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LEARNING

Learning
× a relatively permanent change in behavior
that occurs as a result of experience or
practice

Basic Forms of Learning


× Classical Conditioning
× Operant Conditoning
× Observational Reasoning
SOCIAL LEARNING
THEORY
Albert Bandura
Social Learning Theory
× learning of new information, concepts or forms of
behavior through exposure to others and the
consequences they experience
Bobo Doll Experiment
found that children observing
an adult model’s aggressive
or nonaggressive behaviors
tended to later act in the
same manner as they have
observed
Elements of
Observational Learning
× Attention
× Retention
× Imitation
× Motivation
Vicarious Reinforcement
× if a model is reinforced for a response,
chances are greater that the observer will
also show an increase in that response

Vicarious Punishment
× if a model is punished for a response,
chances are greater that the observer will
show a decrease in that response
Fortunately, most human
behaviour is learned
observationally through
modelling.
-Albert Bandura
OPERANT
CONDITIONING
THEORY
B.F.Skinner
Operant Conditioning
ₓ is the learning of voluntary behavior through the
effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences
to responses

Skinner Box
Reinforcement Punishment

POSITIVE POSITIVE
REINFORCEMENT PUNISHMENT
Positive addition of pleasant addition of unpleasant
stimulus stimulus

NEGATIVE NEGATIVE
REINFORCEMENT PUNISHMENT
Negative
removal of unpleasant removal of pleasant
stimulus stimulus
Problems with the use
of Punishment
ₓ does not directly strengthen the occurrence of
appropriate behaviour

ₓ unwanted behavior is suppressed only when he or


she is present

ₓ teach the individual to avoid the person who


delivered the punishment
Problems with the use
of Punishment
ₓ tends to elicit a strong emotional response

ₓ an acceptable means of controlling behaviour

ₓ often strongly reinforced due to its immediate


effect in stopping unwanted behavior
Effective use of Punishment
ₓ should be immediate rather than delayed

ₓ should be intense enough from the outset to


suppress the target behaviour

ₓ is more effective when accompanied by an


explanation

ₓ should be combined with positive reinforcement


for appropriate behavior
Operant Learning
Theory

×is a temporary learning

×helps to explain how


consequences shapes our
behavior
Classical Conditioning
conditioned stimulus

1890 RUSSIA

unconditioned stimulus

unconditioned respose
Classical Conditioning

http://www.experiment-resources.com/images/classical-conditioning.jpg
Classical Conditioning
× learning to make an involuntary
response to a stimulus other than the
original, natural stimulus that
normally produces the involuntary
response
OBSERVATIONAL
OPERANT CONDITIONING
LEARNING
stimulus acquired new
Stimulus follows the
knowledge based on
response and strengthens it
watching others and
consequences

Acquired responses Emitted responses

Learning as a result of Learning as a result of


observation consequences
Involves vicarious
Involves reinforcement or
reinforcement or vicarious
punishment
punishment
SOCIOCULTURAL
THEORY
Lev Vygotsky
Sociocultural Theory
× social interactions as an effective
learning process for an individual
× Involves cultural beliefs, practices, and
behaviour
Two Main Principles:

1. More Knowledgeable Other (MKO)


2. Zone of Proximal Development
× Scaffolding
× Reciprocal Teaching
Zone of Proximal
Development (ZPD)
Knowledgeable others Technology and Tools

What I can learn


on my own

What can I learn with help?


(ZPD)

Beyond my reach
Principles underlying
Vygotsky’s theory:

1. Cognitive learning also developed


through social interaction.
2. Development cannot be separated
from its social context.
3. Learning is mediated.
4. Language plays important role in
cognitive development.