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cs e

na idje
D. Gross • W. Hauger
J. Schröder • W.A. Wall

Dy ov
S. Govindjee

mi
,G
ge nics Wall
Engineering Mechanics 3
Dynamics

3,
Sp cha der,
Solutions to
3
Supplementary 01
ö

r2
g M Schr

Problems
e
rin
ee er,

The numbers of the problems and the figures correspond


gin ug

to the numbers in the textbook Gross et al., Engineering


rin

Mechanics 3, Dynamics, 2nd Edition, Springer 2013


En s, Ha
os
Gr
Gr
os
En s, Ha
gin ug
ee er,
rin
g M Schr
e ö
Sp cha der,
rin
ge nics Wall
r2 3, ,G
01 Dy ov
3 na idje
mi
cs e
Gr
os
En s, Ha
gin ug Chapter 1
ee er,
rin
g M Schr
e ö
Sp cha der,
Motion of a Point Mass

rin
ge nics Wall
r2 3, ,G
01 Dy ov
3 na idje
mi
1

cs e
2 1 Motion of a Point Mass

cs e
E1.17 Example 1.17 A point P moves on a given path from A to B

na idje
(Fig. 1.42). Its velocity v decreases linearly with arc-length s from
a value v0 at A to zero at B.
How long does it take P to reach point B?

Dy ov
s=l

mi
B v
v

,G
P v0
s
A

ge nics Wall
l s Fig. 1.42

Solution First we write down the velocity v as a linear function

3,
of the arc-length s:
Sp cha der,
 s
v(s) = v0 1 − .

3
l

01
Separation of variables
ö

ds ds
=v →  = dt
r2
g M Schr

dt v0 1 − sl
and indeterminate integration lead to
Z Z   
ds v0 t
= v0 dt → s = l 1 − C exp − .
e

1 − sl l
rin
ee er,

The integration constant C is determined from the initial condi-


tion:
  
gin ug

v0 t
s(0) = 0 : 0 = 1 − C → s = l 1 − exp − .
l
rin
En s, Ha

Point B is reached when s = l. This yields the corresponding time


tB :

s(tB ) = l → tB → ∞ .
os
Gr
1 Motion of a Point Mass 3

cs e
Example 1.18 A radar screen tracks a rocket which rises vertically E1.18

na idje
with a constant acceleration
a (Fig. 1.43). The rocket is
launched at t = 0.

Dy ov
Determine the angular ve-

mi
locity ϕ̇ and the angular acce- ϕ

,G
leration ϕ̈ of the radar screen.
Calculate the maximum an-
gular velocity ϕ̇ and the cor-
111111111111
000000000000 l
Fig. 1.43

ge nics Wall
responding angle ϕ.

Solution Since the acceleration


a is constant, the velocity v

3,
and the position x of the rocket
Sp cha der,
are

3
x
v = at + v(0) ,

01
ϕ
x = at2 /2 + v(0)t + x(0) .
ö

Applying the initial conditions yields


r2
g M Schr

v(0) = 0 → v = at,
at2
x(0) = 0 → x= .
2
e

The angle ϕ of the radar screen follows as


rin

 2
ee er,

x at
tan ϕ = → ϕ(t) = arctan .
l 2l
gin ug

Differentiation leads to the angular velocity


"  2 2 #
rin

at at
ϕ̇(t) = / 1 +
En s, Ha

l 2l

and the angular acceleration


  "  2 2 #2
a 3a3 t4 at
ϕ̈(t) = − / 1+ .
l 4l3 2l
os
Gr
4 1 Motion of a Point Mass

cs e
na idje
The time t∗ of the maximum angular velocity ϕ̇max is obtained
from
 2 1/4
4l
ϕ̈(t∗ ) = 0 → t∗ = .

Dy ov
3a2

mi
Thus,

,G
s √
3 3a
ϕ̇max = ϕ̇(t∗ ) → ϕ̇max =
8l

ge nics Wall
and

ϕ(t∗ ) = arctan(1/ 3) → ϕ(t∗ ) = 30◦ .

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
1 Motion of a Point Mass 5

cs e
Example 1.19 Two point masses P1 and P2 start at point A with E1.19

na idje
zero initial velocities and travel on a circular path. P1 moves with
a uniform tangential acceleration at1 and P2 moves with a given
uniform angular velocity ω2 .

Dy ov
a) What value must at1 have

mi
in order for the two masses P1

,G
to meet at point B? r
b) What is the angular veloci- A B
ty of P1 at B?

ge nics Wall
c) What are the normal acce- P2
lerations of the two masses
at B? Fig. 1.44

Solution The velocity and position of P1 follow from at1 = const =

3,
v̇ with the initial conditions s01 = 0 and v01 = 0 as
Sp cha der,
1

3
v1 = at1 t , s1 = at1 t2 .
2

01
Similarly, for point P2 we obtain from at2 = 0 with s02 = 0 and
ö

v02 = rω2 :
r2
g M Schr

v2 = rω2 , s2 = rω2 t .

a) Both points meet at time tB at point B. Thus,


1
e

πr = at1 t2B , πr = rω2 tB .


2
rin
ee er,

This leads to
π 2πr 2rω22
gin ug

tB = → at1 = 2 = .
ω2 tB π
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
6 1 Motion of a Point Mass

cs e
na idje
b) The tangential acceleration at1 and the time tB are now known.
Hence, we can calculate the angular velocity of P1 at B:

v1 (tB ) = at1 tB = rω1 (tB )

Dy ov
at1 tB 2rω22 π

mi
→ ω1 (tB ) = = = 2ω2 .
r πrω2

,G
c) The normal accelerations at B follow from an = rω 2 :

an1 = rω12 (tB ) = 4rω22 , an2 = rω22 .

ge nics Wall
3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
1 Motion of a Point Mass 7

cs e
Example 1.20 A child of mass m jumps up and down on a trampo- E1.20

na idje
line in a periodic manner. The child’s jumping velocity (upwards
upon leaving the trampoline) is v0 and during the contact time
∆t the contact force F (t) has a triangular form.

Dy ov
Find the necessary contact force amplitude F0 and the jum-

mi
ping period T0 .

,G
F
F0
z

ge nics Wall
t
Fig. 1.45 ∆t T0

Solution The child is subjected

3,
to its constant weight W = mg
Sp cha der, F
and, during the contact with the F0

3
trampoline, to the contact for- mg
ce F (t). While the child is in the

01
air, the equation of motion is gi- F 0 t
ö

t1 t2
ven by
r2
g M Schr

T0
↑: mz̈ = −mg.
Integration between t = t0 = 0 (end of a contact) and t = t1
(beginning of a new contact) yields
e
rin

mv1 − mv0 = −mgt1 ,


ee er,

where v1 = v(t1 ) and v0 = v(0). Recall that the velocity at the


gin ug

beginning of a vertical motion and the velocity at the end of a


free fall of a body are equal in magnitude: v1 = −v0 (note the
rin

different signs). Therefore, we obtain


En s, Ha

v0
2v0 = gt1 → t1 = 2 .
g
os
Gr
8 1 Motion of a Point Mass

cs e
na idje
The jumping period T0 follows with ∆t = t2 − t1 as
2v0
T0 = t1 + ∆t → T0 = + ∆t .
g

Dy ov
We now apply the Impulse Law between time t0 and time t2 (see

mi
the figure):

,G
1
↑ : m v2 − m v0 = −mgT0 + F0 (t2 − t1 ) .
2

ge nics Wall
In order to have a periodic process, the velocities v2 and v0 have
to coincide: v2 = v0 . With this condition the Impulse Law yields
1 2T0  2v 
0
−mgT0 + F0 ∆t = 0 → F0 = mg = 2 + 1 mg .
2 ∆t g∆t

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
1 Motion of a Point Mass 9

cs e
Example 1.21 A car is travelling in a circular arc with radius R E1.21

na idje
and velocity v0 when it starts to brake. s
v0
If the tangential deceleration is
at (v) = −(a0 + κv), where a0 and κ are

Dy ov
given constants, find the time to brake R

mi
tB , the stopping distance sB , and the

,G
normal acceleration an during the bra-
Fig. 1.46
king.
Solution The acceleration at is given as a function of the velocity:

ge nics Wall
at (v) = v̇ = −(a0 + κv) .

We separate the variables and integrate (initial condition: v(0) = v0 ):


Z v

3,
dv̄ 1 a0 + κv0
t(v) = − = ln .
Sp cha der,
a
v0 0 + κv̄ κ a0 + κv

3
The time tB when the car comes to a stop follows from the con-

01
dition v = 0:
1  κv0 
ö

tB = t(v = 0) = ln 1 + .
r2
g M Schr

κ a0

Now we determine the inverse function of t(v):


a0 + κv0 a0 h κv0  −κt i
eκt = → v(t) = 1+ e −1 .
e

a0 + κv κ a0
rin
ee er,

Integration with the initial condition s(0) = 0 leads to the position


Z t
a0 h κv0   i
s(t) = v(t̄)dt̄ = 2 1 + 1 − e−κt − κt .
gin ug

0 κ a0
rin

The stopping distance sB is obtained for t = tB :


En s, Ha

" ! #
a0  κv0  1  κv0 
sB = s(tB ) = 2 1 + 1− − ln 1 +
κ a0 1 + κva0
0 a0
h
a0 κv0  κv0 i
= 2 − ln 1 + .
κ a0 a0
os
Gr
10 1 Motion of a Point Mass

cs e
na idje
The normal acceleration an (t) during the breaking is found as
 2
v2 a20  κv0  −κt
an = = 1+ e −1 .
R Rκ2 a0

Dy ov
As a check on the correctness of the result we calculate an for

mi
t = tB and obtain an = 0.

,G
ge nics Wall
3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
1 Motion of a Point Mass 11

cs e
Example 1.22 A point P moves on E1.22

na idje
2 y
a parabola y = b(x/a) from A to
B. Its position as a function of the b B
time is given by the angle ϕ(t) =

Dy ov
arctan ω0 t (see Fig. 1.47). P
r

mi
Determine the magnitude of ve-

,G
locity v(t) of point P . How much ϕ
time elapses until P reaches point A a x
B? Calculate its velocity at B.
Fig. 1.47

ge nics Wall
Solution The parabola y = b(x/a)2 and the angle ϕ(t) = arctan ω0 t
are given. The angle ϕ can also be expressed as ϕ = arctan y/x.
Thus, y/x = ω0 t. Solving for x and y yields the position of

3,
point P :Sp cha der,
a2 a2
x(t) = ω0 t , y(t) = (ω0 t)2 .

3
b b

01
To obtain the velocity of P , we differentiate:
ö

a2 a2 2
r2
ẋ(t) = ω0 , ẏ(t) = 2 ω t,
g M Schr

b b 0
p a2 p
v= ẋ2 + ẏ 2 → v(t) = ω0 1 + 4ω02 t2 .
b
Point B is reached at time tB when x = a:
e
rin
ee er,

b
x(tB ) = a → tB = .
aω0
gin ug

Thus, the velocity at B is obtained as


s
rin

a2 b2
En s, Ha

vB = v(tB ) → vB = ω0 1 + 4 2 .
b a
os
Gr
12 1 Motion of a Point Mass

cs e
E1.23 Example 1.23 A rod with length l rota-

na idje
tes about support A with angular po-
sition given by ϕ(t) = κ t2 . A body B
G slides along the rod with position l

Dy ov
r(t) = l(1 − κ t2 ).
r G

mi
a) Find the magnitude of velocity and

,G
acceleration of G when ϕ = 45◦ .
b) At what angle ϕ does G hit the sup- ϕ(t)
A
port?

ge nics Wall
Given: l = 2 m, κ = 0.2 s−2 . Fig. 1.48

Solution a) First we calculate the time t = t1 that it takes the


rod to reach the position ϕ = ϕ1 = 45◦ :
q

3,
ϕ1 = π/4 = κt21 → t1 = π/(4κ) = 1.98 s .
Sp cha der,

3
Then we determine the derivatives of the given functions r(t) and
ϕ(t):

01
ö

r = l(1 − κt2 ) , ṙ = −2κlt , r̈ = −2κl ,


r2
g M Schr

ϕ = κt2 , ϕ̇ = 2κt , ϕ̈ = 2κ .
With t = t1 we obtain the velocity vϕ

vr = ṙ = −2κlt1 = −1.58 m/s ,


e

v vr
rin
ee er,

vϕ = rϕ̇ = l(1 − κt21 )2κt1


= 0.34 m/s , π
q 4
v = vr2 + vϕ2 = 1.62 m/s
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
1 Motion of a Point Mass 13

cs e
na idje
and the acceleration

ar = r̈ − rϕ̇2 = −2κl − l(1 − κt21 )4κ2 t21


= −1.07 m/s2 , ar aϕ

Dy ov
aϕ = rϕ̈ + 2ṙ ϕ̇ = l(1 − κt21 )2κ − 2 · 2κlt1 2κt1

mi
π
2
= −2.34 m/s ,

,G
4
q a
a = a2r + a2ϕ = 2.57 m/s2 .

ge nics Wall
b) Body G reaches the support (r = 0) at time tE :
q
r = 0 = l(1 − κt2E ) → tE = 1/κ = 2.24 s .

This yields the corresponding angle ϕE :

3,
Sp cha der,
ϕE = κt2E = 1 b 57.3◦) .
(=

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
14 1 Motion of a Point Mass

cs e
E1.24 Example 1.24 A mouse sits in a tower (with radius R) at point A

na idje
and a cat sits at the center 0.
If the mouse runs at a constant
velocity vM along the tower wall and

Dy ov
r ϕ
the cat chases it in an Archimedian
0

mi
spiral r(ϕ) = R ϕ/π, what must the H A

,G
cat’s constant velocity vC be in order R
to catch the mouse just as the mou-
se reaches its escape hole H? At what
Fig. 1.49

ge nics Wall
time does it catch the mouse?
Solution We determine the components of the velocity of the cat
from the given equation r(ϕ) = Rϕ/π of the Archimedian spiral:
dr dϕ R R

3,
vr = ṙ = = ϕ̇ and vϕ = rϕ̇ = ϕϕ̇ .
dϕ dt π π
Sp cha der,

3
Thus, the constant velocity vC can be written as
q R p R dϕ p

01
vC = vr2 + vϕ2 = ϕ̇ 1 + ϕ2 = 1 + ϕ2 .
π π dt
ö

Separation of variables and integration lead to


r2
g M Schr

Zt Zϕ p
R
vC dt̄ = vC t = 1 + ϕ̄2 dϕ̄ .
π
0 0
e

With the integral


rin
ee er,

Z p
1h p i
1 + x2 dx = x 1 + x2 + arsinh x
2
gin ug

this results in
rin

R  p 
vC t = ϕ 1 + ϕ2 + arcsinh ϕ .
En s, Ha


os
Gr
1 Motion of a Point Mass 15

cs e
na idje
The time T when both the cat and the mouse reach the hole
follows from the constant velocity vM of the mouse along the wall:
πR
πR = vM T → T = .

Dy ov
vM

mi
Introduction of T and ϕ(T ) = π into the expression for vC t yields

,G
the velocity of the cat:
vM  p 
vC = 2 π 1 + π 2 + arcsinh π = 0.62 vM .

ge nics Wall
3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
16 1 Motion of a Point Mass

cs e
E1.25 Example 1.25 A soccer player kicks the ball (mass m) so that

na idje
it leaves the ground at an angle α0 with an initial velocity v0
(Fig. 1.50). The air exerts a drag force Fd = k v on the ball; it
acts in the direction opposite to the velocity.

Dy ov
Determine the velocity v(t) of the ball. Calculate the horizon-

mi
tal component vH of v when the ball reaches the teammate at a

,G
distance l.

ge nics Wall
z

v0

3,
Sp cha der, α0

3
Fig. 1.50

01
Solution The equations of motion are
ö

r2
g M Schr

mẍ = −Fd cos α , mz̈ = mg + Fd sin α . x


v
We introduce the kinematic relations Fd z
α
dẋ dż
ẍ = , z̈ = mg
e

dt dt
rin
ee er,

and the drag force Fd = kv. Noting that the components of the
velocity are given by
gin ug

ẋ = v cos α , ż = −v sin α
rin

we obtain
En s, Ha

dẋ dż
m = −k ẋ , m = mg − k ż .
dt dt
Separation of variables gives
dẋ k dż k
= − dt , mg = − m dt
os

ẋ m ż −
k
Gr
1 Motion of a Point Mass 17

cs e
na idje
and integration yields
mg
ẋ k ż −
ln =− t, ln k =−kt.
C1 m C2 m

Dy ov
mi
The constants of integration C1 and C2 can be determined from
the initial conditions. For t = 0 the left-hand sides of the equations

,G
above have to be zero. Thus, the arguments of the ln-functions
have to be equal to one (numerator and denominator have to be
equal):

ge nics Wall
mg mg
C1 = ẋ(0) = v0 cos α0 , C2 = ż(0) − = −v0 sin α0 − .
k k
This leads to the components of the velocity:

3,
mg  mg 
Sp cha der,
ẋ(t) = v0 cos α0 e−kt/m , ż(t) = − + v0 sin α0 e−kt/m .
k k

3
We now integrate the x-component to obtain the horizontal posi-

01
tion of the ball:
ö

m
r2
x(t) = − v0 cos α0 e−kt/m + C .
g M Schr

k
Exploiting the initial condition
m
x(0) = 0 → C = v0 cos α0
k
e
rin

yields
ee er,

m  
x(t) = v0 cos α0 1 − e−kt/m .
k
gin ug

The time t∗ when the ball reaches the teammate at the distance
rin

l is found to be
En s, Ha

m mv0 cos α0
x(t∗ ) = l → t∗ = ln .
k mv0 cos α0 − kl
This leads to the corresponding horizontal component of the ve-
locity:
kl
os

ẋ(t∗ ) = v0 cos α0 − .
m
Gr
18 1 Motion of a Point Mass

cs e
E1.26 Example 1.26 A body with mass m

na idje
z
starts at a height h at time t = 0 v0
m
with an initial horizontal velocity v0 .
If the wind resistance can be
h

Dy ov
approximated by a horizontal force

mi
H = c0 m ẋ2 , at what time tB and B
x

,G
location xB does it hit the ground?
Fig. 1.51
Solution The equations of z H

ge nics Wall
motion are given by
mg
→ : mẍ = −mc0 ẋ2 , ↑ : mz̈ = −mg .
x
We integrate and apply the

3,
initial conditions x(0) = 0, z(0) = h, ẋ(0) = v0 , ż(0) = 0 to obtain
Sp cha der,
Z ẋ Z t

3
dx̄˙ 1
= −c 0 dt̄ → ẋ = ,
˙ 1

01
2
v0 x̄ 0
v0 + c0 t
Z x Z t
ö

1 1
dx̄ = dt̄ → x = ln(1 + c0 v0 t) ,
r2
1 c0
g M Schr

0 0
v0 + c0 t̄
g
ż = −gt , z = − t2 + h .
2
The time tB when the body hits the ground follows from zB = 0:
e

s
rin

2h
ee er,

tB = .
g
gin ug

Thus, the location of point B is obtained as


s
rin

!
1 2h
xB = x(t = tB ) = ln 1 + c0 v0 .
En s, Ha

c0 g

In the case of a vanishing wind resistance (c0 = 0) this result


reduces to
s ! s
1 2h 2h
os

xB = lim ln 1 + c0 v0 = v0 .
c0 →0 c0 g g
Gr
1 Motion of a Point Mass 19

cs e
Example 1.27 A mass m slides on a E1.27

na idje
rotating frictionless and massless
rod S such that it is pressed against µ
r
a rough circular wall (coefficient of S

Dy ov
friction µ). m

mi
If the mass starts in contact with

,G
the wall at a velocity v0 , how many
rotations will it take for its velocity g
to drop to v0 /10?

ge nics Wall
Fig. 1.52

Solution If we express the accelera-


tion vector in terms of the Serret-
at N
Frenet frame, then the equations of

3,
motion are written as
Sp cha der,
R

3
an
տ : mat = −R , ւ : man = N .

01
Note that the weight of the mass does not influence the motion
ö

since the motion takes place in a horizontal plane. If we use the ki-
r2
nematic relations at = v̇, an = v 2 /r, and the friction law R = µN
g M Schr

we can write the first equation of motion in the form


v2
mv̇ = −µm .
r
e

Separation of variables and integration yield


rin
ee er,

Z v Z t
dv̄ µ v0
2
= − dt̄ → v(t) = µv .
v0 v̄ 0 r 1 + r0 t
gin ug

We integrate again to obtain the distance traveled:


rin

Z s Z t
En s, Ha

dt̄ r µv0
ds̄ = v0 v0 t̄ → s(t) = µ ln (1 + r t) .
0 0 1 + µ r
os
Gr
20 1 Motion of a Point Mass

cs e
na idje
Now we calculate the time t1 that it takes for the velocity to drop
to v0 /10:
v0 v0 9r
= µv → t1 = .

Dy ov
10 1 + r 0 t1 µv0

mi
The corresponding value s(t1 ) is found as

,G
r µv0 r
s1 = s(t1 ) = ln (1 + t1 ) = ln 10 .
µ r µ

ge nics Wall
This yields the corresponding number of rotations:
s1 ln 10
n= = .
2πr 2πµ

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
1 Motion of a Point Mass 21

cs e
Example 1.28 A car (mass m) is traveling with constant velocity E1.28

na idje
v along a banked circular curve (radius r, angle of slope α), see
Fig. 1.53. The coefficient of static friction µ0 between the tires of
the car and the surface of the road is given.

Dy ov
r

mi
0000000
1111111
µ0

,G
m

0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000 1111111 α
0000000
1111111

ge nics Wall
Fig. 1.53

Determine the region of the allowable velocities so that sliding


(down or up the slope) does not take place.

3,
Sp cha der,
Solution We model the car as a point mass and express the ac-
celeration vector in terms of the Serret-Frenet frame. Then the

3
equation of motion in the direction of the normal vector is (see

01
the free-body diagram)
ö

man = N sin α + H cos α .


r2
g M Schr

2.0
µ0 = 0.3
g
1.5
e

en et v
rin

r
ee er,

1.0
v 2 /gr
M
gin ug

0.5
mg
rin

r en
M
En s, Ha

0 π/6 π/3
H N α
α

Since the car does not move in the vertical direction we can apply
the equilibrium condition
os

↑: 0 = N cos α − H sin α − mg .
Gr
22 1 Motion of a Point Mass

cs e
na idje
We now solve these two equations for the normal force N and the
force of static friction H:
H = man cos α − mg sin α ,

Dy ov
N = man sin α + mg cos α .

mi
The car does not slide if the condition of static friction

,G
|H| ≤ µ0 N

is satisfied. With an = v 2 /r this leads to the allowable region of

ge nics Wall
the velocity:
tan α − µ0 v2 tan α + µ0
≤ ≤ .
1 + µ0 tan α gr 1 − µ0 tan α

3,
Sp cha der,
This is displayed for µ = 0.3 as a function of the angle α in the

3
figure.

01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
1 Motion of a Point Mass 23

cs e
Example 1.29 A car (mass m) has a velocity v0 at the beginning of E1.29

na idje
a curve (Fig. 1.54). Then it slows down with constant tangential
acceleration at = −a0 . The coefficient of static friction between
the road and the tires is µ0 . s

Dy ov
Calculate the velocity v
v0

mi
of the car as a function of

,G
the arc-length s. What is the
m
necessary radius of curvature
ρ(s) of the road so that the ρ(s)
M

ge nics Wall
car does not slide? Fig. 1.54

Solution We model the car as a point mass. Its velocity v can


be determined from the given constant tangential acceleration at
through integration (initial condition v(0) = v0 ):

3,
Sp cha der,
v̇ = at = −a0 → v(t) = v0 − a0 t .

3
The distance traveled follows from

01
s(t) = s0 + v0 t − a0 t2 /2 .
ö

ṡ = v →
r2
g M Schr

With the initial condition s(0) = s0 = 0 we obtain

s(t) = v0 t − a0 t2 /2 .

Elimination of the time t yields the velocity as a function of the


e
rin

arc-length:
ee er,

q
v(s) = v02 − 2a0 s .
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
24 1 Motion of a Point Mass

cs e
na idje
In order to determine the necessary radius of curvature ρ(s) we
write down the equations of motion:

mat = Ht → Ht = −ma0 ,

Dy ov
v2
man = Hn → Hn = m ,

mi
ρ

,G
0 = N − mg → N = mg .

The static friction force H = (Ht2 +Hn2 )1/2 and the normal force N
have to satisfy the condition of static friction to avoid sliding of

ge nics Wall
the car:
v4
|H| ≤ µ0 N → a20 + ≤ µ20 g 2 .
ρ2

3,
Solving for ρ yields
Sp cha der,
v 2 − 2a0 s

3
ρ(s) ≥ p0 2 .
µ0 g 2 − a20

01
ö

This condition can not be satisfied if a0 > µ0 g.


r2
g M Schr

mg et
Ht
e

Hn en
rin

N M
ee er,

̺
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
1 Motion of a Point Mass 25

cs e
Example 1.30 A bowling ball (mass m) moves with constant ve- E1.30

na idje
locity v0 on the frictionless return of a bowling alley. It is lifted
on a circular path (radius r) to the height 2r at the end of the
return. The upper part of the circular path has a frictionless guide

Dy ov
of length r ϕG (Fig. 1.55).

mi
Given the angle ϕG , determine the velocity v0 such that the

,G
bowling ball reaches the upper level.

g
ϕG

ge nics Wall
r v0 m
Fig. 1.55

Solution The velocity v0 has to be large enough so that the bow-

3,
ling ball reaches the upper level (height 2r) with a velocity v ≥ 0.
Sp cha der,
It is convenient to use the Conservation of Energy Law to deter-

3
mine the relation between v0 and v. With T0 = mv02 /2, V0 = 0,
T1 = mv 2 /2 and V1 = 2mgr we obtain

01
ö

T0 + V0 = T1 + V1 → mv02 /2 + 0 = mv 2 /2 + 2mgr .
r2
g M Schr

This yields a first requirement on v0 :

v02 = v 2 + 4gr → v02 ≥ 4gr .


e

In addition, the velocity v0 has to be large enough so that the


rin

normal force between the bowling ball and the lower part of the
ee er,

circular path does not become zero before the ball reaches the
guide of length rϕG . The necessary velocity v(ϕG ) follows from
gin ug

the equation of motion in the normal direction (note that ϕ is


rin

measured from the upper level):


En s, Ha

v 2 (ϕ)
ց: m = N + mg cos ϕ .
r
os
Gr
26 1 Motion of a Point Mass

cs e
na idje
The condition N ≥ 0 for ϕ = ϕG leads to

v 2 (ϕG ) ≥ gr cos ϕG .

Dy ov
In order to calculate the corresponding velocity v0 we use the Con-
servation of Energy Law between the lower level and the beginning

mi
of the guide:

,G
T0 + V0 = T2 + V2

ge nics Wall
→ mv02 /2 + 0 = mv 2 (ϕG )/2 + mgr(1 + cos ϕG ) .
Thus, we obtain the second requirement

v02 ≥ (2 + 3 cos ϕG )gr .

3,
Sp cha der,
Both requirements are plotted in the figure, which shows that

3
the minimum velocity v0 is obtained as
(

01
2 (2 + 3 cos ϕG )gr for ϕG < ϕ∗G = arccos 2/3 ,
v0 =
ö

4gr for ϕG > ϕ∗G .


r2
g M Schr

ϕ
6
N
e

mg 4
rin
ee er,

v02 /gr 2+3 cos ϕG


2
gin ug

ϕ∗G
rin

0 0.2π 0.4π 0.6π 0.8π π


ϕG
En s, Ha
os
Gr
1 Motion of a Point Mass 27

cs e
Example 1.31 A point mass m is E1.31

na idje
subjected to a central force y
F = mk 2 r, where k is a constant v0
and r is the distance of the mass P0
m

Dy ov
from the origin 0. At time t = 0 F

mi
the mass is located at P0 and has r0
r

,G
velocity components vx = v0 and
α
vy = 0.
0 x
Find the trajectory of the

ge nics Wall
mass. Fig. 1.56

Solution The equations of motion in the directions x and y are

→: mẍ = −F cos α ,

3,
Sp cha der,
↑ : mÿ = −F sin α .

3
With F = mk 2 r, x = r cos α and y = r sin α we obtain

ẍ + k 2 x = 0 ,
01ÿ + k 2 y = 0 .
ö

r2
g M Schr

Both equations are equivalent to the differential equation that de-


scribes undamped free vibrations of a point mass (see Chapter 5).
The solutions are

x = A cos kt + B sin kt , y = C cos kt + D sin kt .


e
rin
ee er,

The constants of integration are calculated from the initial condi-


tions:
gin ug

x(0) = 0 → A=0, y(0) = r0 → C = r0 ,


rin

v0
ẋ(0) = v0 → B= , ẏ(0) = 0 → D=0.
En s, Ha

k
os
Gr
28 1 Motion of a Point Mass

cs e
na idje
We now have a parametric representation of the curve describing
the motion:
v0
x= sin kt , y = r0 cos kt .
k

Dy ov
To eliminate the time, these equations are squared and then ad-

mi
ded. Thus, we finally obtain

,G
 2  2
x y
+ =1.
v0 /k r0

ge nics Wall
The point mass moves along an ellipse which reduces to a circle
for k = v0 /r0 .

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
1 Motion of a Point Mass 29

cs e
Example 1.32 A centrifuge with radius r rotates with constant an- E1.32

na idje
gular velocity ω0 . A mass m is to be placed at rest in the centrifuge
and accelerated within a time t1 to the angular velocity ω0 .
What will be the needed (con-

Dy ov
stant) moment M acting on the

mi
mass? What is the power P of this

,G
moment?
ω0

ge nics Wall
r m

Fig. 1.57

3,
Solution The centrifuge rotates with a
Sp cha der,
constant angular velocity. Thus, the

3
driving torque M needed to accelera- at R
te the point mass is equal to the mo- N

01
ment of the friction force R which acts N R
ö

between the mass and the cylinder:


r2
g M Schr

M = rR .
The equation of motion in the tangential direction for the mass is
e

↑ : mat = R ,
rin
ee er,

where at = rω̇. Thus,


M M
mr ω̇ = → ω̇ = .
gin ug

r mr2
rin

Integration with the initial condition ω(0) = 0 yields


En s, Ha

M
ω= t.
r2 m
os
Gr
30 1 Motion of a Point Mass

cs e
na idje
The condition ω(t1 ) = ω0 leads to the required moment:

r2 mω0
M= .
t1

Dy ov
The corresponding power is

mi
r2 mω02

,G
P = M · ω 0 = M ω0 = .
t1

Note that the moment M has to be reduced to zero after time t1 .

ge nics Wall
Otherwise the mass would be further accelerated.

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
1 Motion of a Point Mass 31

cs e
Example 1.33 A skier (mass m) has the velocity vA = v0 at point E1.33

na idje
A of the cross country course (Fig. 1.58). Although he tries hard
not to lose velocity skiing uphill, he reaches point B with only a
velocity vB = 2 v0 /5. Skiing downhill between point B and the

Dy ov
finish C he again gains speed and reaches C with vC = 4 v0 .

mi
Between B and C assume that a constant friction force acts due

,G
to the soft snow in this region; the drag force from the air on the
skier can be neglected.
Calculate the work done by the skier on the path from A to B

ge nics Wall
(here the friction force is negligible). Determine the coefficient of
kinetic friction between B and C.

0000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111
00000000000
11111111111 B

3,
0000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111
00000000000
11111111111
0000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111
Sp cha der,
00000000000
11111111111
0000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111
f inish
00000000000
h

11111111111

3
3h
0000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111
00000000000
11111111111
A

01
0000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111
00000000000
11111111111
ö

C
r2
g M Schr

10h
Fig. 1.58

Solution In order to calculate the work done by the skier on the


e
rin

path from A to B we use the work-energy theorem:


ee er,

TB + VB = TA + VA + U
gin ug

2 2
→ mvB /2 + mgh = mvA /2 + 0 + U
rin
En s, Ha

→ U = m(gh − 21v02 /50) .


os
Gr
32 1 Motion of a Point Mass

cs e
na idje
Now we apply the work-energy theorem between points B and C,
where the work of the friction force is given by −RlBC :

TC + VC = TB + VB + U

Dy ov
2 2

mi
→ mvC /2 + 0 = mvB /2 + 3mgh − RlBC .

,G
With the normal force
10h
N = mg cos α → N = mg mg
lBC

ge nics Wall
and the law of kinetic friction R
10h N
R = µN → R = µmg α
lBC

3,
we obtain
Sp cha der,
3 v 2 − vB2
3 4v 2

3
µ= − C → µ≈ − 0 .
10 20gh 10 5gh

01
The result is valid only for µ ≥ 0.
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
1 Motion of a Point Mass 33

cs e
Example 1.34 A circular disk (radius R) E1.34

na idje
rotates with the constant angular veloci-
ty Ω. A point P moves along a straight R ξ
guide; its distance from the center of

Dy ov
the disk is given by ξ = R sin ω t whe- P

mi
re ω = const (Fig. 1.59).

,G
Determine the velocity and the acce- Ω
leration of P . Fig. 1.59

Solution We use polar coordinates r, ϕ to

ge nics Wall
solve the problem. From Ω = const we find P
er r

ϕ̇ = Ω = const → ϕ = Ωt , ϕ̈ = 0 . ϕ

3,
The position vector is written as
Sp cha der,
r = ξ er → r = R sin ωt er .

3
01
Differentiation yields the velocity vector
ö

v = ξ˙ er + ξ ϕ̇ eϕ → v = Rω cos ωt er + RΩ sin ωt eϕ
r2
g M Schr

and the acceleration vector


a = (ξ¨ − ξ ϕ̇2 ) er + (ξ ϕ̈ + 2ξ̇ ϕ̇) eϕ
→ a = −R(ω 2 + Ω2 ) sin ωt er + 2RωΩ cos ωt eϕ .
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
34 1 Motion of a Point Mass

cs e
na idje
The paths of point P are displayed for several values of Ω/ω in
the following figures.

Dy ov
mi
,G
ge nics Wall
Ω/ω = 0.25 Ω/ω = 0.5

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

Ω/ω = 1.0 Ω/ω = 2.0


r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
1 Motion of a Point Mass 35

cs e
Example 1.35 A chain with length l and 000000
111111
000000
111111
E1.35

na idje
000000
111111
mass m hangs over the edge of a friction-
e
less table by an amount e.
000000
111111
000000
If the chain starts with zero initial
111111

Dy ov
velocity, find the position of the end of
Fig. 1.60

mi
the chain as a function of time.

,G
Solution All the links of the chain have the same displacement,
velocity and acceleration. The corner only produces a change of
direction. We therefore consider the chain to be a single mass with

ge nics Wall
an applied force that depends on the length x of the overhanging
part. Thus, with a = ẍ, the equation of
motion is 0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
3,
x g
ma = m g → ẍ − x = 0 .
0000000
1111111
Sp cha der, x
l l x

0000000
1111111
m g

3
This differential equation of second order l

01
with constant coefficients has the soluti-
on
ö

r r
g g
r2
g M Schr

x(t) = A cosh t + B sinh t.


l l
We calculate the integration constants from the initial conditions:
) r
ẋ(0) = 0 → B = 0 g
e

→ x(t) = e cosh t.
rin

l
ee er,

x(0) = e → A = e
This solution is valid only for x ≤ l.
x−l
gin ug

We may also solve the problem by m


making an imaginary section cut at l
rin

S
the corner. Then the equations of
En s, Ha

S
motion for each part of the chain are
d  l−x  d m  m
m ẋ = S , xẋ = xg − S .
dt l dt l l x x
m
If we eliminate S we again obtain the l
os

differential equation
g
ẍ − x = 0 .
Gr

l
36 1 Motion of a Point Mass

cs e
x
E1.36 Example 1.36 A rotating source of

na idje
light throws a beam of light onto a
screen (Fig. 1.61). Point P on the
1111111111
0000000000 P v0

screen should move with constant r0

Dy ov
velocity v0 .
ϕ

mi
Determine the required angu-

,G
lar acceleration ϕ̈(ϕ) of the source
Fig. 1.61
of light. Sketch ϕ̇(ϕ) and ϕ̈(ϕ).
Solution The position of point P is given by

ge nics Wall
x = r0 tan ϕ .

We write down the inverse function

3,
x
ϕ = arctan .
Sp cha der,
r0

3
Differentiation with ẋ = v = v0 = const yields

01
1 ẋ v0 r0 v0 v0
ϕ̇ =  2 = 2 = = cos2 ϕ ,
ö

r0 r0 + x 2 2 r0
x r0 (1 + tan ϕ)
1 + r0
r2
g M Schr

v0  v 2
0
ϕ̈ = 2 cos ϕ(− sin ϕ)ϕ̇ = −2 sin ϕ cos3 ϕ .
r0 r0

ϕ̇
e
rin
ee er,

v0
r
gin ug

π π ϕ
rin


2 2
En s, Ha

ϕ̈

π π ϕ

2 2
os
Gr
1 Motion of a Point Mass 37

cs e
na idje
Note: the maximum value of ϕ̈, located at ϕ = ±30◦ , is obtained
as
3 √  v0 2
|ϕ̈max | = 3 .
8 r0

Dy ov
mi
,G
ge nics Wall
3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
38 1 Motion of a Point Mass

cs e
E1.37 Example 1.37 A car travels with velocity v0 = 100 km/h. At time

na idje
t = 0, the driver fully applies the brakes. At that moment the car
starts sliding on a rough road (coefficient of kinetic friction µ).
Use the simplest model for the car (point mass) and calculate

Dy ov
the time t∗ and the distance x∗ until the car comes to a stop

mi
a) on a dry road (µ = 0.8),

,G
b) on a wet road (µ = 0.35).
Solution The equation of motion in the horizontal direction

ge nics Wall
← : ma = mẍ = −R , x

the equilibrium condition in the mg


vertical direction

3,
R
↑ : 0 = N − mg
Sp cha der,
N

3
and the law of friction

01
ö

R = µN
r2
g M Schr

lead to

a = −µg .

Integration with v(t = 0) = v0 and x(t = 0) = 0 yields


e
rin
ee er,

1
v(t) = v0 − µgt , x(t) = v0 t − µgt2 .
2
The time t∗ follows from the condition v = 0:
gin ug

v0
rin

t∗ = .
µg
En s, Ha

This leads to
v02 v2 v2
x∗ = x(t∗ ) = − 0 = 0 .
µg 2µg 2µg
os
Gr
1 Motion of a Point Mass 39

cs e
na idje
a) On a dry road (µ = 0.8) we obtain
100 · 1000
t∗ = = 3.55 s ,
3600 · 0.8 · 9.81

Dy ov
 
100 2 1

mi
x∗ = = 49 m .
3.6 2 · 0.8 · 9.81

,G
b) On a wet road (µ = 0.35) we are led to
100 · 1000
t∗ = = 8.1 s ,

ge nics Wall
3600 · 0.35 · 9.81
 100 2 1
x∗ = = 112 m .
3.6 2 · 0.35 · 9.81

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
40 1 Motion of a Point Mass

cs e
E1.38 Example 1.38 In order to determine the

na idje
coefficient of restitution e experimental-
ly, a ball is dropped from height h0 onto
a horizontal rigid surface (Fig. 1.62). Af-

Dy ov
ter the ball has hit the surface 7 times, it h0

mi
reaches only 20% of the original height

,G
h0 .
h7 = 0.2h0
Calculate the coefficient of restituti-
on.
Fig. 1.62

ge nics Wall
Solution With the positive direction of
the velocity taken as upwards, the velo-
city of the ball immediately before the
first impact is given by

3,
h0
Sp cha der,
p h1
v = − 2gh0 . h2

3
The definition
1111111
0000000 h7

v
01 0000000
1111111
ö

e=−
v
r2
g M Schr

of the coefficient of restitution in terms of the velocities yields the


velocity v̄ immediately after the impact:
p
v = −ev = e 2gh0 .
e
rin

From the Conservation of Energy Law we obtain the height which


ee er,

the body will reach:


1 v2
gin ug

mv 2 = mgh1 → h1 = = e 2 h0 .
2 2g
rin

Similarly, we obtain
En s, Ha

hi = e2 hi−1
os
Gr
1 Motion of a Point Mass 41

cs e
na idje
for the subsequent impacts. Thus,

h7 = e2 h6 = e4 h5 = . . . = e14 h0

Dy ov
and
 1/14

mi
h7
e= = 0.21/14 = 0.891 .

,G
h0

ge nics Wall
3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
Gr
os
En s, Ha
gin ug
ee er,
rin
g M Schr
e ö
Sp cha der,
rin
ge nics Wall
r2 3, ,G
01 Dy ov
3 na idje
mi
cs e
Gr
os
En s, Ha
gin ug
Masses
Chapter 2
ee er,
rin
g M Schr
e ö
Sp cha der,
rin
ge nics Wall
r2 3, ,G
Dynamics of Systems of Point

01 Dy ov
3 na idje
mi
2

cs e
44 2 Dynamics of Systems of Point Masses

cs e
E2.10 Example 2.10 Two vehicles (masses m1 and m2 , velocities v1 and

na idje
v2 ) crash head-on, see Fig. 2.20. After a plastic impact the vehicles
are entangled and slide with locked wheels a distance s to the right.
The coefficient of kinetic v1 v2

Dy ov
friction between the wheels
m1 m2

mi
1111111111111
0000000000000
and the road is µ.

,G
Calculate v1 if v2 and s
Fig. 2.20
are known.
Solution The total momentum of the system remains unchanged

ge nics Wall
during the collision. We assume that positive velocities are direc-
ted to the right (note the direction of v2 ). We then obtain the
velocity v̄ of the vehicles after the impact:
m1 v1 − m2 v2

3,
m1 v1 − m2 v2 = (m1 + m2 )v̄ → v̄ = .
m1 + m2
Sp cha der,
In order to relate the distance s to the velocity v̄ we apply the

3
work-energy theorem

T1 − T0 = U .
01
ö

r2
g M Schr

We insert the kinetic energies

T0 = (m1 + m2 )v̄ 2 /2 , T1 = 0 ,

the work of the friction force


e
rin
ee er,

U = −Rs

and Coulomb’s friction law


gin ug

R = µN → R = µ(m1 + m2 )g .
rin
En s, Ha

We then obtain
1
− (m1 + m2 )v̄ 2 = −µ(m1 + m2 )gs
2
 
m2 m2 √
→ v1 = v2 + 1 + 2µgs .
m1 m1
os
Gr
2 Dynamics of Systems of Point Masses 45

cs e
Example 2.11 A block (mass m2 ) rests on a horizontal platform E2.11

na idje
(mass m1 ) which is also initially at rest (Fig. 2.21). A constant
force F accelerates the l
platform (wheels rolling µ

Dy ov
m2
without friction) which F

mi
causes the block to slide m1

,G
11111111111
00000000000
on the rough surface of
the platform (coefficient of
Fig. 2.21
kinetic friction µ).

ge nics Wall
Determine the time t∗ that it takes the block to fall off the
platform.

Solution We separate the

3,
block and the platform and
Sp cha der,
introduce the coordinates m2 g
11
00

3
x2
11
00
x1 and x2 as shown in the 2

11
00
01
free-body diagram. Then R
the equations of motion for
11
00 x1
ö

the two bodies are N


r2
g M Schr

1 R
① → : m1 ẍ1 = F − R , F

② → : m2 ẍ2 = R . m1 g
e

With the friction law R = A B


rin
ee er,

µN = µm2 g, we obtain
F − µm2 g
ẍ1 = , ẍ2 = µg .
gin ug

m1
rin

Now, we integrate twice. Using the initial conditions x1 (0) =


x2 (0) = 0 and ẋ1 (0) = ẋ2 (0) = 0 we obtain
En s, Ha

F − µm2 g
ẋ1 = t, ẋ2 = µgt ,
m1
F − µm2 g t2 t2
x1 = , x2 = µg .
m1 2 2
os
Gr
46 2 Dynamics of Systems of Point Masses

cs e
na idje
The block falls off the platform if

x1 − x2 = l .

Dy ov
This yields
s

mi
F − µm2 g (t∗ )2 (t∗ )2 ∗ 2lm1
− µg =l → t = .

,G
m1 2 2 F − µg(m1 + m2 )

ge nics Wall
3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
2 Dynamics of Systems of Point Masses 47

cs e
Example 2.12 A railroad wagon (mass m1 ) has a velocity v1 E2.12

na idje
(Fig. 2.22). It collides with a wagon (mass m2 ) which is initi-
ally at rest. Both wagons roll without friction after the collision.
The second wagon is connected via a spring (spring constant k)

Dy ov
with a block (mass m3 ) that lies on a rough surface (coefficient of

mi
static friction µ0 ).

,G
Assume the impact to be plastic and determine the maximum
value of v1 so that the block stays at rest.
v1

ge nics Wall
m1 m2 k
m3 µ0

Fig. 2.22
111111111111111111
000000000000000000

3,
Solution The total momentum of the system remains unchanged
Sp cha der,
during the impact. This yields the velocity v̄ of the wagons after

3
the collision:

01
m1
m1 v1 = (m1 + m2 )v̄ → v̄ = v1 .
m1 + m2
ö

r2
g M Schr

x
m1 m2 m3 g

11111111111111
00000000000000
00000000000000
11111111111111
m3 F
e

H
rin

N
ee er,

We assume that the block stays at rest. Then we can write down
gin ug

the equilibrium conditions


rin

→: H=F , ↑: N = m3 g .
En s, Ha
os
Gr
48 2 Dynamics of Systems of Point Masses

cs e
na idje
The force of static friction H and the normal force N have to
satisfy the condition of static friction:

H ≤ µ0 N → F ≤ µ0 m 3 g .

Dy ov
With

mi
µ0 m 3 g

,G
F = kx → x≤
k
we obtain the maximum compression of the spring:

ge nics Wall
µ0 m 3 g
xmax = .
k
Now we apply the Conservation of Energy Law to determine v1max :
r

3,
1 2 1 2 µ0 m 3 g m 1 + m 2
(m1 + m2 )v̄ = kxmax → v1max = .
Sp cha der,
2 2 m1 k

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
2 Dynamics of Systems of Point Masses 49

cs e
Example 2.13 A point mass m1 strikes a point mass m2 which is
111
000 E2.13

na idje
suspended from a string (length l, negli-
gible mass) as shown in Fig. 2.23. The
000
111
maximum force S ∗ that the string can

Dy ov
sustain is given. l

mi
Assume an elastic impact and de-
v0

,G
termine the velocity v0 that causes the
string to break. m1 m2
Fig. 2.23

ge nics Wall
Solution First we formulate the con-
servation of linear momentum

m1 v0 = m1 v̄1 + m2 v̄2 111


000

3,
ϕ
Sp cha der,
and of energy (elastic impact!):

3
m1 v02 /2 = m1 v̄12 /2 + m2 v̄22 /2 .

01
From these equations we can calcu- S
ö

late the velocity v̄2 of mass m2 im-


r2
g M Schr

mediately after the impact: m2 g


2m1
v̄2 = v0 .
m1 + m2
Now, we write down the equation of motion
e
rin
ee er,

տ: m2 an = S − m2 g cos ϕ .

With an = v22 /l we obtain the force in the string:


gin ug

S = m2 v22 /l + m2 g cos ϕ .
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
50 2 Dynamics of Systems of Point Masses

cs e
na idje
The maximum force Smax in the string is found for ϕ = 0:

Smax = m2 (v̄22 /l + g) .

Dy ov
The string breaks if the maximum force Smax is larger than the
allowable force S ∗ :

mi
,G
Smax > S ∗ .

This yields

ge nics Wall
m1 + m2 q ∗
v0 > l(S /m2 − g) .
2m1

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
2 Dynamics of Systems of Point Masses 51

cs e
Example 2.14 A ball ① (mass m1 ) hits a second ball ② (mass E2.14

na idje
m2 , velocity v2 = 0) with a velocity v1 as shown in Fig. 2.24.
Assume that the impact
m2
is partially elastic (coeffi-

Dy ov
cient of restitution e) and 2
r2

mi
all surfaces are smooth.
1 m 1

,G
Given: r2 = 3 r1 , m2 = v1
r1
4 m1 .
Determine the veloci-
1111111111111
0000000000000

ge nics Wall
ties of the balls after the Fig. 2.24
collision.
Solution We introduce the auxiliary angle α. Since the surfaces
are smooth, the linear impulse Fb acts in the direction of the line

3,
of impact and the Impulse Laws are given by
Sp cha der,

3
① → : m1 (v 1 − v1 ) = −Fb cos α , r2 x
r −r

01
α 2 1
② ր: m2 v 2 = Fb . r1
11111111
00000000
ö

Note that the weights of


r2
g M Schr

the balls can be neglected


during impact and that
ball ① moves only horizon-
tally. 2
e

With the hypothesis 1 Fb v2


rin
ee er,

v1 , v1 α
v 1x − v 2x α
e=− Fb
v1x − v2x
gin ug

b
N
and
rin

v1x = v1 cos α , v2x = 0 , v 1x = v 1 cos α , v 2x = v 2


En s, Ha

we obtain
m2
1−e cos2 α
m1 (1 + e) cos α
v 1 = v1 m2 , v 2 = v1 m2 .
1+ cos2 α 1+ cos2 α
os

m1 m1
Gr
52 2 Dynamics of Systems of Point Masses

cs e
na idje
Introduction of m2 = 4m1 and
p √
r2 − r1 1 2 3
sin α = = → cos α = 1 − sin α =
r1 + r2 2 2

Dy ov
yields

mi

1 − 3e 3

,G
v1 = v1 , v2 = (1 + e) v1 .
4 8

ge nics Wall
3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
2 Dynamics of Systems of Point Masses 53

cs e
Example 2.15 A hunter (mass m1 ) sits in a boat (mass m2 = E2.15

na idje
2 m1 ) which can move in the water without resistance. The boat
is initially at rest.
a) Determine the velocity vB1 of the boat after the hunter fires a

Dy ov
bullet (mass m3 = m1 /1000) with a velocity v0 = 500 m/s.

mi
b) Find the direction of the velocity of the boat after a second

,G
shot is fired at an angle of 45◦ with respect to the first one.
Solution a) We introduce a coordinate system and assume that
the bullet is fired in the direction of the negative x-axis. Since the

ge nics Wall
linear momentum before the firing of the bullet is zero, the total
linear momentum of the system after the firing (velocities positive
to the right) also has to be zero:

3,
→: (m1 + m2 − m3 )vB1 − m3 v0 = 0 .
Sp cha der,
This yields the velocity vB1 of the boat:

3
1

01
m3 1000 500
vB1 = v0 =  500 =
1 
ö

m1 + m2 − m3 2999
1+2−
r2
g M Schr

m 1000
≈ 0.167 .
s
The algebraic sign shows that the boat moves in the direction of
e

the positive x-axis.


rin

wB2
ee er,

m1 + m2 α
b) Now, we have to formu-
late the Impulse Laws in vB2
45◦
gin ug

the x- and y-direction: m3 y


rin

v0 x
En s, Ha

→ : (m1 + m2 − m3 )vB1 = (m1 + m2 − 2m3 )vB2 − m3 v0 cos 45◦ ,

↑: 0 = (m1 + m2 − 2m3 )wB2 − m3 v0 sin 45◦ .


os
Gr
54 2 Dynamics of Systems of Point Masses

cs e
na idje
They lead to
m1 + m2 − m3 m3
vB2 = vB1 + v0 cos 45◦
m1 + m2 − 2m3 m1 + m2 − 2m3

Dy ov
m
≈ 0.285 ,
s

mi
,G
m3 m
wB2 = v0 sin 45◦ ≈ 0.118 ,
m1 + m2 − 2m3 s

wB2

ge nics Wall
→ tan α = = 0.414 → α = 22.5◦ .
vB2

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
2 Dynamics of Systems of Point Masses 55

cs e
Example 2.16 A car ② goes into a skid on a wet road and co- E2.16

na idje
mes to a stop sideways across the road as shown in Fig. 2.25.
In spite of having fully applied the brakes
a distance s1 from car ②, a second car

Dy ov
① (sliding with the coefficient of kinetic s2
2

mi
friction µ) collides with car ②. This cau-
m2

,G
ses car ② to slide an additional distance
s2 . Assume a partially elastic central im-
pact. Given: m1 = 2 m2 , µ = 1/3, e = s1

ge nics Wall
0.2, s1 = 50 m, s2 = 10 m.
Determine the velocity v0 of car ① be- 1
v0 m1
fore the brakes were applied.
Fig. 2.25
Solution The velocity v1 of car ① immediately before impact fol-

3,
lows from the work-energy theorem:
Sp cha der,
1 1

3
m1 v12 − m1 v02 = −(µ m1 g)s1 → v12 = v02 − 2µ gs1 .
2 2

01
The velocity v 2 of car ② immediately after impact can be deter-
ö

mined from the conservation of linear momentum (note v2 = 0)


r2
g M Schr

m1 v1 = m1 v 1 + m2 v 2

and the hypothesis


e

v2 − v1
e= .
rin

v1
ee er,

We obtain
1+e
gin ug

v2 = m2 v1 .
1+
rin

m1
En s, Ha

Now we apply the work-energy theorem to the sliding of car ②:


1
− m2 v 22 = −(µ m2 g)s2 → v 22 = 2µ gs2 .
2
os
Gr
56 2 Dynamics of Systems of Point Masses

cs e
na idje
If we eliminate v1 and v 2 we obtain
m2 ! 2
1+
m1
v02 = 2µ gs2 + 2µ gs1
1+e

Dy ov
mi
 1.5 2 2 2
= · · 9.81 · 10 + · 9.81 · 50 = 429.19 m2/s2

,G
1.2 3 3
or

ge nics Wall
v0 = 20.7 m/s → v0 = 74.6 km/h .

Note: the velocity of car ① at impact is v1 = 36.4 km/h.

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
2 Dynamics of Systems of Point Masses 57

cs e
Example 2.17 Two cars (point masses m1 and m2 ) collide at an E2.17

na idje
intersection with velocities
v1 and v2 at an angle α
(Fig. 2.26). Assume a per- v1 β
m1

Dy ov
fectly plastic collision. α

mi
Determine the magni- v2

,G
tude and the direction of m2
the velocity immediately
after the impact. Calcula- Fig. 2.26

ge nics Wall
te the loss of energy during
the collision.

Solution Both cars have the y m1 +m2


same velocity v after the

3,
m1 v v
1
Sp cha der,
collision (plastic impact).
α β x
We write down the Impul-

3
v2
se Laws in the x- and y-

01
directions: m2
ö

→ : m1 v1 + m2 v2 cos α = (m1 + m2 )v cos β ,


r2
g M Schr

↑: m2 v2 sin α = (m1 + m2 )v sin β .


If we square and then add these equations we obtain
e

q
1
rin

v= (m1 v1 )2 + 2m1 m2 v1 v2 cos α + (m2 v2 )2 ,


ee er,

m1 + m2

whereas a division leads to


gin ug

m2 v2 sin α
tan β = .
rin

m1 v1 + m2 v2 cos α
En s, Ha
os
Gr
58 2 Dynamics of Systems of Point Masses

cs e
na idje
The loss of mechanical energy during impact is given by the dif-
ference ∆T of the kinetic energies before and after impact:
m1 v12 m2 v22 (m1 + m2 )v 2
∆T = + −

Dy ov
2 2 2
m1 m2

mi
2 2
= (v + v2 − 2v1 v2 cos α).
2(m1 + m2 ) 1

,G
Note that the loss of energy is a maximum if the cars collide head-
on (α = π). The energy ∆T causes the deformation of the cars.

ge nics Wall
3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
2 Dynamics of Systems of Point Masses 59

cs e
Example 2.18 A bullet (mass m) E2.18

na idje
has a velocity v0 (Fig. 2.27). An v1
explosion causes the bullet to
break into two parts (point mas- m1
y

Dy ov
ses m1 and m2 ). The directions π
m α1 =
2

mi
α1 and α2 of the two parts and
v0 α2 x

,G
the velocity v1 immediately after
the explosion are given.
Calculate m1 and v2 . Deter- v2
m2

ge nics Wall
mine the trajectory of the center
of mass of the two parts. Fig. 2.27

Solution Since no external forces are acting on the system, its


linear momentum does not change (linear momentum before the

3,
explosion = linear momentum after the explosion). Component-
Sp cha der,
wise, the principle of conservation of linear momentum gives

3
→ : mv0 = m2 v2 cos α2 ,

01
ö

↑: 0 = m1 v1 − m2 v2 sin α2 .
r2
g M Schr

Thus, we have two equations for the two unknowns m1 and v2 .


Solving with m = m1 + m2 yields
v0 v0
m1 = m tan α2 , v2 = .
v1 cos α2 − vv01 sin α2
e
rin
ee er,

We measure the time t from the moment of the explosion. Then,


with |yi | = vi t sin αi , the location of the center of mass is given by
gin ug

1
yc = (m1 y1 + m2 y2 )
rin

m
En s, Ha

1 n v0  v0  (−v sin α )
0 2
o
= m tan α2 v1 t + m − m tan α2 v0 t
m v1 v1 cos α2 − v1 sin α2

= 0.

The center of mass of the system continues to move on the original


os

straight line y = 0 (law of motion for the center of mass).


Gr
60 2 Dynamics of Systems of Point Masses

cs e
E2.19 Example 2.19 A ball (point mass m1 ) is attached to a cable. It is

na idje
1111111
0000000
released from rest at a height h1 (Fig. 2.28). After falling to the
vertical position at A it collides with
a second ball (point mass m2 = 2 m1 ) 0000000
1111111

Dy ov
which is also initially at rest. The co-

mi
efficient of restitution is e = 0.8. m1

,G
Determine the height h2 which the
first ball can reach after the collision h1 A
m2
and the velocity of the second ball im-
1111
0000

ge nics Wall
mediately after impact. Fig. 2.28

Solution The velocities of the masses m1 and m2 before the impact


are
p

3,
v1 = 2gh1 , v2 = 0 .
Sp cha der,
1 2

3
The Impulse Laws v1 , v1 v2

01
① → : m1 (v 1 − v1 ) = −Fb , m1 Fb Fb m2
ö

m2 v 2 = +Fb ,
r2
② →:
g M Schr

and the hypothesis


v1 − v2
e=−
e

v1
rin
ee er,

yield the velocities immediately after the impact:


m1 − e m2 1 − 1.6 p
v 1 = v1 = v1 = −0.2 2gh1 ,
gin ug

m1 + m2 1+2
p
rin

m1 1
v 2 = v1 (1 + e) = v1 1.8 = 0.6 2gh1 .
m1 + m2 1+2
En s, Ha

The height h2 follows from


the conservation of energy 1111
0000
1
m1 v 21 = m1 gh2
2
os

as m1
v1 m2 v2
h2

11111111
00000000
v2
Gr

h2 = 1 = 0.04 h1 .
2g
2 Dynamics of Systems of Point Masses 61

cs e
Example 2.20 The rigid rod (negli- E2.20

na idje
gible mass) in Fig. 2.29 carries two
point masses. It is struck by an im- A
pulsive force Fb at a distance a from
l

Dy ov
the support A. a

mi
Determine the angular veloci- m

,G
ty of the rod immediately after the
impact and the impulsive reaction l Fb
at A. Calculate a so that the reac-
m

ge nics Wall
tion force at A is zero.
Fig. 2.29
Solution We introduce a coordinate by
A
system. The y-component of the ve-
bx
A

3,
locity of the center of mass is zero
y
Sp cha der,
after the impact. Since the impulsi-
ve force Fb also has no y-component,

3
x 3l/2
the impulsive reaction at A has on- Fb

01
ly an x-component, i.e. Aby = 0. We C
ö

apply the principle of linear impulse


r2
g M Schr

and momentum

→: bx − Fb
2m(v̄c − vc ) = A

and the principle of angular impulse and momentum (compare


e

Chapter 3)
rin
ee er,

 2  
y l bx 3 l − Fb 3 l − a .
C: 2 m(ω̄ − ω) = A
2 2 2
gin ug

Inserting the kinematic relation


rin
En s, Ha

v̄c = −3lω̄/2

and the velocities

v̄c = 0 , ω=0
os
Gr
62 2 Dynamics of Systems of Point Masses

cs e
na idje
before the impact we obtain
 
Fb a 3a b
ω̄ = 2 , Abx = 1− F .
5l m 5l

Dy ov
mi
The reaction force at A is zero (Abx = 0) if the distance a is chosen

,G
as

a = 5l/3 .

ge nics Wall
3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
2 Dynamics of Systems of Point Masses 63

cs e
Example 2.21 A wagon (weight W1 = m1 g) hits a buffer (spring E2.21

na idje
constant k) with velocity v. The
000000000000
111111111111
000000000000
µ0 W2
111111111111
collision causes a block (weight

000000000000
111111111111
W2 = m2 g) to slide on the k

Dy ov
v
rough surface (coefficient of sta-
000000000000
111111111111
000000000000
W1

111111111111

mi
tic friction µ0 ) of the wagon

000000000000
111111111111

,G
(Fig. 2.30).
Determine a lower bound for
the wagon’s speed before the
000000000000
111111111111
Fig. 2.30

ge nics Wall
collision.
Solution We separate the wagon and the block. The orientation
of the friction force H is assumed arbitrarily in the free-body
diagram. Both bodies have the same acceleration (ẍ1 = ẍ2 = ẍ) as

3,
long as the block does not sli-
Sp cha der,
m2 g
de. Therefore, the equations of

3
2
motion are x

01
H
① ← : m1 ẍ = −H − F , N
ö

r2
g M Schr

② ← : m2 ẍ = H . H
F 1
With F = k x we obtain m1 g

H=−
m2
kx . 1111111
0000000
0000000
1111111
e

m1 + m2
rin
ee er,

The maximum friction force Hmax is obtained at maximal com-


pression xmax of the spring which follows from the Conservation
of Energy Law:
gin ug

r
rin

1 2 1 2 m1 + m2
(m1 + m2 )v = k xmax → xmax = v.
En s, Ha

2 2 k
os
Gr
64 2 Dynamics of Systems of Point Masses

cs e
na idje
The block is on the verge of slipping if the condition of “limiting
friction”
k
|Hmax | = µ0 N = µ0 m2 g → xmax = µ0 g
m1 + m2

Dy ov
mi
is satisfied. This yields the velocity that is necessary to cause
slippage of the block:

,G
r
m1 + m2
v = µ0 g .
k

ge nics Wall
3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
2 Dynamics of Systems of Point Masses 65

cs e
Example 2.22 The system shown in Fig. 2.31 consists of two blocks E2.22

na idje
(masses m1 and m2 ), a spring (spring constant k), a massless rope

11111111111
00000000000
and two massless pulleys. Block 1 lies on a rough surface (coeffi-
cient of kinetic friction µ).
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
g

Dy ov
At the beginning of the x1

11111111111
00000000000

mi
motion (t = 0), the spring
11111111111
00000000000
k m1

,G
11111111111
00000000000
is unstretched and the po-
sition of block 1 is given
11111111111
00000000000
by x1 = 0.
11111111111
00000000000 µ

ge nics Wall
Determine the velocity x2
ẋ1 as a function of the po- m2
sition x1 .
Fig. 2.31

3,
Solution Since we want to find the velocity as a function of the
Sp cha der,
position, we use the work-energy theorem

3
T1 − T0 = U .

01
ö

In moving from the initial position to an arbitrary position, the


r2
gravitational force, the force in the spring and the friction force
g M Schr

perform work:
1
UW = m2 gx2 ,Uk = − kx21 ,
2
e

UR = −Rx1 = −µN x1 = −µm1 gx1 .


rin
ee er,

The kinetic energies are given by


1 1
m1 ẋ21 + m2 ẋ22 ,
gin ug

T1 = T0 = 0 .
2 2
rin

With the kinematic relation


En s, Ha

ẋ2 = 2ẋ1

the work-energy theorem yields


1 1 1
m1 ẋ21 + m2 4ẋ21 = m2 gx2 − kx21 − µm1 gx1
2 2 2
os

r
2 1 k 2
→ ẋ1 = (2 − µ)gx1 − x .
5 5m 1
Gr
Gr
os
En s, Ha
gin ug
ee er,
rin
g M Schr
e ö
Sp cha der,
rin
ge nics Wall
r2 3, ,G
01 Dy ov
3 na idje
mi
cs e
Gr
os
En s, Ha
gin ug Chapter 3
ee er,
rin
g M Schr
e ö
Sp cha der,
rin
Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

ge nics Wall
r2 3, ,G
01 Dy ov
3 na idje
mi
3

cs e
68 3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

cs e
E3.24 Example 3.24 Point A of the rod er

na idje
in Fig. 3.47 moves with constant y
velocity vA to the left.
Determine the velocity and
0000000
1111111
B

0000000
1111111

Dy ov
the acceleration of point B of the
0000000
1111111

mi
0000000
1111111
rod (point of contact with the h

0000000
1111111

,G
step) as a function of the angle ϕ e ϕ

0000000
1111111
ϕ. Find the path y(x) of the in- v A
A
stantaneous center of rotation.
0000000 x
1111111

ge nics Wall
Fig. 3.47

Solution We use the coordinate system with the basis vectors er


and eϕ as shown in the figure. Then, the velocity of point A is

3,
given by
Sp cha der, er

arAB
v A = vA cos ϕer − vA sin ϕeϕ .

3
vAB
1111111111
0000000000
vB
1111111111
0000000000 aϕAB

01
The velocity v B of point B
1111111111
0000000000
a
points in the direction of the B
ö

rod (the rod does not lift off the 1111111111


0000000000
1111111111
0000000000
r2
g M Schr

1111111111
0000000000
step). Thus, vA eϕ
v B = vB er . 1111111111
0000000000 A
With the kinematic relation
e
rin
ee er,

v B = v A + v AB where v AB = aϕ̇eϕ

and with
gin ug

h
a= ,
rin

sin ϕ
En s, Ha

we obtain
hϕ̇
vB er = vA cos ϕer − vA sin ϕeϕ + eϕ
sin ϕ
vA
→ vB = vA cos ϕ and ϕ̇ = sin2 ϕ .
h
os
Gr
3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 69

cs e
na idje
In order to determine the acceleration of point B we use the rela-
tion

aB = aA + arAB + aϕ
AB ,

Dy ov
where

mi
,G
aA = 0 , arAB = −aϕ̇2 er , aϕ
AB = aϕ̈eϕ .

The angular acceleration of the rod is found by differentiating its

ge nics Wall
angular velocity ϕ̇:
2
vA vA
ϕ̈ = (sin2 ϕ)˙ → ϕ̈ = 2 sin3 ϕ cos ϕ .
h h2
Hence, we obtain

3,
Sp cha der,
2
vA
aB = sin2 ϕ(− sin ϕer + 2 cos ϕeϕ ) .

3
h

01
The instantaneous center of rotation Π is given by the point of
ö

intersection of two straight lines which are perpendicular to two


r2
velocities. In the present example, the directions of the velocities
g M Schr

vA and vB are known. The-


refore, the instantaneous cen- 2.0

ter of rotation can easily be path of Π

constructed (see the figure). 1.5


e

Π
rin

Point Π has the coordinates y/h


ee er,

1.0
11111
00000
11111
x = h cot ϕ , y = h + x cot ϕ .
00000
11111
00000
gin ug

0.5
Elimination of the angle ϕ
11111
00000
rin

11111
00000
yields the path of Π: ϕ
0
En s, Ha

-1.0 0.5 0 0.5 1.0


x2
y= +h. x/h
h
os
Gr
70 3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

cs e
E3.25 Example 3.25 The wheel of a

na idje
crank drive rotates with l 000
111
constant angular velocity ω
(Fig. 3.48).
ω00000000
11111111
r
ϕ ψ
000
111
000
111
P
111
000

Dy ov
Determine the velocity and 000
111

mi
the acceleration of the pi- Fig. 3.48

,G
ston P .
Solution If we introduce the
0
1
0
auxiliary angle ψ, then the
1

ge nics Wall
y
position xP of the piston is
0
1
0
given by
1
0
1
r ψ
l
0
1
ϕ = ωt
xP = r cos ϕ + l cos ψ .
111111
000000 x
P

3,
Now
Sp cha der,
we differentia-
te and obtain (note

3
ϕ̇ = ω = const)

01
ö

ẋP = −rω sin ϕ − lψ̇ sin ψ ,


r2
g M Schr

ẍP = −rω 2 cos ϕ − lψ̈ sin ψ − lψ̇ 2 cos ψ .


The quantities sin ψ, cos ψ, ψ̇ and ψ̈ are as yet unknown. They
follow from the condition that the piston can move only in the
e

horizontal direction. Therefore, its vertical displacement is zero:


rin
ee er,

yP = 0 = r sin ϕ − l sin ψ .
gin ug

Differentiation yields
rin

ẏP = 0 = rω cos ϕ − lψ̇ cos ψ ,


En s, Ha

ÿP = 0 = −rω 2 sin ϕ − lψ̈ cos ψ + lψ̇ 2 sin ψ .


os
Gr
3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 71

cs e
na idje
Thus,
r r 2
r
sin ψ = sin ϕ , cos ψ = 1− sin ϕ ,
l l

Dy ov
r cos ϕ r sin ϕ sin ψ

mi
ψ̇ = ω , ψ̈ = −ω 2 + ψ̇ 2 .
l cos ψ l cos ψ cos ψ

,G
Hence, we finally obtain
 
r sin ϕ cos ϕ
ẋP = −rω sin ϕ + ,

ge nics Wall
l cos ψ
( " #)
2 r sin2 ϕ cos2 ϕ
ẍP = −rω cos ϕ − − .
l cos ψ cos3 ψ

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
72 3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

cs e
E3.26 Example 3.26 Link MA of the mechanism in Fig. 3.49 rotates with

na idje
angular velocity ϕ̇(t).
Determine the velocities of points B and C, the angular velo-
city ω and the angular acceleration ω̇ of the angled member ABC

Dy ov
at the instant shown.

mi
l

,G
r
A C

ge nics Wall
M ϕ l
y
00
11
00
11
00
11
B

x
00
11
00
11

3,
z
α Fig. 3.49
Sp cha der,

3
Solution With the given x, y, z-coordinate system, the velocities

01
of points A and B at the instant shown can be written in the form
ö

   
r2
− sin ϕ − cos α
g M Schr

   
v A = rϕ̇    
 cos ϕ  , v B = vB  sin α  ,
0 0

where vB is as yet unknown (note that the direction of v B is


e
rin

known). The angular velocity of the angled member ABC is re-


ee er,

presented by
 
0
gin ug

 
ω = 0

 .
rin

ω
En s, Ha

We now use the kinematic relation

v B = v A + ω × rAB
os
Gr
3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 73

cs e
na idje
which, with rAB = (0, −l, 0)T , in coordinates reads
     
− cos α − sin ϕ ωl
     
vB 
 sin α  = rϕ̇  cos ϕ  +  0  .
    

Dy ov
0 0 0

mi
,G
Solving yields
cos ϕ rϕ̇  cos ϕ 
vB = rϕ̇ , ω= sin ϕ − .
sin α l tan α

ge nics Wall
In an analogous way we obtain the velocity of point C:
 
− sin ϕ
 cos ϕ 
v C = v A + ω × r AC → v C = rϕ̇  
sin ϕ + cos ϕ − tan α  .

3,
Sp cha der,
0

3
In order to determine the angular acceleration ω̇ = (0, 0, ω̇)T of

01
the angled member, we first write down the relation
ö

r2
g M Schr

aB = aA + ω̇ × r AB + ω × (ω × rAB ) ,

which in coordinates reads


         
− cos α − sin ϕ cos ϕ ω̇l 0
         
e

    2    
aB  sin α  = rϕ̈  cos ϕ  − rϕ̇  sin ϕ  +  0  + ω 2 l
 .
rin
ee er,

0 0 0 0 0
Solving for aB and ω̇ yields
gin ug

1
rin

aB = (rϕ̈ cos ϕ − rϕ̇2 sin ϕ + lω 2 ) ,


sin α
En s, Ha

 
1 1
ω̇ = rϕ̈ sin ϕ + rϕ̇2 cos ϕ − (rϕ̈ cos ϕ − rϕ̇2 sin ϕ + lω 2 ) .
l tan α
os
Gr
74 3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

00
11

cs e
E3.27 Example 3.27 Wheel ① rolls in
111111111111
000000000000
00Ω
11

na idje
a gear mechanism without slip
111111111111
000000000000
along circle ②. The mechanism
111111111111
000000000000
R
is driven with a constant angu- 111111111111
000000000000
P r
111111111111
000000000000

Dy ov
111111111111
000000000000
lar velocity Ω (Fig. 3.50). 1

mi
111111111111
000000000000
Determine the magnitudes 2
ϕ
111111111111
000000000000

,G
of the velocity and the accele-
ration of point P on the wheel. Fig. 3.50

ge nics Wall
Solution The motion of P is composed of the rotation of B about
A with

vB = RΩ (vB ⊥ AB) , aB = RΩ2 (aB k AB)

3,
Sp cha der,
and the rotation of P about B. In order to determine the angular
velocity ω of wheel ① we consider two positions of the wheel. The

3
figure shows that the relation

01
(R + r)α = r(β + α) 00
11
111111111111
000000000000
00
11
ö

111111111111
000000000000
r2
g M Schr

111111111111
000000000000
→ Rα = rβ α
R
111111111111
for the arclengths holds. Diffe- 000000000000
rentiating and using α̇ = Ω and 111111111111
000000000000
C′

111111111111
000000000000 r B B′

111111111111
000000000000
β
e

β̇ = ω yields α

. 111111111111
000000000000
rin

C
ee er,

R
RΩ = rω → ω = Ω
r
Note that Ω is positive counterclockwise, whereas ω is positive
gin ug

clockwise.
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 75

cs e
na idje
We can now construct the velocity
diagram and the acceleration dia-
gram. Since the velocity diagram vP
is represented by an isosceles tri-

Dy ov
vP B = rω
angle, we obtain

mi
vB = RΩ ϕ = Rω
ϕ

,G
vP = 2ΩR sin .
2

Finally, the law of cosines yields

ge nics Wall
 2 2 2
Ω R ϕ
a2P = (Ω2 R)2 + anP B = rω 2
r
2 2 aB = RΩ2 Ω2 R2
Ω R =
−2Ω2 R cos(π − ϕ) , r

3,
r
s aP
Sp cha der,
 2
R R

3
a P = Ω2 R 1 + + 2 cos ϕ .
r r

01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
76 3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

cs e
E3.28 Example 3.28 A disk (mass m, radius r1 ) rests in a frictionless
1

na idje
support (ω0 = 0). A second disk r2
2 (mass m, radius r2 ) rotates

111111
000000
ω2
with the angular velocity ω2 . It m

000000
111111

Dy ov
is placed on disk 1 as shown in m 2

111111111
000000000
0000
1111

mi
Fig. 3.51. Due to friction, both 1

0000
1111

,G
disks eventually rotate with the
same angular velocity ω̄. r1
Determine ω̄. Calculate the Fig. 3.51

ge nics Wall
change ∆T of the kinetic energy.

Solution Since there is no moment of external forces acting on the


system, the angular momentum is conserved during the process:

3,
Θ2 ω2 = (Θ1 + Θ2 )ω̄ .
Sp cha der,

3
With the mass moments of inertia

01
Θ1 = mr12 /2 , Θ2 = mr22 /2
ö

we obtain the resulting angular velocity ω̄:


r2
g M Schr

r22
ω̄ = ω2 .
r12 + r22

The change ∆T of the kinetic energy follows as


e
rin

r2 r2
ee er,

1 1 1
∆T = (Θ1 + Θ2 )ω̄ 2 − Θ2 ω22 → ∆T = − mω22 2 1 2 2 .
2 2 4 r1 + r2
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 77

cs e
Example 3.29 The door (mass m, moment E3.29

na idje
of inertia ΘA ) of a car is open (Fig. 3.52). a0
Its center of mass C has a distance b from m
C
the frictionless hinges. The car starts to A

Dy ov
move with the constant acceleration a0 . b

mi
Determine the angular velocity of the

,G
door when it slams shut.
Fig. 3.52

Solution First, we write down

ge nics Wall
the acceleration of the center An
A
of mass C: ϕ
C
aC = aA + arAC + aϕ
AC , At

3,
Sp cha der,
where the magnitudes of the

3
individual terms are given by

01
aA = a0 , arAC = bϕ̇2 , aϕ
AC = bϕ̈ .
ö

We then formulate the principle of linear momentum (in the t-


r2
g M Schr

direction, see the free-body diagram)

ւ: m(bϕ̈ − a0 cos ϕ) = At
e

and the principle of angular momentum (about the center of mass


rin

C):
ee er,

y
C: ΘC ϕ̈ = −At b .
gin ug

The mass moment of inertia ΘC follows from the parallel-axis


rin

theorem:
En s, Ha

ΘC = ΘA − mb2 .
os
Gr
78 3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

cs e
na idje
Eliminating the force At yields
ma0 b
ϕ̈ = cos ϕ .
ΘA

Dy ov
The angular velocity of the door can be obtained through integra-

mi
tion:

,G
1 2 ma0 b
ϕ̇ (ϕ) = sin ϕ .
2 ΘA
Thus, for ϕ = π/2 (closed door) we find

ge nics Wall
s
2ma0 b
ϕ̇(π/2) = .
ΘA

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 79

cs e
Example 3.30 A child (mass m) runs along the rim of a circular E3.30

na idje
platform (mass M , radius r) starting from point A (Fig. 3.53).
The platform is initially at rest; its support is frictionless.
Determine the angle

Dy ov
of rotation of the plat-
0 M

mi
form when the child ar- m
r

,G
rives again at point A.
A

Fig. 3.53

ge nics Wall
Solution We apply the principle of angular momentum: the time
rate of change of the angular momentum is equal to the moment of

3,
the applied forces. Since there are no external applied forces acting
Sp cha der,
in the present example, the angular momentum is constant:

3
dL(0)
=0 → L(0) = const

01
dt
ö

with
r2
g M Schr

L(0) = Θ0 ω + mr2 (ω + ωrel ) .

Here,

Θ0 = M r2 /2
e
rin
ee er,

is the mass moment of inertia of the platform, ω is the angular


velocity of the platform and ωrel is the angular velocity of the child
relative to the platform. Integration of the principle of angular
gin ug

momentum with the initial condition


rin

L(0) (0) = 0 L(0) ≡ 0


En s, Ha

yields
Z t
L(0) dt̄ = 0 → Θ0 ϕ + mr2 (ϕ + ϕrel ) = 0 .
0
os
Gr
80 3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

cs e
na idje
The child arrives again at
point A when the relati- 2π
ve angle attains the value ϕrel = 2π
ϕ
ϕrel = 2π. Solving for ϕ |ϕ|

Dy ov
yields ϕchild = ϕ+ϕrel

mi
π

,G
ϕ=− .
M
+1
2m
10

ge nics Wall
0 2 4 6 8
The result is displayed in M/m
a diagram.

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 81

cs e
111111111
000000000
Example 3.31 A homogeneous E3.31

na idje
triangular plate of weight W =
mg is suspended from three 1 2 1010
strings with negligible mass. α α
1010

Dy ov
Determine the acceleration of 3
l W

mi
the plate and the forces in the

,G
strings just after string 3 is cut. 2l
Fig. 3.54
Solution The motion of the plate is a translation after string 3 is

ge nics Wall
cut. Therefore, all the points of the plate have the same accele-
ration (and the same velocity). We choose point A which rotates
about a fixed point to represent the motion of the plate. Its acce-
leration can be written in the Serret-Frenet frame as

3,
Sp cha der,
v2
a = aA = v̇et + en .

3
ρA
en 2

01
Its velocity is zero at the mo- l
3 α
ment of the cut: S1 S2
ö

A
1
r2
g M Schr

C l
v=0 → a = v̇et . et 3

The principles of linear and an- mg


gular momentum are then given
by (see the free-body diagram)
e
rin
ee er,

ւ : mv̇ = mg sin α ,

տ: 0 = S1 + S2 − mg cos α ,
gin ug

y 2 l l 4
rin

C : 0= lS1 cos α − S1 sin α − S2 sin α − S2 cos α .


3 3 3 3
En s, Ha
os
Gr
82 3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

cs e
na idje
Solving these equations yields

v̇ = g sin α,

Dy ov
mg mg
S1 = (sin α + 4 cos α), S2 = (− sin α + 2 cos α) .

mi
6 6

,G
Note that S2 = 0 for sin α = 2 cos α (i.e., for tan α = 2 →
α = 63.4◦). In this case the line of action of S1 passes through the
center of mass C.

ge nics Wall
3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 83

cs e
Example 3.32 A sphere (mass E3.32

na idje
m1 , radius r) and a cylindrical ϕ
wheel (mass m2 , radius r) are x
connected by two bars (mass r
m1

Dy ov
of each bar m3 /2, length l). m3

mi
They roll down a rough incli- r

,G
ned plane (with angle α) wi- m2
thout slipping (Fig. 3.55). l
Find the acceleration of the
α

ge nics Wall
bars.
Fig. 3.55

Solution The only external forces that act on the system are the

3,
Sp cha der,
weights of the individual parts. Therefore, conservation of energy

3
T + V = const

01
leads to the solution. The kinetic energy is given by
ö

r2
T = (m1 + m2 + m3 )ẋ2 /2 + (Θ1 + Θ2 )ϕ̇2 /2
g M Schr

and the potential energy is

V = −(m1 + m2 + m3 )gx sin α .


e
rin

With the kinematic relation (rolling without slipping)


ee er,

ẋ = rϕ̇
gin ug

and the mass moments of inertia


rin

Θ1 = 2m1 r2 /5 , Θ2 = m2 r2 /2
En s, Ha
os
Gr
84 3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

cs e
na idje
we obtain

(7m1 /10 + 3m2 /4 + m3 /2)ẋ2 − (m1 + m2 + m3 )gx sin α = const .

Dy ov
Differentiation finally yields the acceleration of the bars:

mi
2(7m1 /10 + 3m2 /4 + m3 /2)ẋẍ − (m1 + m2 + m3 )g ẋ sin α = 0

,G
(m1 + m2 + m3 ) sin α
→ a = ẍ = g.
7m1 /5 + 3m2 /2 + m3

ge nics Wall
3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 85

cs e
Example 3.33 The cylindrical E3.33

na idje
y z
shaft shown in Fig. 3.56 has
an inhomogeneous mass den- x r
R y
sity given by ρ = ρ0 (1 + αr).
l

Dy ov
Find the moments of iner-

mi
Fig. 3.56
tia Θx and Θy .

,G
Solution We determine the z
mass moment of inertia
Θx from r
dr

ge nics Wall
Z Z
Θx = (y 2 + z 2 )dm = r2 dm . y
R
With

3,
dm = ρ 2πr dr dx = 2πρ0 (r + αr2 )dr dx
Sp cha der,

3
we obtain

01
Rl RR 3  R4 R5 
Θx = 2πρ0 (r + αr4 )dr dx = 2πρ0 l +α
ö

0 0 4 5
r2
 
g M Schr

π 4
= ρ0 lR4 1 + αR .
2 5
The mass moment of inertia Θy = Θz (symmetry) follows from
Z
e

Θy = (z 2 + x2 )dm
rin
ee er,

rdϕ
with z dr
gin ug

dm = ρr dϕ dr dx
dϕ r
rin

2
= ρ0 (r + αr ) dϕ dr dx , r sin ϕ
En s, Ha

ϕ
z = r sin ϕ . y
os
Gr
86 3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

cs e
na idje
Using the symmetry we obtain
π/2
Zl ZR Z
Θy = 4ρ0 (r2 sin2 ϕ + x2 )(r + αr2 )dϕ dr dx

Dy ov
0 0 0

mi
Z l ZR
(r2 + 2x2 )(r + αr2 )dr dx

,G
= πρ0
0 0
  3 
R2 l2 R 2 2

ge nics Wall
2
= πρ0 R l + +α + Rl .
4 3 5 9

Note: For α = 0 the results reduce with m = ρ0 πR2 l to the mass


moments of inertia of a homogeneous cylindrical shaft (note the

3,
term due to the parallel-axis theorem):
Sp cha der,
1 1 

3
Θx = mR2 , Θy = m 3R2 + 4l2 .
2 12

01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 87

cs e
Example 3.34 Determine the E3.34

na idje
a
R
moment of inertia Θa of a ho-
mogeneous torus with a circular c
cross section and mass m.

Dy ov
a

mi
Fig. 3.57

,G
Solution The mass moment of inertia Θa is determined from
Z
Θa = r2 dm .

ge nics Wall
We can determine the geo- a dr
metrical relations R c 2c cos ϕ

3,
r = R + c sin ϕ , ϕ
Sp cha der,
dm = ρ 2πr2c cos ϕ dr c sin ϕ

3
a r

01
from the figure. With
ö

dr = c cos ϕ dϕ
r2
g M Schr

we obtain

dm = 4πρc2 (R + c sin ϕ) cos2 ϕ dϕ .


e

Thus,
rin
ee er,

+π/2
Z
2
Θa = 4πρc (R + c sin ϕ)3 cos2 ϕdϕ
gin ug

−π/2
rin

+π/2
Z

En s, Ha

2
= 4πρc R3 cos2 ϕ + 3R2 c sin ϕ cos2 ϕ
−π/2

+ 3Rc2 sin2 ϕ cos2 ϕ + c3 sin3 ϕ cos2 ϕ]dϕ


   
π 3 3π 3 2
= 4πρc 2
R + Rc2 2 2 2
= 2π ρc R R + c .
os

2 8 4
Gr
88 3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

cs e
na idje
Note that the integrals of the odd functions over the even interval
are zero. Using m = 2π 2 ρc2 R we finally get
 3 
Θ a = m R 2 + c2 .

Dy ov
4

mi
This result reduces to Θa = mR2 in the case of a thin ring

,G
(c ≪ R).

ge nics Wall
3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 89

cs e
Example 3.35 A rope drum on a E3.35

na idje
rough surface is set into motion m, Θc
by pulling the rope with a con-
stant force F0 . r2 F0

Dy ov
Determine the acceleration of r1
C

mi
point C assuming that the drum α

,G
rolls (no slipping). What coeffi-
cient of static friction µ0 is ne-
cessary to ensure rolling? 111111111
000000000 µ0

ge nics Wall
Fig. 3.58

Solution The free-body diagram shows the forces that act on the
drum. We apply the principles of linear and angular momentum:

3,
Sp cha der,
→: mac = F0 cos α − H ,

3
ω

01
↑ : 0 = N − mg + F0 sin α ,
vc r2 F0
r1
ö

y C
C : Θc ω̇ = r1 H − r2 F0 . mg
r2
α
g M Schr

In addition we have the kinema-


tic relation
H
vc = r1 ω → v̇c = ac = r1 ω̇ N
e
rin
ee er,

between the velocity and the angular velocity (rolling without


slip). We solve these four equations to obtain the acceleration and
gin ug

the forces:
r2
rin

cos α −
F0 r1
En s, Ha

ac = ,
m Θc
1+ 2
r1 m

Θc cos α r2
+
r12 m r1
H = F0 , N = mg − F0 sin α .
os

Θc
1+ 2
r1 m
Gr
90 3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

cs e
na idje
In order to ensure rolling, the condition of static friction H ≤ µ0 N
has to be satisfied. This leads to
Θc cos α r2
+
r12 m r1

Dy ov
µ0 ≥     .
mg Θc

mi
− sin α 1+ 2
F0 r1 m

,G
Note: For cos α > r2 /r1 we have ac > 0 (motion to the right),
whereas for cos α < r2 /r1 we obtain ac < 0 (motion to the left).

ge nics Wall
In the case of F0 sin α > mg the drum lifts off the ground.

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 91

cs e
Example 3.36 A homogeneous beam (mass M , length l) is initially E3.36

na idje
in vertical position ① (Fig. 3.59). A small disturbance causes the
beam to rotate about the frictionless
support A (initial velocity equal to ze-

Dy ov
ro). In position ② it strikes a small ① M l

mi
sphere (mass m, radius r ≪ l). As-
A

,G
sume the impact to be elastic (e = 1).
Determine the angular velocities of ②
the beam immediately before and af-
m

ge nics Wall
ter the impact and the velocity of the
sphere after the impact. Fig. 3.59

Solution The angular velocity ω immediately before the impact

3,
follows from the conservation of energy (ΘA = M l2 /3):
Sp cha der,
q

3
M gl/2 = ΘA ω 2 /2 − M gl/2 → ω = 6g/l .

01
Since the impact is assumed to be elastic, the conservation of the
ö

angular momentum
r2
g M Schr

ΘA ω = ΘA ω̄ + mlv̄

as well as the conservation of energy


e

ΘA ω 2 /2 = ΘA ω̄ 2 /2 + mv̄ 2 /2
rin
ee er,

hold. Solving these two equations yields


M − 3m 2lM
gin ug

ω̄ = ω, v̄ = ω.
M + 3m M + 3m
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
92 3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

cs e
E3.37 Example 3.37 A thin half-cylin-

na idje
drical shell of weight W = mg W
rolls without sliding on a flat sur-
face (Fig. 3.60). ϕ

Dy ov
Determine the angular velocity R

mi
as a function of ϕ when the initial
11111111
00000000

,G
condition ϕ̇(ϕ = 0) = 0 is given.
Fig. 3.60

Solution The position of the center of mass and the mass moment

ge nics Wall
of inertia are given by
Z π R sin α
1 2R 0
c = (R sin α)Rdα = ,
Rπ 0 π α
4 c

3,
Θc = Θ0 − mc2 = mR2 − 2 mR2 C
R
π
Sp cha der,
R dα
4
= mR2 (1 − 2 ) .

3
π
Thus,

01 2 Rϕ c cos ϕ
ö

xc = Rϕ + c cos ϕ = R(ϕ + cos ϕ) ,


π
r2
g M Schr

2R c
ϕ yc x
yc = c sin ϕ = sin ϕ ,
π y C
2
ẋc = Rϕ̇(1 − sin ϕ) ,
2R
π
11111111
00000000
e

ẏc = ϕ̇ cos ϕ .
rin

π
ee er,

Since we want to find the angular velocity as a function of the


angle we apply the conservation of energy:
gin ug

T + V = T0 + V0 .
rin
En s, Ha

With

T0 = 0 , V0 = 0 ,
1 1 1  4 4
T = m(ẋ2c + ẏc2 ) + Θc ϕ̇2 = mR2 ϕ̇2 1 − sin ϕ + 2 sin2 ϕ
2 2 2 π π
os

4  1  4   2 
+ 2 cos2 ϕ + mR2 ϕ̇2 1 − 2 = mR2 ϕ̇2 1 − sin ϕ ,
π 2 π π
Gr

2
V = −mgyc = − mgR sin ϕ
π
3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 93

cs e
na idje
we obtain
2 2
mR2 ϕ̇2 (1 − sin ϕ) − mgr sin ϕ = 0
π π

Dy ov
s
2g sin ϕ

mi
→ ϕ̇(ϕ) = .
R(π − 2 sin ϕ)

,G
Note that the angular velocity attains its maximum for ϕ = 90◦
(lowest position of the center of mass):

ge nics Wall
q
ϕ̇max = 2g/R(π − 2) .

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
94 3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

cs e
E3.38 Example 3.38 An elevator con-

na idje
l
sists of a cabin (weight W = mg)
which is connected through a ro- r2
µ
pe (of negligible mass) with a ro- 0
r1

Dy ov
pe drum and a band brake (coef-
F

mi
ficient of dynamic friction µ). Θ0

,G
Determine the necessary bra-
king force F such that a cabin
W v0
travelling downwards with velo-

ge nics Wall
city v0 stops after a distance h. Fig. 3.61

Solution First we determine the


brake momentum MB that acts r2
on the drum. To this end we se-

3,
ω0
parate the drum and the lever.
Sp cha der,
Equilibrium at the lever

3
W
S1 S2

01
y
A: 0 = −2r2 S2 + lF S1 S2 F
ö

Fl
→ S2 = A
r2
g M Schr

2r2
2r2
and the formula S1 = S2 e−µπ l
for belt friction (see Volume 1,
Chapter 9) lead to
e
rin
ee er,

Fl
MB = r2 S2 − r2 S1 = (1 − e−µπ ) .
2
gin ug

Now we apply the work-energy theorem


rin

T1 − T0 = U .
En s, Ha
os
Gr
3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 95

cs e
na idje
With the kinematic relations (constraints imposed by the rope)

v0 = r1 ω0 , h = r1 ϕh

Dy ov
the kinetic energies and the work are given by

mi
1 1 v2  Θ0 
T1 = 0 , T0 = mv02 + Θ0 ω02 = 0 m + 2 ,

,G
2 2 2 r1
Z ϕh
F lh
U = mgh − MB dϕ = mgh − (1 − e−µπ ) .
0 2r1

ge nics Wall
Thus, we obtain
v2  Θ0  F lh
− 0 m + 2 = mgh − (1 − e−µπ ) .
2 r1 2r1

3,
Solving for the force F yields
Sp cha der,
r1 v02 m  2gh 

3
Θ0
F = 1 + + .
lh(1 − e−µπ ) mr12 v02

01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
96 3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

cs e
E3.39 Example 3.39 A homogeneous beam (mass m, length l) rotates

na idje
about frictionless support A (Fig. 3.62) until it hits support B.
The motion starts with zero
initial velocity in the vertical

Dy ov
position. The coefficient of re- l

mi
stitution e is given.
m

,G
Calculate the impulsive
forces at A and B. Determi- A B
ne the distance a so that the

ge nics Wall
impulsive force at A vanishes. a
Calculate the change of the
Fig. 3.62
kinetic energy.

3,
Solution First we calculate the angular velocity of the beam im-
Sp cha der,
mediately before the impact with the aid of the conservation of
energy (ΘA = ml2 /3):

3
01
mgl/2 = ΘA ϕ̇2 /2 → ϕ̇2 = 3g/l .
ö

r2
ϕ
g M Schr

y bH
A C
x
bV
A b
B
e

a
rin
ee er,

We then apply the principles of impulse and momentum:

→: ¯C − ẋC ) = AbH ,
m(ẋ
gin ug
rin

↑: m(ẏ¯C − ẏC ) = AbV + B


b,
En s, Ha

y
A: b .
ΘA (ϕ̇¯ − ϕ̇) = −Ba
os
Gr
3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 97

cs e
na idje
Here, the velocity of the center of mass and the angular velocity
before the impact are given by
p q
ẋC = 0 , ẏC = − 3gl/2 , ϕ̇ = 3g/l .

Dy ov
In order to obtain the velocities immediately after the impact we

mi
use the hypothesis

,G
ẏ¯B
e=− → ϕ̇¯ = −eϕ̇ ,
ẏB

ge nics Wall
which leads to
p q
¯C = 0 ,
ẋ ẏ¯C = e 3gl/2 , ϕ̇¯ = −e 3g/l .

3,
Solving for the impulsive reactions yields
Sp cha der,
AbH = 0 , bV = (1 + e)(3a − 2l)m √3gl ,
A

3
6a

01
b = (1 + e)ml √3gl .
B
ö

3a
r2
g M Schr

The impulsive force at A vanishes if

AbV = 0 → a = 2l/3 .

The change of the kinetic energy is the difference ∆T = T1 − T0


e
rin

of the energies before and after impact:


ee er,

1 1
∆T = ΘA ϕ̄˙ 2 − ΘA ϕ̇2 → ∆T = −(1 − e2 )mgl/2 .
2 2
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
98 3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

cs e
E3.40 Example 3.40 A homogeneous cir-

na idje
cular disk of weight W = mg is sus-
pended from a pin-supported bar (of
negligible mass). Initially the disk

Dy ov
ϕ
rotates with the angular velocity ω0 . l

mi
a) Determine the amplitude of os- m
ω0

,G
cillation of the pendulum, if the r
bar suddenly prevents the disk
from rotating.

ge nics Wall
b) Calculate the energy loss ∆E. Fig. 3.63

Solution a) First we determine the angular velocity ω of the bar


immediately after the rotation of the disk is prevented (note that
the bar is still in the vertical position). Since there are no external

3,
Sp cha der,
moments acting with respect to A,
the angular momentum is conser-

3
A
ved. With ω
1 2
01 1 2 1 Disk
mr + ml2 = m(r2 + 2l2 )
ö

ΘB = mr , ΘA = blocked
2 2 2
r2
g M Schr

we obtain
B
ΘB r2
Θ B ω0 = Θ A ω → ω= ω0 = 2 ω0 .
ΘA r + 2l2
e

The maximum value ϕ1 of the angle


rin
ee er,

ϕ (= amplitude of the oscillation)


can be calculated from the conser-
vation of energy:
gin ug

ϕ1
rin

T1 +V1 = T0 +V0 .
En s, Ha

If we choose the potential energy V0


(initial position) to be equal to zero,
position 1
we can write
l(1 − cos ϕ1 )
T1 = 0 ,
os

position 0
V1 = mgl(1 − cos ϕ1 ) ,

mr2 ω02 r2
Gr

1
T0 = ΘA ω 2 = ,
2 4 r2 + 2l2
V0 = 0 .
3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 99

cs e
na idje
Then, conservation of energy leads to

r2 ω02 r2
cos ϕ1 = 1 − .
4gl r + 2l2
2

Dy ov
b) The loss of energy ∆E is given by the difference ∆T of the

mi
kinetic energies before and after the blocking:

,G
ΘB ω02 ΘA ω 2 mr2 ω02 m r4 ω02
∆E = − = − (r2 + 2l2 ) 2
2 2 4 4 (r + 2l2 )2

ge nics Wall
mr2 ω02 l2
= .
2 r2 + 2l2

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
100 3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

cs e
E3.41 Example 3.41 A homogeneous an-
11
00 0
1

na idje
M
00 10
11
0
gled bar of mass m is attached to a
shaft with negligible mass. The ro-
2l
tation of the system is driven by the m l

Dy ov
moment M0 . η
ξ

mi
Determine the angular accelera- 2l 2l

,G
tion and the support reactions.
111
000 Fig. 3.64

ge nics Wall
Solution The following moments
M0
and products of inertia with respect
to the body-fixed coordinate system Aη
ξ, η, ζ are needed: Aξ
ω, ω̇

3,
2 (2l)2 m 20
Sp cha der, η
Θζ = m + (2l)2 = ml2 , ζ
3 3 3 9 C

3
m l 1 ξc
Θξζ = − 2l = − ml2 ,

01
3 2 3 ξ
ö

Bξ Bη
Θηζ = 0 .
r2
g M Schr

With the moments

Mξ = 2lBη − 2lAη , Mη = 2lAξ − 2lBξ , Mζ = M0


e

the principle of angular momentum in component form yields


rin
ee er,

y ml2 mlω̇
ξ : 2l(Bη − Aη ) = −ω̇ → Bη − Aη = − ,
3 6
ml2 mlω 2
gin ug

y
η : 2l(Aξ − Bξ ) = −ω 2 → Aξ − Bξ = − ,
3 6
rin

y 20 9M0
ml2 ω̇
En s, Ha

ζ : M0 = → ω̇ = .
9 20ml2
os
Gr
3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 101

cs e
na idje
In order to be able to calculate the support reactions, we now
have to formulate the principle of linear momentum. The center
of mass moves on a circle. With the distance ξc = 4l/3 from the
axis of rotation, we obtain the components of its acceleration as

Dy ov
acξ = −ξc ω 2 and acη = ξc ω̇. Thus,

mi
−m ξc ω 2 = Aξ + Bξ ,

,G
m ξc ω̇ = Aη + Bη

which leads to
3 27 M0

ge nics Wall
Aξ = − mlω 2 , Aη = ,
4 80 l

7 21 M0
Bξ = − mlω 2 , Bη = .
12 80 l

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
102 3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

cs e
E3.42 Example 3.42 A shaft (principal moments of inertia Θ1 , Θ2 , Θ3 )

na idje
rotates with constant angular velocity ω0 about its longitudinal
axis. This axis undergoes a rotation
α(t) about the z-axis of the fixed in
1

Dy ov
space system x, y, z. 2 y

mi
Calculate the moment which is ω0
3, z

,G
exerted by the bearings on the shaft
α(t) x
for
a) uniform rotation α = Ωt,

ge nics Wall
b) harmonic rotation α = α0 sin Ωt. Fig. 3.65

Solution We solve the problem with the aid of Euler’s equations

Θ1 ω̇1 − (Θ2 − Θ3 )ω2 ω3 = M1 ,

3,
Sp cha der,
Θ2 ω̇2 − (Θ3 − Θ1 )ω3 ω1 = M2 ,

3
Θ3 ω̇3 − (Θ1 − Θ2 )ω1 ω2 = M3 .

01
ö

With
r2
g M Schr

ω1 = ω0 , ω̇1 = 0 , ω2 = ω̇2 = 0 , ω3 = α̇ , ω̇3 = α̈

we obtain

M1 = 0 , M2 = −(Θ3 − Θ1 )ω0 α̇ , M3 = Θ3 α̈
e
rin
ee er,

where α(t) represents an arbitrary rotation¡.


a) In the special case of a uniform rotation α = Ωt we get
gin ug

α̇ = Ω , α̈ = 0 .
rin

Thus,
En s, Ha

M1 = M3 = 0 , M2 = (Θ1 − Θ3 )ω0 Ω .
os
Gr
3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 103

cs e
na idje
b) In the case of a harmonic rotation α = α0 sin Ωt we find

α̇ = α0 Ω cos Ωt , α̈ = −α0 Ω2 sin Ωt

Dy ov
and

mi
M1 = 0 , M2 = (Θ1 − Θ3 )ω0 Ω α0 cos Ωt ,

,G
M3 = −Θ3 Ω2 α0 sin Ωt .

ge nics Wall
Note: Only a moment about the 2-axis acts in case a). It is caused
by two opposite support reactions of equal magnitude (= couple)
in the 3- and z-directions, respectively.

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
104 3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

cs e
E3.43 Example 3.43 A pin-supported rigid beam

na idje
(mass m, length l) is initially at rest. At l
time t0 = 0 it starts to rotate due to an
applied constant moment M0 . x
ϕ

Dy ov
Determine the stress resultants (inter- M0 A

mi
nal forces and moments) as functions of x

,G
for t > t0 . Neglect gravitational effects. Fig. 3.66

Solution First we determine the angular acceleration and the an-


gular velocity of the beam. The principle of angular momentum

ge nics Wall
with respect to A yields
x M0
A: ΘA ϕ̈ = M0 → ϕ̈ = .
ΘA

3,
Integration with the initial condition ϕ̇(0) = 0 gives
Sp cha der,
M0

3
ϕ̇(t) = t.
ΘA

01
Now we cut the beam at an arbitrary position and introduce the
ö

bending moment M and the shear force V into the free-body dia-
r2
g M Schr

gram (the normal force N will be considered later). The principle


of angular momentum (with respect to the center of mass C̄) and
the principle of linear momentum (in the y-direction) yield
x l−x
e

C̄ : Θ̄C̄ ϕ̈ = −M (x) − V (x) , m̄, Θ̄C̄


2
rin

V
ee er,

1
M 2
(l − x)
տ: m̄ ÿC̄ = V (x) . C̄
y
x
gin ug

The acceleration ÿC̄ follows from the ki-


nematics (circular motion): rC̄ = 12 (l + x)
rin
En s, Ha

l+x
ÿC̄ = rC̄ ϕ̈ = ϕ̈ .
2
x m l2
Thus, with m̄ = (1 − ) m and ΘA = we obtain the shear
l 3
force:
  x 2 
l+x l + x M0 3 M0
os

V (x) = m̄ ϕ̈ = m̄ = 1− .
2 2 ΘA 2 l l
Gr
3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 105

cs e
1

na idje
Introduction of the moment of inertia Θ̄C̄ = m̄ (l − x)2 leads
12
to the bending moment:
l−x
M (x) = −V − Θ̄C̄ ϕ̈

Dy ov
2
 x 2  x  m l2  x 3 M0

mi
3
= − M0 1 − 1+ − 1−

,G
4 l  l 12 l ΘA
 x 2 1 x
= −M0 1 − 1+ .
l 2 l

ge nics Wall
The normal force can be determined from the equation of motion
in the x-direction: m̄

ր: m̄ ẍC̄ = −N (x) N

3,

y
Sp cha der, 2
where ẍC̄ = −rC̄ ϕ̇ is the centripetal x

3
acceleration. This leads to rC̄ = 12 (l + x)

01
2
N (x) = m̄ rC̄ ϕ̇
ö

 2
x x+l M0
r2
= m (1 − ) t
g M Schr

l 2 ΘA
  x 2 
9 M02 t2
= 1− .
2 m l3 l
e
rin

Note that the normal force increases with time t in contrast to


ee er,

the bending moment and the shear force.


The stress resultant diagrams are presented below.
gin ug
rin

V (x) M(x)
En s, Ha

3 M0
+ M0
2 l
os

N(x)
Gr

9 M02 t2
+
2 ml3
106 3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

cs e
E3.44 Example 3.44 The angled member

na idje
A
(weight W = mg) in Fig. 3.67 con- g
sists of two homogeneous bars.
Derive the equation of motion

Dy ov
for the member’s center of mass. 2l

mi
l

,G
Fig. 3.67

Solution First, we locate the center x

ge nics Wall
of mass of the angled member. With
the coordinate system as shown in
2 a yc
the figure we obtain m
3
m l C

3,
l
xc = 3 2 = ,
Sp cha der,
m 6 xc

3
A
m 2m 1

01
2l + l m
a
yc = 3 3 = 4l. y
3
ö

ϕ
m 3
r2
C
g M Schr

Thus, the distance of the center of


mass from point A is given by mg

q √ a sin ϕ
65
e

a= yc2 + x2c = l.
6
rin
ee er,

The member rotates about a fixed axis that passes through A. We


introduce the angle ϕ and apply the principle of angular momen-
gin ug

tum:
rin

ΘA ϕ̈ = MA .
En s, Ha
os
Gr
3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 107

cs e
na idje
We measure ϕ from the position of equilibrium (C is vertically
below A). With the mass moment of inertia
( "  2 #)
m l2 2 l 2 (2l)2 7
ΘA = + (2l) + + m = ml2

Dy ov
3 12 2 3 3 3

mi
we obtain

,G

x 7 65 g
A: ml2 ϕ̈ = −mga sin ϕ → ϕ̈ + sin ϕ = 0 .
3 14 l

ge nics Wall
Note: In the case of small oscillations (ϕ ≪ 1, sin ϕ ≈ ϕ) the
equation of motion reduces to the differential equation

65 g
ϕ̈ + ϕ=0

3,
14 l
Sp cha der,
for harmonic vibrations.

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
108 3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

cs e
E3.45 Example 3.45 A bowling ball (mass m) is placed on a rough surface

na idje
(coefficient of kinetic friction
µ = 0.3) with velocity v0 = 5 m/s
v0
(Fig. 3.68). Initially, the ball does

Dy ov
not rotate.

11111111
00000000

mi
What is the position xr of the

,G
ball when it stops sliding? Calculate µ
the corresponding velocity vr .
Fig. 3.68

ge nics Wall
Solution When the ball is placed on the rough surface it slides.
ω
C
x r

3,
Sp cha der, mg

R
N

3
01
The friction force R is opposed to the direction of the motion.
ö

Thus, the equations of motion are given by


r2
g M Schr

→: mẍ = −R ,

↑ : 0 = N − mg → N = mg ,
e

y
rin

C : Θc ω̇ = rR .
ee er,

With Θc = 2mr2 /5 and the law of friction R = µN = µmg, the


first and the third equation lead to (initial conditions v(t = 0) =
gin ug

v0 , x(t = 0) = 0, ω(t = 0) = 0)
rin

1 5µg
En s, Ha

v = ẋ = v0 − µgt , x = v0 t − µg t2 , ω= t.
2 2r
os
Gr
3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 109

cs e
na idje
The ball rolls without sliding if the velocity of its center of mass
is given by

v = rω .

Dy ov
This condition leads to the corresponding time tr :

mi
,G
5 2v0
v0 − µgtr = µ g tr → tr = = 0.49 s .
2 7µg
Thus,

ge nics Wall
12v02
xr = x(tr ) = = 2.08 m ,
49µg

5 m

3,
vr = v(tr ) = v0 = 3.57 .
7 s
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
110 3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

cs e
E3.46 Example 3.46 The double pendulum in

na idje
Fig. 3.69 consists of two identical ho- A
mogeneous bars (each mass m, length
l). It is struck by a linear impulse Fb at g

Dy ov
point D. l

mi
Determine the distance d of point D
B

,G
from the lower end of the pendulum so Fb
D
that the angular velocity ω2 of the lower l
bar is zero immediately after the im- d

ge nics Wall
pact. Calculate the impulsive forces at
A and B. Fig. 3.69

Solution We separate the two bars and


draw the free-body diagram. Note that

3,
Sp cha der,
there is no linear impulse in the vertical A
direction. The bars are at rest before the

3
ω1
impact. The principles of linear and an-

01
l ①
gular impulse and momentum are given
b
ö

by B
r2
b
g M Schr

x B
① A: b,
ΘA ω 1 = l B Fb
1
l
2
C2 v2
② →: m v 2 = Fb − B
b,
1
d− 2
l ω2
x l b  lb
e

C2 : ΘC2 ω 2 = B − d− F ②
rin

2 2
ee er,

where
gin ug

1 2 1
ΘA = ml , ΘC2 = ml2 .
3 12
rin

We desire the motion of bar ② to be a translation. Therefore,


En s, Ha

ω2 = 0 , v2 = l ω1 .
os
Gr
3 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 111

cs e
na idje
This leads to

ml2
2+
3 Fb b= Fb Fb l ΘA 5
ω1 = , B 2 = 4 , d= = l.

Dy ov
4 ml ml 2 ml2 8
1+ 1+

mi
ΘA ΘA

,G
The impulsive force at A follows from the principle of linear im-
1
pulse for bar ① with the kinematic relation v 1 = l ω1 :
2

ge nics Wall
b b
→: b+B
m v1 = A b → b= F .
A
A
ω1
8
v1
C1

3,
b
B 1
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
Gr
os
En s, Ha
gin ug
ee er,
rin
g M Schr
e ö
Sp cha der,
rin
ge nics Wall
r2 3, ,G
01 Dy ov
3 na idje
mi
cs e
Gr
os
En s, Ha
gin ug Chapter 4
ee er,
rin
g M Schr
e ö
Sp cha der,
rin
Principles of Mechanics

ge nics Wall
r2 3, ,G
01 Dy ov
3 na idje
mi
4

cs e
114 4 Principles of Mechanics

cs e
E4.8 Example 4.8 A homogeneous disk (mass m, radius r) rolls without

na idje
slipping on a rough surface (Fig. 4.9). Its center of mass C is
connected with the wall by a spring (spring constant k).
Derive the equation of motion
ϕ

Dy ov
using

mi
a) Newton’s 2nd Law, r k
A

,G
b) dynamic equilibrium conditions. m C

ge nics Wall
Fig. 4.9

Solution a) The free-body diagram shows the forces that act on


the disk.
x

3,
Sp cha der,
W ϕ

3
C F

01
ö

H
r2
g M Schr

We use the coordinates x and ϕ. Then the principles of linear


and angular momentum yield
e

←: mẍc = −F − H ,
rin
ee er,

↑: 0=N −W → N =W ,
gin ug

x
C: ΘC ϕ̈ = rH where ΘC = mr2 /2 .
rin

In addition, we have the kinematic relation


En s, Ha

xc = rϕ → ẍc = rϕ̈ ,

and the relation

F = kxc → F = krϕ
os
Gr
4 Principles of Mechanics 115

cs e
na idje
for the force F in the spring. Solving these equations for the angle
ϕ yields
2k
ϕ̈ + ω 2 ϕ = 0 where ω 2 = .

Dy ov
3m

mi
b) If we apply the dynamic equilibrium conditions, the inertial

,G
force mẍc and the pseudo moment ΘC ϕ̈ (both acting in the ne-
gative coordinate directions) have to be drawn into the free-body
diagram.

ge nics Wall
ΘC ϕ̈

W
mẍc

3,
C F
Sp cha der,
B

3
H

01
N
ö

Dynamic moment equilibrium about point B then yields


r2
g M Schr

y
B: ΘC ϕ̈ + rmẍc + rF = 0 .

If we introduce the kinematic relation (see a)), the force F = krϕ


and ΘC = mr2 /2 we again obtain
e
rin

2c
ee er,

ϕ̈ + ω 2 ϕ = 0 , ω2 = .
3m
Note that we may choose point B to be the reference point for
gin ug

the moment equilibrium. This is advantageous since then the lever


rin

arm of the unknown force of static friction H is zero. The mass


En s, Ha

moment of inertia must be ΘC (not ΘB !).


os
Gr
116 4 Principles of Mechanics

cs e
E4.9 Example 4.9 A cylinder (mass
11111111111111
00000000000000

na idje
m, radius r) rolls without slip- 00000000000000
11111111111111
00000000000000
11111111111111
ϕ
00000000000000
11111111111111
ping on a circular path (radius 00000000000000
11111111111111
00000000000000
11111111111111
R); see Fig. 4.10. 00000000000000
11111111111111
00000000000000
11111111111111
R m
00000000000000
11111111111111

Dy ov
Derive the equation of moti- 00000000000000
11111111111111
r
00000000000000
11111111111111
00000000000000
11111111111111

mi
on using dynamic equilibrium 00000000000000
11111111111111

,G
conditions. Fig. 4.10

ge nics Wall
Solution We isolate the cylinder and introduce the coordinates
ϕ and ψ (angle of rotation of the cylinder). With the tangential
acceleration at = (R − r)ϕ̈ (in the positive ϕ-direction) of the
center of mass C and the normal acceleration an = (R − r)ϕ̇2

3,
(directed towards the center of the circular path), the inertial
Sp cha der,
forces mat (opposite to at ) and man (opposite to an ) can be drawn

3
on the free-body diagram.

01
ΘC ψ̈
ö

ψ m(R − r)ϕ̇2
ϕ
r2
g M Schr

C
B H
ϕ
m(R − r)ϕ̈ mg N
e

The pseudo moment ΘC ψ̈ acts in the negative ψ-direction. Mo-


rin
ee er,

ment equilibrium about point B yields the equation of motion:


y
B : ΘC ψ̈ + m(R − r)ϕ̈ + mgr sin ϕ = 0 where ΘC = mr2 /2 .
gin ug
rin

The system has one degree of freedom. Therefore a relation exists


between the two coordinates:
En s, Ha

vC = (R − r)ϕ̇ = rψ̇ → ψ̈ = (R/r − 1)ϕ̈ .

This leads to
2g
ϕ̈ + sin ϕ = 0 .
os

3(R − r)

Note that the moment equilibrium may be established with re-


Gr

spect to point B. This is advantageous since the lever arms of


the unknown force of static friction H and of the inertial force
m(R − r)ϕ̇2 are zero. The mass moment of inertia, however, has
to be taken with respect to the center of mass C.
4 Principles of Mechanics 117

cs e
Example 4.10 Two blocks of weights E4.10

na idje
W1 = m1 g and W2 = m2 g are
suspended by a pin-supported ro- ϕ
pe drum (moment of inertia ΘA ) as r2 ΘA

Dy ov
shown in Fig. 4.11. A r1

mi
Determine the angular accelerati-

,G
on of the drum and the force in ro-
pe ① using dynamic equilibrium con- 1 2

ditions. Neglect the mass of the ro- m1 m2

ge nics Wall
pes. Fig. 4.11

Solution We first introduce the co- ϕ


ordinates x1 and x2 describing the ΘA ϕ̈
motion of the blocks. The inerti-

3,
Sp cha der, A
al forces −mi ẍi point in the ne-
gative xi -directions (see the free-

3
body diagram). In addition, we ha- x2

01
ve to consider the pseudo moment
x1
ö

−ΘA ϕ̈ which acts in the negative ϕ-


m1 g m2 g
r2
g M Schr

direction. Moment equilibrium about


point A then yields m1 x¨1 m2 x¨2
y
A: −r1 m1 (g + ẍ1 ) + r2 m2 (g − ẍ2 ) − ΘA ϕ̈ = 0 .
e

Using the kinematic relations


rin
ee er,

x1 = r1 ϕ → ẍ1 = r1 ϕ̈ ,
gin ug

x2 = r2 ϕ → ẍ2 = r2 ϕ̈
rin

we obtain the angular acceleration of the drum:


En s, Ha

r2 m2 − r1 m1
ϕ̈ = g.
r12 m1 + r22 m2 + ΘA
os
Gr
118 4 Principles of Mechanics

cs e
na idje
In order to determine the force in rope ① we cut the rope. Force
equilibrium (see the free-body diagram) yields
S1
↑: S1 − m1 g − m1 ẍ1 = 0 x1

Dy ov
mi
or m1 g

,G
r2 (r1 + r2 )m2 + ΘA m1 x¨1
S1 = m1 (g + r1 ϕ̈) = m1 g 2 .
r1 m1 + r22 m2 + ΘA

ge nics Wall
Note: For r2 m2 > r1 m1 the drum rotates clockwise, for r2 m2 <
r1 m1 it rotates counterclockwise. In the special case r2 m2 = r1 m1
the system is in static equilibrium (ϕ̈ = 0).

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
4 Principles of Mechanics 119

cs e
Example 4.11 An angled arm (mass b E4.11

na idje
m) rotates with constant angular ve-
locity Ω about point 0 (Fig. 4.12).
Calculate the bending moment, a

Dy ov
shear force and normal force as func- Ω

mi
tions of position using dynamic equi-
0

,G
librium conditions. Fig. 4.12

Solution We introduce two coordinate systems xi , zi . Then, we

ge nics Wall
make a cut at the arbitrary position x1 . The acceleration of the
mass element dm at the position s (distance from the left end of
the arm) is given by an = rΩ2 (pointing towards point 0; note
that at = 0). Therefore, this element is subjected to the inertial

3,
force dmrΩ2 (see the free-body diagram).
Sp cha der,
N(x2 = 0)

3
x1 M(x2 = 0)
z2

01
z1 V (x2 = 0)
s
M(x1 = b) dm(a − s)Ω2
ö

dmrΩ2 M
ds
r2
g M Schr

V N N(x1 = b) V x2
s ds V (x1 = b)
r M
N
ϕ Ω Ω
e

With
rin
ee er,

m
dm = ds = µds ,
a+b
gin ug

where µ = m/(a + b) is the mass per unit length, and with the
rin

geometrical relations
En s, Ha

cos ϕ = (b − s)/r , sin ϕ = a/r

we can determine the stress resultants through integration (note


that M ′ = V ).
Normal force (0 ≤ x1 ≤ b):
os

Z Z x1
N (x1 ) = rΩ2 cos ϕdm = Ω2 (b − s)µds
0
Gr

= µΩ2 [bs − s2 /2]|x0 1 → N (x1 ) = µΩ2 (bx1 − x21 /2) .

Shear force (0 ≤ x1 ≤ b):


Z Z x1
V (x1 ) = rΩ2 sin ϕdm = Ω2 aµds → V (x1 ) = µΩ2 ax1 .
0
120 4 Principles of Mechanics

cs e
na idje
Bending moment (0 ≤ x1 ≤ b):
Z x1
M (x1 ) = V (s)ds → M (x1 ) = µΩ2 ax21 /2 .
0

Dy ov
The matching conditions at the corner (x1 = b, x2 = 0) are given

mi
by

,G
N0 = N (x2 = 0) = V (x1 = b) = µΩ2 ab ,

V0 = V (x2 = 0) = −N (x1 = b) = −µΩ2 b2 /2 ,

ge nics Wall
M0 = M (x2 = 0) = M (x1 = b) = µΩ2 ab2 /2 .
Now we make a cut at the position x2 . The mass element dm at

3,
the position s is subjected to the inertial force dm(a − s)Ω2 . This
Sp cha der,
leads to the following stress resultants:

3
Normal force, shear force, bending moment (0 ≤ x2 ≤ a):

01
Rx
N (x2 ) = N0 + 0 2 µΩ2 (a − s)ds
ö

r2
→ N (x2 ) = µΩ2 (ab + ax2 − x22 /2) ,
g M Schr

V (x2 ) = V0 → V (x2 ) = −µΩ2 b2 /2 ,

M (x2 ) = M0 + x2 V0 → M (x2 ) = µΩ2 b2 (a − x2 )/2 .


e
rin
ee er,

N V N0 M
| V0 |
+ N0 + V0 M0
+
gin ug

+
+ −
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
4 Principles of Mechanics 121

cs e
Example 4.12 A wheel (weight W1 = m1 g, moment of inertia ΘA ) E4.12

na idje
on an inclined plane is connected to a
block (weight W2 = m2 g) by a rope
which is guided over an ideal pulley m1 , ΘA

Dy ov
(Fig. 4.13). The wheel rolls on the pla- r

mi
ne without slipping.
A

,G
Determine the acceleration of the m2
block applying d’Alembert’s principle.
Neglect the masses of the rope and the α

ge nics Wall
pulley. Fig. 4.13

Solution Since the constraint forces (force in the rope, static


friction force) need not be determined, it is advantageous to apply

3,
d’Alembert’s principle. The motion
Sp cha der,
is described by the coordinates xi

3
and ϕ. The inertial forces mi ẍi and ϕ
x1
the pseudo moment ΘA ϕ̈ (acting in

01
ΘA ϕ̈
the directions opposite to the chosen A
x2
ö

positive coordinate directions) are α


r2
m1 x¨1
g M Schr

shown in the figure. D’Alembert’s m2 g


m1 g
principle (principle of virtual work)
m2 x¨2
requires that the virtual work of all
forces vanishes:
e
rin

δU + δUI = 0
ee er,

→ −m1 ẍ1 δx1 − m1 g sin αδx1 − ΘA ϕ̈δϕ + m2 gδx2 − m2 ẍ2 δx2 = 0 .


gin ug

With the kinematic relations


rin



δx1 = δx2 = rδϕ = δx
En s, Ha

x1 = x2 = rϕ = x →

ẍ = ẍ = rϕ̈ = ẍ
1 2

we obtain
 
ΘA
−m1 ẍ − m1 g sin α − 2 ẍ + m2 g − m2 ẍ δx = 0 .
os

r
Since δx 6= 0, the expression in the brackets must vanish. Thus,
Gr

m2 − m1 sin α
ẍ = ẍ2 = g .
ΘA
m1 + m2 + 2
r
Note that ẍ < 0 for m1 sin α > m2 . In this case, the wheel rolls
down the inclined plane.
122 4 Principles of Mechanics

cs e
E4.13 Example 4.13 Two drums are connected by a rope and carry blocks

na idje
of weights m1 g and m2 g
ΘA ΘB
(Fig. 4.14). Drum ① is dri-
ven by the moment M0 . M0 r2

Dy ov
Determine the accele- 1 r1

mi
ration of block ② using A B
r2

,G
d’Alembert’s principle.
Neglect the mass of the m2
m1
ropes.
2

ge nics Wall
Fig. 4.14

Solution We introduce the ϕ1


inertial forces mi ẍi and

3,
the pseudo moments ΘA ϕ̈1 , ΘA ϕ¨1 ΘB ϕ¨2
ϕ2
Sp cha der, M0
ΘB ϕ̈2 . They act in the
A B

3
directions opposite to the

01
chosen positive coordina-
x2
te directions. D’Alembert’s
ö

principle requires x1
r2
g M Schr

m1 g m2 g
δU + δUI = 0 ,
m1 x¨1 m2 x¨2

which leads to
e

−m1 (g + ẍ1 )δx1 + m2 (g − ẍ2 )δx2


rin
ee er,

+M0 δϕ1 − ΘA ϕ̈1 δϕ1 − ΘB ϕ̈2 δϕ2 = 0 .


gin ug

With the kinematic relations


rin


x1 = r1 ϕ1 
 ẍ2 r1
 ϕ̈1 = ϕ̈2 = , ẍ1 = ẍ2 ,
En s, Ha


r2 r2
x2 = r2 ϕ2  →
 δx 2 r1

 δϕ1 = δϕ2 = , δx1 = δx2
ϕ1 = ϕ2 r2 r2
os
Gr
4 Principles of Mechanics 123

cs e
na idje
we obtain
  r1  r1
−m1 g + ẍ2 + m2 (g − ẍ2 )
r2 r2

Dy ov

M0 ΘA ΘB
+ − 2 ẍ2 − 2 ẍ2 δx2 = 0 .

mi
r2 r2 r2

,G
Since δx2 =
6 0, the expression in the curly brackets must vanish.
Thus, the acceleration of block ② is

ge nics Wall
m1 r1 M0
1− +
m2 r2 r2 m2 g
ẍ2 = g .
m1  r1 2 ΘA ΘB
1+ + +
m2 r2 m2 r22 m2 r22

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
124 4 Principles of Mechanics

cs e
E4.14 Example 4.14 The system shown in Fig. 4.15 consists of a block

na idje
(mass M ), a homogeneous disk (mass m, radius r) and two springs
(spring constant k). The block moves on a frictionless surface; the
disk rolls without slipping m

Dy ov
on the block. A force F (t) k
r
k

mi
acts on the block. F (t)
M

,G
Derive the equations of mo-
tion using Lagrange’s for-
no friction
malism. Fig. 4.15

ge nics Wall
Solution The system has x
two degrees of freedom. We 00000000000000
11111111111111
00000000000000
11111111111111ϕ
choose the displacement x 00000000000000
11111111111111

3,
00000000000000
11111111111111
00000000000000
11111111111111
C
F (t)
of the block and the angle
Sp cha der,
00000000000000
11111111111111
00000000000000
11111111111111
of rotation ϕ of the disk to 00000000000000
11111111111111

3
be the generalized coordinates.

01
The two springs are unstressed for x = 0 and ϕ = 0. The kinetic
ö

energy and the potential energy of the springs, respectively, are


r2
g M Schr

T = M ẋ2 /2 + ΘC ϕ̇2 /2 + mvC


2
/2 ,

V = kx2 /2 + k(rϕ)2 /2 .

With ΘC = mr2 /2 and the kinematic relation


e
rin
ee er,

vC = ẋ − ϕ̇

we obtain the Lagrangian


gin ug
rin

L =T −V
En s, Ha

→ L = M ẋ2 /2 + mr2 ϕ̇2 /4 + m(ẋ − rϕ̇)2 /2 − kx2 /2 − kr2 ϕ2 /2 .


Since the force F (t) is not given from a potential, we have to apply
the Lagrangian equations in the form
   
d ∂L ∂L d ∂L ∂L
os

− = Qx , − = Qϕ .
dt ∂ ẋ ∂x dt ∂ ϕ̇ ∂ϕ
The generalized forces Qx and Qϕ follow from the virtual work
Gr

δU of the force F (t):

δU = Qx δx + Qϕ δϕ = F (t)δx → Qx = F (t) , Qϕ = 0 .
4 Principles of Mechanics 125

cs e
na idje
To set up the equations of motion, the following derivatives
have to be calculated:
∂L

Dy ov
= M ẋ + m(ẋ − rϕ̇) ,
∂ ẋ

mi
 
d ∂L

,G
= M ẍ + m(ẍ − rϕ̈) ,
dt ∂ ẋ
∂L
= mr2 ϕ̇/2 − mr(ẋ − rϕ̇) ,

ge nics Wall
∂ ϕ̇
 
d ∂L
= mr2 ϕ̈/2 − mr(ẍ − rϕ̈) ,
dt ∂ ϕ̇
∂L ∂L
= −kr2 ϕ .

3,
= −kx ,
∂x ∂ϕ
Sp cha der,
Thus, we obtain

3
01
(M + m)ẍ − mrϕ̈ + kx = F (t) ,
ö

3
−mẍ + mrϕ̈ + krϕ = 0 .
r2
g M Schr

2
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
126 4 Principles of Mechanics

cs e
E4.15 Example 4.15 Fig. 4.16 shows two blocks of mass m1 and m2

na idje
which can glide on a friction-
less surface. They are cou-
pled by springs (stiffnesses k1 k3 k2

Dy ov
k1 , k2 , k3 ). m1 m2

mi
Derive the equations of
Fig. 4.16

,G
motion using the Lagrange
formalism.
Solution The system is conservative; it has two degrees of freedom.

ge nics Wall
We introduce the two coordinates x1 and x2 which describe the
positions of the two blocks.
They are measured from the x1 x2
equilibrium positions of the
k1 k3 k2

3,
blocks. The kinetic and the m1 m2
Sp cha der,
potential energy, respective-

3
ly, are given by
1 1

01
T = m1 ẋ21 + m2 ẋ22 ,
2 2
ö

1 1 1
V = k1 x1 + k2 x22 + k3 (x2 − x1 )2 .
2
r2
g M Schr

2 2 2
Thus, the Lagrangian of the system is
1 1 1 1 1
L=T −V = m1 ẋ21 + m2 ẋ22 − k1 x21 − k2 x22 − k3 (x2 − x1 )2 .
2 2 2 2 2
e
rin

To set up the Lagrange equations


ee er,

d  ∂L  ∂L d  ∂L  ∂L
− =0, − =0
dt ∂ ẋ1 ∂x1 dt ∂ ẋ2 ∂x2
gin ug

the following derivatives must be calculated:


rin

d  ∂L 
En s, Ha

∂L ∂L
= m1 ẋ1 , = m1 ẍ1 , = −k1 x1 + k3 (x2 − x1 ) ,
∂ ẋ1 dt ∂ ẋ1 ∂x1
∂L d  ∂L  ∂L
= m2 ẋ2 , = m2 ẍ2 , = −k2 x2 − k3 (x2 − x1 ) .
∂ ẋ2 dt ∂ ẋ2 ∂x2
os
Gr
4 Principles of Mechanics 127

cs e
na idje
Hence, we obtain

m1 ẍ1 + k1 x1 − k3 (x2 − x1 ) = 0
→ m1 ẍ1 + (k1 + k3 )x1 − k3 x2 = 0 ,

Dy ov
mi
,G
m2 ẍ2 + k2 x2 + k3 (x2 − x1 ) = 0
→ m2 ẍ2 + (k2 + k3 )x2 − k3 x1 = 0 .

ge nics Wall
Note: The two coupled differential equations describe the coupled
free vibrations of the two blocks. In the special case of k3 = 0 the
system is decoupled and we obtain two independent equations of
motion for two systems, each with one degree of freedom.

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
128 4 Principles of Mechanics

cs e
E4.16 Example 4.16 Two simple pen-

na idje
dulums (each mass m, length
l) are connected by a spring l
(spring constant k, unstretched

Dy ov
length b) as shown in Fig. 4.17.

mi
Derive the equations of mo- g
k

,G
tion using the Lagrange forma- l m
lism.

ge nics Wall
m
Fig. 4.17

Solution The system has two


degrees of freedom. We choose

3,
0
the generalized coordinates ϕ1
Sp cha der,
and ϕ2 as shown in the figure.

3
With the kinetic and the poten- ϕ2
ϕ1

01
tial energy, respectively, k
m
ö

T = ml2 (ϕ̇1 − ϕ̇2 )2 /2 + ml2 (ϕ̇1 + ϕ̇2 )2 /2


r2
g M Schr

2l sin ϕ2
m
→ T = ml2 (ϕ̇21 + ϕ̇22 ) ,

V = −mgl cos(ϕ1 − ϕ2 ) − mgl cos(ϕ1 + ϕ2 ) + k(2l sin ϕ2 − b)2 /2


e
rin

→ V = −2mgl cos ϕ1 cos ϕ2 + k(2l sin ϕ2 − b)2 /2


ee er,

(zero level: point 0 and unstressed spring) the Lagrangian becomes


gin ug

L=T −V
rin

→ L = ml2 (ϕ̇21 + ϕ̇22 ) + 2mgl cos ϕ1 cos ϕ2 − k(2l sin ϕ2 − b)2 /2 .


En s, Ha

To set up the Lagrange equations


   
d ∂L ∂L d ∂L ∂L
− =0, − =0
dt ∂ ϕ̇1 ∂ϕ1 dt ∂ ϕ̇2 ∂ϕ2
os
Gr
4 Principles of Mechanics 129

cs e
na idje
the following derivatives are needed:
 
∂L d ∂L
= 2ml2 ϕ̇1 , = 2ml2 ϕ¨1 ,
∂ ϕ̇1 dt ∂ ϕ̇1

Dy ov
∂L
= −2mgl sin ϕ1 cos ϕ2 ,

mi
∂ϕ1
 

,G
∂L 2 d ∂L
= 2ml ϕ˙2 , = 2ml2 ϕ¨2 ,
∂ ϕ̇2 dt ∂ ϕ̇2
∂L

ge nics Wall
= −2mgl cos ϕ1 sin ϕ2 − k(2l sin ϕ2 − b)2l cos ϕ2 .
∂ϕ2
This leads to the equations of motion:

lϕ¨1 + g sin ϕ1 cos ϕ2 = 0 ,

3,
Sp cha der,
mlϕ¨2 + mg cos ϕ1 sin ϕ2 + k(2l sin ϕ2 − b) cos ϕ2 = 0 .

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
130 4 Principles of Mechanics

cs e
E4.17 Example 4.17 A disk (weight m2 g,

na idje
moment of inertia Θ2 ) glides along
a frictionless homogeneous bar of x
weight m1 g (Fig. 4.18).
l

Dy ov
Find the equations of motion

mi
using the Lagrange formalism. m2 , Θ2

,G
ϕ m1

Fig. 4.18

ge nics Wall
Solution The system is conservative;
it has two degrees of freedom. Its po- x
sition is uniquely determined by the 0
x cos ϕ l
C1

3,
distance x of point C1 from pin 0 and cos ϕ
2
Sp cha der,
by the angle ϕ (generalized coordina- C2
tes). With the kinetic and the poten- ϕ

3
tial energy, respectively,

01
1  m1 l 2  2 n 1 1 o
ö

T = ϕ̇ + m2 [(xϕ̇)2 + ẋ2 ] + Θ2 ϕ̇22


2 3 2 2
r2
g M Schr

1 h m1 l 2 i 1
= + m2 x2 + Θ2 ϕ̇2 + m2 ẋ2 ,
2 3 2
l h l i
V = −m1 g cos ϕ − m2 gx cos ϕ = − m1 + m2 x g cos ϕ
2 2
e
rin

(zero level at 0) and the Lagrangian L = T − V , we can write


ee er,

down the Lagrange equations


d  ∂L  ∂L d  ∂L  ∂L
gin ug

− =0, − =0.
dt ∂ ϕ̇ ∂ϕ dt ∂ ẋ ∂x
rin

To this end, the following derivatives are needed:


En s, Ha

∂L  m1 l2  ∂L  l 
= + m2 x2 + Θ2 ϕ̇ , = − m1 + m2 x g sin ϕ ,
∂ ϕ̇ 3 ∂ϕ 2

d ∂L   m1 l 2  ∂L
= + m2 x2 + Θ2 ϕ̈ + 2m2 xẋϕ̇ , = m2 ẋ ,
dt ∂ ϕ̇ 3 ∂ ẋ
os

d  ∂L  ∂L
= m2 ẍ , = m2 xϕ̇2 + m2 g cos ϕ .
dt ∂ ẋ ∂x
Gr

This leads to the coupled equations of motion:


 m l2   l 
1
+ m2 x2 + Θ2 ϕ̈ + 2m2 xẋϕ̇ + m1 + m2 x g sin ϕ = 0 ,
3 2

m2 ẍ − m2 xϕ̇2 − m2 g cos ϕ = 0 → ẍ − xϕ̇2 − g cos ϕ = 0 .


4 Principles of Mechanics 131

cs e
Example 4.18 A thin half-cylindri- E4.18

na idje
cal shell of weight W = mg rolls r m
without sliding on a flat surface
(Fig. 4.19).

Dy ov
Derive the equation of motion

mi
Fig. 4.19
using the Lagrange formalism.

,G
Solution The system is conservative;

it has one degree of freedom. We in-
troduce the coordinate ϕ as shown
M x

ge nics Wall
in the figure. With the distance a = a
2r/π of the center of mass C from ϕ
the center M of the shell we have C

Θ C = Θ M − a2 m = r 2 m − a2 m

3,
y
= (1 − 4/π 2 )mr2 ,
Sp cha der,

3
xc = rϕ − a sin ϕ → ẋc = rϕ̇ − aϕ̇ cos ϕ ,

01
yc = a cos ϕ → ẏc = −aϕ̇ sin ϕ .
ö

Thus, the potential energy V , the kinetic energy T , the Lagrangian


r2
g M Schr

and the pertinent derivatives are


2
V = mga(1 − cos ϕ) = mgr(1 − cos ϕ) ,
π
e

1 1 1 h 2 2
rin

T = m(ẋ2c + ẏc2 ) + ΘC ϕ̇2 = mr2 ϕ̇2 1 − cos ϕ


ee er,

2 2 2 π
2 2  4 i  2 
+ sin ϕ + 1 − 2 = mr2 ϕ̇2 1 − cos ϕ ,
gin ug

π π π
rin

h  2  2 i
L = T − V = mr rϕ̇2 1 − cos ϕ − g(1 − cos ϕ) ,
En s, Ha

π π
∂L h  2 i
= mr 2rϕ̇ 1 − cos ϕ ,
∂ ϕ̇ π

d  ∂L  h  2  4 i
= mr 2rϕ̈ 1 − cos ϕ + rϕ̇2 sin ϕ ,
os

dt ∂ ϕ̇ π π

∂L h2 2 i
= mr rϕ̇2 sin ϕ − g sin ϕ .
Gr

∂ϕ π π
132 4 Principles of Mechanics

cs e
na idje
Introduction into
d  ∂L  ∂L
− =0
dt ∂ ϕ̇ ∂ϕ

Dy ov
yields the equation of motion:

mi
g
ϕ̈(π − 2 cos ϕ) + ϕ̇2 sin ϕ + sin ϕ = 0 .

,G
r

ge nics Wall
3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
4 Principles of Mechanics 133

cs e
Example 4.19 A block (mass m1 ) E4.19

na idje
can move horizontally on a smooth m1
surface (Fig. 4.20). A simple pendu-
g
lum (mass m2 ) is connected to the l

Dy ov
block by a pin.

mi
Find the equations of motion m2

,G
using the Lagrange formalism. Fig. 4.20

Solution The system is conserva-


tive; it has two degrees of free-

ge nics Wall
x
dom. We use the generalized coor- m1 x
dinates x and ϕ as shown in the
figure. With the zero-level of the y l cos ϕ
ϕ

3,
potential of the force m2 g chosen
Sp cha der,
at the height of the mass m1 , we
have m2

3
01
V = −m2 gl cos ϕ , l sin ϕ
1 1
ö

T = m1 ẋ2 + m2 [(ẋ + lϕ̇ cos ϕ)2 + (lϕ̇ sin ϕ)2 ] ,


2 2
r2
g M Schr

1 1
L = T − V = (m1 + m2 )ẋ2 + m2 lẋϕ̇ cos ϕ + m2 l2 ϕ̇2 + m2 gl cos ϕ .
2 2
Introduction of the derivatives
∂L ∂L
e

= m2 lẋ cos ϕ + m2 l2 ϕ̇ , = −m2 lẋϕ̇ sin ϕ − m2 gl sin ϕ ,


rin

∂ ϕ̇ ∂ϕ
ee er,

d  ∂L 
= m2 lẍ cos ϕ − m2 lẋϕ̇ sin ϕ + m2 l2 ϕ̈ ,
dt ∂ ϕ̇
gin ug
rin

∂L ∂L
= (m1 + m2 )ẋ + m2 lϕ̇ cos ϕ , =0,
∂ ẋ ∂x
En s, Ha

d  ∂L 
= (m1 + m2 )ẍ + m2 lϕ̈ cos ϕ − m2 lϕ̇2 sin ϕ
dt ∂ ẋ
os
Gr
134 4 Principles of Mechanics

cs e
na idje
into the Lagrange equations
d  ∂L  ∂L d  ∂L  ∂L
− =0, − =0
dt ∂ ϕ̇ ∂ϕ dt ∂ ẋ ∂x

Dy ov
yields the coupled equations of motion

mi
ẍ cos ϕ + lϕ̈ + g sin ϕ = 0 ,

,G
(m1 + m2 )ẍ + m2 lϕ̈ cos ϕ − m2 lϕ̇2 sin ϕ = 0 .

ge nics Wall
3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
Gr
os
En s, Ha
gin ug Chapter 5
ee er, Vibrations
rin
g M Schr
e ö
Sp cha der,
rin
ge nics Wall
r2 3, ,G
01 Dy ov
3 na idje
mi
5

cs e
136 5 Vibrations

cs e
E5.11 Example 5.11 The system in Fig 5.30

na idje
consists of three bars and a beam EA EA
(with negligible masses) and a block EA l
(mass m). EI

Dy ov
Determine the circular frequency m

mi
of the free vertical vibrations. l l

,G
Fig. 5.30
Solution The system consisting of
the truss and the beam is equiva-

ge nics Wall
FB = 1
lent to a system consisting of two
springs in parallel (both springs
undergo the same elongation when wB
the block is displaced). To deter-

3,
mine the spring constant kB of the
Sp cha der,
beam, we subject the beam to the

3
force FB = 1 which acts at the

01
location of the block. This force ② ③
ö

produces the deflection (see Engi- ①


r2
g M Schr

neering Mechanics 2: Mechanics of


Materials, Table 4.3) wT

1 · (2l)3 FT = 1
wB = .
48EI
e
rin

Thus, the spring constant is given by


ee er,

1 48 EI 6 EI
kB = = 3
= 3 .
wB (2l) l
gin ug

In order to find the spring constant kT of the truss, we apply the


rin

force FT = 1 at bar ①. This force causes the displacement (see


En s, Ha

Engineering Mechanics 2: Mechanics of Materials, Section 6.3)


X S̄ 2 li
i
wT = .
EA
os
Gr
5 Vibrations 137

cs e
na idje
With
1√ √
S̄1 = 1 , S̄2 = S̄3 = − 2, l1 = l , l2 = l3 = 2l
2

Dy ov
we obtain
 √2 2 √ i

mi
1 h 2 √ l
wT = 1 ·l+2· 2 l = (1 + 2)

,G
EA 2 EA
1 EA
→ kT = = √ .
wT (1 + 2)l

ge nics Wall
Now, we replace the two springs in parallel by an equivalent single
spring. Its spring constant k ∗ is given by
6 EI EA

3,
k ∗ = kB + kT = + √ .
l3 (1 + 2)l
Sp cha der,

3
Thus, the eigenfrequency is
r s

01
k∗ 1 1  EAl2 
ω= = 6 EI + √ .
ö

m l ml 1+ 2
r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
138 5 Vibrations

cs e
E5.12 Example 5.12 The system in Fig. 5.31 consists

na idje
r
of a homogeneous drum (mass M , radius r), a M
block (mass m), a spring (spring constant k)
and a string (with negligible mass). The sup-

Dy ov
port of the drum is frictionless. Assume that

mi
there is no slip between the string and the

,G
drum. m
Determine the natural frequency of the sys- k
tem.

ge nics Wall
Fig. 5.31
Solution We first draw the free-body dia-
gram. The position of the block is given by

3,
the coordinate x, measured from the posi- ϕ
Sp cha der,
tion with an unstrechted spring. Next, we

3
B
write down the equations of motion for the

01
block
S2 S1
ö

↓: mẍ = mg − S1
r2
g M Schr

S2 S1
and for the drum
y x
2
B : M r ϕ̈/2 = S1 r − S2 r .
e

In addition, we need the kinematic relation mg


rin
ee er,

ẋ = rϕ̇

and the equation


gin ug
rin

S2 = kx
En s, Ha

for the restoring force in the spring. Solving yields the differential
equation for harmonic oscillations:
2k 2mg
ẍ + x= .
M + 2m M + 2m
os

Thus, the natural frequency is


r
2k
Gr

ω= .
M + 2m
5 Vibrations 139

cs e
Example 5.13 Two drums rotate in opposite directions as shown in E5.13

na idje
Fig. 5.32. They support a homogeneous board of weight W (mass
m). The coefficient of kinetic
friction between the drums x

Dy ov
and the board is µ. W

mi
Show that the board un-
µ

,G
dergoes a harmonic vibrati- Ω

on and determine the natural
frequency. a

ge nics Wall
Fig. 5.32
Solution We separate the various parts of the system. The free-
body diagram shows the forces acting if the board is displaced by
an amount x (the friction forces act on the drums in the opposite

3,
directions of the rotations).
Sp cha der,
x

3
01
R2 R1
W
ö

N2 N1
r2
g M Schr

R2 R1
a/2
a/2
e

Thus, the equation of motion in the x-direction of the board is


rin
ee er,

given by

mẍ = R2 − R1 .
gin ug

The normal forces follow from force equilibrium in the vertical


rin

direction and from moment equilibrium:


En s, Ha

a a
+x −x
N1 = W 2 , N2 = W 2 .
a a
With the law of kinetic friction R = µN , we obtain
2x
os

R2 − R1 = µ(N2 − N1 ) = −µmg .
a
Gr
140 5 Vibrations

cs e
na idje
The equation of motion
2x
mẍ = −µmg
a

Dy ov
thus leads to the differential equation for harmonic vibrations:

mi
g
ẍ + 2µ x = 0 .

,G
a
The natural frequency is given by
r

ge nics Wall
g
ω = 2µ .
a

Note that the natural frequency does not depend on the angular

3,
velocity Ω of the drums.
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
5 Vibrations 141

cs e
Example 5.14 A homogeneous bar (weight W = mg, length l) is E5.14

na idje
submerged in a viscous fluid and undergoes vibrations about point
A (Fig. 5.33). The drag force Fd acting A
on every point of the bar is proportio-

Dy ov
nal to the local velocity (proportiona-

mi
lity factor β).
l ϕ

,G
a) Derive the equation of motion.
Assume small amplitudes and neglect
the buoyancy. b) Calculate the value

ge nics Wall
β = β ∗ for critical damping. Fig. 5.33
Solution a) We consider an arbitrary
element of length dx of the bar. It is
A x
subjected to the drag force

3,
Sp cha der,
dFd = β v(x) dx = βxϕ̇ dx . ϕ
dx

3
We restrict ourselves to small amplitu- mg dFd

01
des (sin ϕ ≈ ϕ). In this case the prin-
ciple of angular momentum yields
ö

l lϕ
sin ϕ ≈
r2
2 2
g M Schr

Zl
x l
A: ΘA ϕ̈ = −mg ϕ − βx2 ϕ̇dx .
2
0
e

Evaluation of the integral and introduction of ΘA = ml2 /3 lead


rin
ee er,

to the equation of motion


βl 3 g
ϕ̈ + ϕ̇ + ϕ=0 → ϕ̈ + 2ξ ϕ̇ + ω 2 ϕ = 0
gin ug

m 2 l
rin

where
En s, Ha

βl 3g
ξ= , ω2 = .
2m 2l
os
Gr
142 5 Vibrations

cs e
na idje
b) Critical damping is characterized by

ξ=ω or ζ=1.

Dy ov
Thus,
r r

mi
β∗l 3g ∗ m g
= → β = 6 .

,G
2m 2l l l

ge nics Wall
3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
5 Vibrations 143

cs e
Example 5.15 The pendulum of a clock consists of a homogeneous E5.15

na idje
rod (mass m, length l) and a homoge-
neous disk (mass M , radius r) whose
center is located at a distance a from
11
00 A

Dy ov
point A (Fig. 5.34). Assume small am-

mi
plitudes and determine the natural fre- a m
l

,G
quency of the corresponding oscillati-
ons. Choose m = M and r ≪ a and 2r
calculate the ratio a/l which yields the M

ge nics Wall
maximum eigenfrequency.
Fig. 5.34
Solution We introduce the angle ϕ
as shown and apply the principle A

3,
of angular momentum:
Sp cha der,
x ϕ

3
A: ΘA ϕ̈ = − mgl/2 sin ϕ − M ga sin ϕ

01
mg
where
Mg
ö

ΘA = ml2 /3 + M (r2 + 2a2 )/2 .


r2
g M Schr

If we assume small amplitudes (sin ϕ ≈ ϕ), we can linearize the


equation of motion:
(ml + 2M a)g
ϕ̈ + ϕ=0.
e

2ΘA
rin
ee er,

Hence, the eigenfrequency is obtained as


s
(ml + 2M a)g
gin ug

ω= .
2ΘA
rin
En s, Ha

In the special case of m = M and r ≪ a the natural frequency


simplifies to
r
3l + 6a
ω= g.
2l2 + 6a2
os

The ratio a/l which yields the maximum eigenfrequency is found


by setting the derivative dω/da equal to zero:
r !
Gr

dω 1 7
= 0 → a/l = −1 .
da 2 3
144 5 Vibrations

cs e
E5.16 Example 5.16 The system in Fig 5.35
111
000

na idje
consists of a homogeneous pulley
(mass M , radius r), a block (mass m)
000
111
and a spring (spring constant k). k

Dy ov
Determine the equation of motion r
M

mi
for the block and its solution for the
A

,G
initial conditions x(0) = 0, v(0) = v0 .
Neglect the mass of the string and
any lateral motion.
111
000

ge nics Wall
m
Fig. 5.35
Solution We separate the pulley and
the block and measure the displace-

3,
ϕ
ments x of the block and xA of point A
Sp cha der,
from the position of equilibrium. With 2 kxA
xA

3
this choice, we do not have to consider

01
the weights M g and mg in the free-
body diagram. Thus, the equations of
ö

S1 S2
motion are
r2
g M Schr

① ↓ : mẍ = −S1 , 1 x

② ↓ : M ẍA = S1 + S2 − kxA ,
e

x
A : ΘA ϕ̈ = rS1 − rS2 .
rin
ee er,

Π
xA
If we use the kinematic relations (Π=:
b
instantaneous center of rotation, see x
gin ug

the figure)
rin

x ẍ ẍ
En s, Ha

xA = , 2rϕ = x → ẍA = , ϕ̈ =
2 2 2r
and ΘA = M r2 /2 we can solve the equations of motion for x and
obtain
v
k u k
ẍ + x=0 → ω=u t .
os

3 3
4m + M 4m + M
2 2
Gr
5 Vibrations 145

cs e
na idje
The general solution of this differential equation is given by

x(t) = A cos ωt + B sin ωt .

Dy ov
The initial conditions

mi
v0
x(0) = 0 → A=0, ẋ(0) = v0 → B=
ω

,G
lead to
v0
x(t) = sin ωt .

ge nics Wall
ω

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
146 5 Vibrations

cs e
E5.17 Example 5.17 A wheel (mass m, radius r) rolls without slipping

na idje
on a circular path (Fig. 5.36). The mass of the rod (length l) can
be neglected; the joints are
frictionless. g

Dy ov
Derive the equation of l

mi
motion and determine the

,G
natural frequency of small A
ϕ
oscillations.
m

ge nics Wall
r

Fig. 5.36
Solution We apply conserva-
tion of energy

3,
Sp cha der,
T + V = const

3
ϕ
to derive the equation of mo-

01
vc
tion. The kinetic energy of
C
ö

the rolling wheel is given by ψ


r2
g M Schr

(see the figure)


T = mvc2 /2 + ΘC ψ̇ 2 /2 ,

the potential energy is (zero-level at the height of point A)


e

V = −mgl cos ϕ .
rin
ee er,

With the mass moment of inertia ΘC = mr2 /2 and the kinematic


relations
gin ug
rin

vc = lϕ̇ , vc = rψ̇ → lϕ̇ = rψ̇


En s, Ha

the kinetic energy can be written as

T = 3ml2 ϕ̇2 /4 .

Introduction into the expression for conservation of energy gives


os

3lϕ̇2 /4 − g cos ϕ = const .

Differentiation yields
Gr

3 2g
lϕ̇ϕ̈ + g ϕ̇ sin ϕ = 0 → ϕ̈ + sin ϕ = 0 .
2 3l
5 Vibrations 147

cs e
na idje
If we restrict ourselves to small amplitudes (sin ϕ ≈ ϕ) this equa-
tion reduces to
2g
ϕ̈ + ϕ = 0 .
3l

Dy ov
mi
Thus, the natural frequency is obtained as
r

,G
2g
ω= .
3l

ge nics Wall
3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
148 5 Vibrations

cs e
E5.18 Example 5.18 The simple pendulum in Fig. 5.37 is attached to a

na idje
spring (spring constant k) and a dashpot (damping coefficient d).
a) Determine the maximum value of
the damping coefficient d so that

Dy ov
the system undergoes vibrations. a
1010

mi
Assume small amplitudes.
10

,G
b) Find the damping ratio ζ so that

1010
the amplitude is reduced to 1/10 d
a
of its initial value after 10 full cy- k
01

ge nics Wall
cles. Calculate the corresponding
m
period Td .
Fig. 5.37

Solution a) The equation of motion

3,
A
follows from the principle of angular
Sp cha der,
momentum (rotation about point A; Fd

3
small amplitudes: sin ϕ ≈ ϕ, cos ϕ ≈ 1): ϕ

01
x
A: ΘA ϕ̈ = −Fd a − Fk 2a − mg2aϕ . Fk
ö

r2
g M Schr

With mg

ΘA = m (2a)2 , Fd = da ϕ̇ , Fk = k2a ϕ

we obtain
e

k g 
rin

d
ee er,

ϕ̈ + ϕ̇ + + ϕ=0 → ϕ̈ + 2ξ ϕ̇ + ω 2 ϕ = 0 ,
4m m 2a
where
gin ug

d k g
ω2 =
rin

ξ= , + .
8m m 2a
En s, Ha
os
Gr
5 Vibrations 149

cs e
na idje
In order to have oscillations, the system must be underdamped:
r
d k g
ζ <1 → ξ<ω → < +
8m m 2a

Dy ov
r
gm2

mi
→ d < 8 km + .
2a

,G
b) The necessary damping ratio follows with xn+10 = xn /10 from
the logarithmic decrement:

ge nics Wall
2πζ xn
10 p = ln = ln 10
1 − ζ2 xn+10
v
u 1
→ ζ=u t  20π 2 = 0.037 .

3,
+1
ln 10
Sp cha der,

3
This leads to the period
s

01
2π 2π 2am
Td = p ≈ = 2π .
ö

ω 1−ζ 2 ω 2ak + gm
r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
150 5 Vibrations

cs e
E5.19 Example 5.19 The structure in Fig. 5.38 consists of an elastic beam

na idje
(flexural rigidity EI, axial rigidity EA → ∞, negligible mass) and
three rigid bars (with negligible masses). The block (mass m) is
suspended from a spring (spring constant k).

Dy ov
Determine the eigenfrequency of the vertical oscillations of

mi
the block.

,G
1010
a a a

1010

ge nics Wall
a

010
1 k

3,
Sp cha der,
m

3
Fig. 5.38

01
Solution We reduce the structure to an
1111
0000
ö

equivalent system of a spring (spring


r2
g M Schr

constant k ∗ , see the figure) and a mass.


To this end we first replace the beam
and the bars by a spring with the spring k∗
constant kB . We can determine kB if we
e

subject the beam to a force F which acts


rin
ee er,

at the free end. This force produces the m


deflection
gin ug

F a3
w=
rin

EI
(see Engineering Mechanics 2: Mechanics of Materials, Example
En s, Ha

6.22). The spring constant is obtained from


F EI
kB = → kB = .
w a3
The displacement of the block is the sum of the elongations of the
os

springs with spring constants k and kB . Therefore, the beam/bars


and the given spring act as springs in series. Thus, the spring
Gr

constant k ∗ of the equivalent system follows from


1 1 1 kEI
= + → k∗ = .
k∗ kB k ka3 + EI
This yields the eigenfrequency
r s
k∗ kEI
ω= → ω= .
m (ka3 + EI)m
5 Vibrations 151

cs e
Example 5.20 A rod (length l, with negligible mass) is elastically E5.20

na idje
supported at point A (Fig. 5.39). The rotational spring (spring
constant kT ) is unstretched for ϕ = 0. The rod carries a point
mass m at its free end.
A

Dy ov
Derive the equation of motion. kT
g

mi
Determine the spring constant so ϕ

,G
that ϕ = π/6 is an equilibrium posi-
m
tion. Calculate the natural frequen- l
cy of small oscillations about this

ge nics Wall
equilibrium position. Fig. 5.39

Solution To derive the equation of


0110
MA
motion we apply the principle of an-
ϕ
gular momentum:

3,
y
Sp cha der,
A: ΘA ϕ̈ = mgl cos ϕ − MA . mg

3
With the mass moment of inertia

01
ΘA = ml2 and the restoring moment MA = kT ϕ we obtain
ö

g kT
r2
g M Schr

ϕ̈ = cos ϕ − ϕ.
l ml2
Since ϕ = ϕ0 = π/6 is a position of equilibrium, the conditi-
on ϕ̈(π/6) =
√ 0 leads to the required spring constant (note that
e

cos(π/6) = 3/2):
rin

√ √
ee er,

3 g π kT 3 3
− = 0 → kT = mgl .
2 l 6 ml2 π
gin ug

Now we consider small oscillations about this position of equili-


rin

brium. We assume that


En s, Ha

ϕ = ϕ0 + ψ with |ψ| ≪ 1 .

Introduction into the equation of motion yields


g kT
ψ̈ = cos(ϕ0 + ψ) − (ϕ0 + ψ) .
l ml2
os

We use the trigonometric relation


Gr

cos(ϕ0 + ψ) = cos ϕ0 cos


√ ψ − sin ϕ0 sin ψ
3 1
→ cos(ϕ0 + ψ) = cos ψ − sin ψ
2 2
152 5 Vibrations

cs e
na idje
and linearize (cos ψ ≈ 1, sin ψ ≈ ψ) to obtain

1g kT 3 g π kT
ψ̈ = − ψ − ψ+ −
2l ml2 2 l 6 ml2

Dy ov
√ !
1 3 3 g

mi
→ ψ̈ + + ψ=0.
2 π l

,G
Thus, the natural frequency is given by
v
u √ !

ge nics Wall
u 1 3 3 g
ω= t + .
2 π l

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
5 Vibrations 153

cs e
Example 5.21 A single story frame E5.21

na idje
consists of two rigid columns (with
negligible masses), a rigid beam of m
mass m and a spring-dashpot sys-
d

Dy ov
tem as shown in Fig. 5.40. The

mi
ground is forced to vibration by an k

,G
earthquake; the acceleration üE =

1111
0000 00000
11111
b0 cos Ωt is known from measure- 45◦
ments.
0000 11111
1111 00000

ge nics Wall
Determine the maximum ampli- üE
Fig. 5.40
tude of the steady state vibrations.
Assume that the system is underdamped and that the vibrations
have small amplitudes.
x − uE

3,
Solution We assume that the m
Sp cha der, x
amplitudes of the vibrations

3
are small. Then the elongati- F

01
on of the diagonal is obtained

as
ö


r2
g M Schr

2
∆= (x − uE ) .
2 45◦
uE

1111111111
0000000000
The elongation produces the
force
e
rin
ee er,

˙
F = k∆+ d∆

in the spring-dashpot system (see the figure). The equation of


gin ug

motion of the beam is given by


rin


2
En s, Ha

→: mẍ = −F
2
d k
→ mẍ + (ẋ − u̇E ) + (x − uE ) = 0 .
2 2
Thus, the relative displacement y = x − uE is described by
os

d k
mÿ + ẏ + y = m b0 cos Ωt
2 2
1 2ζ
Gr

→ ÿ + ẏ + y = y0 cos Ωt ,
ω2 ω
where
r
k d 1 2m b0
ω2 = , ζ= , y0 = .
2m 2 2k m k
154 5 Vibrations

cs e
na idje
The maximum amplitude A is obtained for η = Ω/ω ≈ 1 (reso-
nance!). In the case of small damping (ζ ≪ 1) we obtain
s
y0 √ b 0 m3

Dy ov
A = y0 Vmax ≈ =2 2 .
2ζ d k

mi
,G
ge nics Wall
3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
5 Vibrations 155

cs e
Example 5.22 The undamped system in Fig. 5.41 consists of a E5.22

na idje
block (mass m = 4 kg) and a spring (spring constant k = 1
N/m). The block is subjected to a force F (t). The initial conditions
x(0) = x0 = 1 m, ẋ(0) = 0 and the response

Dy ov
   
t t−T

mi
x(t) = x0 cos + 20 1 − cos ht − T i0
2t0 2t0

,G
x(t)
to the excitation are given. Here,
t0 = 1 s, T = 5 s and ht − T i0 = 0 k F (t)
for t < T and ht − T i0 = 1 for m

ge nics Wall
t > T.
Calculate the force F (t).
Fig. 5.41

3,
Solution First we calculate the force F for t < T . Then ht−T i0 = 0
Sp cha der,
and the response is given by

3
t
x(t) = x0 cos .

01
2t0
ö

The unknown force follows from the equation of motion:


r2
g M Schr

F = mẍ + kx .

With
x0 t x0 t
e

ẋ = − sin and ẍ = − 2 cos


2t0 2t0 4t0 2t0
rin
ee er,

we obtain
 
mx0 t
gin ug

F (t) = − 2 + kx0 cos .


4t0 2t0
rin

Inserting the given numerical values of the parameters leads to


En s, Ha

F (t) ≡ 0 for t<T .


os
Gr
156 5 Vibrations

cs e
na idje
Now we consider the case t > T . Then ht − T i0 = 1 and the
response follows as
  
t t−T
x(t) = x0 cos + 20 1 − cos

Dy ov
2t0 2t0
 

mi
x0 t t−T
→ ẋ = − sin + 20 sin

,G
2t0 2t0 2t0
 
x0 t t−T
→ ẍ = 2 − cos + 20 cos .
4t0 2t0 2t0

ge nics Wall
Introduction into the equation of motion yields
 
mx0 t
F (t) = − 2 + kx0 cos
4t0 2t0

3,
 
20mx0 t−T
Sp cha der,
+ − 20kx 0 cos + 20kx0
4t20 2t0

3
01
→ F (t) ≡ 20 N for t > T .
ö

F (t) [N]
r2
g M Schr

30

20
e
rin

10
ee er,

t[s]
gin ug

5 10
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
5 Vibrations 157

cs e
Example 5.23 A simplified model of a car (mass m) is given by E5.23

na idje
a spring-mass system (Fig. 5.42). The car drives with constant
velocity v0 over an uneven surface in the form of a sine function
(amplitude U0 , wavelength L).

Dy ov
a) Derive the equation of moti- v0

mi
on and determine the forcing m
x U0

,G
frequency Ω.
c
b) Find the amplitude of the ver-
tical vibrations as a function

ge nics Wall
of the velocity v0 . L
c) Calculate the critical velocity
Fig. 5.42
vc (resonance!).
Solution a) We denote the verti-

3,
cal displacement of the car by x, m
Sp cha der,
the uneven surface is described

3
x
by u. Then Newton’s law reads
u
↑:
01
mẍ = −k (x − u) .
ö

u
r2
With the position of the car, s =
g M Schr

L
v0 t, in the horizontal direction U0
we obtain
s

2πs 2πv0 t
e

u = U0 cos = U0 cos = U0 cos Ωt .


rin

L L
ee er,

Thus,
2πv0
gin ug

m ẍ + k x = k U0 cos Ωt with Ω= .
L
rin

b) We assume the solution of the equation of motion to be of


En s, Ha

the form of the right-hand side: x = x0 cos Ωt. This leads to the
amplitude of the steady state vibrations:
U0 U0
x0 = =
Ω2 4π 2 v02 m
1− 2 1−
os

ω L2 k

where ω 2 = k/m.
Gr

c) Resonance occurs for Ω = ω:


r
4π 2 vc2 m L k
=1 → vc = .
L2 k 2π m
158 5 Vibrations

cs e
E5.24 Example 5.24 A homogeneous wheel (mass m) is attached to a

na idje
spring (spring constant k). The x
wheel rolls without slipping on m
a rough surface which moves
00
11
00
k C
11

Dy ov
r
according to the function u =
00
11
µ0

mi
u0 cosΩt (Fig. 5.43). u
00
11

,G
a) Determine the amplitude of
the steady state vibrations. Fig. 5.43
b) Calculate the coefficient µ0 of static friction which is necessary

ge nics Wall
to prevent slipping.
Solution The equations of mo-
tion for the wheel are given by
x

3,
↑ : 0 = N − mg , (a) mg
Sp cha der,
→: m ẍ = −k x + H , (b) kx ϕ

3
r
C

01
y
C : ΘC ϕ̈ = −r H . (c)
H
ö

N
With the kinematic relation
r2
g M Schr

x = u + rϕ → ẍ = ü + rϕ̈ = −u0 Ω2 cos Ωt + rϕ̈

and ΘC = mr2 /2 we obtain from (b) and (c) the differential equa-
tion for forced vibrations:
e
rin

2 k 1
ee er,

ẍ + x = − u0 Ω2 cos Ωt .
3 m 3
a) We assume the solution to be of the form of the right-hand
gin ug

side: x = x0 cos Ωt. This leads to the amplitude of the steady state
rin

vibrations:
En s, Ha

u0
|x0 | = .

2 k
3 2
− 1

3 mΩ

b) The condition |H|max ≤ µ0 N for static friction and (a), (b)


yield the required coefficient of static friction:
os



ẍ + k x −x0 Ω2 + k x0
|H|max m max m
Gr

µ0 ≥ = =
N g g

k
u0 Ω2 m Ω2 − 1
→ µ0 ≥ .
3g 2 k
2
− 1
3 mΩ
5 Vibrations 159

cs e
Example 5.25 A small homogeneous disk (mass m, radius r) is at- E5.25

na idje
tached to a large homogeneous disk (mass M , radius R) as shown
in Fig. 5.44. The torsion spring
(spring constant kT ) is unstret- g
M A R

Dy ov
ched in the position shown.
kT

mi
Determine the eigenfrequency
a r

,G
of the oscillations. Assume small
amplitudes. m
Fig. 5.44

ge nics Wall
Solution We apply the principle
of angular momentum to derive
kT ϕ
the equation of motion:
x A

3,
A: ΘA ϕ̈ = −kT ϕ − mga sin ϕ .
Sp cha der, ϕ
mg
In the case of small amplitudes

3
(sin ϕ ≈ ϕ) this equation reduces

01
to
kT + mga
ö

ϕ̈ + ω 2 ϕ = 0 with ω2 = .
ΘA
r2
g M Schr

Inserting the mass moment of inertia


 
M R2 mr2 2
ΘA = + + ma
2 2
e
rin

we can write the eigenfrequency in the form


ee er,

v
u
u kT + mga
ω=u .
t1 r2
gin ug

M R2 + m( + a2 )
2 2
rin
En s, Ha

Note that the problem can also be solved with the aid of the
conservation of energy (we choose V = 0 for ϕ = 0):
1 1
T + V = const → ΘA ϕ̇2 + kT ϕ2 + mga(1 − cos ϕ) = const.
2 2
Differentiation yields
os

ΘA ϕ̇ϕ̈ + kT ϕϕ̇ + mga sin ϕ ϕ̇ = 0 .


Gr

With sin ϕ ≈ ϕ and ϕ̇ 6= 0 we obtain the same result as above.


1111
0000
160 5 Vibrations

cs e
E5.26 Example 5.26 The systems ➀
00
11 000011
111100

na idje
k
and ➁ in Fig. 5.45 consist of
00
11 EI
00
11
00
11
EI
00
11
two beams (negligible masses, 1
flexural rigidity EI), a spring m

00
11

Dy ov
(spring constant k) and a box 2a a

00
11 11
00

mi
(mass m). EI EI
00
11 00
11 2

,G
Determine the spring con- k
stants k ∗ of the equivalent m
springs for the two systems.
Fig. 5.45

ge nics Wall
Solution We reduce both sys-

11
00
1
tems to the equivalent sim- l , EI
ple systems of a mass and a
00
11 w

3,
spring. Sp cha der,
In system ①, the three “springs” are attached to the mass. The-

3
refore, they undergo the same deflection when the box is displaced:

01
they act as springs in parallel. The equivalent spring constant k ∗
is the sum of the individual spring constants:
ö

X
r2
g M Schr

k∗ = ki .

We obtain the spring constants kL and kR of the right and the


left beam, respectively, if we subject the cantilevers to a force 1
at their free ends. The corresponding deflections are
e
rin
ee er,

1 · l3
w=
3EI
(see Engineering Mechanics 2: Mechanics of Materials, Section
gin ug

4.5) which leads to


rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
5 Vibrations 161

cs e
na idje
1 3EI 1 3EI
kL = = , kR = = 3 .
wL (2a)3 wR a

Dy ov
mi
Thus,

,G
27 EI 27EI + 8ka3
k ∗ = kL + kR + k = + k = .
8 a3 8a3
111
000 0000
1111
111 000
000000
111 111
0001111
1110000

ge nics Wall
kL kR k̄ k∗

k k

3,
m m m
Sp cha der,
Now we consider system ②. Here, the two beams act as springs

3
in parallel with equivalent spring constant k̄. This then acts in

01
series with given spring (spring constant k). Hence,
ö

27 EI
r2
k̄ = kL + kR = ,
g M Schr

8 a3
1 1 1 8a3 1
= + = +
k∗ k̄ k 27EI k
e

27EIk 27EI
→ k∗ = = .
rin

27EI + 8ka3 EI
ee er,

8a3 + 27
k
Note that the stiffness of system ② is smaller than the one of
gin ug

system ①. Therefore it vibrates with a smaller frequency.


rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
162 5 Vibrations

cs e
E5.27 Example 5.27 A homogeneous wheel (mass m, moment of inertia

na idje
ΘC , radius r) rolls without slipping on a rough beam (mass M ).
The beam moves without
friction on roller supports
1010
k C
m, ΘC

1010 r

Dy ov
(Fig. 5.46).
11
00

mi
Determine the natural fre-
M
111
000 00
11

,G
quency of the system.
Fig. 5.46

Solution We separate the wheel

ge nics Wall
and the beam and introduce the
coordinates x1 , x2 and ϕ (see
x1
the figure). The coordinates are
measured from the position of mg

3,
1
equilibrium. Then the equati- ϕ
Sp cha der, kx1 r
ons of motion are C

3
H
① →: m ẍ1 = −kx1 − H ,

01
N
y
ö

C : ΘC ϕ̈ = r H , x2 H
r2
g M Schr

A 2 B
② → : M ẍ2 = H .

If we use the kinematic relation


e

x1 = x2 + rϕ → ẋ1 = ẋ2 + rϕ̇


rin

→ ẍ1 = ẍ2 + rϕ̈


ee er,

and solve for x1 we obtain


gin ug

k
ẍ1 + x1 = 0 .
M
rin

m+
1 + M r2 /ΘC
En s, Ha

Thus, the natural frequency is given by


v
u k
u
ω=u .
t M
m+
1 + M r2 /ΘC
os
Gr
Gr
os
En s, Ha
gin ug Chapter 6
ee er,
rin
g M Schr
e ö
Sp cha der,
rin
ge nics Wall
r2 3, ,G
Non-Inertial Reference Frames

01 Dy ov
3 na idje
mi
6

cs e
164 6 Non-Inertial Reference Frames

1111111
0000000

cs e
E6.5 Example 6.5 Point A of the simple
0000000
1111111

na idje
pendulum (mass m, length l) in A a0
Fig. 6.8 moves with a constant ac-
celeration a0 to the right. g
ϕ

Dy ov
Derive the equation of motion. l

mi
m

,G
Fig. 6.8

Solution We introduce the ξ, η-co-

ge nics Wall
ordinate system as shown in the fi- η
gure. It is a translating coordinate eη
system with point A as the origin. A eξ ξ
The equation of motion in the mo-

3,
ϕ
ving system is
Sp cha der,

3
mar = F + Ff .
S

01
The (real) force F acting at the m
ö

mass is given by
r2
W = mg
g M Schr

F = − S sin ϕ eξ + (S cos ϕ − mg)eη

and the fictitious force Ff is


e

Ff = − maf = − ma0 eξ .
rin
ee er,

Note that the Coriolis force is zero since ω = 0.


The components of the relative acceleration ar follow from the
gin ug

coordinates of the point mass in the moving system through dif-


rin

ferentiation:
En s, Ha

ξ = l sin ϕ, η = − l cos ϕ,
ξ˙ = lϕ̇ cos ϕ, η̇ = lϕ̇ sin ϕ,
ξ¨ = lϕ̈ cos ϕ − lϕ̇2 sin ϕ, η̈ = lϕ̈ sin ϕ + lϕ̇2 cos ϕ .
os
Gr
6 Non-Inertial Reference Frames 165

cs e
na idje
This yields the relative acceleration

ar = ξ¨ eξ + η̈ eη = (lϕ̈ cos ϕ − lϕ̇2 sin ϕ)eξ

+(lϕ̈ sin ϕ + lϕ̇2 cos ϕ)eη .

Dy ov
mi
Introduction into the equation of motion leads to the components

,G
of the equation of motion in the direction of the axes ξ and η:

m (lϕ̈ cos ϕ − lϕ̇2 sin ϕ) = −S sin ϕ − ma0 ,

ge nics Wall
m (lϕ̈ sin ϕ + lϕ̇2 cos ϕ) = S cos ϕ − mg.
These are two equations for the unknowns ϕ and S. Solving for ϕ
yields the equation of motion

3,
Sp cha der,
lϕ̈ + g sin ϕ + a0 cos ϕ = 0 .

3
Note that the position ϕ0 = − arctan a0 /g is obtained for ϕ̈ = 0.

01
The pendulum oscillates about this position for ϕ̈ 6= 0.
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
166 6 Non-Inertial Reference Frames

cs e
E6.6 Example 6.6 The two disks in

na idje
11
00
1010
Fig. 6.9 rotate with constant P ϕ

00
11
angular velocities Ω and ω r
about their respective axes. ω

Dy ov
Determine the absolute ac- z

mi
celeration of point P at the in-
y

,G
stant shown.
x


101010

ge nics Wall
101010
a
Solution We describe the mo-

3,
tion of point P in a coordina- Fig. 6.9
Sp cha der,
te system x, y, z which is fixed

3
to the large disk. The absolute P ϕ

01
r
acceleration of P is
z
ö

aP = af + ar + ac ,
r2
g M Schr

y
where the acceleration of the
reference frame and the relati- x
ve acceleration are given by
e

   
rin
ee er,

0 0
   
af =  2
−(a + r cos ϕ)Ω  , ar =  2 
−rω cos ϕ .
0 −rω 2 sin ϕ
gin ug
rin

We also write the angular velocity of the reference frame and the
En s, Ha

relative velocity as column vectors:


   
0 0
   
Ω=  
 0  , v r = −rω sin ϕ

Ω rω cos ϕ
os
Gr
6 Non-Inertial Reference Frames 167

cs e
na idje
and we calculate the Coriolis acceleration:
 
2rωΩ sin ϕ
 
ac = 2Ω × v r → ac =   0  .

Dy ov
0

mi
,G
Combining yields
 
2rωΩ sin ϕ
 
aP =  2 2 
−(a + r cos ϕ)Ω − rω cos ϕ .

ge nics Wall
−rω 2 sin ϕ

3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
168 6 Non-Inertial Reference Frames

cs e
E6.7 Example 6.7 A horizontal circular platform (radius r) rotates with

na idje
constant angular velocity Ω (Fig. 6.10). A block (mass m) is locked
in a frictionless slot at a distance a
from the center of the platform. At

Dy ov
r a
time t = 0 the block is released.

mi
Determine the velocity vr of the m

,G
block relative to the platform when
it reaches the rim of the platform.

ge nics Wall
Fig. 6.10

Solution We describe the motion of y x


the block in a coordinate system x, y
which is fixed to the platform. The a

3,
absolute acceleration of the block is
Sp cha der,
given by

3
aB = af + ar + ac .

01
ö

Here, the acceleration of the reference frame, the relative accele-


r2
ration and the Coriolis acceleration are
g M Schr

" # " # " #


−xΩ2 ẍ 0
af = , ar = , ac = .
0 0 2Ωẋ
e

Thus, the absolute acceleration becomes


rin

" #
ee er,

ẍ − Ω2 x
aB = .
2Ωẋ
gin ug

The equation of motion for the block is


rin

maB = F ,
En s, Ha
os
Gr
6 Non-Inertial Reference Frames 169

cs e
na idje
where the force F (which is exerted from the slot on the block) is
" #
0
F = .
Fy

Dy ov
mi
We now write down the x-component of the equation of motion:

,G
m(ẍ − Ω2 x) = 0 → ẍ − Ω2 x = 0 .

The general solution of this differential equation is given by

ge nics Wall
x(t) = A cosh Ωt + B sinh Ωt .

With the initial conditions

3,
x(0) = a →
Sp cha der, A=a,
ẋ(0) = 0 → B=0

3
we obtain

x(t) = a cosh Ωt .
01
ö

r2
g M Schr

When the block reaches the rim of the platform, the condition

x(tR ) = r → cosh ΩtR = r/a

is satisfied. Thus the relative velocity is (note that cosh2 x −


e

sinh2 x = 1)
rin
ee er,

p
ẋ(tR ) = aΩ sinh ΩtR → ẋ(tR ) = Ω r2 − a2 .
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
170 6 Non-Inertial Reference Frames

cs e
E6.8 Example 6.8 A simple pendulum is

na idje
attached to point 0 of a circular disk Ω
(Fig. 6.11). The disk rotates with
a constant angular velocity Ω; the r
l m

Dy ov
pendulum oscillates in the horizon- 0

mi
tal plane.

00000
11111

,G
Determine the circular frequency
of the oscillations. Assume small
amplitudes and neglect the weight
00000
11111
00000
11111

ge nics Wall
of the mass. Fig. 6.11

Solution We introduce a rotating ξ, η, ζ-coordinate system. Then

Ω = Ωeζ , a0 = r̈ 0 = −rΩ2 eξ ,

3,
Ω̇ = 0 , r 0P = l cos ϕ eξ + l sin ϕ eη . vr
Sp cha der,
P

3
r0P
η

01
The relative velocity can be ex- Ω
pressed by the relative angular ve- r ϕ
ö

0 ξ
locity ϕ∗ (∗ : time derivative rela-
r2
g M Schr

tive to the moving frame):

vr = lϕ∗ → v r = −lϕ∗ sin ϕ eξ + lϕ∗ cos ϕ eη .


e

Thus, the fictitious forces F f and F c are


rin
ee er,

F f = − ma0 − mΩ × (Ω × r 0P ) = m(rΩ2 + lΩ2 cos ϕ)eξ


+ mΩ2 l sin ϕ eη ,
gin ug

F c = − 2mΩ × v r = 2mΩlϕ∗ (eξ cos ϕ + eη sin ϕ) .


rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
6 Non-Inertial Reference Frames 171

cs e
na idje
With the tangential relative acceleration art = lϕ∗∗ the equa-
tion of motion in the tangential direction is obtained as

Dy ov
տ: mlϕ∗∗ = m(lΩ2 + 2lϕ∗ Ω) sin ϕ cos ϕ

mi
− m[rΩ2 + (lΩ2 + 2lϕ∗ Ω) cos ϕ] sin ϕ

,G
= − mrΩ2 sin ϕ . mΩ2 l sin ϕ

ge nics Wall
We assume small amplitudes art
2mlϕ∗ Ω sin ϕ
(sin ϕ ≈ ϕ). This yields m(rΩ2 +lΩ2 cos ϕ)
m
η S
rΩ2 ϕ 2mlϕ∗ Ω cos ϕ
ϕ∗∗ + ϕ=0.
l

3,
ξ
Sp cha der,
Hence, the circular frequency of the oscillations is

3
q
ω = r/l Ω .

01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
172 6 Non-Inertial Reference Frames

cs e
E6.9 Example 6.9 A drum rotates with

na idje
angular velocity ω about point B D
(Fig. 6.12). Pin C is fixed to the C
drum; it moves in the slot of link

Dy ov
AD. 3l

mi
Determine the angular velocity B
A

,G
ωAD of link AD and the velocity 4l
vr of the pin relative to the link at
the instant shown.
111111111
000000000 ω

ge nics Wall
Fig. 6.12
Solution We use the rotating co-
x
ordinate system x, y as shown in
C
the figure. The (absolute) velocity a

3,
of pin C is given by
Sp cha der,
" # 3ℓ

3
cos β
v C = 3lω . y β

01
− sin β
A
ö

With the geometrical relations 4ℓ


r2
p
g M Schr

a = 16l2 + 9l2 = 5l , sin β = 3/5 , cos β = 4/5

we can write
" #
3lω 4
e

vC = .
rin

5 −3
ee er,

The velocity of the reference frame at point C and the velocity of


pin C relative to the moving frame are
gin ug

" # " #
rin

0 1
v f = β̇l , v r = vr .
En s, Ha

5 0
With
" # " # " #
3lω 4 0 1
vC = vf + vr → = β̇l + vr ,
5 −3 5 0
os

we finally obtain
" #
Gr

9ω 12 1
ωAD = β̇ = − , vr = ωl .
25 5 0
6 Non-Inertial Reference Frames 173

cs e
Example 6.10 A point P moves along a circular path (radius r) E6.10

na idje
on a platform with a constant relative velocity vr (Fig. 6.13). The
platform rotates with a con- vr
stant angular velocity ω about

Dy ov
P
point A. The eccentricity e is gi- ω r

mi
ven. A e
0

,G
Determine the relative, fixed
frame-, Coriolis, and absolute
accelerations of P .

ge nics Wall
Fig. 6.13

Solution We introduce the coor-


dinate system ξ, η, ζ as shown in η
the figure. Its origin is located at vr

3,
the center 0 of the platform; it
P
Sp cha der,
rotates with the platform. Thus ω r 0P

3
point P undergoes a circular A e 0 ϕ ξ

01
motion relative to this system.
With the magnitude ar = vr2 /r
ö

of the relative acceleration and


r2
g M Schr

its direction (from P to 0) we


can write
v2
ar = − r (eξ cos ϕ + eη sin ϕ) .
r
e
rin

With
ee er,

ω = ωeζ , ω̇ = 0 , r0P = eξ r cos ϕ + eη r sin ϕ ,


gin ug

v r = vr (−eξ sin ϕ + eη cos ϕ) , r̈ 0 = a0 = −e ω 2 eξ


rin

we obtain
En s, Ha

af = a0 + ω × (ω × r0P )

= −e ω 2 eξ + rω 2 [eζ × (eζ × eξ cos ϕ) + eζ × (eζ × eη sin ϕ)]

= −(e + r cos ϕ)ω 2 eξ − rω 2 sin ϕeη ,


os

ac = 2ω × v r = 2ωvr [eζ × (−eξ sin ϕ) + eζ × eη cos ϕ]


Gr

= −2ωvr (eξ cos ϕ + eη sin ϕ) .


174 6 Non-Inertial Reference Frames

cs e
na idje
Thus, the absolute acceleration is found as

a = af + ar + ac
vr2 v2
= −[eω 2 + (rω 2 + + 2ωvr ) cos ϕ]eξ − [rω 2 + r + 2ωvr ] sin ϕ eη

Dy ov
r r

mi
2 vr 2 vr 2
= −[eω + r(ω + ) cos ϕ]eξ − r(ω + ) sin ϕ eη .

,G
r r

ge nics Wall
3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
6 Non-Inertial Reference Frames 175

cs e
Example 6.11 A circular ring (ra- E6.11

na idje

01101010
dius r) rotates with constant an-
gular velocity Ω about the x-
axis (Fig. 6.14). A point mass m

Dy ov
moves without friction inside the m

mi
ring. ϕ x

,G
Derive the equations of moti-
z g
on and determine the equilibrium y
positions of the point mass relati- r

ge nics Wall
ve to the ring.

11
00
01
Fig. 6.14

3,
Solution We describe the motion of the point mass in the x, y, z-
Sp cha der,
coordinate system (see the figure) which rotates with the ring.

3
The absolute acceleration a of the point mass is given by

a = af + ar + ac ,
01
ö

r2
g M Schr

where the acceleration of the reference frame and the relative ac-
celeration are
   
0 −rϕ̇2 cos ϕ − rϕ̈ sin ϕ
   
af =  2   2
−rΩ sin ϕ , ar = −rϕ̇ sin ϕ + rϕ̈ cos ϕ .

e
rin

0 0
ee er,

With the angular velocity of the ring and the relative velocity
   
gin ug

Ω −rϕ̇ sin ϕ
   
rin

Ω=   
 0  , v r =  rϕ̇ cos ϕ 
En s, Ha

0 0
we can calculate the Coriolis acceleration
 
0
 
ac = 2Ω × v r → ac =   0  .

os

2rΩϕ̇ cos ϕ
The equation of motion is given by
Gr

ma = W + N ,
176 6 Non-Inertial Reference Frames

cs e
na idje
where
 
−mg
 
W =
 0 

Dy ov
0

mi
,G
is the weight of the point mass and
 
N
 x
N = 
Ny  with Ny /Nx = tan ϕ

ge nics Wall
Nz
is the force exerted from the ring on the point mass. Now, we can
write down the components of the equation of motion:

3,
Sp cha der,
−m(rϕ̇2 cos ϕ + rϕ̈ sin ϕ) = −mg + Nx ,

3
−m(rϕ̇2 sin ϕ − rϕ̈ cos ϕ + rΩ2 sin ϕ) = Nx tan ϕ ,

01
ö

2mrΩϕ̇ cos ϕ = Nz .
r2
g M Schr

Positions of equilibrium relative to the ring are characterized by


 
g
ϕ̇ = 0 , ϕ̈ = 0 → rΩ2 + sin ϕ = 0 .
cos ϕ
e

This yields
rin
ee er,

g
ϕ1 = 0 , ϕ2 = π , ϕ3,4 = π ± arccos .
rΩ2
gin ug

The positions ϕ3,4 exist only for Ω2 > g/r.


rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr
6 Non-Inertial Reference Frames 177

cs e
Example 6.12 A point P moves
11111111111
00000000000 E6.12

na idje
on a square plate along a cir- vr
cular path (radius r) with a P
constant relative velocity vr . r a0

Dy ov
The plate moves horizontally

mi
with the constant acceleration
1111111111
0000000000

,G
a0 (Fig. 6.15).
Determine the magnitude of
the absolute acceleration of P .
0000000000
1111111111
Fig. 6.15

ge nics Wall
Solution The components of the
η
relative velocity in the moving
vr
reference frame ξ, η are y P
fixed r

3,
vrξ = ξ ∗ = −vr sin ϕ ,
x
Sp cha der, 0 ϕ ξ
vrη = η ∗ = vr cos ϕ

3
01
(∗: time derivative relative to the moving frame). Differentiation
ö

with respect to the moving frame leads to the components of the


r2
relative acceleration (note: rϕ∗ = vr ):
g M Schr

vr2
arξ = ξ ∗∗ = −vr ϕ∗ cos ϕ = − cos ϕ ,
r
v2
arη = η ∗∗ = −vr ϕ∗ sin ϕ = − r sin ϕ .
e

r
rin
ee er,

Since the reference frame undergoes a translation, the absolute


acceleration is given by
gin ug

vr2
ax = a0 + arξ = a0 − cos ϕ ,
rin

r
vr2
En s, Ha

ay = arη = − sin ϕ .
r
It has the magnitude
q r
vr4 vr2
a= a2x + a2y = a20 + − 2a 0 cos ϕ .
r2 r
os
Gr
178 6 Non-Inertial Reference Frames

cs e
E6.13 Example 6.13 A crane starts to move from rest with a constant

na idje
acceleration b0 along a straight track. At the same time, the jib
begins to rotate with constant angu- bc
0
lar velocity ω, and the trolley on the

Dy ov
jib begins to move towards point 0

mi
with constant relative acceleration bc ω

,G
(Fig. 6.16). The initial positions of the
b0
jib and of the trolley are given by ϕ0
and s0 . 1111111
0000000
bc
s

ge nics Wall
Determine the absolute velocity and
the absolute acceleration of the trolley ϕ
as functions of the time t. b0
Fig. 6.16

3,
Solution We use the fixed coordinate system x, y, z, where the
Sp cha der,
x-axis coincides with the track. In ad-

3
dition, we introduce the rotating coor- y η ξ
P

01
dinate system ξ, η, ζ, where the ξ-axis ω
r 0P
rotates with the jib. Then, the gene- 0 ϕ
ö

ral equations for the absolute velocity z ζ x


r2
g M Schr

and the absolute acceleration are

v = v 0 + ω × r0P + v r ,
a = a0 + ω̇ × r 0P + ω × (ω × r 0P ) + 2 ω × v r + ar .
e
rin
ee er,

We measure the time t from the beginning of the motion. Then,


making use of the given accelerations, angular velocity and initial
conditions, we obtain
gin ug
rin

a 0 = b 0 ex → v 0 = b 0 t ex ,
En s, Ha

ω = ωeζ , ω̇ = 0 ,
ar = −bc eξ → v r = −bc t eξ → r 0P = (− 21 bc t2 + s0 )eξ ,

and

ω × r 0P = ω(− 21 bc t2 + s0 )eη , 2 ω × v r = −2 ω bc t eη ,
os

2
ω × (ω × r0P ) = −ω (− 12 bc t2 + s0 )eξ .
Gr
6 Non-Inertial Reference Frames 179

cs e
na idje
With the relation ex = eξ cos ϕ − eη sin ϕ, where ϕ = ϕ0 + ω t, we
finally obtain

v = [b0 t cos ϕ − bc t]eξ + [−b0 t sin ϕ + ω(− 21 bc t2 + s0 )]eη ,

Dy ov
mi
a = [b0 cos ϕ − ω 2 (− 12 bc t2 + s0 ) − bc ]eξ − [b0 sin ϕ + 2 ω bc t]eη .

,G
ge nics Wall
3,
Sp cha der,

3
01
ö

r2
g M Schr
e
rin
ee er,
gin ug
rin
En s, Ha
os
Gr