
a. critical and conceptual  c. start of the art and scoping
b. scoping and expert d. critical and expert
8. A year from now, I will start my thesis writing for my MA degree. I must
then look forward to doing this RRL style.
a. scoping  c. scoping
b. state-of-the-art d. systematic
9. Being a first year BA student, I can conduct a literature review using this style
a. systematic and traditional c. systematic
b. multi-system d. traditional
10. Without research questions, your RRL structure can appear in a form called
a. narrative  c. outline
b. statistical d. tabular

Activity 2

Directions: Explain each expression the way you understood them in relation to research.
1. Related Literature _ ________________________________________________

2. Review of Related Literature ________________________________________


3. Traditional review of Literature______________________________________


4. Systematic review of related literature ________________________________


5. Structure of literature review results _ ________________________________


Elaborating Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: PAIR WORK. In the space provided, give a graphical presentation of the
sequential acts of a systematic review of literature.

Activity 2

Directions: GROUP WORK. Form a group of four. Imagine you are guest speakers in
a seminar titled, “RRL or Review of Related Literature: The Key to a Successful
Research.” Have a division of work. See to it that you divide the speaking parts
equally among the four of you.

Activity 3: Essay Writing

Directions: INDIVIDUAL WORK. Using a comparison-contrast organization

technique, write a short essay about the two styles of review of related literature.
Give your work a good title.



Assessing the Extent of Concept Learning

Directions: Put a check mark (✓) under the heading that speaks of how much you
learned the concepts behind each topic.

Topics Very much Average Little Zero

Definition of RRL
Purpose of RRL
Systematic Review
Traditional review
RRL structure
Difference between Systematic and Tradi-
tional review

Topics Very much Average Little Zero

Research questions in relation to RRL
The purposes of review of related literature

Transforming Learned Competencies

Visit the section of your school library that is taking care of theses and dissertations.
Examine the Review of Literature section of these materials and based on what you
learned about RRL, comment on how these appear in the book. Produce a written
copy of your observations about the RRL section in the book and share this with your
teacher and classmates.
LESSON 8 The Process of Review
of Related Literature

Intended Learning Outcomes

At the end of this lesson, you should be able to
1. widen your vocabulary;
2. communicate your worldviews through newly learned words;
3. differentiate the three stages of review of related literature;
4. distinguish a superior source of data from an inferior one;
5. write a literature review in a critical or argumentative manner;
6. link authors’ ideas based on a certain pattern, theme, or theory; and
7. present and organize ideas using active verbs and transitional devices.

Connecting Concepts
Linking Old and New Knowledge

Activity 1: Making Words Meaningful

Directions: PAIR WORK. Using the other words in the cluster as clues, give the
meaning of the underlined word.
1. subject to, disposed to, liable, susceptible
2. merely, purely, only, just
3. mergers, fuses, unites, combines
4. inclination liking, penchant, prone
5. per individual, single, per, one
6. avoid, prevent, refrain, shun
7. empty, devoid, nothing, zero

Activity 2: Using the Newly Learned Words

Directions: Use the newly learned words in a chat with your seatmate.

Stirring Up Imagination


 ook back into one period of your life when you were so eager or
desirous to know someone or something in this world. What did you
do to satisfy your want to know more about such person or thing? In
the space provided, write a brief memoir on your knowledge seeking.

Discovering More Concepts

What do you think? Will the following reading material freshen up or enliven
your memoir on knowledge seeking? Read this text well to discover more about your
quest of becoming knowledgeable about something.


Curious about a person or a thing, you want to know more about the ins and
outs of this object of your interest. In your quest of becoming knowledgeable about
the “apple of your eyes,” you are inclined to find all ways and means to get a full
view, knowledge, or understanding of the center of your attention. And if there is
one activity of yours that really pushes you to continue searching knowledge up to a
certain period of time about the focus of your attention, it is research. From the start
up to the end of your research, you are prone to searching answers to the many things
you are curious about.

Your search for knowledge happens in every stage of your research work, but
it is in the research stage of review of related literature where you spend considerable
time searching knowledge about the topic. Exposed to various sources of knowledge
and conditioned by a timeframe of the research work, it is necessary that you adopt a
certain method in reviewing or reading varied works of literature that are related to
your research problem or topic. Going methodical in your review of related literature
means you have to go through the following related stages of the process of review of
related literature that are true for any style of review (traditional or systematic) that
you want to adopt. (Lappuci 2013; Robyler 2013; Freinbell 2012)

Stage 1: Search for the Literature

This is the stage of review of related literature where you devote much of your
time in looking for sources of knowledge, data, or information to answer your research
questions or to support your assumptions about your research topic. Generally, there
are three basic types of literature sources: general references that will direct you to the
location of other sources; primary sources that directly report or present a person’s own
experiences; and secondary sources that report or describe other people’s experiences
or worldviews. Secondary sources of knowledge give the most number of materials
such as the Internet, books, peer-reviewed articles in journals, published literary
reviews of a field, grey literature or unpublished and non-peer reviewed materials like
theses, dissertations, conference proceedings, leaflets and posters, research studies in
progress, and other library materials.
Websites introducing materials whose quality depends solely on every
individual, social media networks (Twitter, Facebook, blogs, podcasts, YouTube,
video, etc.) and other online encyclopedia such as Wikipedia, are the other sources
of information that you can consult during this stage. You may find these reading
materials valuable, especially, the Wikipedia, because of their timeliness, diversified
knowledge or information, varied presentation formats (texts, sounds, animation) and
24-hour availability. But they are not as dependable as the other sources of knowledge.
Some consider the information from these as not very scholarly in weight because it
is susceptible to anybody’s penchant for editing. Since any person is free to use the
Internet for displaying information that is peer-reviewed or not, you need to be careful
in evaluating online sources. (Mc Leod 2012)
You can have an access to these various sources of data in two methods: manually,
or getting hold of the printed form of the material, and electronically or having a
computer or online reading of the sources of knowledge. Regardless of which method
you use, all throughout your literature search, your mind must be focused on the
essence and purposes of the library because most of the data you want to obtain are
in this important section of your school. Having familiarity with the nature of your
library will facilitate your literature search.
Here are the pointers you have to remember in searching for the best sources of
information or data: (Fraenbell 2012)
1. Choose previous research findings that are closely related to your research.
2. Give more weight to studies done by people possessing expertise or authority
in the field of knowledge to which the research studies belong.

3. Consider sources of knowledge that refer more to primary data than to

secondary data.
4. Prefer getting information from peer-reviewed materials than from general
reading materials.

Stage 2: Reading the Source Material

Reading, understanding, or making the materials meaningful to you is what will
preoccupy you on the second stage of reading RRL. You can only benefit much from
your reading activities if you confront the reading materials with the help of your
HOTS. In understanding the sources of knowledge with your HOTS, you need to think
interpretatively through these ways of inferential thinking: predicting, generalizing,
concluding, and assuming. On top of these should be your ability to criticize or
evaluate, apply, and create things about what you have read. Hence, reading or
making sense of the source materials does not only make you list down ideas from the
materials, but also permits you to modify, construct, or reconstruct ideas based on a
certain principle, theory, pattern, method, or theme underlying your research.

Stage 3: Writing the Review

You do a great deal of idea connection and organization in this last stage of RRL to
form an overall understanding of the material by paraphrasing or summarizing the it.
In doing either of these two, you get to change the arrangement of ideas, structures of
the language, and the format of the text using appropriate organizational techniques
of comparison-contrast, chronological order, spatial relationship, inductive-deductive
order, and transitional devices. Also, you make effective changes not only on language
structures and format but also the quality of ideas incorporated into the summary or
paraphrase as well. This means that in writing the review, based on the focus, theme, or
theory underlying your research, you are free to fuse your opinions with the author’s
ideas. (Corti 2014)
A simple presentation of the findings or argumentations of the writers on
a particular topic with no incorporation of your own inferential, analytical, and
comparative- contrastive thinking about other people’s ideas indicates poor literature
review writing. This mere description, transfer, or listing of writer’s ideas that is
devoid of or not reflective of your thinking is called dump or stringing method. Good
literature review writing shuns presenting ideas in serial abstracts, which means every
paragraph merely consists of one article. This is a source-by-source literature writing
that fails to link, compare, and contrast series of articles based on a theory or a theme
around which the research questions revolve. (Remlen 2011)
Juxtaposing or dealing with studies with respect to each other is your way
of proving the extent of the validity of the findings of previous studies vis-a-vis
the recent ones. Reading the source material and writing the review analytically,
argumentatively, or critically, you give yourself the chance to express your genuine or
opinionated knowledge about the topic; thereby, increasing the enthusiasm of people
in reading your work. (Radylyer 2013)
Another good approach to writing an excellent review is adopting good opening
sentences of articles that should chronologically appear in the paper. Opening an

article with a bibliographical list that begins with the author’s name like the following
examples is not good.
Aquino (2015) said...
Roxas (2016) stated…
Perez (2017) wrote...
Mendoza (2018) asserted...
Examples of better article openings manifesting critical thinking through analysis,
comparison and contrast of ideas and findings are as follows:
One early work by (Castro, 2017) proves that...
Another study on the topic by (Torres, 2017) maintains that...
The latest study by (Gomez, 2018) reveals that...
A research study by (Rivera, 2017) explains that...
Coming from various books on literature review writing are the following transitional
devices and active verbs to link or express authors’ ideas in your paper. Using correct
words to link ideas will make you synthesize your literature review, in a way that
evidence coming from various sources of data, will present an overall understanding
of the context or of the present circumstances affecting the research problem.
o Transitional devices – also, additionally, again, similarly, a similar opinion,
however, conversely, on the other hand, nevertheless, a contrasting opinion,
a different approach, etc.
o Active verbs – analyze, argues, assess, assert, assume, claim, compare,
contrast, conclude, criticize, debate, defend, define, demonstrate, discuss,
distinguish, differentiate, evaluate, examine, emphasize, expand, explain,
exhibit, identify, illustrate, imply, indicate, judge, justify, narrate, outline,
persuade, propose, question, relate to, report, review, suggest, summarize.

Explaining Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: PAIR WORK. Write the letter of the word or phrase in column B that
corresponds in meaning to the expression in column A.
������� 1. Theme or theory a. Some paragraphs but one
article per par.
������� 2. Wikipedia  b. Lacking in well-learned ideas
������� 3. Websites   c. Comparing-contrasting two
������� 4. HOTS d.   Elicits opinions on the topic

������� 5. Dump method  e.   Biographical list

������� 6. Serial abstract    f. Inferring, criticizing,
applying, creating
������� 7. Juxtaposing ideas  g. Dependent on readers for its
������� 8. Argumentative review  h. Basis of linking authors’ ideas
������� 9. Aquino (2018) suggested...    i.  
 Reading comprehension
������� 10. Grey literature    j.  Thesis, dissertations, posters
 k.  Plain union of authors’

Activity 2: Modified True or False

Directions: Write T if the sentence is true and F, if it is false. Then, underline the part
that makes the sentence false and write the correct word/s on the line provided.
������� 1. Doing a literature search alone proves that literature review
writing is an interconnected process.

������� 2. Editing by readers contributes to the inferiority of Wikipedia as a
source of information.

������� 3. Much editing by readers happens in grey literature.

������� 4. Bibliographical list is not a good way to begin an article.

������� 5. A researcher is discouraged from using this opening: One study
by (Lim, 2017) asserts that...

������� 6. Being an interconnected process, literature review stages affect
one another.
������� 7. HOTS take place extensively in Literature-review reading and
������� 8. Primary source is better than secondary source.
������� 9. Similarly, also, on the other hand are good article openings.
������� 10. You begin your review of related literature by peer-reviewed

Elaborating Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: GROUP WORK. Form a group of three. Pretend that you are guest speakers
in a conference who will talk about each stage of the RRL, titled “Enhancing
Students’ Research Skills.” Take turns in playing the role of a conference speaker.

Activity 2

Directions: GROUP WORK. Form a group of five, agree on one thing you want
to know more. Ask three questions about this puzzling thing, and then list
down as many sources of information as you can through which you can obtain
knowledge to answer your questions.
Such information about your chosen topic may come from your school library
and research databases and other online resources such as the DAAI, ACM,
ERIC, CINAHL, PROQUEST, EBSCOHOST, etc. Read the articles found in these
sources of information, and then synthesize or summarize them into one coherent
written discourse or composition to shed light on your research questions.

Assessing the Extent of Concept Learning

Directions: Choose which of these words—poor, good, very good, and excellent—can
indicate the extent of your understanding of the ideas behind each topic.
1. Manual searching of information ������������������������������������
2. Inferiority of online encyclopedia ������������������������������������
3. Stringing method of review writing ����������������������������������
4. Thematic writing of the review ��������������������������������������
5. Argumentative review ���������������������������������������������
6. Bibliographical list �������������������������������������������������
7. Transitional devices ������������������������������������������������
8. Active verbs in review writing ��������������������������������������
9. RRL stages as interconnected process ���������������������������������
10. Grey literature ����������������������������������������������������

Transforming Learned Competencies

Create a poster reflecting the three stages of Review of Related Literature. Invite
more students to attend a conference on research by displaying your finished poster in
a conspicuous place in your classroom. Label your poster with a caption or a general
title reflecting the theme or idea of the conference. Likewise, provide each colorfully
illustrated RRL stage with a catchword or short, eye-catching expression.
LESSON 9 Standard Styles in Review
of Related Literature,
Citation, or References

Intended Learning Outcomes

After this lesson, you should be able to:
1. unlock the meaning of an unfamiliar word through context clues;
2. express your thoughts and feelings using the newly learned words;
3. compare and contrast the styles and patterns of in-text citations;
4. enumerate the purposes of citations;
5. evaluate the accuracy of citations to reading materials; and
6. identify the causes and effects of plagiarism.

Connecting Concepts
Linking Old and New Knowledge

Activity 1: Making Words Meaningful

Directions: INDIVIDUAL WORK. Using contextual clues, give the meaning of the
underlined word in the sentence
1. Those are my words that you want to appear in your book. Hence, you
must give them the proper citation in your work to tell the readers of my
ownership of the ideas behind the language structures.
2. Refusing to acknowledge the presence of the Iranian guest, he turned the
microphone to somebody, and then left the stage.
3. People, topic, place, and time, among others, make up the context of
4. Judiciously, the buyer analyzes and criticizes the item before he decides to
say yes to the seller.
5. A flower is generally known as a part of a plant, but varied connotations by
every individual have been given to this blossom.

Activity 2: Using the Newly Learned Words

Directions: On the lines provided, use each newly learned word in a sentence.


Stirring Up Imagination
How will you compare the text in the frame with an essay you encountered in the
past? Why does this text look like this?

One recent study by (Castro, 2016)

defined Intercultural competence as an ability to
interact harmoniously with people from different
cultural background. Giving this expression
another name, (David, 2017) calls it Cross-
cultural or Inter-culture Competence. Described
by Tolentino (2018, p. 38) as a social-based
activity, intercultural competence has context as
its “One latest study by (Tuazon, 2018) explains
context as a broad term that refers to all the
circumstances affecting social interaction

Discovering More Concepts

What additional ideas about your guesses are revealed by the following reading
material? Read the selection to discover more about the text on the frame


In reviewing related literature, you come to read varieties of reading materials
containing knowledge related to your research. It is a fact that these ideas, including
the language structures to express these ideas, belong to other people. They are not
yours. One cardinal principle in research is acknowledging or recognizing the owners
of any form of knowledge you intend to include in your research paper. Doing this
practice signals not just honesty and courtesy to learned people whose ideas lend
information to your paper, but also indicates your appreciation for their contribution
to the field. (Hammersely 2013)

The following are the three terms used to express your appreciation for or
recognition of people’s ownership of borrowed ideas (Sharp 2012):
1. Acknowledgment – the beginning portion of the work that identifies
individuals who have contributed something for the production of the paper
2. References or Bibliography – a complete list of all reading materials, including
books, journals, periodicals, etc. from where the borrowed ideas came from
3. Citation or In-text Citation – references within the main body of the text,
specifically in Review of Related Literature
The third one, citation, is the focus of this lesson. Citation, also
called in-text citation, has many purposes and style, which are as follows
(Badke 2012):

Purposes of Citation
1. To give importance and respect to other people for what they know about
the field
2. To give authority, validity, and credibility to other people’s claims,
conclusions, and arguments
3. To prove your broad and extensive reading of authentic and relevant
materials about your topic
4. To help readers find or contact the sources of ideas easily
5. To permit readers to check the accuracy of your work
6. To save yourself from plagiarism

Styles of Citation
1. Integral Citation
This is one way of citing or referring to the author whose ideas appear
in your work. You do this by using active verbs like claim, assert, state, etc.
to report the author’s ideas. Using these types of verbs somehow expresses
the author’s mental position, attitude, stand, or opinion in relation to the
information referred to. This is the reason integral citation is often used in
social sciences or any subjects belonging to the soft sciences.
Examples of Integral Citation:

One study by Manalo (2015) reveals... One study by (Manalo 70)
The latest work by (Lee, 2015) asserts... The latest work by (Lee 123)
According to Abad et al. (2015) context is... According to (Abad et al.: 54)

2. Non-integral Citation
In contrast to integral citation that reflects the author’s personal
inclinations to a certain extent, this second citation style downplays any

strength of the writer’s personal characteristics. The stress is given to the

piece of information rather than to the owner of the ideas.
Examples of Non-integral Citation:
a. The Code of Ethics for Intercultural Competence give four ways by
which people from different cultural background can harmoniously
relate themselves with one another. (De la Cruz, 2015)
b. Knowledge is one component of not only Systemic Functional
Grammar but Intercultural competence as well. It is the driving force
beyond any successful collaborative activities to develop interpersonal
relationships and communicative competence. (Smith 2015)
c. The other components of Intercultural Competence which are also
present in SFG are: context (Harold, 2015), appropriateness (Villar,
Marcos, Atienza, 2016; Santos, and Daez, 2016), and emotions
(Flores, 2016).

Patterns of Citation
1. Summary. The citation in this case is a shortened version of the original text
that is expressed in your own language. Making the text short, you have to
pick out only the most important ideas or aspects of the text.
2. Paraphrase. This is the antithesis of the first one because, here, instead of
shortening the form of the text, you explain what the text means to you
using your own words. In doing so, it is possible that your explanations may
decrease or exceed the number of words of the original text.
3. Short Direct Quotation. Only a part of the author’s sentence, the whole
sentence, or several sentences, not exceeding 40 words, is what you can
quote or repeat in writing through this citation pattern. Since this makes you
copy the exact words of the writer, it is necessary that you give the number
of the page where the readers can find the copied words.
Contexts is influenced by these four factors: “language, culture,
institutions, and ideologies.” (Aranda, 2015, p.8)
4. Long Direct Quotation or Block Quotation, or Extract. Named in many ways, this
citation pattern makes you copy the author’s exact words numbering from
40 up to 100 words. Under APA, the limit is eight lines. Placed at the center
of the page with no indentation, the copied lines look like they compose a
stanza of a poem.
The latest study by (Hizon, 2015) reveals the social nature of language.
Stressing this nature of language, he says:

 anguage features result from the way people use language to meet their
social needs. In their interactions, they use language to describe, compare,
agree, explain, disagree, and so on. Each language function requires a certain

set of language features like nouns for naming, adjectives for comparing,
verbs for agreeing, prepositions for directing, and conjunctions for connecting
ideas. (p. 38)
You should quote judiciously because having so many quoted words
or lines in your paper signals your lack of understanding of such part of the
text. Besides, frequent copying of the author’s words indicates your lack of
originality in conducting your research work. To avoid negative connotations
about direct quotations in your paper, have in mind the following reasons
to justify your act of quoting or repeating in writing other people’s words.
(Ransome 2013)

1. The idea is quite essential.

2. The idea is refutable or arguable.
3. The sentence is ambiguous or has multiple meanings.
4. There’s a strong possibility that questions may be raised about the
5. It is an excellent idea that to make it a part of your paper will bring
prestige and credibility to your entire work.

There are two basic methods of referencing, pointing to, or identifying

the exact author referred to by your paper. These are the APA (American
Psychological Association and the MLA (Modern Language Association).
Each of these two methods has its own in-text citation style. The following
shows the difference between them as regards citation format.
APA – (Ramos, 2015) or Ramos (2016)
(Manalo, 2015) or Manalo (2016)

MLA – (Bautista 183), Flores 150-158)

(Acosta, Hizon, Lopez 235-240)
(Velarde 4: 389-403) – for periodicals
5. Tense of verbs for reporting
Active verbs are effective words to use in reporting authors’ ideas. Present
their ideas in any of these tenses: present, simple past, or present perfect tense.
The APA system, however, prefers the use of present perfect tense.
Present tense – Marcos explains...
Past tense – Marcos explained...
Present perfect tense – Marcos has explained...

Plagiarism is an act of quoting or copying the exact words of the writer and
passing the quoted words off as your own words. The leading act of plagiarism is

using the words of the original text in expressing your understanding of the reading
material. The right way to avoid plagiarism is to express the borrowed ideas in your
own words. (Ransome 2013)
Taking ownership of what do not belong to you is a criminal act that
is punishable by imprisonment and indemnity or payment of money to
compensate for any losses incurred by the owners of expressions that you
copied without their permission. The safest way to avoid plagiarism is to
be aware of the fact that the copied words are not yours. If you want these
words to appear in your paper, you must reveal the name of the author
in your paper, including the pieces of information (title, date, place of
publication, publisher, etc.) about the book from where you copied the
words. (Hammersely 2013)
Nowadays, due to the proliferation of “Grey Literature” or unpublished
reading materials or of non-peer reviewed online publications, many reading
materials as sources of information for research studies appear questionable
as to how qualitative, credible, and authoritative they are. Notwithstanding
the doubtful reputation of these grey literature, to free yourself from any
guilt of plagiarism, you must identify in your paper the owners of any
idea, word, symbol that you quoted or copied verbatim, summarized, or
paraphrased. (Sharp 2012; Gray 2013)

Explaining Learned Concepts

Activity 1: Speculative Thinking

Directions: WHOLE CLASS ACTIVITY. Ask one another thought-provoking questions

about the reading material you have read. Remind yourself of the levels of
thinking your question must trigger off among your classmates. Be sure that you
give yourself the chance to ask your classmates some questions as well as answer
your classmates’ questions.

Activity 2

Directions: Based on what you have finished reading, explain or clarify what you
mean about the following lines.
1. Be judicious in quoting words.
2. Apply honesty and courtesy in Literature-review writing.
3. A stanza-like part of a text possibly appears in your paper.
4. You can’t personally say, “Thank you” to the authors, but can have other
ways to express your gratitude to them.
5. Quotations indicate lack of the paper’s originality.
6. You don’t have an absolute freedom to quote the words of the author.

7. Produce a condensed form of the reading material.

8. Citation is just one of the many ways to acknowledge the sources of
9. Integral citation has a personal touch.
10. There’s a limit to your act of quoting words.

Elaborating Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: PAIR WORK. Together with your partner, do these two things about each
sentence or paragraph. First, identify the citation style used; second, comment on
the accuracy of each text based on what you learned about in-text citation. Write
your answers on the lines provided.
1. Many gave their comments about the medicinal powers of ampalaya. For
instance, the latest study by Santos and Gomez revealed that the juice of this
vegetable can be a good cure against diabetes.

2. De Jesus and Roces felt that one research study by (Collanto and Fernandez
p. 88) and Vallejo, 2015 validated Meneses findings on the Ebola virus.

3. A number of medicinal plants can be found in one’s family’s backyard. Fruit

trees like santol, mango, guava, tamarind, atis, and guyabano, among others,
grow robustly in any spacious area in a yard. Needing no regular watering,
these plants always make themselves available to people believing in their
medicinal qualities. (Rafael Corpuz)

4. One study by Laguardia (2015) has identified the seven components of

Intercultural competence that according to Florentino (2015, p. 45) are
likewise the leading elements of one “contemporary language theory called
Systemic Functional Grammar.”

5. According to William Smith, the K–12 curriculum is the key to the Philippines
success in this era of globalization. Agreeing on this, Mariano (2016) in his
latest book said, “Any opposition against the immediate implementation
of K–12 curriculum must not be entertained by the government agencies in
charge of monitoring the operation of this educational program.”

Activity 2

Directions: Get three books or journals with citations. Explain to your partner the
nature of each citation such as its style and pattern.

Assessing the Extent of Concept Learning

Directions: Recall every significant concept you have learned in this lesson. Write
such idea under the heading that speaks of the extent of your understanding of
the concept.

Excellent Very Good Good Poor Zero

Understanding Understanding Understanding Understanding Understanding

Transforming Learned Competencies

1. Pick out one broadsheet. Go to the editorial page and focus on one column.
Read this thoroughly, and then using one citation, pattern a particular
citation style and apply the concepts you have learned on in-text citation.
2. Read other sources of information like those in your school library, databases,
and other online resources that are related to the newspaper column referred
to in no. 1. In the text you created in no. 1, cite a portion of the book, journal,
or article that is related to the newspaper column. Keep in mind what you
learned about in-text citation and referencing styles.
Unit Understanding Data and Ways
V to Systematically Collect Data

Spending months or years in gathering facts and information about your research
topic may turn in voluminous amount of data. However, such data of great size can be
valuable only in so far as they result from standard- or criterion-based data-collection
methods. Dealing with a lot of qualitative data such as people’s beliefs, opinions, views,
feelings, or attitudes about a particular topic requires you to devise a systematic way
of identifying, classifying, and organizing facts and information coming from people
you interviewed or observed. Unless you adopt principled methods of collecting data,
you cannot come up with understandable or question-free research findings.

LESSON 10   Qualitative Research Designs

Intended Learning Outcomes

At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
1. widen your vocabulary in English;
2. freely express your world views using newly learned words;
3. explain the meaning of a research design;
4. familiarize oneself with the nature of each qualitative research design;
5. compare and contrast various qualitative research designs; and
6. conduct a doable or practicable research study based on one qualitative
research design.

Connecting Concepts
Linking Old and New Knowledge

Activity 1: Making Words Meaningful

Directions: PAIR WORK. Together with your partner, give the meaning of the word
in the middle of the Frayer Model Map below. Writing your ideas about the word
under the heading in every quadrant will help you arrive at the meaning of the
word. More ideas on this word are given by the sentence below the graph. See the
example below.


Definition/Meaning Characteristics

to form ideas in abstract, intangible,

the mind invisible


Examples Non-examples

images, intelligence, books, stones, trees,

memories, knowledge people, shoes

Sentence – Let an architect conceptualize the house you want the carpenters to
construct next year.

Definition/Meaning Characteristics


Examples Non-examples

Sentence – His reactions to Daffodil’s comments were obvious to all those at

the lobby.

Definition/Meaning Characteristics


Examples Non-examples

Sentence – The use of marijuana is a drawback to adolescents’ personality

development but not to terminally ill hospital patients.



Examples Non-examples

Sentence – Since you did not review well, your flunking in the exams is

Definition/Meaning Characteristics


Examples Non-examples

Sentence – Becoming a student in Harvard University entails passing through

a number of screening procedures.

Activity 2: Using the Newly Learned Words

Directions: Find a partner. Give a sentence expressing the idea behind the newly
learned word. Let your partner guess the new word referred to by your sentence.
A correct guess from your partner means giving him or her the chance to construct
a sentence about a newly learned word that you, in turn, must identify. Do this

Stirring Up Imagination


In the space provided, unmindful of your grammar, write everything that comes
to your mind about the word DESIGN.

Discovering More Concepts

What can the following reading material add to what you already know about
the word “design”? Read this text to find out more about this word.


Design is a word which means a plan or something that is conceptualized
by the mind. As a result of a mental activity characterized by unfixed formation
of something but an extensive interconnection of things, a design in the field of
research serves as a blueprint or a skeletal framework of your research study. It
includes many related aspects of your research work. A choice of a research design
requires you to finalize your mind on the purpose, philosophical basis, and types of
data of your research, including your method of collecting, analyzing, interpreting,
and presenting the data. It is a plan that directs your mind to several stages of your
research work. (De Mey 2013)
There are five research designs that are commonly used in a qualitative research,
but these are also labelled as types of qualitative research by some books on qualitative
research because when you speak of a research design, you plan your methods or
techniques in collecting and analyzing data. Your research design is realized by any
of these types of qualitative research that has its own data collecting technique: case
study, ethnography, historical study, phenomenology, and grounded theory. Whether
you think of them as research types or research designs, just the same, you get to deal
with the same features or aspects involved in each type or design.

In addition to what Lesson 3 has already explained about these research designs,
this present lesson discusses these as qualitative research designs detailing both your
plan and method or technique on doing your research study.
1. Case Study
To do a research study based on this research design is to describe a
person, a thing, or any creature on Earth for the purpose of explaining the
reasons behind the nature of its existence. Your aim here is to determine
why such creature (person, organization, thing, or event) acts, behaves,
occurs, or exists in a particular manner. Usually, a case study centers on an
individual or single subject matter. Your methods of collecting data for this
qualitative research design are interview, observation, and questionnaire.
One advantage of case study is its capacity to deal with a lot of factors to
determine the unique characteristics of the entity. (Meng 2012; Yin, 2012)
2. Ethnography
A qualitative research design called ethnography involves a study
of a certain cultural group or organization in which you, the researcher,
to obtain knowledge about the characteristics, organizational set-up, and
relationships of the group members, must necessarily involve you in their
group activities. Since this design gives stress to the study of a group of
people, in a way, this is one special kind of a case study. The only thing that
makes it different from the latter is your participation as a researcher in the
activities of the group.

Ethnography requires your actual participation in the group members’

activities while a case study treats you, the researcher, as an outsider whose
role is just to observe the group. Realizing this qualitative research design
is living with the subjects in several months; hence, this is usually done by
anthropologists whose interests basically lie in cultural studies. (Winn 2014)
3. Historical Study
This qualitative research design tells you the right research method to
determine the reasons for changes or permanence of things in the physical
world in a certain period (i.e., years, decades, or centuries). What is referred
to in the study as time of changes is not a time shorter than a year but a
period indicating a big number of years. Obviously, historical study differs
from other research designs because of this one element that is peculiar to
it, the scope. The scope or coverage of a historical study refers to the number
of years covered, the kind of events focused on, and the extent of new
knowledge or discoveries resulting from the historical study. A clue about
the scope is usually reflected by the title of the study such as the following
A Five-Year Study of the Impact of the K-12 Curriculum on the
Philippine Employment System

The Rise and Fall of the Twenty-Year Reign of Former Philippine

President, Ferdinand E. Marcos

Filipino-Student Activism from the Spanish Era to the

Contemporary Period

Telephones from the Nuclear Era to the Digital Age

The data collecting techniques for a study following a historical research
design are biography or autobiography reading, documentary analysis, and
chronicling activities. This last technique, chronicling activities, makes you
interview people to trace series of events in the lives of people in a span of
time. However, one drawback of historical study, is the absence, or loss of
complete and well-kept old that may hinder the completion of the study.
4. Phenomenology
A phenomenon is something you experience on Earth as a person. It
is a sensory experience that makes you perceive or understand things that
naturally occur in your life such as death, joy, friendship, caregiving, defeat,
victory, and the like. This qualitative research design makes you follow a
research method that will let you understand the ways of how people go
through inevitable events in their lives. You are prone to extending your
time in listening to people’s recount of their significant experiences to be
able to get a clue or pattern of their techniques in coming to terms with the
positive or negative results of their life experiences.
Comparing these two qualitative research designs, phenomenology
and ethnography, the first aims at getting a thorough understanding of an

individual’s life experiences for this same person’s realistic dealings with
hard facts of life while the second aims at defining, describing, or portraying
a certain group of people possessing unique cultural traits.
Focusing on people’s meaning and making strategies in relation to their
life experiences, phenomenology as a qualitative research design finds itself
relevant or useful to people such as teachers, nurses, guidance counselors,
and the like, whose work entails giving physical and emotional assistance or
relief to people. Unstructured interview is what this research design directs
you to use in collecting data. (Paris 2014; Winn 2014)
5. Grounded Theory
A research study adhering to a grounded theory research design
aims at developing a theory to increase your understanding of something
in a psycho-social context. Such study enables you to develop theories to
explain sociologically and psychologically influenced phenomena for proper
identification of a certain educational process. Occurring in an inductive
manner, a research study following a grounded theory design takes place
in an inductive manner, wherein one basic category of people’s action and
interactions gets related to a second category; to third category; and so on, until
a new theory emerges from the previous data. (Gibson 2014; Creswell 2012)
A return to the previous data to validate a newly found theory
is a zigzag sampling. Moving from category to category, a study using a
grounded theory design is done by a researcher wanting to know how
people fair up in a process-bound activity such as writing. Collecting
data based on this qualitative research design called grounded theory
is through formal, informal, or semi-structured interview, as well as
analysis of written works, notes, phone calls, meeting proceedings,
and training sessions. (Picardie 2014)

Explaining Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: INDIVIDUAL WORK. Circle the letter of the correct answer.

1. A research design is made up of things indicating
a. separation c. singularity
b. relationship d. craftsmanship
2. Wanting to increase your understanding of the burial practices of the
Mangyans, you choose the qualitative research design called
a. historical c. phenomenological
b. ethnographical d. grounded theory

3. Grounded theory involves a series of

a. theories c. designs
b. books d. instructions

4. A great degree of man’s emotionality surfaces in a research design called

a. case study c. historical
b. ethnography d. phenomenology

5. Determining what makes an individual distinct from others is the goal of

a. case study c. phenomenology
b. historical d. ethnography

6. No research design means no research

a. motivation c. direction
b. title d. data

7. This cliché—When you are in Rome, do what the Romans do—is true for
a. case study c. phenomenology
b. historical study d. ethnography

8. The who, what, why, and how of your research study are determined by
your research
a. data c. question
b. title d. design

9. Zigzag sampling requires data

a. analysis c. recording
b. accumulation d. review

10. A researcher’s personal participation in people’s activities is necessary in

a. historical c. ethnography
b. phenomenological d. case study

Activity 2

Directions: Answer the following questions intelligently and concisely.

1. In what way are the qualitative research designs also called qualitative
research types?

2. Which aspect of your personality is significantly involved in designing a
research study? Why?

3. What comes to your mind when you think of the word “research design”?

4. Are you going to work on old and new data in a grounded theory research
design? Why? Why not?

5. In choosing historical design, what could prevent you from finishing
your study?

6. Could an impatient researcher prosper under a phenomenological research
design? Why? Why not?

7. If one teacher of yours requires you to do a research following the historical
research design, would you fully agree with him/her on such kind of study?
Explain your answer.

8. Does choosing which qualitative research design to follow demand a lot of
HOTS? Give reasons for your answer.


9. Do you know of one who has done a research based on one of the qualitative
research designs?

10. If you were to conduct a study, on which qualitative research design would
you like to base your research work? Justify your point.

Elaborating Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: PAIR WORK. Facing each other, alternate roles in reading each of the
following statements and in reacting to and commenting on the meaning of the
sentence based on what you learned about choosing appropriate qualitative
research designs. Grade each other’s performance.
1. Spend half a year living with the people in Ilocos Norte.
2. Have patience, time, and interest in listening to battered wives and raped
3. Know the extent of Filipinos’ penchant for white-collar jobs during the
Spanish era up to this period.
4. Give a verbal account or portrayal of the kindergarten pupils of St. Paul
5. Discover the reasons for the excessive aggressiveness of Dino Cruz, a grade
4 pupil.

Activity 2

Directions: Draw a line linking two expressions in A and B.

A. Research Topics B. Qualitative Research Designs
1. Depressed Bar Exams failures Grounded Theory
2. Kurdish Wedding Rites Case Study
3. Acquiring Intercultural Historical Study
Competence via SFG Grammar

4. The Coming of Age of Filipino Phenomenological

Novel in English
5. Ebola-stricken Babies in Bataan Ethnography

Activity 3

Directions: Choose the qualitative research design that both of you can enact or play out.

Assessing the Extent of Concept Learning

Recall the concepts about research that you learned through this current
lesson. In the space provided, list them down based on the extent of your
understanding of them; meaning, those well understood concepts should be the
first ones in the list, slightly understood; the middle ones in the list; poorly understood,
the last part of the list.

Transforming Learned Competencies

Use one qualitative research design to direct a doable or practicable research study
about one thing you are curious about. For instance, subject to a study a member of a
group, organization, object, event, modern technological gadget or device, particular
social media network, person’s selfie behavior, or any creature or entity in this world.
Choose a research design that corresponds to the kind of researcher you are, who,
as a beginner in the field of qualitative research, is inclined to facing the research
constraints of time, money, know-how, etc.
LESSON 11   Sampling

Intended Learning Outcomes

At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
1. expand your vocabulary;
2. communicate your world perceptions;
3. define sampling and other technical terms about sampling;
4. compare-contrast the sampling methods;
5. give a graphical presentation of sampling categories; and
6. pick out an appropriate sampling method for your chosen research topic.

Connecting Concepts
Linking Old and New Knowledge

Activity 1: Making Words Meaningful

Directions: Choose the letter of the word that corresponds in meaning to the italicized
word in the sentence. Be guided by the contextual clues.
1. Doing business is my parents’ way to derive our family income.
a. keep c. display
b. get d. budget
2. Name the islands that constitute the town of Hundred Islands in Pangasinan.
a. represent c. compose
b. advertise d. popularize
3. To land as top-paying is the impetus behind his desire to graduate as
a. clue c. force
b. reward d. secret
4. The cabinet members are ready to tackle issues propounded by the
a. questioned c. contrasted
b. forwarded for mailing d. written for recording


5. Please categorize the books based on subject area.

a. classify c. mark
b. count d. arrange
6. Her religiosity was manifested by her regular attending of Holy Mass.
a. pictures c. stressed
b. shown d. signalled
7. Numerous stars blossom in the sky.
a. glittering c. twinkling
b. a big number d. a small number of
8. Give him more time to mull over your proposal.
a. remember c. criticize
b. question d. ponder
9. Give the mendicant on the street food rather than money.
a. janitor c. street laborer
b. beggar d. street vendor
10 Students getting grades of 75, 82, 88, 92, and 96 belong to a heterogeneous
group; the same grade of 95–96, to a homogenous group.
a. varied abilities c. same abilities
b. little ability d. zero ability

Activity 2: Using the Newly Learned Words

Directions: Pantomime something that will lead to or express the meaning of one new
term. Let your partner guess the target term and use such term in a sentence.
Swap roles later.

Stirring Up Imagination
Accomplish the following KWL Chart about Sampling. For now, do KW without
looking at the main reading material of this lesson; the L, after reading the text.
What I Already Know What I Want to Know What I Learned

Discovering More Concepts

What do you think does this reading material have in relation to your KWL?
Find it out by reading this material very well.


In research, sampling is a word that refers to your method or process of selecting
respondents or people to answer questions meant to yield data for a research study. The
chosen ones constitute the sample through which you will derive facts and evidence to
support the claims or conclusions propounded by your research problem. The bigger
group from where you choose the sample is called population, and sampling frame is the
term used to mean the list of the members of such population from where you will get
the sample. (Paris 2013)

The beginning of sampling could be traced back to the early political activities
of the Americans in 1920 when Literary Digest did a pioneering survey about the
American citizens’ favorite among the 1920 presidential candidates. This was the very
first survey that served as the impetus for the discovery by academic researchers of
other sampling strategies that they categorized into two classes: probability sampling
or unbiased sampling and non-probability sampling. (Babbie 2013)

Probability Sampling or Unbiased Sampling

Probability sampling involves all members listed in the sampling frame
representing a certain population focused on by your study. An equal chance of
participation in the sampling or selection process is given to every member listed
in the sampling frame. By means of this unbiased sampling, you are able to obtain
a sample that is capable of representing the population under study or of showing
strong similarities in characteristics with the members of the population.
A sampling error crops up if the selection does not take place in the way it is
planned. Such sampling error is manifested by strong dissimilarity between the
sample and the ones listed in the sampling frame. (P) How numerous the sampling
errors are depends on the size of the sample. The smaller the sample is, the bigger the
number of sampling errors. Thus, choose to have a bigger sample of respondents to
avoid sampling errors. However, deciding to increase the size of your sample is not
so easy. There are these things you have to mull over in finalizing about this such as
expenses for questionnaires and interview trips, interview schedules, and time for
reading respondents’ answers.
The right sample size also depends on whether or not the group is heterogeneous
or homogeneous. The first group requires a bigger size; the second, a smaller one. For
a study in the field of social sciences requiring an in-depth investigation of something
such as one involving the national government, the right sample size ranges from 1,000

to 1,500 or up to 2,500. On the other hand, hundreds, not thousands, of respondents

suffice for a study about any local government unit. (Suter 2012; Emmel 2013)
Types of Probability Sampling
1. Simple Random Sampling
Simple random sampling is the best type of probability sampling
through which you can choose sample from a population. Using a
pure-chance selection, you assure every member the same opportunity to be
in the sample. Here, the only basis of including or excluding a member is by
chance or opportunity, not by any occurrence accounted for by cause-effect
relationships. Simple random sampling happens through any of these two
methods: (Burns 2012)
1) Have a list of all members of the population; write each name on a card,
and choose cards through a pure-chance selection.
2) Have a list of all members; give a number to member and then use
randomized or unordered numbers in selecting names from the list.
2. Systematic Sampling
For this kind of probability sampling, chance and system are the ones
to determine who should compose the sample. For instance, if you want to
have a sample of 150, you may select a set of numbers like 1 to 15, and out of
a list of 1,500 students, take every 15th name on the list until you complete
the total number of respondents to constitute your sample.
3. Stratified Sampling
The group comprising the sample is chosen in a way that such group is
liable to subdivision during the data analysis stage. A study needing group-
by-group analysis finds stratified sampling the right probability sampling
to use.
4. Cluster Sampling
This is a probability sampling that makes you isolate a set of persons
instead of individual members to serve as sample members. For example, if
you want to have a sample of 120 out of 1,000 students, you can randomly
select three sections with 40 students each to constitute the sample.

Non-Probability Sampling
Non-probability sampling disregards random selection of subjects. The subjects
are chosen based on their availability or the purpose of the study, and in some
cases, on the sole discretion of the researcher. This is not a scientific way of selecting
respondents. Neither does it offer a valid or an objective way of detecting sampling
errors. (Edmond 2013)

Types of Non-Probability Sampling

1. Quota Sampling
You resort to quota sampling when you think you know the
characteristics of the target population very well. In this case, you tend
to choose sample members possessing or indicating the characteristics of
the target population. Using a quota or a specific set of persons whom you
believe to have the characteristics of the target population involved in the
study is your way of showing that the sample you have chosen closely
represents the target population as regards such characteristics.
2. Voluntary Sampling
Since the subjects you expect to participate in the sample selection are
the ones volunteering to constitute the sample, there is no need for you to
do any selection process.
3. Purposive or Judgmental Sampling
You choose people whom you are sure could correspond to the
objectives of your study, like selecting those with rich experience or interest
in your study.
4. Availability Sampling
The willingness of a person as your subject to interact with you counts
a lot in this non-probability sampling method. If during the data-collection
time, you encounter people walking on a school campus, along corridors,
and along the park or employees lining up at an office, and these people
show willingness to respond to your questions, then you automatically
consider them as your respondents.
5. Snowball Sampling
Similar to snow expanding widely or rolling rapidly, this sampling
method does not give a specific set of samples. This is true for a study
involving unspecified group of people. Dealing with varied groups of
people such as street children, mendicants, drug dependents, call center
workers, informal settlers, street vendors, and the like is possible in this
kind of non-probability sampling. Free to obtain data from any group just
like snow freely expanding and accumulating at a certain place, you tend to
increase the number of people you want to form the sample of your study.
(Harding 2013)

Explaining Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: INDIVIDUAL WORK. On the line before each number, write the letter of
the expression in the box that corresponds to the expression outside the box.

a. sampling error f. stratified sampling

b. quota sampling g. 1920 Literary Digest

c. sampling frame h. population

d. money i. probability sampling

e. cluster sampling j. snowballing

k. whole-nation subject

_______ 1. List of names representing the target population

_______ 2. Origin of sampling
_______ 3. Dissimilarity of sample with those in the sampling frame
_______ 4. Requires a big sample size
_______ 5. Randomized sample
_______ 6. Intentional choosing of sample
_______ 7. No specific number of respondents
_______ 8. Hindrance to big sample
_______ 9. Group-by-group selection of sample
_______ 10. Uses sub-groups

Activity 2

Directions: Write P if the sentence talks about probability sampling; otherwise, write NP.
_______ 1. Checking every 10th student in the list
_______ 2. Interviewing some persons you meet on the campus
_______ 3. Dividing 100 persons into groups
_______ 4. Choosing subjects behaving like the majority members of NPC Town
_______ 5. Choosing a group of subjects among several groups
_______ 6. Choosing subjects capable of helping you meet the aim of your study
_______ 7. Choosing samples by chance but through an organizational pattern
_______ 8. Letting all members in the population join the selection process
_______ 9. Having people willing to be chosen as respondents
_______ 10. Matching people’s traits with the population members’ traits

Elaborating Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: INDIVIDUAL WORK. Using the space below, categorize the sampling
methods using a graph.


Activity 2: Guessing Game

Directions: Form a group of six, then subdivide the group into two smaller groups.
One of the small groups will alternate in giving their explanations or descriptions
about expressions in relation sampling (i.e., sample, sampling frame, population,
probability sampling, different sampling techniques, and so on). The other group
will take the task of guessing the correct terms referred to. Exchange roles later.
Every correct answer will earn you five points. Submit your score sheet to your
teacher at the end of the activity.

Assessing the Extent of Concept Learning

Using the range of 50% to 100%, rate the extent of your learning of concepts
behind each of the following topics:
1. Meaning of sampling 
2. History of sampling 
3. Probability sampling 
4. Non-probability sampling 
5. Sample 
6. Sample size 

7. Sampling errors 
8. Sampling frame 
9. Population 
10. Pure chance selection 

Transforming Learned Competencies

Remember the qualitative research design you want to realize in the last section
of Lesson 10. Decide on what sampling method to use. Choose one that you can
concretize; meaning, one that can make you produce verbal descriptions and factual
evidence of the selection process. Show such sampling process evidence to your
teacher and classmates.
Unit Finding Answers through Data Collection

In a qualitative research, your interest lies in people’s thoughts and feelings

about a certain subject matter. Your curiosity about such topic bombards your mind
with several questions. Finding answers to your questions is possible through these
theoretically based data-collection methods: observation, interview, or survey through
questionnaires. Obtaining data through these methods requires you to perform
necessary skills or strategies and to follow the right procedure in interviewing,
observing, and conducting a survey through questionnaires.

LESSON 12   Observation

Intended Learning Outcomes

At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
1. accumulate more meaningful English words;
2. express your thoughts and feelings using newly learned words;
3. explain the ins and outs of observation as a data gathering technique;
4. compare and contrast observation types and methods;
5. enumerate the pluses and minuses of observation;
6. choose the appropriate observation type for a certain research topic; and
7. identify the right recording method for a certain type of observation.

Connecting Concepts
Linking Old and New Knowledge

Activity 1: Making Words Meaningful

Directions: INDIVIDUAL WORK. Put a plus sign (+) under the feature related to the
word on the left side and a minus sign (–) under a feature not related to the word.
Be guided by the use of each word in the sentence below the table.


Vocabulary Concrete Trait Abstract Direction Action








1. Please give me that piece of paper whereby I can write your message.
2. Its authenticity is proven by its inclusion of the list of Amorsolo’s
award-winning masterpieces.
Your wide vocabulary will facilitate your understanding of
Shakespeare’s poems.
4. Don’t be anxious for I will never divulge your long-time secret to them.
5. It’s not a spirit but an entity that you must learn to interpret.
6. Those nice words to the Filipinos, not to the Ebola-stricken Africans,
indicate her biased attitude toward the former.
7. Derogatory remarks will discourage them from joining the conference.

Activity 2: Using the Newly Learned Words

Directions: Using the newly learned words, write a short paragraph on the lines
provided about one topic close to your heart. Use as many newly learned words
as you can.


Stirring Up Imagination
What thoughts are running in your mind about the pictures in the box?



Cell phone
Magnifying glass

Window glass

Reading glass

Discovering More Concepts

What do you think will the following reading material say about your statements
on the pictures inside the box? Discover the answer by reading the text very well.


Observation is a technique of gathering data whereby you personally watch,
interact, or communicate with the subjects of your research. It lets you record
what people exactly do and say in their everyday life on Earth. Through this data
gathering technique, proofs to support your claims or conclusions about your topic
are obtained in a natural setting. Witnessing the subjects manages themselves in a
certain situation and interpreting or expressing your thoughts and feelings about
your observation, you tend to deal with the observation results in a subjective
manner. Some say this element of subjectivity makes observation inferior to other
techniques. (Meng 2012)
This is not so, according to others, your presence as the researcher in the area where
the subjects are situated, give authenticity to everything you get to observe among the
subjects. Watching and listening to your subjects then recording what you’ve observed
about them are the reasons many consider observation the foundation of all research
methods. Realistically speaking, this is logical, for sensation precedes perception.
Observation is the central method in qualitative types of research, most especially,
ethnography, in which you observe the lifestyle of a cultural group. (Letherby 2013;
Snort 2013)

1. Participant Observation
The observer, who is the researcher, takes part in the activities of the
individual or group being observed. Your actual involvement enables
you to obtain firsthand knowledge about the subjects’ behavior and the
way they interact with one another. To record your findings through this
type of observation, use the diary method or logbook. The first part of the
diary is called descriptive observation. This initial part of the record describes

the people, places, events, conversation, and other things involved in the
activity or object focused on by the research. The second part of the diary
is called the narrative account that gives your interpretations or reflections
about everything you observed.
2. Non-participation or Structured Observation
This type of observation completely detaches you from the target of
your observation. You just watch and listen to them do their own thing,
without you participating in any of their activities. Recording of non-
participation observations happens through the use of a checklist. Others call
this checklist as an observation schedule.
These two observation types, participation and non-participation, can
occur in either of the covert or overt observation models. The first lets you
observe the subjects secretly; that is, you need to stay in a place where the
subjects don’t get sight of or feel your presence, much less, have the chance
to converse with you. The second permits you to divulge things about your
research to the participants. (Birks 2014)

Methods of Observation
1. Direct Observation
This observation method makes you see or listen to everything that
happens in the area of observation. For instance, things happening in
a classroom, court trial, street trafficking, and the like, come directly to
your senses. Remember, however, that to avoid waste of energy, time, and
effort in observing, you have to stick to the questions that your research
aims at answering. What you ought to focus your attention to during the
observation is specified by your research problem in general as well as your
specific research questions.
2. Indirect Observation
This method is also called behavior archaeology because, here, you
observe traces of past events to get information or a measure of behavior,
trait, or quality of your subject. Central to this method of observation are
things you listen to through tape recordings and those you see in pictures,
letter, notices, minutes of meetings, business correspondence, garbage
cans, and so on. Indirect observation takes place in the following ways.
(Peggs 2013; Maxwell 2012)

Methods of Indirect Observation

1. Continuous Monitoring or CM
Here, you observe to evaluate the way people deal with one another.
As such, this is the main data gathering technique used in behavioral
psychology, where people’s worries, anxieties, habits, and problems in
shopping malls, play areas, family homes, or classrooms serve as the focus
of studies in this field of discipline.

2. Spot Sampling
This was done first by behavioral psychologists in 1920 with a focus on
researching the extent of children’s nervous habits as they would go through
their regular personality development. For a continuous or uninterrupted
focus on the subjects, you record your observations through spot sampling
in an oral manner, not in a written way.
Named also as scan sampling or time sampling, spot sampling comes
in two types: time allocation (TA) and experience sampling. In TA sampling,
what goes into the record are the best activities of people you observed in
undetermined places and time. Experience sampling, on the other hand,
lets you record people’s responses anytime of the day or week to question
their present activities, companions, feelings, and so on. Data gathering in
this case is facilitated by modern electronic and technological gadgets like
cell phone, emails, and other online communication methods or techniques.
(Peggs 2013; Ritchie 2014)

1. It uses simple data collection technique and data recording method.
2. It is inclined to realizing its objectives because it just depends on watching
and listening to the subjects without experiencing worries as to whether or
not the people will say yes or no to your observation activities.
3. It offers fresh and firsthand knowledge that will help you come out with an
easy understanding and deep reflection of the data.
4. It is quite valuable in research studies about organizations that consider
you, the researcher, a part of such entity.

1. It requires a long time for planning.
2. Engrossed in participating in the subjects’ activities, you may eclipse or
neglect the primary role of the research.
3. It is prone to your hearing derogatory statements from some people in the
group that will lead to your biased stand toward other group members.

Explaining Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: WHOLE-CLASS ACTIVITY. Answer each question intelligently.

1. Why is the psychological process of sensation important in observation?
2. Are the two psychological processes, sensation and perception, important in
observation? Why or why not?

3. Is it right that the other name of observation is behavioral archaeology?

Prove your point.
4. How are the methods of observation different from each other?
5. Make an analogy between an NBI detective and observation.
6. If you were to choose one data collecting technique, would you choose
observation? Why or why not?
7. Which type of observation are you going to choose? Explain your answer.
8. How relevant is observation to ethnography?
9. Have you already done observation to be more knowledgeable about your
surroundings? Explain your answer.
10. Right now, which around you would you subject to observation? Give
reasons for your answer.

Activity 2

Directions: Express your agreement or disagreement on each sentence. Justify your

1. You may observe a group openly or secretly.
2. Interview can be a replacement for observation.
3. Observation can be enhanced by interviews.
4. Hurting people is possible through observation.
5. You can both be objective and subjective in research.
6. There is only one observation method.
7. The basis of all research types is observation.
8. Secondary data is supremely important in observation.
9. You can use covert observation in both observation types.
10. You can go covert and overt in all observation types.

Activity 3

Directions: Which among these topics can lend itself to observation technique?
Explain your choice.
1. K-12 Goals, Theories, and Methodologies
2. Historical Development of Cell Phones
3. Philippine Bridges in Metro Manila
4. Shoe Styles of UST Freshmen Architectural Students

5. Human Respiratory System

6. First Friday Mass with Quiapo Devotees
7. Playground Bullying among Elementary Pupils
8. Molecular Contents of Water
9. Uniform Wearing by All Divisoria Vendors
10. Dirty Ice Cream Selling at UST Campus

Elaborating Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: INDIVIDUAL WORK. Based on what you learned about observation,

subject the following texts to critical evaluation.
1. The researcher has lived with one tribal group in Mt. Province for one
summer time. In her stay there, she observed the paganism of people in
the place. She spent two hours a day teaching the tribal people Christian
practices to overcome their paganism.
2. The researcher did a participant observation. To see and hear the
subjects better, he would mingle and exchange views with them. From
the start to the end of the observation, he succeeded in keeping his
identity secret.
3. The researcher writing his observation report used several pages for the
descriptive part of his report. He limited his reporting only to describing
every person, event, thing, and place involved in the observation.
4. The researcher has no time limit in observing the subjects. He can
continuously do it for as long as he wants for there is this observation type
called CM or Continuous Monitoring.
5. The researcher knows she can get data through observation. She then
goes to the library and read all reading materials about her subjects. After
a month of reading library books, she begins to write her observation

Activity 2: A Visionary

Directions: Visualize any previous observation you did in your life to expand your
knowledge about such thing. Using the space below, make a semantic map or
scene-by-scene drawing of your observations.

Assessing the Extent of Concept Learning

Discover how much you have learned the concepts behind observation—its
definition, types, methods, advantages, and disadvantages—by sending your friends
an email about observation. Be sure to send them detailed explanations of each
observation concept. Likewise, test the extent of your retention of ideas by not looking
back anymore at the copy of the main reading material of this lesson.

Transforming Learned Competencies

Choose an entity around you that you want to be the object of your observation.
Decide which observation type and method to use and prepare the research questions
to guide you in observing. After some time, write your observation report. Depending
on which method or type of observation to conduct, choose whether to record things
through diary method, checklist, or oral method.
LESSON 13   Interview

Intended Learning Outcomes

After studying this lesson, you should be able to:
1. increase the number of English words you know;
2. communicate your world views using the new words learned;
3. familiarize yourself with the nature of interview as a data gathering
4. formulate effective interview questions;
5. compare and contrast interview approaches, types, and methods;
6. categorize interviews based on some standards;
7. enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of questionnaires; and
8. follow the right procedure in conducting an interview.

Connecting Concepts
Linking Old and New Knowledge

Activity 1: Making Words Meaningful

Directions: PAIR WORK. Scan the main reading material of this lesson to find the
differently printed words listed below. Based on their uses in the text, give their
meanings. Be guided by the contextual clues.
1. Inevitable_______________________________________________________
2. Alternative______________________________________________________
3. Pegged_________________________________________________________
4. Downside_______________________________________________________
5. Salient__________________________________________________________
6. Preoccupied_____________________________________________________
7. Profuse_________________________________________________________
8. Emanating______________________________________________________
9. Foretell_________________________________________________________
10. Wind Up________________________________________________________


Activity 2: Using the Newly Learned Words

Directions: Have a chat with your partner about any topic both of you love to talk
about. Use some or all of the newly learned words in your conversation.

Stirring Up Imagination
Which of these two have you already experienced, interviewing people or being
interviewed by people? Describe this experience.

Discovering More Concepts

How does the following selection add to what you already know about interview?
Discover more about interview by reading it.


In research, interview is a data gathering technique that makes you verbally
ask the subjects or respondents questions to give answers to what your research
study is trying to look for. Done mostly in qualitative research studies, interview
aims at knowing what the respondents think and feel about the topic of your
Traditionally viewed, this data gathering technique occurs between you, the
researcher, and your respondents in a face-to-face situation. In this case, you speak
directly with your respondent, individually or collectively. On the other hand, by
using electronic and technological communication devices like the Internet, mobile
phones, e-mail, etc., interview can be considered as a modern tool of research. All
in all, be it a traditional or a modern type of interview, “it is a conversation with a
purpose” that gives direction to the question-answer activity between the interviewer
and the interviewee. (Babbie 2014, 137; Rubin 2011)

1. Structured Interview
This is an interview that requires the use of an interview schedule or a
list of questions answerable with one and only item from a set of alternative
responses. Choosing one answer from the given set of answers, the
respondents are barred from giving answers that reflect their own thinking
or emotions about the topic. You, the researcher, are completely pegged at
the interview schedule or prepared list of questions.
2. Unstructured Interview
In this type of interview, the respondents answer the questions based
on what they personally think and feel about it. There are no suggested

answers. They purely depend on the respondents’ decision-making skills,

giving them opportunity to think critically about the question.
3. Semi-Structured Interview
The characteristics of the first two types are found in the third type of
interview called semi-structured interview. Here, you prepare a schedule or
a list of questions that is accompanied by a list of expressions from where
the respondents can pick out the correct answer. However, after choosing
one from the suggested answers, the respondents answer another set of
questions to make them explain the reasons behind their choices. Allowing
freedom for you to change the questions and for the respondents to think
of their own answers, this semi-structured interview is a flexible and an
organized type of interview. (Rubin 2012; Bernard 2013)

1. Individual Interview
Only one respondent is interviewed here. The reason behind this one-
on-one interview is the lack of trust the interviewees have among themselves.
One example of this is the refusal of one interviewee to let other interviewees
get a notion of or hear his or her responses to the questions. Hence, he or
she prefers to have an individual interview separate from the rest. This is a
time-consuming type of interview because you have to interview a group of
interviewees one by one.
2. Group Interview
In this interview approach, you ask the question not to one person,
but to a group of people at the same time. The group members take turns
in answering the question. This approach is often used in the field of
business, specifically in marketing research. Researchers in this field, whose
primary aim in adhering to this interview approach is to know people’s
food preferences and consumer opinions; they also call this as focus group
interview. The chances of having some respondents getting influenced by the
other group members are one downside of this interview approach. (Denzin
2013; Feinberd 2013)
3. Mediated Interview
No face-to-face interview is true for this interview approach
because this takes place through electronic communication devices such
as telephones, mobile phones, email, among others. Though mediated
interview disregards non-verbal communication (e.g., bodily movements,
gestures, facial expressions, feelings, eye contact, etc.), many, nonetheless,
consider this better because of the big number of respondents it is capable
of reaching despite the cost, distance, and human disabilities affecting the
It is a synchronous mediated interview if you talk with the subjects
through the telephone, mobile phone, or online chat and also find time

to see each other. It is asynchronous if only two persons are interviewed at

a different time through the Internet, email, Facebook, Twitter, and other
social network media. (Goodwin 2014; Barbour 2014)

Steps in Conducting an Interview

Step 1: Getting to Know Each Other
The interview starts from the time you, the interviewer, and your
respondents see each other at the place of interview, that is, if this is a
traditional interview. Naturally, seeing each other for the first time, your
tendency would be to talk with each other to establish friendship and a
relaxed mood for both of you. Although, in some cases, the place is your
respondent’s residence, you have to show signs of appreciation and respect
for the chosen venue of the interview. Your warm acknowledgement for
each other must lead you to discussing several aspects of the interview such
as where you have to do it, how comfortable both of you should be, and how
long should the question-and-answer activity be.
Step 2: Having an Idea of the Research
This second step requires you to tell the respondents about the nature
of the interview—its purpose, importance, scope, and so on. Telling them
of these salient features of the activity enables them to anticipate not
only the kind of questions they will get to face, but also the appropriate
answers they will give. Things pertaining to the confidential treatment
of responses are also tackled in this second step of interview. It is also in
this period when you have to stress the idea to the respondents that the
interview is for you to know and hear their own views and to let them
express their own understanding of the topic of the question in their own
Step 3: Starting the Interview
You open this step with a question to encourage the respondent to talk
about himself or herself, including his or her age, family, current activities,
and other things you think appear special or interesting to him or her.
Following these self-introduction questions are questions on the subject’s
thoughts, attitudes, or performance of his or her job or any current work
assignment. The respondent’s answers do not only help you get some clues
on his or her ways or techniques of responding to interview questions, but
also give you hints on the right ways to ask your subjects the questions that
will elicit the right data for your research.
Step 4: Conducting the Interview Proper
Interview questions in this step are on the interviewee’s open and
extensive talking of things related to the research theme or research
questions and on those anticipated by him/her or emanating from his/her
explanations, descriptions, or narrations of things. Open or unstructured
questions asked in this step of the interview aim at investigating the

respondent’s interests and eliciting substantial or profuse responses to

questions. In asking a battery of questions, you see to it that you stick to the
main point of your study, to the proper phrasing of questions, and to the
sufficient time allotted for answering each question.
List down on a piece of paper all questions you plan to ask your
respondent and call this list of prepared questions schedule. This helps you
construct or phrase your questions properly and enables you to foretell
possible answers. In addition, using a schedule gives you the opportunity
to make changes on the questions to adjust them to some inevitable
circumstances caused by the respondent’s human nature. Lastly, this step
of the interview, where you ask a number of questions in relation to your
research problem is your time to determine how you should label the
responses with codes and present them with a certain style like graphical or
narrative presentation technique.
Step 5: Putting an End to the Interview
Signs of the approaching end of the interview work to alert the
respondent in winding up with his or her talking. For instance, using
words expressing your decision, wish, or attempt to ask the very last
question serves as a clue for the respondent to think that the interview is
nearing its end. This step also reminds you of your responsibility to let the
respondent be free in airing whatever doubts or questions he or she has
about the research design, method, interview time, and other aspects of
the interview.
Step 6: Pondering Over Interview Afterthoughts
This last step of the interview gives the respondent the opportunity to
ask questions about the interview activity and let him or her have an idea
about what will happen next to the interview results. (Denzin 2013; Bernard
2013; Rubin 2012)

A questionnaire is a paper containing a list of questions including the specific
place and space in the paper where you write the answers to the questions. This
prepared set of questions elicits factual or opinionated answers from the respondent’s
through his or her acts of checking one chosen answer from several options or of
writing on a line provided for any opinionated answer. (Babbie 2013)

Purposes of a Questionnaire
1. To discover people’s thoughts and feelings about the topic of the research
2. To assist you in conducting an effective face-to-face interview with your
3. To help you plan how to obtain and record the answers to your questions
4. To make the analysis, recording, and coding of data easier and faster

Types of Questionnaire
1. Postal questionnaire
As the name connotes, this type of questionnaire goes to the respondent
through postal service or electronic mail. It is through the mail or postal
system that the accomplished questionnaires will be sent back to the
researchers. In some cases, the researcher can personally collect finished
2. Self-administered questionnaire
This kind of questionnaire makes you act as the interviewer and the
interviewee at the same time. First, you ask the questions either in person
or through phone; then, you will be writing the interviewee’s answers on a
piece of paper. A questionnaire like this fits a structured kind of interview.
(Barbour 2014)

Advantages and Disadvantages of a Questionnaire

Coming from the references listed at the last part of this book are the following
paraphrased advantages and disadvantages of using a questionnaire:

1. It is cheap as it does not require you to travel to hand the questionnaires to
a big number of respondents in faraway places.
2. It entails an easy distribution to respondents.
3. It offers more opportunity for the respondents to ponder on their responses.
4. It enables easy comparison of answers because of a certain degree of
uniformity among the questions.
5. It has the capacity to elicit spontaneous or genuine answers from the

1. There is a possibility that some questions you distributed do not go back to
you, and this prevents you from getting the desired rate of response.
2. Confusing and uninteresting questions to respondents fail to elicit the
desired responses.
3. Owing to individual differences between the selected subjects and
those in the population, in general, the questionnaire is hard up in
obtaining unbiased results to represent the characteristics of the target
4. It prevents you from being with the respondents physically to help them
unlock some difficulties in their understanding of the questions.

Explaining Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: INDIVIDUAL WORK. Read through the text then, fill in the blanks with
the correct answers.
1. A 1 consists of a set of 2 that is prepared by the 3 before
having an 4 with the interviewee. Answering the questions with 5 makes
the question fit for unstructured interview. On the other hand, answering them
with facts makes the questionnaire good for 6 interview.
2. Refusal to let others know of one’s answer is the reason behind the holding
of 7 but agreeing with others on their answers to questions
is one disadvantage of 8 . These two interview approaches,
9 and 10 , are different from the 11 approach in that,
this last approach makes use of 12 . Involving at the same time a
group of respondents makes the mediated approach, 13 ; having just
14 respondents separately from each other, makes it 15 .

Activity 2

Directions: Without going back to the reading material about Interview, and by using
your own words, compare and contrast the following:

1. Structured interview vs. unstructured interview


2. Factual answers vs. opinionated answers


3. Objective vs. subjective question


4. Sample vs. population


5. Synchronous vs. asynchronous mediated interview


6. Closed questions vs. open-ended questions


7. Group interview vs. focus group interview


8. Postal questionnaire vs. self-administered questionnaire


9. Schedule vs. questionnaire


10. Self-introduction questions vs. interview proper questions


Elaborating Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: Recall one research topic or research problem you specified in Lesson 6,
including two specific questions related to this research problem. Pretend you
have already chosen a set of respondents. Formulate a set of interview questions
to elicit answers to your specific questions. Keep in mind the guidelines for
formulating effective interview questions.

Activity 2

Directions: PAIR/GROUP WORK. Depending on the number of respondents to

answer the interview questions you formulated in the previous activity, work
with a partner (one as the interviewer; the other as the interviewee) or with three
or more (one as the interviewer; the rest as the interviewees).

Assessing the Extent of Concept Learning

Read the interview topics surrounding the three circular figures. Write the topic
in the circle that speaks to the extent of your understanding of concept behind this

Transforming Learned Competencies

Keep track of computer-assisted research studies using questionnaires. Download
one questionnaire and critique this based on what you learned about interview
questions, specifically, about a schedule or a questionnaire. Share to your teacher and
classmates your discoveries about what you downloaded from the computer.
Unit Analyzing the Meaning of the
VII Data and Drawing Conclusions

Using a certain method of collecting and analyzing data, you get to gather varied
world perceptions from different people. Through all these diverse opinions coming
from a set of people, you are able to discover a certain idea or pattern governing the
entire data collected. Geared toward a common theme, idea, or pattern, the collected
facts and information are capable of guaranteeing evidence-based conclusions.
Factual data and logically collected ones are meaningful data to yield valid and
credible conclusions.

LESSON 14  Data Analysis

Intended Learning Outcomes

After this lesson, you should be able to:
1. widen your vocabulary in English;
2. construct sentences using newly learned words;
3. define data analysis;
4. differentiate the steps in analyzing data;
5. explain the meaning of qualitative data analysis;
6. relate research questions with data analysis results; and
7. analyze and interpret thematically or theoretically organized data.

Connecting Concepts
Linking Old and New Knowledge

Activity 1: Making Words Meaningful

Directions: PAIR WORK. Pick from the box below the word or phrase that corresponds
to the meaning of the italicized word in the sentence.

stick together
with respect to not to mention


gathering friendly
summarize main idea
extra hard, exact examine, study

1. I have nothing to say vis-a-vis to the school’s new policy on scholarships.

2. I need more time to collate those photocopied pages of the book.

3. The synthesis of the award-winning literary piece is one-third of the original text.

4. Adhere to the school policies; otherwise, transfer to another school.

5. Taking a medical course is mentally challenging let alone the big amount of
money involved in it.

6. Do you understand the matrix that is composed of number and words
between parallel lines?

7. You need patience and determination to go through that rigorous activity.

8. A skillful driver can easily interpret traffic codes.

9. Analyze the object the way psychologists study human behavior.

10. “Trees” is the title of the poem and its central theme is “love and take care of
trees for they are beneficial to mankind.”

Activity 2: Using Newly Learned Words

Directions: Act out one of the newly learned words. Let your partner guess the word
referred to by the pantomime and use it in a sentence, too. Unless your partner comes
out with the correct answer and sentence, he or she cannot exchange roles with you.

Stirring Up Imagination
What would you like to become someday? If you were one of the following, how
would you put something into an in-depth study?
a lawyer an agriculturist a scientist a writer
a judge a philatelist a biologist a physical therapist
a teacher an engineer a medical technologist an architect
a surgeon a nurse a businessman a restaurateur
an electrician a pharmacist a priest a beautician
a poet a musician an accountant an actor

Discovering More Concepts

What does the selection say about people’s act of studying or examining things?
Does it have the same thoughts as those of an engineer, a doctor, or an architect? Find
it out by reading this text very well.


Data analysis is a process of understanding data or known facts or assumptions
serving as the basis of any claims or conclusions you have about something. You collect
these data in many ways: observation, interview, documentary analysis, and research
instruments like questionnaires, tests, etc. Your primary aim in analyzing recorded
data is to find out if they exist or operate to give answers to the research questions you
raised prior to your acts of collecting them.
In analyzing data, you go through coding and collating. Coding is your act of using
symbols like letters or words to represent arbitrary or subjective data (emotions,
opinions, attitudes) to ensure secrecy or privacy of the data. Collating, on the other
hand, is your way of bringing together the coded data. Giving the data an orderly
appearance is putting them in a graph, specifically a table of responses.

Data Matrix
The term “data matrix” is also used to name this table of responses that consists
of table of cases and their associated variables. This data matrix is of two types: the
profile matrix that shows measurements of variables or factors for a set of cases or
respondents and the proximity matrix that indicates measurements of similarities and
differences between items. Under proximity matrix, if the measurements show how
alike things are, it is called similarity matrix. If they show how different they are, it is
called dissimilarity matrix. (Denzin 2013)

Qualitative Data Analysis

In a qualitative research, you analyze or study data that reflect the respondents’
thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or views about something. These are subjective data that

are expressed in words, and these words serve as the unit of analysis in a qualitative
type of research. You examine these subjective data to understand how related or
relevant they are to your research problem or specific research questions.
You collect qualitative data through interviews, observations, or content analysis and
then subject them to data analysis. In your data collecting activities, you indispensably
experience a lot of things vis-a-vis the sources of data, such as their sizes, shapes, ideas,
feelings, attitudes, and so on. If you record these data through verbal language or graphic
means, you get to immerse yourself in a qualitative data analysis, not quantitative data
analysis, for the latter deals with data expressed in numerical forms. (Layder 2013)
Qualitative data analysis is a time-consuming process. It makes you deal
with data coming from wide sources of information. It is good if all the data you
collected from varied sources of knowledge work favorably for your research
study, but, ironically, some of these may not have strong relation to your research
questions. Data analysis in a qualitative research is a rigorous act of a thematic or
theoretical organization of ideas or information into a certain format that is capable
of presenting groups of responses. Analyzing the data and synthesizing them based
on one principal idea, theory, or pattern demand a lot of time and effort, let alone,
the methodical ways you have to adhere to in presenting the results as long written
discussions containing verbal or graphical explanations of your findings. (Letherby
2012; Silverman 2013; Litchman 2013)

Explaining Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITY. Circle the letter of the correct answer.

1. The results of data analysis are presented as
a. percentages c. fractions
b. written discussions d. literary criticism
2. The research activity preceding collating is
a. coding c. synthesizing
b. summarizing d. categorizing
3. Qualitative data analysis focuses on examining
a. numbers c. words
b. visions d. concepts
4. To show how variables are closely related with one another, you must use
a. data matrix c. proximity matrix
b. profile matrix d. table matrix

5. Questionnaire is to data-collection instrument; observation is to

data-collection ____.
a. process c. analysis
b. method d. results
6. Qualitative research has words as its
a. qualitative data c. quantitative data
b. unit of analysis d. analysis of data
7. You encode or symbolize data that are
a. subjective c. objective
b. symbolical d. numerical
8. Symbolizing data is preserving their
a. origin c. confidentiality
b. source d. significance
9. The value of data analysis results is determined by their connection with your
a. research method c. research design
b. research title d. research questions
10. A graphical presentation of data-analysis results ensures
a. privacy of data c. completeness of data
b. genuineness of data d. orderliness of data

Activity 2

Directions: Check the sentence that expresses what is true about qualitative data analysis.
______ 1. It is a time-saving analysis of data.
______ 2. Its unit of analysis is large language structures like paragraphs.
______ 3. It centers its analysis on opinionated knowledge.
______ 4. It is prone to examining numbers.
______ 5. It cannot use data matrices.
______ 6. It examines verbal language as well as non-verbal language.
______ 7. It puts into codes abstract qualities of people.
______ 8. It analyzes data first before it collects them.
______ 9. Exempted from qualitative-data analysis are prose and non-prose
______ 10. Coding is not for numerical data.

Activity 3

Directions: On the lines provided, write the number of every unchecked sentence
in Activity 2. Then, opposite this number, write your reason for not checking
such sentence.

Unchecked Sentences Reasons


Elaborating Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: Put a check mark () under Agree if the research question is answerable
by a qualitative data analysis; otherwise, put a check mark under Disagree. Then,
accomplish the last column to justify your choice.

Research Questions Agree Disagree Reasons, Comments,

1.  What can you say about Mr. Lim’s election
2.  How many kinds of promises did Mr. Lim
make in front of the STV4 homeowners?
3.  What kinds of promises did Mr. Lim give the
STV4 homeowners?
4.  What percentage of the job applicants came
from the city?

5.  What background knowledge do you have

about the job you are interested in?
6.  In how many Philippine provinces is Filipino
language spoken always, sometimes, and never?
7.  What personality traits did Gina reveal through
her ways of answering the guests’ questions?
8.  How many of the 500 students refused to buy
the algebra book?
9.  How systematic was Justin Sarmiento in
presenting his design?
10.  In the order of their frequency, which
sentences, based on structure, indicate the 500
students’ lack of mastery on sentence sense?

Activity 2

Directions: Without going back to the pages explaining data analysis and qualitative
data analysis, compose a short text titled Qualitative Data Analysis on the following


���� ______________________________________________________________________
���� ______________________________________________________________________
���� ______________________________________________________________________

Assessing the Extent of Concept Learning

How much did you learn about the concepts of data analysis on the following
topics? Write the letter of the corresponding topic on the appropriate grade to gauge
the extent of your learning.

100 95 93 90 88 86 83 81 75 60

A – Research questions in relation to data analysis results
B – Emotions, attitudes, and views as subjective data
C – Qualitative data analysis as time-consuming process
D – Coding of data with letters
E – Words as unit of analysis
F – Orderliness of data through data matrices
G – Themes or theories as bases of data synthesis
H – Steps in data analysis
I – Reasons for coding data
J – Verbal language and graphs in qualitative data analysis

Transforming Learned Competencies

Considering your time and abilities, think of one research problem for a doable
qualitative research. Formulate research questions to guide you in the kind of data
you want to collect. Choose one data collection technique that fits your chosen topic.
Use a sampling method in selecting your respondents. Subject the collected data to
analysis and find out if the data analysis results answer your research questions.
Present the results of your data analysis through a composition, with the first part
giving the descriptions of the data and the second part, the interpretations of data.
Give your teacher a copy of your written work.
LESSON 15  Drawing of Conclusions

Intended Learning Outcomes

After this lesson, you should be able to:
1. list down as many meaningful words as you can;
2. communicate your world views using newly learned words;
3. explain the meaning of conclusion;
4. justify a good conclusion section of a research paper;
5. specify the contents of the conclusion part of a research paper;
6. describe a good evidence to support a conclusion; and
7. form credible conclusions about your surroundings.

Connecting Concepts
Linking Old and New Knowledge

Activity 1: Making Words Meaningful

Directions: INDIVIDUAL WORK. Circle the letter of the word that is similar in
meaning to the underlined word in the sentence.
1. I can say that, by and large, with the involvement of all community members,
the Climate-Change conference will be successful.
a. minimally c. shortly
b. generally d. individually
2. Those negative comments may debunk the capacity of the delegates to hold
a successful conference.
a. affect maliciously c. doubt continuously
b. silence totally d. question critically
3. I’m giving you this registered land title to warrant the payment of my arrears.
a. justify c. express
b. ensure d. record


4. Highlight his positive comments but downplay his negative arguments.

a. restate c. deemphasize
b. record d. undo
5. Drivers of public utility vehicle must do their work with utmost care and
a. attentive c. necessary
b. required d. greatest

Activity 2: Using the Newly Learned Words

Directions: Engage yourself in a chat with your partner about any topic both of you
find interesting. Use the newly learned words in your conversation.

Stirring Up Imagination
Game of Senses: Have fun in experiencing each of these now!
Then, give your conclusion about each experience.
Touch your hair, your face, your neck, your arms…
Conclusion ____________________________________________________________
 ouch the cover of your book, the pages of your notebook, the surface of your
chair, the screen of your cell phone or music player...
Conclusion ____________________________________________________________
Listen to sounds coming from someone or something...
Conclusion ____________________________________________________________
Smell the people and things around you...
Conclusion ____________________________________________________________
Look at your surroundings—people, things, places, etc.
Conclusion ������������������������������������������������������������

What made you arrive at such conclusion? What then is the meaning of conclusion?

Discovering More Concepts

What does the following reading material say about conclusion? Read this
very well to find out its connection with the conclusions you draw about what you


Meaning of Conclusion
Conclusion is a type of inferential or interpretative thinking that derives its
validity, truthfulness, or reasonableness from your sensory experience. Touching,
seeing, hearing, tasting, and smelling things around you lead to a particular conclusion
about each of those experiences. The results of your sensory experience are factual
data to support the truthfulness of your conclusions.

Drawing Conclusions
In your research work, your next move after analyzing the data you have
gathered is drawing conclusions. This makes you form conclusions that arise from the
factual data you encountered and analyzed. Any conclusions drawn or deduced by
you from facts or statements resulting from logical thinking rather than from another
assumption, prediction, or generalization are the only ones included in the conclusion
section of your research paper. (Decilo 2014)
Any conclusion that you give about what you found out through your analysis of
the data you collected is a “warranted conclusion,” which explains how the evidence
or findings resulting from your data analysis stands to prove or disprove your
conclusion. And, by and large, the best kind of proof to back up your conclusion is
one that is factual and logical or given by correct reasoning. Downplaying, much less,
excluding warrants from this section of your paper reserved specifically for stating
conclusions about your findings makes your readers cast doubts about the credibility
or genuineness of your conclusions. (Thomas 2013, 38).
Research is about discovering things and engaging yourself in an exchange of
theoretically supported ideas with those in the academic world. And you state all
your discoveries in the conclusion section of your research paper. But it is not merely
making your conclusions visible in your paper, but also making these related with the
claims or arguments of varied research studies and written works you’ve subjected to
your RRL or review of related literature. Creating a link between your discoveries and
your review of literature indicates the ability of your paper to expand or enhance any
existing knowledge about your research study. (Harding 2013)
Thinking of research as the means by which you, as a member of academic
institution, debate or argue with others on some principles in any area of knowledge,
you have to write the conclusion section of your paper with conviction. Convinced
of the validity of your findings to prove your conclusions, you must confidently state
how your conclusions work to debunk or contradict existing theories, correlative
assumptions, and published works. Conversely, your conclusions must obviously
provide sufficient evidence to justify their alignment with or its support for recent
theories and research findings. Most importantly, your conclusions must present your
judgment of the truthfulness of your findings and your assessment of their capacity to
answer either positively or negatively your research hypotheses or research questions.
(Silverman 2013; Morgan 2014)

Pointers in Writing Conclusions

1. Explain your point in simple and clear sentences.
2. Use expressions that center on the topic rather than on yourself, the researcher.
3. Include only necessary items; exclude any piece of information or picture
not closely related to your report.
4. Have your conclusion contain only validly supported findings instead of
falsified results.
5. Practice utmost honesty and objectivity in stating the results of your critical
evaluation of outcomes that you expect to support your conclusions.

Explaining Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: WHOLE-CLASS ACTIVITY. Expound or explain with great detail the

following expressions:
1. Conclusion as interpretative thinking
2. Conclusion as valid or true
3. Warranted conclusion
4. Best evidence
5. Conviction in stating conclusions
6. Research as an academic debate
7. Conclusion in relation to the review of related literature
8. Data analysis results with respect to conclusion
9. Conclusion vis-à-vis previous findings
10. Assumptions, generalizations, predictions vs. conclusion

Activity 2

Directions: Answer each question intelligently.

1. Give the connection between conclusion and data analysis results.
2. Why should the conclusion section be the final part of your paper?
3. How do you determine the validity of evidence to back up your conclusion?
4. How can drawing conclusions improve your logical thinking?
5. What is falsified evidence?
6. In what way do your conclusions appear unbelievable?

7. Would you rather avoid revealing the findings of your paper that run
counter to previous research findings than discuss them extensively with
others? Why? Why not?
8. In research, what conclusion sounds detrimental or damaging to others?
9. Are you playing the role of a debater in writing the conclusion of your
paper? Justify your point.
10. How could you help your classmates create a good conclusion section of
their paper?

Elaborating Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITY. Check () the column with the heading that
expresses your judgment about the following purported evidence to prove a

Evidence Good Evidence Poor Evidence Reasons, Comments,

1. The workers seem willing to
file a labor case.

2. They worked hard the way

the characters in the movie, The
Bible, did their jobs.
3. The company’s records show
the number of absences the
laborers incurred.

4. Apparently, the laborers failed

to get their 13th-month pay last

5. For returning the lost and

found wallet containing ₧15,000,
the laborer received a certificate
of merit.

6. Words have been going

around that the laborers may
stage a sit-down strike.

7. Probably, some officers

thought it’s reasonable for them
to file a labor case.

Evidence Good Evidence Poor Evidence Reasons, Comments,

8. The president’s printed
decision on their demands is
posted on the bulletin board.

9. The CCTV caught 38 laborers

marching to the president’s
office at 8:00 a.m. on May 2,

10. Some are contemplating on

staging a mass resignation.

Activity 2

Directions: Write in the middle of the graph one conclusion you have about a
person, thing, event, and so on. Keeping in mind the best evidence rule, let your
graph surround your conclusion with statements to prove the soundness of the
conclusion. A sample conclusion that you can replace with another one (optional)
appears in the middle of the graph.

Assessing the Extent of Concept Learning

Directions: Put a check mark () under each column that truly represents the extent of
the learning you’ve had about the concepts behind the given topic.

Topics Excellent Little Zero

Learning Learning Learning
1. Meaning of conclusion
2. Content of conclusion
3. Credibility of conclusion
4. Language of conclusion
5. Warranted conclusion
6. Falsified conclusion
7. Conclusion with conviction
8. Conclusion as a debate
9. Logical thinking vs. conclusion
10. Conclusion based on the best evidence

Transforming Learned Competencies

Form conclusions about the existing Philippine government, organizations, or
any institutions you have come to be knowledgeable about through experience with
them or readings about them. Be sure to document any information coming from
literary works. Do this graphically like what you did in Activity 2 under Elaborated
Learned Concepts. Display this in one conspicuous area of your classroom. Or, if it is
not injurious or damaging to others, forward this to your friends in any social media
platforms like Facebook, email, Twitter, Instagram, and the like.
Unit Reporting and Sharing the Findings

Sharing and reporting research findings follow a special way of knowledge

presentation. It is not any kind or way of revealing discovered truths about people or
things in this world. It adheres to a certain standard and format or structure. Made up
of various components reflecting exhaustive acquisition of declarative and procedural
knowledge, a research report adopts an academically accepted ways of placing or
positioning each section of the report and of acknowledging the sources of data.
Abiding by these research-reporting formalities warrants an existence of a genuine or
honest-to-goodness kind of a research study.

LESSON 16   Reporting and Sharing

the Findings

Intended Learning Outcomes

After this lesson, you should be able to:
1. increase the list of English words you know;
2. discuss things with others using the newly learned words;
3. report to or share with others your research findings properly;
4. adopt the standard way of structuring your research paper;
5. compare and contrast the APA and the MLA referencing styles;
6. judge existing materials based on their application of referencing rules;
7. carry out the proper referencing of your research paper; and
8. show evidence of your honesty and gratefulness to owners of ideas you
included in your paper by documenting their contributions properly.

Connecting Concepts
Linking Old and New Knowledge

Activity 1: Making New Words Meaningful

Directions: PAIR WORK. Give the meaning of the underlined word in each sentence.
Be guided by the contextual clues.


1. Summarize the text in a nutshell by using the fewest possible number of words.
Meaning _________________________________________________________.

2. Throw the useless portion of the object but keep the salient part of it.

3. Stop replicating my words to avoid echoing sounds in this room.

Meaning _________________________________________________________.
4. Looking at the object with your own beautiful eyes is your way of validating
your statement that you want us to believe.
Meaning _________________________________________________________.

5. Criticizing the story thematically makes you draw from the text some
insights or world perceptions to serve as your guiding philosophy in life.
Meaning _________________________________________________________.

Activity 2: Using the Newly Learned Words

Directions: One gives a sentence expressing the idea behind the newly learned word.
The other one guesses the new word referred to. Swap roles later.

Stirring Up Imagination
How do you share your new discoveries about the world with your loved ones
or friends living far away from you? Is it through Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, email,
or other ways?
Is there a certain format you have to adhere to in reporting or sharing about your
What do you think could guarantee the truthfulness of things you display in
these social media network?

Discovering More Concepts

What additional concepts about your acts of reporting or sharing things with
people are contained in the following reading material? Find it out by reading the text
intelligently and interestingly.


Meaning of Reporting and Sharing the Findings
The findings of your research are meant to be reported to or shared with others
because your primary aim in researching is to strengthen existing knowledge or

discover new ones for the improvement of the world. Hence, you have to bring
your findings out to the readers in a way that you must communicate things you
procedurally performed and things you found out through your principled data
collecting and analysis methods. Your report about the findings of your research study
must adhere to a standard structure or format that has the following elements: (Corti
2014; Braun 2013; Remlen 2011)
Structure or Format of the Research Report

1. Title
The title gives information and description of the subject matter of the research.
Being the short catchy part of your paper that has the power to instantly attract a
reader, it must contain keywords to predict the content and tone of the research
paper. An attention-getting kind of a title is short, informative, made up of only 15 to
20 words. Owing to this essential role of a research title, you must think of one that is
meaningful, specific, and reflective of the standards of writing research titles like: the
title is not a sentence; not all capitalized; and not negative in tone. In addition, jargons
and acronyms are a big no-no to research title writing.

2. Abstract
The abstract concisely discusses the essential aspects of your paper such as the
background of the problem, objectives, significance, research design, data collection
technique, data analysis method, discussions of the findings, scope, conclusions,
among others. Giving 100- to 150-word discussions of the salient parts of the research
paper, your abstract suffices as the summary of your research report. Since an abstract
explains in a nutshell all essential components of the research paper, it usually comes
to its written form only after the final stage of the research work.

3. Introduction
This part explains the background of the research problem, states a set of specific
research questions, and of optional hypotheses or assumptions. The purpose of this
section is to let the readers see the connection of the purposes of your research questions
not only with the current world condition, but also with theoretical principles that
underlie your topic and other aspects of your research.

4. Method
This section explains the types and sources of data as well as the method you used
in collecting and analyzing the data you have gathered. Doing this part accurately
enables the readers to determine how objective and ethical you were in conducting
the research and how possible it could be for them to replicate your research study for
validation purposes.

5. Findings
Present as findings of your study those that you have analyzed and commented
on. There are several ways of doing this: by means of graphical presentation, statistical
method, or written discussion.

6. Discussion and Conclusion

Findings resulting from thematically or theoretically gathered and analyzed data
with the capacity of leading you to a valid conclusion are explained in this section.
Any conclusions stated in this part of the paper derive their validity or truthfulness
from factual or logically determined data. Also, such conclusions become valuable
as they are able to answer the specific research questions and render any research
hypotheses or assumptions right or wrong.

7. Recommendations
To broaden the readers’ knowledge and understanding of the area covered by
the research, recommend or let the readers positively consider some activities they
can possibly do to extend, modify, replicate, or validate the findings of your research

8. References
Follow a standard documentary style. Alphabetize, identify, and list down in this
section all sources of knowledge you used in carrying out your study.

9. Appendix
This contains copies of table, questionnaires, interview rates, observation
checklist, and other materials that are indispensable or necessary in completing your
research study.

Referencing Your Research

Referencing your research means directing your readers to the exact sources of data
or information stated in your report, particularly those stated in the review of related
literature. This is easy for you if the moment you collect data, you begin practicing a
systematic, accurate, and complete recording of the identities of the sources of data.
Unmindful of proper referencing of your research causes the readers to question
the genuineness of the contents of your research paper. There are several styles of
referencing your research, namely, Harvardian, Vancouver, Turibian, APA, and MLA.
(Silverman 2013; Litchman 2013; Tracy 2013)
Many prefer using the last two styles. The following are the important things you
have to know about these commonly used referencing styles.

MLA Style
MLA stands for Modern Language Association and it has this other name,
Humanities Style. This referencing style is often used in literature, history, and arts.
It provides bibliographic citation in notes that correspond to reference number in the
body of the paper. These notes are called footnotes when they are printed at the foot of
the page; notes or endnotes (sometimes, back notes) when they are printed at the back
of the book, at the end of a chapter, or at the end of an article in a journal. Some authors
prefer using endnotes rather than footnotes to economize space, time, and effort of the
artist and to make the paper appear more physically presentable.

In using footnotes or notes, you number the notes consecutively from number 1
throughout each chapter or article. Place the note number at the end of the sentence,
of a clause, and right after a quotation. Do not put the number at the end or within a
chapter title or at a subheading because this suggests negligence in organization.
Notes to charts, tables, and other graphs make use of symbols, letters, and,
sometimes, numbers. These notes on graphs, which are numbered independently in
the text, must be placed below the table or illustration, not at the foot of the page or at
the end of the book or article. Notes consisting of explanations or elaborations of the
discussions in the text are called substantive or discursive notes.

Examples of Substantive or Discursive Notes

1. The CAS of U.P. Diliman has a different version of K-12 Curriculum. (Jaime
Tamayo. Globalization vs. K-12 Curriculum. Quezon City: U.P. Press, 2016,
pp. 56–65) Find an expanded discussion of this in (Luis Hizon. Changes
in the Philippine Educational System. Manila: Abaya Publishing Co. 2017,
pp. 78–90)
2. Documentary evidence of the continuous increase of the country’s rice
importation in 10 years is shown in (Ana Perez and Norma Pascual. The
Perennial Rice Shortage. Baguio City: St. Louis Press, 2017, pp. 38–45)
3. Liza Mabalot gives a special attention to the 15th SAMPRA’s failure
to issue certificates to participants right after the conference in (Global
Trends in Language Teaching and Learning. Manila: Rex Bookstore Inc.,
2016, pp. 78–85)
4. In 2016, the recipients of the TOYM award mostly came from the NCR
(National Capital Region). Only one hailed from the southern part of the
country. (Mario Yulo. 2017. Awards for World Progress. Quezon City:
National Press Club, 2017, p. 38)

Examples of End Notes

p. 20 3.89 Fredo Gomez, Language and Culture, in “On Intercultural
Competence,” p. 68.
p. 20 3.24 Helen Smith, The 21st Century Movies trans. William Burns. New
York: Vintage House 2016, p. 356.
p. 21 3.57 Have more on this. See Phillip L. Morgan, Cultural Impact of 21st
Century Movies. Washington: ABC Press. 2017, pp. 34–56; Vissher Hilton.
21st Century Movies. vol.3. “The Timeliness and Relevance of 21st Century
Movies” (trans. Suxy Sean. New York: Penguin Press. 2016); and Chloe
Collins. Culture and Movies. London: Routlege. 2017, pp. 367–350.
p. 22 3.35 “Ethnicity vs. 21st Century Movies,” in Movie World, trans. T.J.
Castro: Australia: Kegan Paul, 2017, p. 457.
p. 23 3.53 Ibid., p.256
p. 25 3.45 Contemporary Movies, p. 478

p. 25 3.12 Ibid., p. 456

p. 25 3.2 Ibid.
p. 26 45 Ibid.
p. 26 2.5 The Movies to Watch p.28
p. 26 1.13 Ibid., p. 231

In a note system of referencing, you are not required to make a bibliography,

because the endnotes can already give you full bibliographical details. However, to
help your readers quickly locate the source of the data, it is better if you put in both
notes and bibliography.
The list of books and other references in your paper are written under the
title, Bibliography or Select/Selected Bibliography if some of the data came from your
background knowledge or previous reading activities. Use the title, References, if
everything in the body of the paper came from books and periodicals you read. The use
of the title, References, requires you to list down under this title the names or identities
of all sources of knowledge from where you got the data that you mentioned in your
Under the MLA system, the items in the Bibliography are arranged alphabetically.
You do not need to number them. For a bibliographical entry, write the book information
in this order: full author’s surname and first name (optional middle name initial), title
of the book or periodical, place of publication, publisher, and date of publication. If
there are several entries written by the same author, to avoid repetition of names, use
a 3 em dash in place of the first name.
Use the following punctuation marks for every entry under this system: period
after the author’s name and title; colon after the place of publication; comma after the
publisher and after volume and number if it is a periodical material. End every entry
with a period. Underline or italicize the title with all the content words in such title
capitalized. For periodicals, enclose the title of the article with quotation marks but
leave the title of the periodical unmarked.

For the MLA documentary notes, the same number and arrangement of the pieces
of book information as those in the bibliography; only that, in notes, write the author
before his or her family name.

Citations or in-text citations under the MLA system just require the presence of
the family name of the author plus the number of the page where the information is
found. The page number immediately comes after the author’s name; with just one
space provided to separate the two.

Abbreviations are commonly used in documenting data through the MLA system.
The following are some examples of abbreviations that you do not need to document
for they exist as common knowledge: (Russell 2013; Corti 2014; Remlen 2011)

art. and arts. article, articles

c. copyright
ca. circa
chap. and chaps. chapter, chapters
col. and cols. column, columns
ed. and eds. editor, editors
et al. and others
f. and ff. following page /line, lines
fig. and figs. figure, figures
ibid. ibidem (in the same place)
loc. cit. loco citato (in the same place cited)
op. cit. open citato ( in the work cited)
p. and pp. page, pages
vol. and vols. volume, volumes
sec. and secs. section, sections
l. and ll. line, lines
n. and nn. note, notes

Examples of MLA Referencing Style

1. Citation or In-text Citation
(Lizardo 257)
(Decena, Obeza, Jurado 120–130)
(Fortun et al. 234–250)

(Gregorio: 1: 56–80)

2. Documentary Notes
The same as the entries in a bibliography or references, except that, here, the
first name precedes the family name of the author.
Josie Cruz, G. Mt. Pinatubo Quezon City: GB Press. 2016.
Manolo De Guzman. Naming of typhoons.
3. Bibliography/References
One author
Cruz, Josie A. Mt. Pinatubo Lahar. (Quezon City: GB Press. 2016).
Paras, Beth M. The Philippine Eagle. (Adarna Publishing House. Manila:

Two Authors
Oteza, Nina C. and David, Jose L. Climate Change. (Baguio City: KLM Co.
Reyes, Mario R. and Cortez, Josie M. Collegiate Athletic Competitions.
(Manila: National Bookstore, 2016).

Three Authors (List the names in the order they appear on the title page.)

Ramos, Celso A., Bautista, Cora C. and Vinluan, Gloria F. Energy-giving

Foods. (Pasay City: ABC Press. 2016).
Manuel, Joven D., Gregorio, Ben C., and Ferrer, Susan V. The Fury of Super
Typhoon Yolanda. (Quezon City: Abiva Publishing House. Manila,

Three or More Authors (Use the first name in the list)

Samson, Esther N. et al. Philippine Trial Courts. (Quezon City: Rex Bookstore,
Norman, Vivian. et al. Entry-level Workers’ Pay. (Pasig City: Hope Press.

Anonymous Author (If the authorship of a work is known but not

revealed on the title page, the name is given in brackets.)

[Evelyn Vargas]. The Bubble Gang. (Nowhere: Nonesuch Press, 2016).

[Lina Calderon]. Bulletin-board Postings. (Nowhere: Nonesuch Publication,

(If the identity of the author is guessed, a question mark follows the
name before the closing bracket.)

[Evelyn Vargas?] The Bubble Gang. (Nowhere: Nonesuch Press, 2016).

Editor, Translator, Compiler

Parayno, Gabriel. F. ed. Philippine Politics. (Manila: PH Press. 2016).
Generoso, Luis F. comp. Banking Systems. (Quezon City: Abiva Publishing
House, 2016).
Formoso, John S. The Makati Business Club. trans. (Makati City: Rex Press,

Editor, Translator, Compiler with an Author

Parayno, Gabriel. F. Philippine Politics. Edited by Kay

Abante and Cora Cortez. (Manila: PH Press. 2016).
Generoso, Luis F. Banking Systems. Compiled by Gina David.
(Quezon City: Abiva Publishing House, 2016).

Formoso, John S. The Makati Business Club. Translated by Carlos Fojas.

(Makati City: Rex Press, 2016).
Organization, Association, or Corporation as Author
International Monetary Fund, Survey of Asian Economies. Vol. 6, Malaysia,
Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines (New York International Monetary
Fund, 2008).

No Ascertainable Publication Facts

Carmona, Lory. The Marcos Regime. (n.p., n.d.)
Solis, Dianne. Philippine Law Schools. (n.p, n.d.)

Popular Magazines
Suratos, Mila. “The Ilocano Dishes,” Panorama, March 2016, pp. 23–26.
Roldan, Arnold. “Banana Leaves.” World Mission, May 8, 2016, p. 8.

News items from daily papers are rarely listed in a bibliography.
Rather, the name of the paper may be given either in the general
alphabetical list or in a separate section devoted to the newspapers.

Interviews are best cited in texts or notes. It is not necessary to include
them in a bibliography, but if they are listed, the entries should appear
in this manner:

Barcelo, Felicitas. “Laguna de Bay: Interview with Felicitas Barcelo.” By

Gloria De La Cruz. The Manila Bulletin, 4 August 2016.

Theses, Dissertations, and Other Unpublished Works

Villar, Rosalina. D. “Modern Language Theories“ (Ph. D diss., U.P. Diliman,
Tiempo, Dolores G. “Critical Evaluation of UST High School Language
Books” (M. A. UST, 2016).

Reference Books: Encyclopedia, Dictionary, Almanac, Indexes, etc.

Well-known reference books are usually not listed in bibliographies.
When such reference books are listed in notes, the facts about the publication
are usually omitted, but the edition, if not the first, must be specified.

References to encyclopedia, dictionary, or to the alphabetically arranged

works cite the items (not the volume or page number) preceded by S.V. or
sub verbo, meaning “under the word.”

1.  Encyclopedia Britannica, 10th ed., S.V. “Ozone Layer.”

2.  Columbia Encyclopedia, 5th ed., S.V. “Industrial Revolution.”
3. Webster’s New International Dictionary, 3rd ed., S.V.

Slides and Film’s Videocassettes

Fulgencio, Krina C. “Urban Planning.” (Quezon City: Palmall Press, 2016)

Arnaiz, Earl A. “Room for Rent” (Manila: SSG Press, 2016) filmstrip.

Online Materials
1. Signed article in a magazine
Davis, Robert. “Email Craze.” Interactions. July 2016. http://www.inter.

2. Unsigned article in a magazine

“Power Interview.” Business Trends Magazine. August 2016. http://www.
BusTRendscom/Bus Trends/Trends/ctshoot.html.

3. Article in Journal
“Systemic Functional Grammar.” English Forum. 38.7 (2016). 18 May 2016. Studies Journal/vol.83/83.1 strethson.

4. Article in Newspaper
Leonardo, Jerome. “Japan and the 2009 Tsunami.” New Daily Life Star. 21
December 2017. world/28 MIDE.

5. An Editorial
“Vatican City: Pope’s Residence.” Editorial. Philippine Daily Inquirer. July 7,

6. Online books
Litchten, Feona D. American Pragmatics Organization. (2014). 2nd AMPRA

Dizon, Jomar G. “Political Campaign Strategies” 15–20, May 2016 dialog

ERIC AED23376.

7. CD-ROM/Diskette
Amante, Peter B. “Stem-Cell Treatment.” Manila Post News Bank. April 2017:
TI Manila Post News Bank.CD-ROM. News Bank. April 2017.
“Maharishi.” The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. CD-ROM. Oxford UP,

APA Style
The APA (American Psychological Association) is also called Author-Date Style.
This is often used by researchers in the field of natural science and social sciences. The
APA style uses space and time; MLA, not much. However, nowadays, for economic
reasons, more and more researchers, regardless of their area of specialization, prefer
to use the APA style.
There are two parts of the APA referencing style that are essential: in-text citation
or citation and reference list. The first part, which is enclosed in parentheses, is found
in the body of the text; the second part, at the end of the book. In contrast to the MLA
style that gives complete biographical information in the footnotes or endnotes, the
APA style gives only brief information in the text citation, but gives the full biographical
details in the reference list.
Under the APA system, the items in the References are arranged alphabetically.
You do not need to number them. For each entry under the title, References, write
the book information in this order: full author’s surname and first name and middle
name initials (optional, middle name initial), date of publication, title of the book or
periodical, place of publication, and the publisher. If there are several entries written
by the same author, to avoid repetition of names, use a 3 em dash in place of the first
Use the following punctuation marks for every entry under the APA system:
period after the author’s name and title; colon after the place of publication; comma
after the publisher and after volume and number if it is a periodical material. End
every entry with a period. Italicize the title and capitalize only the initial word of the
title. Unless a word in the title is a proper noun, all words in the title are written in
small letters. For periodicals, enclose the title of the article with quotation marks but
underline the title of the periodical.
Citations or in-text citations under the APA system make you write inside the
parentheses only the family name of the author; followed by the year of publication,
and if some words were copied verbatim; next is the number of the page where the
copied words of the author are found. Another APA style of citation is writing the
family name of the author separately from the copyright date. In this case, only the
date is enclosed in parentheses. (Russel 2013; Burns 2012)

Examples of APA Referencing Style

1. Citation or In-text Citation
(Lizardo, 2016) (Millares, 2017)
(Decena, Obeza, Jurado, 2016, pp. 120–130)
(Fortun et al., 2016)
According to Gregorio (2017)
Olivares (2016) maintains that...
A study on the Yolanda Tent House is a “doable research work “
(Aquino, 2016, p.78)

2. Bibliography/References
One author
Fajardo, J. A. 2016. The Ebola Virus. Quezon City: GB Press.
Perez, B. M. 2017. The Philippine Constitution: The highest law of the land.
Manila: Adarna Publishing House.

Two Authors
Oropesa, N. C. and David, J. L. 2017. Palawan penal colony. Baguio City:
KLM Company.
Reynoso, M. R. and Saballa, J. M. 2017. Academic freedom. Manila: National

Three Authors (List the names in the order they appear on the title page.)
Revilla, C. A., Bautista, C. C., and Vinuya, G. F. 2017. Boy scout jamborees.
Pasay City: ABC Press.
Manaloto, J. D., Gracia, B. C., and Ferrer, S. V. 2017. The victims of super-typhoon
Yolanda. Quezon City: Abiva Publishing House.

Three or More Authors (Use the name of the first author listed on the title page.)
Sonora, E. N. et al. 2016. Regional trial courts. Quezon City: Rex Bookstore.
Sevilla, V. et al. 2016. Labour strikes. Pasig City: Hope Press.

Anonymous Author (If the authorship of a work is known but not revealed on the
title page, the name is given in brackets.)
[Valerio, E.]. The millennium condominium craze. 2016. Nowhere: Nonesuc
[Valderon, L.]. Non-verbal language. 2016. Nowhere: Nonesuch Publication.

(If the identity of the author is guessed, a question mark follows

the name before the closing bracket.)
[Valerio, E.?] The millennium condominium craze. Nowhere: Nonesuch Press.

Editor, Translator, Compiler

Pareja, G. F. 2016. ed. Pacquio’s lucky charm. Manila: PH Press.
Orosa, L. F. 2016. comp. Merging of banks. Quezon City: Abiva
Publishing House.
Floro, J. S. 2016. Students’ activities. trans. (Makati City: Rex Press.

Editor, Translator, Compiler with an Author

Lauriano, G. F. 2016. Language textbook writing. Edited by Gina Alamares
and Ching Cortez. Manila: PH Press.
Bravo, Luisa F. 2016. Faculty Evaluation System. Compiled by Baby Lapid.
Quezon City: Abiva Publishing House.
Clemente, J. S. 2016. Pope Francis’ papal visits. Translated by Carina Davalos.
Makati City: Rex Press.

Organization, Association, or Corporation as Author

International Monetary Fund, 2008. Survey of Asian Economies. Vol. 6,
Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines New York International
Monetary Fund.

No Ascertainable Publication Facts

Ramona, L. The rise and fall of the Marcos regime. (n.p., n.d.)
Soriano, D. Western law schools. (n.p., n.d.)

Popular Magazines
Salvador, M. March 2016. “The Chinese Dishes,” Panorama, pp. 23–26.
Olarte, A. May 8, 2016. “Catholicism in Asia.” World Mission, p. 8.

Abad, C. S. “Gated subdivisions in Caloocan City,” 2016. Philippine Daily
Inquirer. 7 May.
Manila Bulletin. 2017. Editorial, 2 December.
Malaya. 2016. Editorial, 18 July.

Ballesteros, F. April 2016. “K-12 curriculum: Interview with Felicitas

Ballesteros.” April 2016. Interview by Anabelle De La Cruz. The Manila

Templo, E. May 2017. “High-school dropouts: Interview with Dr. Juan.
Barrameda.” Interview by Lucy Amarillo. The Daily Tribune.

Theses, Dissertations, and Other Unpublished Works

Villarica, R. D. 2016. “Contemporary Language Theories.” Ph. D. diss., U.P.
Corpuz, D. G. 2017. “The UST faculty evaluation system: Critical Analysis.”
M.A., UST.

Slides and Film’s Videocassettes

Gaudencio, K. C. 2016. “Family Planning.” Quezon City: Palmall Press.
Arenas, E. A. 2017. “Philippine Rental Laws.” Manila: SSG Press. Filmstrip.

Online Materials
1. Signed article in a magazine
Duterte, R. July 2016. “ Social-media networks.” Personality growth. http://

2. Unsigned article in a magazine

“Unstructured interview. August 2016.” Business Trends Magazine. http://
www.BusTRendscom/Bus Trends/Trends/ctshoot.htmlz.

3. Article in Journal

“Linguistic competence. 18 May 2016.” English Forum. http://www.jhu.
edu/English Studies Journal/vol.83/83.1 strethson.html.

4. Article in Newspaper
Lepanto, J. “globalization vs. climate change.” 21 December 2016. New
Daily Life Star. world/28 MIDE.

5. An Editorial
“Political Dynasty in the Philippines. 7 July 2016.” Editorial. Philippine
Daily Inquirer.

6. Online books
Litchten, F. D. 2016. American pragmatics. http: AMPRA 2
De Gracias, J. G. 15-20, May 2017. “Collaborative language activities” dialog
ERIC AED23376.

Dizon, P. B. April 2016. “Herbal treatment.” Manila Post News Bank. TI Manila
Post News Bank.CD-ROM. News Bank.
“Domestic helper.” 2016. The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. CD-ROM.
Oxford UP.

Explaining Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITY. Circle the letter of the correct answer

1. Mentioning in your paper the sources of your data is applying the
a. language rules c. school rules
b. copyright law d. corporate law

2. Proper referencing of the contents of your paper reflects your

a. honesty and gratefulness c. transparency and practicality
b. sincerity and sensitivity d. legality and formality

3. MLA is to humanities; APA is to

a. American psychologist c. modern linguists
b. scientists and chemists d arts and languages

4. Full biographical details are given in the

a. footnotes c. APA
b. citation d. MLA

5. MLA uses this in-text citation

a. (Castro, 2016, p.58) c. (Castro 387)
b. Castro (2016) d. (Castro, 2016)

6. What comes after the publication place is

a. comma c. colon
b. period d. semi-colon

7. Capitalizes only the initial word and proper nouns in the title of a paper
under the referencing style
a. MLA c. APA
b. Harvardian d. Vancouver

8. All authors appearing in the body of the paper must be listed in the
a. endnotes c. References
b. Bibliography d. footnotes

9. Additional information about some items in a certain page of the paper

placed at the end of the page are called
a. footnotes c. endnotes
b. discursive notes d. addendum notes

10. Anonymous or unknown authors’ names are put in

a. quotation marks c. parentheses
b. braces d. brackets

Activity 2

Directions: Answer each question intelligently and concisely.

1. Describe a successful reporting or sharing of your findings.

2. How can your readers get an understanding of all important aspects of your
research paper in a short period of time?

3. How does citation happen in APA and MLA referencing styles?


4. Explain the types of MLA documentary notes.


5. Describe the link between the APA citation and the reference list.

6. Are bibliography and references the same? Why or why not?


7. Is a bibliography or reference list absolutely required in each referencing

system? Justify your answer.

8. What is common knowledge in relation to referencing your research?


9. What comes to your mind about research papers and academic books with
no bibliography or reference list?

10. How do you prove your appreciation for the authors’ expertise and honesty
in relation to your research study?

Elaborating Learned Concepts

Activity 1

Directions: The following are pieces of information about each reading material.
Examine each set of data. If each group is correctly written, put a check mark
before it; otherwise, rewrite the whole thing correctly on the lines provided below.
������� 1. Regalado, Willy P. Electrical Gadgets, 4th edition: 2017. Manila
Publishing House.

������� 2. Miranda, Elena F. “Philippine Board Licensure Exams” Baguio

Chronicle, Baguio City: Pines City Press, Vol. XXII, pp. 30–37,
7 November 2016.
������� 3. Legarda, O. P. 2016. The essence of being an environmentalist. Manila:
Rex Publishing Company.
������� 4. Rimando, H. M. Communicative Competence vs. Linguistic
Competence. Pasig City: SM Publications, 2017.
������� 5. Alacala, N. A., Banez, V. L., Paras, J. P., Lizardo, B. O., and Lim,
D. C. People’s retirement period. Quezon City: UST Publishing
House. 2017.

Correct Referencing Style

Activity 2

Directions: Choose two among the following sets of information on reading materials.
Using the APA and MLA referencing styles, write what you’ve chosen as entries
in a bibliography and reference list.
1. Title: The Varsitarian
Article: Being a Political Science Student
Author: Daffodil B. Garra
Publisher: UST Publishing House
Volume: 38
Pub. date: May 2, 2017
Pub. place: Manila

2. Title: Proposal Reports

Author: Engr. Jose M. Cruz
Pub. place: Quezon City
Pub. date: 2017
Publisher: Rex Bookstore, Inc.

3. Publisher: ABC Press

Pub. date: June 20, 2017
Author: Betty K. Nubla
Pub. place: Baguio City
Title of the article: Writing Methods and Styles
Pages: 3–8
Magazine: Panorama

4. Title of the Article: K-12 Curriculum

Date: August 27, 2016
Magazine: Education Journal
Author: Filipinas B. Cruz
Retrieval date: April 8, 2017

5. Date: 2018
Publisher: U.P. Press
Author: Dr. Hilario V. David
Pub. place: Quezon City
Title: Long-distance Education

Assessing Learned Concepts

Directions: Underline the right expression to indicate the extent of your understanding
of the concepts learned from this lesson.
1. I know (very well, very little, nothing) about the proper way of referencing
my research.
2. I know (very well, so little, nothing) about the use of APA and MLA in
referencing my research.

3. I know (very much, very little, nothing) about APA and MLA in-text citation.
4. My knowledge about an effective sharing of my research discoveries is
(excellent, so little, so poor).
5. Now, I know how to apply the APA and the MLA referencing style in my
written work in (excellent, average, poor) manner.

Transforming Learned Competencies

Think of one topic you love to read about. Look for varied reading materials
about this topic: books, journals, studies, Internet, etc. Get assistance from the
different academic or library databases, search engines, and other online resources.
Read these materials well. Express your understanding of each article in a summary
or paraphrase. Present your overall understanding of the topic in a structure or format
befitting an academic paper called research paper that has title, abstract, introduction,
methodology, discussions of findings, conclusions, recommendations, references, and
so on. Keep in mind the explanations and pointers given by this lesson about the
proper creation of each of these major parts of your research paper. Come out credibly
with your report by practicing proper referencing through the APA or MLA style.

Babbie, E. 2014. The Basics of Social Research. 6th ed. USA: Wadsworth-Cengage Learning.
Badke, W. B. 2012. Teaching Research Process: The Faculty Role in the Development of Skilled
Student Researchers. New Delhi: CP Chados Publishing.
Barbour, R. 2014. Introducing Qualitative Research: A Student Guide. Los Angeles: Sage.
Bazeley, P. 2014. Qualitative Data Analysis. Los Angeles: Sage.
Bernard, R. 2013. Social Research Method: Qualitative and Quantitative Approach. Los
Angeles: Sage.
Birks, M., and J. Mills. 2014. Qualitative Methodology: A Practical Guide. Los Angeles:
Bloomberg, L., and M. Volpe. 2012. Completing Your Qualitative Dissertation: A Road
Map from Beginning to End. Los Angeles: Sage.
Braun, V., and V. Clarke. 2013. Successful Qualitative Research: A Practical Guide for
Beginners. Los Angeles: Sage
Burns, A., and R. Bush. 2012. Basic Research Method. 3rd ed. New York: Pearson.
Clow, K., and K. James. 2014. Essentials of Marketing Research: Putting Research into
Practice. Los Angeles: Sage.
Coghan, D., and T. Branneick. 2014. Doing Action Research in Your Own Organization. 4th
ed. Los Angeles: Sage.
Corti, L. et al. 2014. Managing and Sharing Research Data: A Guide To Good Practice. Los
Angeles: Sage.
Creswell, J. 2014. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method Approaches.
4th ed. Los Angeles: Sage.
Decilo, P. 2014. Achieving Impact in Research. Los Angeles: Sage.
De Mey, L., Dr. and Dr. D. Smith. 2013. Advanced Research Methods. London: Sage.
Denzin, N., and Y. Lincoln, eds. 2013. Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials.
Los Angeles: Sage.
Dixon, J., and R. A. Singleton. 2013. Reading Social Research Studies in Inequalities and
Deviance. Los Angeles: Sage.
Edmonds, A., and T. Kennedy. 2013. An Applied Reference Guide to Research Designs:
Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method. Los Angeles: Sage.
Emmel, N. 2013. Sampling and Choosing Cases in Qualitative Research. Los Angeles: Sage.
Feinberg, F., T. Kinnear, and J. Taylor. 2013. Modern Marketing Research: Concepts,
Methods, and Cases. Australia: Cengage Learning.


Fraenkel, J., N. Wallen, and H. Hyun. 2012. How to Design and Evaluate Research in
Education. USA: McGraw Hill.
Gibson, B., and J. Hartman. 2014. Rediscovering Grounded Theory. Los Angeles: Sage.
Goodwin, J., and K. Goodwin. 2014. Research Methods: Designing and Conducting
Research With A Real-World Focus. Los Angeles: Sage.
Gorard, S. 2013. Research Design: Creating Robust Appreciation for the Social Research. Los
Angeles: Sage.
Grbich, C. 2013. Qualitative Data Analysis. Los Angeles: Sage.
Hammersley, M., and A. Traianou. 2012. Ethics in Qualitative Research: Controversies and
Context. Los Angeles: Sage.
Harding, J. 2013. Qualitative Data Analysis from Start to Finish. Los Angeles: Sage.
Hollway, W., and T. Jefferson. 2013. Doing Qualitative Research Differently: A Psychological
Approach. Los Angeles: Sage.
Jesson, J., L. Matheson, and F. Lacy. 2011. Doing Your Literature Review: Traditional and
Systematic Techniques. Los Angeles: Sage.
Kubicek, J. n.d. “Inquiry-Based Learning.” Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology.
Lapan, S., M. Quartaroli, and F. Riemer. 2012. An Introduction to Research Methods and
Designs. USA: Jossey-Bass, A Wiley Imprint.
Lappuci, R., and A. K. Haghi. 2013. Education for A Digital World. Toronto: Apple
Academy Press.
Letherby, G., J. Scott, and M. Williams. 2013. Objectivity and Subjectivity in Social
Research. Los Angeles: Sage.
Litchman, M. 2013. Qualitative Research in Education: A University’s Guide. 3rd ed.
London: Sage.
Maxwell, J. A. 2012. A Realistic Approach for Qualitative Research. Los Angeles: Sage.
McBride, D. M. 2013. Process of Research in Psychology. Los Angeles: Sage.
McLeod, L. C. 2012. What School Needs to Know About Digital Technologies and Social
Media. USA: Jossey-Bass.
Meng, K. J. 2012. Marketing Research for Beginners: A Practical Guide (Handbook).
Singapore: Cengage Learning.
Morgan, D. L. 2014. Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: A Pragmatic
Approach. Los Angeles: Sage.
Packers, M. 2011. The Science of Qualitative Research. New York: Cambridge University.
Paris, J., and M. Winn. 2014. Humanizing Research: Decolonizing Qualitative Inquiry With
Youth and Communities. Los Angeles: Sage.

Peggs, K., B. Snort, and J. Burridge. 2013. Observation Method. Los Angeles: Sage.
Picardie, C., and K. D. Masick. 2014. Research Methods (Designing and Conduction
Research With A Real-World Focus). Los Angeles: Sage.
Punch, K. F. 2014. Introduction to Social Research Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches.
3rd ed. London: Sage.
Ransome, P. 2013. Ethics and Values in Social Research. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Remlen, D., and G. Van Ruzzin. 2011. Research Method in Practice: Strategies for Description
and Causation. Los Angeles: Sage.
Ridley, D. 2012. The Literature Review: A Guide for Students. Los Angeles: Sage.
Ritchie, J. et al. 2014. Qualitative Research Practice: A Guide for Social Science Students and
Researchers. Los Angeles: Sage.
Robylyer, M. D., and A. Doering. 2013. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching.
New York: Pearson.
Rubing, H. J., and I. Rubin. 2012. Qualitative Interview (The Art of Hearing Data). Los
Angeles: Sage.
Russell, B. 2013. Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Los
Angeles: Sage.
Sarantakos, S. 2013. Social Research. 4th ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Schreiber, J. K., and K. Ashner-Self. 2011. Educational Research. USA: John Wiley
and Sons.
Sharp, J. 2012. Success With Your Educational Research Project. Los Angeles: Sage.
Silverman, D. 2013. Doing Qualitative Research. 4th ed. London: Sage.
Smaldino, S., D. Lawther, and D. James. 2012. Introducing Technology and Media for
Learning. 10th ed. New York: Pearson.
Small, R. V. et al. 2012. Teaching for Inquiry: Engaging Learners Within. New York:
Neal-Shuman Publishers Inc.
Suter, N. W. 2012. Introduction to Educational Research: A Critical Approach. Los Angeles:
Thomas, G. 2013. How to Do Your Research Project. London: Sage.
Tracy, S. J. 2013. Qualitative Research Methods: Collecting, Evaluating, Crafting Analysis,
and Communicating Research Impact. UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
Walliman, N. 2014. Your Undergraduate Dissertation. 2nd ed. Los Angeles: Sage.
Woodwell, R. 2014. Research Foundation. Los Angeles: Sage.
Yin, R. K. 2012. Application of Case Studies Research. Los Angeles: Sage.


A integral citation, 75
abbreviations, 140–141 non-integral citation, 75–76
abstract, 137 patterns, 76–77
acknowledgment, 75 purposes, 75
action research, 12 styles, 75–76
active verbs, 69 clarity, 11
accuracy, 11 cluster sampling, 95
American Psychological Association coding, 121
(APA), 77, 145–149
collating, 121
analysis, 3
conceptual review, 58
appendix, 138
conclusion, 129
application of research method, 11
drawing conclusion, 129
applied research, 11
content analysis, 23
availability sampling, 96
contextualization, 22
continuous monitoring, 105
cooperative learning, 10
background of the problem, 47
correlational research, 12
bibliography, 75, 140
critical review, 58
block quotation, 76
Bruner, Jerome, 4
data, 12, 13
measurement of data, 12
case study, 22, 85
non-numerical data, 12, 13
choosing a research topic, 38–39
primary data, 12
availability of information, 38
secondary data, 12
interest in the subject matter, 38
data analysis, 121
limitations on the subject, 38
results, 21
personal resources, 39
data gathering, 22
timeliness and relevance of the topic, 38
collection methods for qualitative
citations or references, 74, 75, 140
research, 22–23


techniques, 13, 104, 111 grounded theory, 23, 87

data matrix, 121 group interview, 112
definition map, 35–36
descriptive research, 12
hard sciences, 29
design, 85
versus soft sciences, 30–31
Dewey, John, 4
higher-order thinking skills (HOTS), 3
direct expressions of man, 57
higher education institution, 10
direct observation, 105
historical analysis, 23
direct quotation, 76
historical research, 30
discourse analysis, 23
historical study, 86
discursive notes, 139
humanities, 30
discussion and conclusion, 138
dissimilarity matrix, 121 I
dump or stringing method, 68 in-text citation, 75, 140
indirect expression of man, 57
indirect observation, 105
end notes, 139–140
individual interview, 112
ethnography, 23, 85
inductive method of thinking, 22
experience sampling, 106
inquiry, 3
expert review, 58
inquiry-based learning, 4
explanatory research, 12
benefits, 4
exploratory research, 12
inquisitive thinking, 4
extract, 76
internal analysis, 22
evidence-based conclusions, 119
Internet, 67
F interview schedule, 111
findings, 137 interviews, 111
focus group interview, 112 approaches, 112
footnotes or notes, 139 steps in conducting an interview,
G types, 111–112
generalization, 22 introduction, 137
Grey Literature, 78
INDEX • 161

L population, 94
learning, 3 positive approach, 13, 29
library, 67 postal questionnaire, 115
limitations, 38 primary data, 12
literature, 57 primary sources, 67
and art criticism, 30 probability sampling, 94
sources, 67 problem, 10
Literary Digest, 94 problem-solving, 3
profile matrix, 121
punctuation marks, 140
mediated interview, 112
pure research, 11
method, 137
purposive or judgmental sampling, 96
MLA documentary notes, 140
Modern Language Association Q
(MLA), 77, 138–145
qualitative data, 30
multi-method research, 21
qualitative data analysis, 121–122
qualitative research, 12, 21, 101
advantages, 24
naturalistic approach, 13, 29–30
definition, 20–21
non-probability sampling, 95
designs, 85
O disadvantages, 24
objectiveness, 11 subjectivity, 21
observation, 104 types, 22–23
methods, 105–106 qualitative researcher, 22
types, 104–105 quantitative data, 29
online resources, 71 quantitative research, 12, 21
opening sentences, 68–69 questionnaire, 114
advantages, 115
disadvantages, 115
paraphrase, 76
purposes, 114
phenomenology, 23
types, 115
philosophical research, 31
quota sampling, 96
plagiarism, 78

R sources, 39–40
recommendations, 138 topics to be avoided, 39
references, 75, 138 reporting and sharing the findings,
APA style, 145–149
review of related literature, 47, 57
methods of referencing, 77
poor literature review writing, 68
MLA style, 140–145
process, 66–68
relevance, 11, 38
reading the source material, 68
research, 1, 10, 129
search for the literature, 67
action research, 12
writing the review, 68
analogous to inquiry, 10
purposes, 57–58
application of research method, 11
structure, 60
applied research, 11
styles or approaches, 58
approaches to research, 13
systematic review of literature, 59–60
characteristics, 11
traditional review of literature, 58,
correlational research, 12
explanatory research, 12
writing an excellent review, 68–69
exploratory research, 12
multi-method research, 21 S
purposes, 11 sampling, 94
qualitative research, 12 sampling error, 94
quantitative research, 12 scientific approach, 13, 29
types, 11 scientific method of thinking, 22
research design, 85 scoping review, 58
research problem, 47 secondary data, 12
research process, 10, 21 secondary sources, 67
research questions, 47–49 self-administered questionnaire, 115
formulating research questions, 49 semi-structured interview, 112
research report, 135 short direct quotation, 76
format, 137 similarity matrix, 121
research study, 87 simple random sampling, 95
research topic SMART, 49
guidelines, 38–39 snowball sampling, 96
INDEX • 163

social communication network, 44 top-level, 3

social issues, 4 title, 137
soft sciences, 30 time allocation (TA), 106
versus hard sciences, 30–31 timeliness, 11, 38
sources, 39–40 topic, 38
pointers in choosing sources, 67–68 topics to avoided, 39
primary sources, 67 traditional review of literature, 58
secondary sources, 67 transitional devices, 69
websites, 67 triangulation approach, 13
specificity, 22
spot sampling, 106
unstructured interview, 111–112
state-of-the-art review, 58
stratified sampling, 95 V
structured interview, 111 visuals, 22
subject area research approaches, 29 voluntary sampling, 96
subject matter, 38 Vygotsky, Lev, 4
substantive notes, 139
summary, 76 W
synchronous mediated interview, 112–113 websites, 67
systematic sampling, 95 words, 22

theory of connected experiences for zigzag sampling, 87
exploratory and reflective thinking, 4 Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), 4
thinking strategies, 3