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Demography is define as ‘ the study of the characteristic s of the human

populations, such as size, growth, density, distribution and vital statistics”.
Gravestones record the date of birth and death, which can be used to calculate death
rates and draw survivorship curves. By comparing survivorship curves for different
periods of time, we may look for historical trends in demography over the decades.
Over the last few centuries, advances in health care and large-scale global
political conflict have left opposing marks on the demographics of our population.
Two major time intervals stands out : before 1950 and after 1950. People who died
before 1950 witnessed the industrial revolution, the ravaging effects of polio, as well
as World War 1 and 2.
Demographics from local cemeteries can be used, but in order to get a broader
scope of life in we can used the population in US since the world wide web can be
used to gather data about birth and death rates all over the country. Many cemeteries
now have databases that list all individuals buried there. This is a much faster way
than visiting all cemeteries in an area and making assumptions about the overall
World population.

1. Some of the basic concept of populations demograpy

2. How factors such as advances in medicine and environmental protection may have
affected human demogaphy over the past 150 years.
3. How human demography might change in future, based on the current socio-
political reality and the presence of incurable disease (such as AIDS)

In this experiment, we had used capture - recapture techniques in order to achieve

our objective which is to estimate the population size of animals. However, there are a
bit of changes in our procedure. Instead of using animals, we used four types of beans
which are red beans, mung beans, soy beans and chickpeas. We assumed these four
types of beans is our types of animals.
The first step in our procedure is, we use one cup to measure the size of the catch.
From that cup, we count the number of beans we capture and marked them according
to their types. At the first catch, we manage to count 70 red beans, 83 mung beans, 49
soy beans and 79 chickpeas which resulting our total for the first catch is 281 beans.
Then, we release the beans and mix with the unmarked beans in the bowl and we
capture for the second time. This time, we counted for the marked one which we
marked from the first catch just now and we also counted the unmarked one. From
this second catch, we manage to count the marked one which is 28 rd beans, 18 mung
beans, 27 soy beans and 24 chickpeas which resulting the total marked one in the
second catch is 97 beans. For the unmarked one from the second catch, we manage to
catch and count 18 red beans, 29 mung beans, 39 soy beans and 22 chickpeas which
resulting the total of 108 beans.
In this experiment, we also manage to estimate the total population size (N) by
using the formula N= (M+1) (C+1) - 1 which resulting 503 red beans,
910 mung beans, 367 soy beans and 658 chickpeas.We also count the variance of the
N where 4310 for red beans, 29132 for mung beans, 1774 for soy beans and 10095 for
chickpeas using the formula Var(N)= (M+1) (C+1) (M-R) (C-R) .
(R+1) (R+1) (R+2)
In this experiment, we have a bit problem where we counted the mung beans and
the red beans because the beans had been marked by the other students who perform
this experiment before this and this make us difficult and a little bit confuse with the
mark that had been drawed on this beans. However, we manage to overcome this
problem by repeat the counting process for this two beans again and get the exact
number of beans captured.
As conclusion, the estimated population size of this beans are 503 red beans, 910
mung beans, 367 soy beans and 658 chickpeas.

1) 21/01/2017 ,Laboratory Manual for BIO330 -INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY