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Education in the Philippines during the American Period (1898-1942)

Educational Goals

Educational goal during the American period is to promote democratic ideals and

way of life; formation of good citizens, including the rights and responsibilities of people.

Highlights of Education during the American Time

Education Act of 1901 laid the foundation of the Philippine Public school system.

In August 1901, 600 teachers are called “Thomasites” arrived. English was made

medium of instruction.

Curricular structure and programs were patterned from the U.S. There were 3

levels of education: Elementary level, Secondary or High school level, and College or

Tertiary level. New subject areas were introduced.

Religion was not included in the curriculum of the schools. Normal, vocational,

agricultural, and business schools were also opened. Schools were also built in non-

catholic areas like Sulu in Mindanao, and in Mountain Province.

Education under American colonization led to a widespread Americanization of

the Philippines. Through education, Americans had influenced many Filipinos in terms

of what they like, eat, culture, and demand on westernized products and lifestyle.
Benefits and Anticipated Outcomes

1. The spread of providing public education: it’s known that US spearheaded

more aggressively the provision and delivery of schooling paid by public

coffers to unheard-of-areas of the archipelago. During the US occupation, it

became fashionable to go to elementary and high school, and for the same to

go to college. This generally introduced the hazy idea behind spreading

enlightenment to majority of the populace which up to now continues.

2. The introduction of the concept of “press freedom,” which still continues in the

country, through not a few journalists and media practitioners have died in the

course of duty lately. Consequently, and up to now, there’s particularly no

other country, at least Asia that maybe described as having a “freer” media,

i.e. nosy and rambunctious, than what can be seen in the Philippines (and

it’s guaranteed in the constitution)

3. The continuation on putting too much value on elitism among its leaders plus

their influential relatives, although not spoken loudly in most sectors of


4. The collaborative and dependent tendencies of the national Philippine

government with the US government in certain areas of governance have

always been noted and observed, especially if viewed by outsider. The

Philippines continues to be a solid ally of the US in Asia, in many years, even

up to these days, which gives some people strong ideas that it’s still “colony”

up to now.
5. Most American cultural effects continue to be felt and followed in practically

the whole Philippines. This goes on practically in all field, from the use of

English (which an official language, as mandated in its constitution), the

distribution of US-made movies and TV shows in all media circuits, the tunes

of music played, latest fashion styles etc,

6. And up to certain extent, the US occupation had opened up the gateways for

some other religions to be extensively introduced to the Philippines, most

particularly the many brands of Protestantism. The impact of the said

occupation may soon dissipate, even before most of us interested viewers

may have the luxury of time to notice it.

Education in the Philippines during Japanese Occupation

Educational Goals:

Most schools were damaged during World War II and had to be closed

down. In June 1942, the schools were reopened by the Japanese. Their educational

policies, as detailed in Military Order No. 2, mandated the teaching of Tagalog,

Philippine history, and character education to Filipino students, with emphasis on love

for work and dignity of labor.

Highlights of Education during the Japanese Time:

 Use Niponggo and to stop using the English language.

 Spread elementary and vocational education.

 Develop love for work

Benefits and Anticipated Outcomes:

Overall, the Japanese interests in the Philippines as a militaristic nation were

immense. It provided many advantages to further the war effort, and also supplies and

raw material needed to fuel a large scale war. However, the Philippines fought back,

and with the American aid eventually demolished the Japanese hold on the islands.

From the end of the war, the Japanese view changed to a more constitutional and

economic one.