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SWOT Analysis

It is a planning tool used to understand the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and

Threats involved in a project or in a business. It involves specifying the objective of the business
or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are supportive or unfavourable to
achieving that objective. SWOT is often used as problem solving tool.

SWOT is an acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats.

Internal Factors – Strength & Weakness

External Factors – Opportunities & Threats

The SWOT analysis tool is great for developing an understanding of an organization or

situation and decision-making for all sorts of situations in business, organizations and for

The SWOT Matrix Model

Strengths Weaknesses

Offensive -
Defensive -
make the most of
watch competition closely
Opportunities these

Adjust - Survive -
restore strengths turn around

A process generates information that is helpful in matching an organization or group’s
goals, programs, and capacities to the social environment in which it operates. Note that in itself
is only a data capture - the analysis follows.

• Positive tangible and intangible attributes, internal to an organization.
• They are within the organization’s control.


• Factors that are within an organization’s control that detract from its ability to attain the
desired goal.
• Which areas might the organization improve?


• External attractive factors that represent the reason for an organization to exist and
• What opportunities exist in the environment, which will propel the organization?
Identify them by their “time frames”


• External factors, beyond an organization’s control, which could place the organization
mission or operation at risk.
• The organization may benefit by having contingency plans to address them if they should
• Classify them by their “seriousness” and “probability of occurrence”.

Background to the tool

The origins of the SWOT analysis technique is credited by Albert Humphrey, who led a research
project at Stanford University in the 1960s and 1970s using data from many top companies. The
goal was to identify why corporate planning failed.

This analysis can be used for:

• Workshop sessions
• Brainstorm meetings
• Problem solving
• Product evaluation
• Competitor evaluation
• Decision Making (with force field analysis)
• Business Planning
• Career development
• Situational analysis
• Strategic planning
• Personal development
• Managing people
• Innovation

Aim of a SWOT Analysis

• Reveal your competitive advantages

• Analyze your prospects for sales, profitability and product development
• Prepare your company for problems
• Allow for the development of contingency plans

How to do a SWOT

Irrespective of whether you or your team are future planning for specific products, work,
personal or any other area, the SWOT analysis process is the same.

• Step 1 – Information collection - In the here and now…

List all strengths that exist now. Then in turn, list all weaknesses that exist now. Be
realistic but avoid modesty!
o You can conduct one-on-one interviews. Or get a group together to brainstorm. A
bit of both is frequently best.
o You'll first want to prepare questions that relate to the specific company or
product that you are analyzing. You'll find some questions and issues below to get
you going.
o When facilitating a SWOT - search for insight through intelligent questioning and

• Step 2 – What might be…

List all opportunities that exist in the future. Opportunities are potential future strengths.
Then in turn, list all threats that exist in the future. Threats are potential future
• Step 3 – Plan of action…
Review your SWOT matrix with a view to creating an action plan to address each of the
four areas.

In summary:

• Strengths need to be maintained, built upon or leveraged.

• Weaknesses need to be remedied, changed or stopped.
• Opportunities need to be prioritized, captured, built on and optimized.
• Threats need to be countered or minimized and managed.

A SWOT analysis can be very subjective, and two people rarely come-up with the same
final version of SWOT. It is an excellent tool however, for looking at the negative factors first in
order to turn them into positive factors. Use SWOT as guide and not a prescription.

On its own, it is said that a SWOT analysis is meaningless. It works best when part of
an overall strategy or in a given context or situation. This strategy may be as simple as:

1. Goal or objective
2. SWOT analysis
3. Evaluation or measures of success strategy
4. Action

Possible Strengths
Tangible Strengths Intangible Strengths Processes & Systems
• Assets including plant • Do you have a strong • Do you have superior
and equipment recognizable brand or industry knowledge?
• Your business location do you stock strong • Are you involved with
Do you have long-term brands industry associations?
contracts? • Your reputation - are
• Are your product unique you considered a • Is your business
or market leading? market leader? or an Innovative?
• Have you got sufficient expert in your filed?
financial resources to • Do you have good
fund any changes you relationship with your
would like to make? customers? (Goodwill)
• Do you have any cost • Do you have strong
advantages over your relationships with your
competitors? suppliers
• Do you use superior • Do you have a positive
technology in your relationship with your
business? employees
• Is your business high • Do you have any
volume? unique alliances with
other businesses?
• Can your scale up if you • Do you own any patents
need to? or proprietary
• Do you have a proven
advertising process that
works well?
• Do you have more
experience in your

• Are you managers

highly experienced?

Possible Weaknesses
Tangible Strengths Intangible Strengths Processes & Systems
• Is your plant and • Do you have a weak or • Do you lack industry
equipment old or unrecognizably brand? knowledge?
outdated? • Do you have a weak or
• Do you lack innovative
• Is your product line too unrecognizable image?
narrow? • Do you have a poor or
• Have you got impersonal relationship
insufficient financial with your customers?
resources to fund any • Do you have a poor
changes you would like relationship with your
to make? suppliers?
• Do you have a high • Do you have a poor
overall unit cost relative relationship with your
to your competitors? employees?
• Do you use inferior • Is your marketing
technology in your failing to meet
business? objectives?
• Are your managers
• Do you have low
volume and are
restricted in your ability • Do you have low R&D?
to scale up?

Possible Opportunities

Industry/ Sector Opportunities External Opportunities

• Expand your product line • Changes to legislation
• Diversify your business interests • Changes to import/export constraints
• Expand into your customer's field • Good economic outlook
• Expand into your supplier's field • Favourable cultural shifts – such as to
• Expand your customer base greener products
(Geographically or through new
• Changes in use of technology opening up
opportunities for your business to utilize
• Do you have placid competitors?
these technologies such as Ecommerce
• Are there any export opportunities?
or Internet sales
• Will your market grow?

Possible Threats

Industry/ Sector Opportunities External Opportunities

• Will low cost imports impact your • Foreign exchange rate changes affecting
business? imports/exports
• Do consumers have a choice to use a • Changes in demographics
substitute product?
• Increasing regulation
• Are substitute product sales increasing?
• Is your market in slow growth or in
• Growing power of customers or
suppliers to set price

• Changing needs of buyers



• Large no. of talented graduates • Scarce foreign language skills other

• Affordable and quality education as than English.
compared to developed countries • Lack of customer service culture
• English language benefit • Expensive and poor quality telecom
• Well-developed IT industry infrastructure
• Strong customer base of well known • Poor electricity supply
companies • Cultural differences

• Powerful venture capital interest in • High attrition rates, therefore less no.
investing in growth opportunity of people with extensive call centre

• Horizontal and vertical expansion of • High Billing rates

existing customer base into new • Political instability
markets • India's competitors in Eastern
• Time zone difference between India Europe, Latin America and the Asia
and target markets Pacific regions offering cheap BPO
• Increasing awareness of outsourcing
services • Increasing technology automation.