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Electron Multiplication through Secondary Electron
Emission
By Bruce Darrow Gaither

In this era of energy shortages we have all daydreamed about owning a device which
would take the energy that we have and multiply it. Imagine how happy we would be if
you could simply plug in a device which would double your electricity. Numerous
researchers, writers and inventors have sought to do just that.

But scientists have cautioned that the law of conservation of energy dictates that energy is
never created nor destroyed, only converted from one form to another. None of these
schemes, they say, would ever work. They are just perpetual motion machines.

The purpose of this book is to discuss advances in electronics and materials science
which have made things possible which were not contemplated when the laws of
Thermodynamics were postulated decades ago.

Secondary electron emission is a well-known process. It is that effect which causes
additional electrons to be emitted when a substance is bombarded by a stream of
electrons. This secondary emission effect was discovered a century ago, and it has found
application in a variety of devices which are in use today.

Advances in electronics and the development of new materials have revealed new
methods and substances which make this secondary electron emission even more
effective. In fact, today the impossible is possible—one electron at a time.

If a beam of electrons is aimed at a target electrode coated with a given substance then
electrons are emitted from that target. The number of electrons emitted from the target
which has been bombarded is compared to the number of primary electrons in the
original electron beam. The electrons emitted after bombardment by primary electrons
are called secondary electrons.

The material’s propensity to emit electrons after bombardment is called the “secondary
electron emission coefficient”. That is expressed as the number of secondary electrons
divided by the number of primary electrons.

A secondary electron coefficient of less than 1 means that the substance does not emit as
many electrons as it is bombarded with. A coefficient of greater than 1.0 means that the
substance emits more secondary electrons than bombarded it

We are interested in this book in those materials which exhibit a high coefficient of
secondary electron emission. The goal is to perfect a device which will emit more

electrons than you started out with. Some devices have been invented to minimize or
eliminate secondary electron emission, but those are not within the scope of this book.

Years of testing and research have resulted in well-known coefficients of secondary
electron emission for scores of materials. Research first focused upon basic substances
such as copper, steel, silver, gold and other metals. Then more exotic combinations and
alloys were tested, such as oxides and alkalai metal combinations. Some metals and some
combination coatings worked much better than others.

In recent years miniaturization and nanotechnology as well as chemical vapor deposition
of thin films have come up with even more effective secondary electron multipliers.
In fact today’s plasma televisions and LED lights are examples of such substances and
processes.

A reference to various charts is now possible to determine at a glance exactly what the
secondary electron emission coefficient is for these materials.

But the devil is still in the details.

Two variables are of importance as to the materials. One variable is the angle at which
the primary electrons impact the target. In general it has been found that a better result is
obtained when the primary electrons graze the target material at an angle rather than
hitting straight-on. But the physics of the secondary emission process and the atomic and
molecular structure of the target materials mean that the optimum angle is different for
different materials. The second main variable is the voltage of the beam of primary
electrons. Some substances max out their secondary emission coefficient at very low
voltages and some materials reach their highest secondary emission only at much higher
voltages. This is believed to be due to the depth to which the primary electrons impinges
the material and the amount of tunneling into the substance.

Therefore care must be be paid to the research of the variables in the individual research
papers and patents and there is no magical formula which will work for all materials. The
configuration of the device used in the secondary emission process will need to vary to
meet the characteristics of the target material.

Once the primary electrons have impacted the target material and secondary electrons are
released, then the secondary electrons do not form a focused beam. Instead they tend to
just sit there in a cloud of electrons. Meanwhile the primary electrons will usually bounce
off the target at an angle equal to the angle with which they make incidence to the target.
This means that the kinetic energy of the primary electrons is greater than that of the
secondary electrons after impact. In other words the secondary electrons are indeed a
larger number of electrons—but they are of low voltage.

However numerous methods exist to increase the voltage or kinetic energy of the
secondary electrons.

One process which is common in devices which employ secondary electron emission is
that of multiple impacts upon this emissive target material. The great inventor, Philo
Farnsworth, was the first to devise methods to facilitate these multiple impacts upon
emissive materials. He called his devices “multipactors” because of the multiple impacts
they made with secondary electron emissive material. Thus, if a target electrode had a
secondary electron emission coefficient of 2 then the number of primary electrons would
double when they hit the target electrode. If there were two successive impacts then the
primary electrons would double, and then that total would double again—or be four times
the original primary electrons put into the device.

If the primary electrons were somehow sent through a series of 8 target electrodes then
the multiplication factor would become astronomical, and each of the impacts would
result in an exponential increase of electrons based upon the coefficient of secondary
electron emission from that material.

So various devices were designed and perfected to make the primary electrons impact
numerous electrodes one after another. One branch of these devices is employed by
photomultiplier tubes. Many of these devices are capable of multiplying the primary
electrons one hundred million times. Thus minute electric currents can be sensed and
multiplied so that they can register on scientific equipment. But numerous other
configurations and devices are in use today.

One method is to bounce the electrons off of two opposing electrodes over and over again,
like a game of ping pong. Another configuration would be to have the electrons strike
electrodes arranged inside a circular tube so that they impact coated electrodes over and
over again. A third method is that of forming a cascade of specially-coated electrodes and
having the primary electrons bounce off off each successive electrode until they all come
out the end.

Another genre of devices are called “channel” devices. In these designs the primary
electrons are sent down a waveguide or tunnel of some sort and the entire length of the
device is coated with the emissive materials. The electrons keep bouncing off the walls of
these guides until they reach the end and the repeated impacts result in a high
multiplication of the primary electrons.

One of the axioms of electricity is that current will not conduct very well when exposed
to the atmosphere because the gas acts as an insulator. Therefore most secondary electron
emission devices were made in the form of vacuum tubes. The electricity goes through
the vacuum without loss and then the impacts upon emissive material have the desired
result.

However secondary emission and multipactors have been made into semiconductors and
chips. These use the process of “avalanche” multiplication in many instances, where the
electrons hit the emissive substance and are then multiplied and pass through a solid state
stack of materials. Sometimes the semiconductors include a tiny vacuum space and they
act in the same way as a vacuum tube.

However there is a snag or two for the use of secondary emission in chips. The first
problem is “space charge”. That is the effect of completely filling up a given space with
electrons. One you saturate the evacuated space with space charge then an equilibrium
state is achieved and the primary electrons will no longer multiply as desired. As you
might guess, the greater the area the more electrons will fit into the space before the
space charge saturates the area. The space charge, then, has been found to diminish as to
the 4/3 power of the area of the evacuated space. This means that, for instance, if you
triple the size of vacuum space then that would result in 3x 4/3 power= 12/3 power (or
the 4th power). Then a tripling of space would end up in shrinking the space charge by the
4th power. The bottom line is that bigger is better.

The second drawback to micro multipactors is that the vacuums must be higher than in
vacuum tubes, and this is hard to achieve. Also many devices use sharp points as
electrodes because more electrodes will emit from sharp points than from blunt shapes. In
the micro world though the sharpness of the sharp point has to be correspondingly
sharper. The finer the point on the electrode the harder it is to fabricate and fit into the
layered semiconductor devices.

What this book hopes to achieve is not the simple multiplication of electrons to provide
light or brightness but to generate electricity on a larger scale. The aim is not to build a
generator station for thousands of people but to scale the multipactor devices to work
with individual appliances and vehicles. Thus the size and rated capacities of the
components in the proposed multipactors must be designed to be in the range of home
current up to the amount of voltage and current required to power an electric car.

At this point the discussion of secondary electron emission must include some of the
math and physics. Don’t let your eyes glaze over. Everybody knows a little bit about
electricity—and it is pretty simple. But there is a hazy horizon on the amount of
knowledge of the basics of electricity. The terms are VOLTAGE, AMPERAGE and
POWER. The easy rule of thumb is that VOLTAGE x AMPS = POWER.

You need to throw in the RESISTANCE into this formula—but for now we will stick
with VOLTSxAMPS=POWER.

OK—so we will calculate one AMP. An Ampere involves the amount of “charge”, which
is calculated in terms of a COULOMB. A Coulomb is −6.24151 × 1018 electrons.
So the process of secondary electron emission results in a lot of electrons.
The secondary electrons are not moving very much after they are multiplied.
So they have low voltage—but they DO have AMPERAGE because of the presence of
lots of electrons.

The purpose of this analysis is to point out that we have low volts and high amps from
secondary emission. When you remember volts x amps = power then you can see that we
have to have just a high enough voltage to meet the requirements of modern electrical
devices.

There are numerous well-known devices which can act as VOLTAGE MULTIPLIERS.
These devices will increase the voltage, but only at the expense of a proportional
decrease in the amperage.

The end product of these multipactors can be made usable, therefore, by running these
high amperage currents through a voltage multiplier. You just fine-tune the voltage
multiplier to give the right mix of volts and amps.

In short, secondary electron emission creates NEW electrons. We put the new electrons
to use by stepping up the voltage to required levels.

In this way the laws of conservation of energy are negotiated. The multipactor creates
new electrons and THEN the energy is converted from one form into another. But there is
indeed a creation of new electrons in multipactors.

I will leave it to the scientists and inventors in their respective papers and patents to
describe the manner in which the secondary electrons are created and how the
multipactor devices are designed.

The point of my analysis is simply that the multipactors will create new electrons and the
new electrons can be made usable through voltage multipliers.

One of these voltage multipliers is a Cockroft-Walton circuit. Modern electronics has
manufactured numerous cheap transistor devices that you could get at Radio Shack or
electric supply houses. A Cockroft-Walton circuit is simply a ladder of diodes and
capacitors (pennies apiece) which double the voltage at each step of the ladder. So a
multi-step ladder creates a multiple doubling of the original voltage. Some of the older
designs apply a step-up transformer to do the same thing.

A simple Cockroft-Walton multiplier would look like this
diagram:

So we see that there is a problem with voltage in secondary electron emission. The
inventors have figured out a method to use voltage to their advantage in the multipactor
devices. They apply the rule that opposite charges attract. This accelerates the cloud of
secondary electrons so that they will impact the next target with it’s emissive coating.
The electron is a negative charge. So the inventors manipulate the sluggish cloud of
negative charge by providing a positive electrode to put it into motion.

Some designs will make the next electrode one with a positive charge, so when the
primary electrons strike the first target and are multiplied then the cloud of secondary
electrons is accelerated right up to the second electrode coated with emissive materials.
When they make a long chain or cascade of these target electrodes then they give each of
them a successively higher positive charge so that the ever-increasing cloud of secondary
electrons is accelerated one step at a time in the desired direction.

Other designs use an electrode which is positioned between the first impact target and the
second and they give that intermediate electrode a positive charge to accelerate the cloud
of secondary electrons in the desired direction. This intermediate electrode might be in
the form of a screen or grid or a tube. The positive charge, in every instance, attracts the
opposite charge on the electrons and they are suddenly accelerated through the holes in
these intermediate electrodes and then the electrons continue with their increased voltage
until they impact the coated electrode. This step may be repeated again and again.

The positive charge on these attracting electrodes is often provided by using Cockroft-
Walton circuits. So either a single or a multi-step CW circuit may be used to multiply an
initial small current to give a charge bias of increasing strength to a series of attracting
electrodes. Oftentimes the CW circuit contains “taps” which tap the current at a certain
step in that multiplying step ladder. The step would then have one voltage level to apply
to the attracting electrode, and then the next step would have a higher voltage which
could be tapped at that level and applied to the next attracting electrode, and so on.

Going back the purpose of this analysis again: we are trying to get as many electrons as
possible out of the multipactor. So the gameplan is to select the coating material for
electrodes which has the highest secondary electron emission coefficient. Then the
voltage at which the primary electrons must be accelerated to achieve the optimal
secondary emission must be applied. The spatial requirements are important too because
we want the right angle and the right depth for the impact zone. So we get the highest
electron multiplication at each step. Then we take that level of electron multiplication and
exponentially multiply it by the number of impacts in the multipactor device.

Some devices, as aforestated, simply bounce the electrons back and forth between two
opposed electrodes. In these designs the electrons are moving at the speed of light, so
they hit the opposite electrode in a known length of time. Then they bounce back to the
original electrode. The desired effect is to have but one cloud of secondary electrons
bouncing back and forth, and not a lot of different clouds. Therefore the two electrodes
are given opposite charges, positive and negative, and these charges are sequentially
reversed so that the electron cloud always moves away from the first electrode after they
have been multiplied and then toward the target electrode for more multiplication. Since
we know the distance between the two electrodes and because the speed of light is known,
then we can determine the FREQUENCY at which the electric charge is reversed on
these electrodes. So, take the speed of light and divide it by the distance between the
electrodes. Say, 186,000 miles per second divided by 6 inches.

The resulting frequency is in the range of billions of cycles per second. and let’s say that this is 2 for the sake of argument. producing electrons without the input of outside electricity. Numerous transistors work with feedback loops to take the electrical output of the device and split that output and send part of it back to the original input where it is again amplified. Then the rest of the components must be selected and positioned so that the size. There are modern oscillator chips which cost pennies which can do that. or a doubling of the primary electrons at each impact with the electrode with the emissive coating. frequency and angle of impact are optimal. . It just takes a little electricity to get them started and then the internal processes take over and they self-oscillate. But what if the secondary emission coefficient were 10…or 100…or even 1000? Just apply the math and you can see the possibilities of these multipactors. Once you get them going then they tend to keep on oscillating on their own. We can remember Jimi Hendrix hitting a note on his guitar and then holding the guitar in front of his amplifier.000! Thus reason dictates that the proper coating must be selected for the electrodes. So the coupling of the output to the input wires is what is required. This process works in multipactor-oscillators. For the purposes of our last example we have a secondary emission coefficient of 2. Many electronic devices apply the principle of feedback. The amp’s sound creates a feedback loop with the guitar and a sound is created which is self-sustaining without the additional input of playing another note. Einstein—it still has to be hooked up to electricity to start up and to power the attracting electrodes. Then we apply the frequency of the impacts on these emissive electrodes—and that is perhaps one billion times per second. I think I heard somebody say. especially in audio devices. The point here is that we take the secondary electron coefficient. In this example we would then obtain 2 to the one billionth power! Are you beginning to get the picture? If we make the device the right size so that the space charge does not saturate the vacuum then we can generate sufficient electrons so that we can step up the voltage and step down the amperes to achieve the desired power characteristics for our electric appliance or motor. We know that many oscillators are known to exhibit the characteristic of self-oscillation. What about that?” The answer lies in the principle of feedback and self-oscillation. Attached to this anthology is one of the latest research papers from Korea where scientists have obtained a new record for the secondary emission coefficient: 22. “Hey.

So the negative charge goes back to feedback the input and the other loop goes to the voltage multiplier. “Hey. we simply split the output signal and loop part of it back to the accelerating electrodes. and this is the positive charge remember. Just one glance at this super-egghead fellow should give you the answer. That guy who used Einstein’s name like a dirty word again wants to voice his opinion. These multipactor devices were invented by Philo Farnsworth when he invented television. and even recharged while the multipactor runs on self-sustaining current.So using either feedback or self-oscillation or both a multipactor device can be fabricated so that it will have self-sustaining output of electrons. this stuff is a bunch of hooey! How do we know this would work?” How do we know? Because of TELEVISION. Check out that cranium! . we could use batteries to start up the multipactor and then apply common electronics components and devices to split the output and loop it back to the input and bias the positive electrodes. Again. That still leaves us the positive bias charge that is placed upon the attracting electrodes to accelerate those sluggish clouds of secondary electrons. This guy was a super-brain and he just NEEDED to have special vacuum tubes to strengthen the broadcast signal of television from remote locations to make the picture tubes bright enough to see—so he simply invented multipactors to multiply that weak input signal. Then the battery can be shut off. genius. A Cockroft-Walton multiplier can be either positive or negative in charge—you simply reverse the connection between the diodes and capacitors and it multiplies the positive charge. Therefore.

The heyday of vacuum tubes was filled with imitators of every sort. There is even an International Patent classification which contains only “Farnsworth Tubes”. Philo Farnsworth saw the value of television and his multipactors but he had an independent streak which caused him to form his own Farnsworth Television company with which he intended to put RCA and GE out of business. There exists an offshoot applying vacuum tubes— the sector called PHOTONICS which use vacuum tubes to multiply light into electronic signals. But even today secondary electron emission is applied in the plasma television sets where scores of little holes and dots are brightened by electron multiplication. Other areas such as scintillation counters and electron detectors and night vision goggles use the process. often in the solid-state configuration. Since Farnsworth’s day the vacuum tube was supplanted by the Japanese transistor and then the Silicon Valley semiconductor chip. Nobody makes vacuum tubes anymore and the vacuum tube multipactor concepts have been lost in the world of microelectronics. As stated above.If these multipactors work then why didn’t Farnsworth take over the whole world? The reason is related to the laws of business and not the laws of physics. Instead they put Farnsworth out of business by using monopoly tactics. . But Philo Farnsworth applied his principles based upon secondary electron emission to the point that he invented a nuclear fusion reactor before he was through. there are several basic methods of achieving multiple impacts of electrons.

The CASCADE .

The BACK AND FORTH method:

and the CIRCULAR ACCELERATOR method:

Secondary Emission Coefficients

These graphs and excerpts were developed over a period of time. The more ancient the
research the lower the coefficients. As newer and newer materials were invented and
tested there is a general trend toward higher and higher coefficients. I would respectfully
call your attention to the source material in the following sections for detailed analyis of
the methodology and results of individual studies and devices with various emissive
materials.

Attention should be paid to the voltage required to obtain a certain coefficient of
secondary electron multiplication. The graphs are not in parallel so they are slightly
different pictures. But they should give a general idea of how much electron
multiplication could be obtained by a particular substance.

The following chapters will discuss individual studies and patents. Some of these
resource documents contain excellent discussion of historical development of the
secondary electron emission devices. It is of note that secondary electron emission was
first discovered about a century ago, and the first patent for a vacuum tube as applied for
in 1919.

The discussion also includes mention of “work factor” as an indicator of secondary
emission coefficient. The lower the work factor the higher the coefficient.

Another area of interest is that of “negative electron affinity” as an explanation for
secondary electron emission. In short, the term affinity implies that a particular substance
either likes or rejects electrons. The materials with negative electron affinity then are
predisposed to not like negatively-charged particles and thus reject them when
bombarded.

Treatises on vacuum tubes have been consulted and quoted in pertinent part. Patents are
inserted to this anthology to examine their significance at particular points in time.
Various studies on the individual materials exhibiting secondary emission.

Finally, I include several of my own designs for multipactor devices to power electrical
appliances and motors.

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1. and near infrared regions times as short as a fraction of a nanosecond of the electromagnetic spectrum. The tube had a gain of about eight. Their tube used a combination of sitive detector available. ficulties. In 1902. makes it possible for the tube to approach Although the magnetic-type photomultiplier “ideal” device performance limited only by provided high gain. it had several dif- the statistics of photoemission. Amplifica.2 In 1935. and Malter. the principal con- For a large number of applications. Extremely fast time response with rise ultraviolet. But despite its advantages. 1 . These secondary reported that the metal surfaces impacted by electrons in turn are directed to a second cathode rays emitted a larger number of elec- dynode and so on until a final gain of trons than were incident. Again. it saw only a brief developmental sales activity PHOTOELECTRONS before it became obsolete. and to change the gain provide output signal levels that are com. and a collector grid surrounding the secondary emitter. all of RCA4 reported on a multistage photomultiplier. Morton. Introduction The photomultiplier is a very versatile and without need for additional signal amplifica- sensitive detector of radiant energy in the tion. reported on a single-stage photomultiplier. the patible with auxiliary electronic equipment magnetic field also had to be adjusted. by reducing the applied voltage. 3 . a secondary emitter mounted on the axis. A schemat.Schematic representation of a photo- multiplier tube and its operation In 1936. Austin and Starke ing primary photoelectron. The adjustment of the magnetic tions ranging from 103 to as much as 108 field was very critical. visible. A photograph the secondary-emission amplification that of a developmental sample is given in Fig. provides a measurement capability in special ic diagram of a typical photomultiplier tube applications that is unmatched by other is given in Fig. the templated application was sound-on-film photomultiplier is the most practical or sen. Photoelectrons are emit- ted and directed by an appropriate electric EARLY DEVELOPMENT field to an electrode or dynode within the The development (history) of the photo- envelope. 92cs-32288 Multistage Devices Fig. The electrons from dary emission as a means for signal the last dynode are collected by an anode amplification was proposed as early as which provides the signal current that is read 1919. The device consisted of a semicylindrical photocathode. A number of secondary electrons multiplier is rooted in early studies of secon-1 are emitted at this dynode for each imping. Iams and Salzberg 3 of RCA out. The basic radiation sensor radiation detectors. is the photocathode which is located inside a vacuum envelope. 2. Zworykin. 1. dary emission. pickup. Because of its better frequen- cy response the single-stage photomultiplier was intended for replacement of the gas- filled phototube as a sound pickup for movies. The basic reason electrostatic and magnetic fields to direct for the superiority of the photomultiplier is electrons from stage to stage. The use of secon- perhaps 106 is achieved.

all of open structure resulted in high dark current RCA. commercialization did not of the 931A product. secondary-emission surfaces and their pro- respond to those of the electrons in the cor.H. and performance photomultipliers. This tube photocathode spectral response barely ex- had a compact circular array of nine tends through the visible. pert. Perhaps his used in photomultipliers-particularly for most noteworthy contribution was the high-gain wide-bandwidth requirements. both as a photocathode and as a secondary-emitting material for the dynodes. Small balls were then allowed part of the development of photomultiplier to roll from one electrode to the next. Sommer. The success of the 931 type also resulted from the development of a much improved photocathode. this problem was solved by a Photocathode Materials mechanical analogue: a stretched rubber membrane. The basic electron-optics of the cir- because of feedback from ions and light cular cage was thus well determined by 1941 developed near the output end of the device. and because of the although improvements have been made in development of electrostatically focused processing. reported by Gorlich 10 in 1936.Magnetic-type multistage photomul- was also used for the dynodes.4% at 800 nm. Cs3Sb. A. Before the days of high-speed com. result immediately from the linear dynode Sommer explored the properties of array. The sensitive in the blue where most scintillators first such arrangement was described by emit. PHOTOEMITTER AND SECONDARY- tories. Although commerical designs did not photocathode process engineers. Working 1950’s and 60’s in having on its staff. cessing. Morton. It was used in the first 931’s. although it is very dynodes using electrostatic focusing. The design of multistage electrostatically focused photomultipliers required an analysis of the equipotential surfaces be- tween electrodes and of the electron trajec. prob- with the rubber-dam analogue. vide a wealth of information to all erties. The tubes was related to the photocathode and trajectories of the balls were shown to cor. and still is. (The Ag-O-Cs layer Fig. construction. ciency of 12% (higher today) at 400 nm. both J. His treatise on Rajchman6 of RCA devices linear arrays of Photoemissive Materials1 1 continues to pro- electrodes that provided good focusing prop. RCA was very fortunate during the responding electrostatic fields. But a very important the electrode. The first experimental photo- multipliers had used a Ag-O-Cs photocath- ode having a typical peak quantum efficien- cy of 0. follow. ticularly alkali-antimonides. 2 . Dr.R. the photomultiplier tubes has been concerned height of the membrane was controlled and with their physical configuration and the corresponded to the electrical potential of related electron optics.7 Modifications Bialkali photocathodes were also de- were later reported by Rajchmann and veloped by Sommer and have proven to be 4 . the earlier Cs3Sb photomultiplier was the type 931. EMITTER DEVELOPMENT puters. and has not changed to the present time For these reasons. The Rajchmann design with some numerous photocathode materials-par- modifications eventually was. Zworykin and Rajchman.A. multialkali photocathode (S-20 spectral response). This photocathode.) The new tiplier reported by Zworykin. By placing mechanical models of Much of the development work on the electrodes under the membrane. First Commercial Devices is important because of its high sensitivity in The first commercially successful the red and near infrared.Photomultiplier Handbook Another problem was that its rather wide Snyder 8 and by Janes and Gloverg. Na2KSb:Cs. ably the world’s foremost photocathode ex- Pierce5 of Bell Laboratories and J. and Cs3Sb photocathode had a quantum effi- Malter in 1936.

used by quick to realize the photomultiplier tube’s RCA to provide a better match to the advantage. It were in astronomy and spectroscopy. simultaneous need for wideband electronic- tron Affinity (NEA). incident radiation power. current of the photomultiplier is linear with ing. Early applications of the photomultiplier has a very low dark (thermal) emission. photomultiplier tubes were designed with tical application of the NEA concept was to semitransparent photocathodes deposited on secondary emission. the “white” and thus indistinguishable from advantage of the NEA materials is that these natural noise sources. it was the detection and measurement of line spec- found that this material was also an excellent tra and the very wide14 range of available gain secondary emitter.5 kV for was discovered by Hofstadter17. the high gain (107) and wide band width (several band levels at the surface can be bent hundred MHz). Furthermore. cessful. in addition. R. scintillator used. therefore. The first prac. thus providing a much greater secondary-emission yield. Because the effective quantum efficiency of logging applications. The type 1P28. is more sensitive than that of photographic film. The size and surface. the development work on photomultiplier 5 . light source and with high gain. the photomultiplier was at least ten times tocathode. The principal and early experimental results of secondary. The development of radar for working at the RCA Laboratories developed detecting and tracking aircraft led to the his revolutionary concept of Negative Elec. astronomers were Cs3Sb in the blue and is. But with the development of the shape of the photocathode were suitable for Cs3Sb material for photocathodes. a Dynode Materials tube similar to the 931 but having an The first secondary-emission material ultraviolet-transmitting envelope was par- used practically by RCA was the Ag-O-Cs ticularly useful in spectroscopy. secondary electrons can previous production measured in only hun- be created at greater depths in the material dreds per year. Thus. By suitably treating the sur. new photomultiplier tube occurred during In the early 1960’s. emitters developed during the early years of photomultiplier development were MgO:Cs Radar Jammer (often referred to as “silver-magnesium”) A totally unexpected application for the and BeO:Cs (“copper-beryllium”). As a noise source the tube downward so that the effective electron af- was operated with a non-modulated input finity is actually negative. followed the invention of the scintillation sitivities greater than those obtainable with counter shortly after World War II. Electron affinity is the noise sources as radar jammers.E. In the case of of thousands per month compared with secondary emission. the conduction-band level to escape to the photomultiplier proved to be most suc- vacuum level. NaI doped with thallium. emission yields as high as 130 at 2. Thermalized elec. Astronomy and Spectroscopy cathode has been found to be stable at higher temperatures than Cs3Sb and. because the output NaI:Tl crystals used in scintillation count. This application of electrons can now escape into the vacuum as photomultiplier tubes resulted in production they approach the surface. Another bialkali pho. has been particularly useful in oil-well. The advantage of the tube was its face of a p-type semiconductor material. An early paper by an end window which could be coupled Simon and Williams l3 described the theory directly to the scintillator. and still escape. Other practical secondary proved very useful. The output trons in the conduction band are normally amplifier photoelectric shot noise was repelled by the electron-affinity barrier.16 The any other known materials. Although energy required for an electron at the other sources of noise were tried. the Na2KSb photo.15. Simon12 while World War II. it has been possible to A proliferation of photomultiplier designs achieve extended-red and infrared sen. the tube could be used directly in photometric and spec- trophotometric astronomy. In the case Scintillation Counting of photoemission. Introduction better in some applications than the Cs3Sb APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENT photocathode. Much of GaP:Cs. K2CsSb.

or previous ex- lamps being followed. The on a cathode-ray-tube presentation. path to provide a better balance between sen. beam of X-rays which rotates around the pa- Headlight Dimmer tient providing X-ray transmission data During the 1950’s. A The photomultiplier is unique in its ability radioactive isotope combined in a suitable to interface with a scintillation crystal and compound is injected into the blood stream not only count the scintillations but measure or ingested orally by the patient. The their magnitude and time their arrival. This spectral output obviously favors tions such as tumors or specific organs. perhaps 19. The photomultipliers to the 931A. Counting is meetings of the Scintillation Counter Sym. with as many as 600 photomultipliers. scintillation counter became the most impor. The optical engineering problem was (bismuth germanate). of the spectrum but does best in the red and tion origin is obtained by an algorithm near infrared. continued until several hundred thousand posium. RCA collaborated with from many directions. violet. one rarely sees a detector. couple to the scintillator. This information should be tubes and have spurred further develop- ments and improvements. in hexagonal con p-i-n diode is relatively poor in this part array. scintillators emit in the blue and near ultra- ma rays are ejected from preferential loca. the choice remarkable success. STATE DETECTORS COMPARED tal angular sensitivity was designed to match the spread of the high beams of the automo. factors such as cost. tillation counter used medically for locating Photomultiplier Features tumors or other biological abnormalities. A Medical Diagnostic Equipment summary presents the principal considera- tions the user must apply in making a choice In recent years two medical applications in an application for which he requires a have used large numbers of photomultiplier photodetector. Behind the crystal are photo. Vertical and horizon. The gamma cam. Each unit is equipped to sense the oncoming headlights or tail. but redesigned and tested to the are1/ or 3/4-inch end-on tubes which auto manufacturer’s particular require. well acquainted in this field. These symposia were reported fully counts are obtained and the organ in ques- in the IRE (and later the IEEE) Transactions tion is satisfactorily delineated. beam-as an average photomultiplier cur- The photoelectric headlight dimmer-first rent-and a computer stores and computes made available only on Cadillacs and the cross-section density variation of the pa- Oldsmobiles-basically used a tube similar tient’s torso or skull.Photomultiplier Handbook tubes during this period was reported by depending upon the individual signals from RCA and its competitors in the biannual each of the photomultipliers. A discussion follows of some of the headlight dimmer. But today. and radioactive try in 1973. particularly useful to the designer who is not era18 is a sophisticated version of the scin. wavelength range. probably because of the may be dictated by fundamental properties novelty. commonly BGO ments. and thousands of photomultiplier of the photomultiplier or the solid-state tubes were used. The most important factor. The location on Nuclear Science beginning with the of each scintillation is represented by a point meeting in Washington. A the photomultiplier having a photocathode large crystal intercepts the gamma rays and with high quantum efficiency in the short scintillates. On the other hand a sili- multiplier tubes. The Computerized Axial Tomographic tant measurement instrument in nuclear (CAT) scanner was introduced to this coun- physics. In some applications either a photomulti- bile. A red filter was installed in the optical plier or solid-state detector could be used. nuclear medicine. The device achieved a perience. The location of the point of scintilla. lights being followed without responding to PHOTOMULTIPLIERS AND SOLID- street and house lights. A scintillator coupled the General Motors Company (Guide-Lamp to a photomultiplier detects the transmitted Division) on a successful headlight dimmer. size. 6 . January 1948. The user may make his choice on the basis of sitivity to oncoming headlights and to tail. Most radioactive material disintegrates and gam. common applications favoring one or the other detector with reasons for the choice. In other applications. The device uses a pencil or fan- tracer applications of a wide variety.

good blue sensitivity which makes the photomultiplier is relatively modest-per. rithmic gain variation of the photomultiplier noise ratio would have to be made up for with voltage. (2) a troscopic applications. is the gain of the photomultiplier As a result of increasing concern about en- which permits the measurement of the very vironment. charge transport is through a vacuum. the with an increased X-ray dose. For example. in addi- speed of response requirement for the tion. Both of Photocell* Features these factors would result in a larger Because of their small size and low cost. SO2 is detected down to a level of 0. Very weak high so that only a relatively low gain photo. Finally. the short O 3 in a reaction chamber. Two factors could transmitting-glass windows) covers the range favor the alternate use of a silicon cell: (1) a from ultraviolet to near infrared. except in the infrared faster scanning machine (a very desirable region of the spectrum. The wide the radiant signal is its good signal-to-noise range of radiation levels encountered is ratio. the sample containing SO2 is ir- crystal. the situation is somewhat different signal-to-noise ratio (the photomultiplier is from the scintillation counting applications cooled to 0°C to reduce dark-current noise) discussed above. the inations of SO2 possible. NO Although the CAT scanner equipment can be detected down to a level of 0. Because photomultiplier aimed at replacing the photomultiplier with spectral response (with quartz or ultraviolet- silicon p-i-n detectors. the gain. in the moni- primarily by the statistics of the number of toring of NOx the gas sample is mixed with photoelectrons per pulse. the better scintillator (BGO is almost an order of photomultiplier is the logical choice for spec- magnitude less sensitive than NaI:Tl. In the CAT scan operation the radiated with ultraviolet and the excited SO2 typical machine scans the patient in a few molecules fluoresce with blue radiation that seconds and the level of irradiance from the is detected with a combination of a narrow- crystal onto the photomultiplier is relatively band filter and photomultiplier.002 detect the level of radiation incident on the ppm. principal advantage of using a photomulti.1 ppm. photocurrent and could bring the signal level CdSe and CdS type photocells are the logical for the silicon detector to the point where the selection for applications such as automatic fundamental signal-to-noise ratio from the exposure control in photographic cameras or X-ray source would not be degraded. technological advance because is would minimize effects of body motions). Still. good signal-to-noise ratio and. signal-to-noise capability of the photomulti- there is interest and development activity plier is essential. At very low signal levels. Spectroscopy is one of the very early ap- plier in this application for the detection of plications for photomultipliers. 7 . Nevertheless. pollution monitoring is becom- small signals from individual scintillations ing another important application for photo- with a good signal-to-noise ratio. Introduction probably. readily handled by the approximately loga- tient because a reduction in its signal-to. device in which the charge transport takes place through vantage of smaller size and perhaps lower a solid as compared with “phototube” in which the cost. Such various inspection and counting require- developments may be anticipated because ments. plier having an S-20 spectral response. signals are detected and again it is the high multiplier is required. limited multiplier tubes. The In another pollution-monitoring applica- photomultiplier is used in an analog mode to tion. detection and measurement of small contam- haps a few hundred microseconds. Al- though the radiation level is very low. Here. This ratio is very important to the pa. Furthermore. and detect single scintillation events. also uses photomultipier tubes to detect the The advantage of the photomultiplier in this scintillations in bismuth germanate (BGO) application is again the high gain and good crystals. near-infrared-pass filter and a photomulti- ments to be made in nuclear physics. A chemilum- rise time of the photomultiplier using fast inescence results which is measured using a scintillators permits time-of-flight measure. In the CAT scanner the even though the radiation spectrum is ob- X-rays produce a broad band of pulse served near the threshold of the S-20 spectral heights and no attempt is made to single out range. *“Photocell” is used here to indicate a photosensitive the silicon detector would also have the ad.

005 the detector may be a p-i-n diode or. Again size. a silicon ava. Exceptions are photomul- Characteristics Comparison Summary tipliers having a Na2KSb photocathode. available in commercial RCA photomulti- plication utilizes an LED emitting near 900 plier tubes has a nominal diameter of 5 in- nm with a silicon cell for automatic ranging ches and a minimum useful area of 97 square for special camera equipment. higher than 75° C. made in a variety of sizes so that many dif- tion with the Nd:YAG laser emitting at 1060 ferent optical configurations can be accom- nm. Photomultipliers are gener- cost. If very fast response is Silicon cells are rated from . For example. In general. Silicon p-i-n diodes are available with sen- cells is for fiber-optic communication sitive areas generally not larger than 1 square systems. By way of contrast. Photomultiplier tubes are near infrared out to 1100 nm. the silicon cell is used widely in laser modated. but the sen- bination with lasers or LED’s (light emitting sitive area is small-about 0. for a square centimeter. Photomultipliers of temperature. Size and in. Dark currents at room temperature other factors may override this considera. adequate speed of response. required. the photo.l5 ampere at the pho- tion. In combina. The largest photocathode area ranging and laser tracking. This Spectral Response.5 square diodes). In many applications. A device which provides a signal just equal to fairly large load resistance must be chosen to the noise.7 ampere at room temperature. Photocathode out to 1100 nm. measurement is at the peak of the spectral diodes can have rise times as short as 2 responsivity. Silicon avalanche photo. with put (ENI) or the Noise Equivalent Power a 1-megohm load resistance. depending levels. a better signal-to-noise ratio. Temperature. e. sensitivities and gain change very little with multiplier is to be preferred for applications temperature. near infrared This requirement generally indicates the use sensitivity. the choice of detector are size. the limitation to detection and upon the area of the cell. LED’s are coupled to the fibers and centimeter. Speed of Response. Silicon cells are at good signal-to-noise ratio. coupling to lanche diode. The tends to double about every 10° C. fairly large area is required. one of the principal advantages millimeter. and infrared sensitivity are the impor. diode can be of the order of 100.Photomultiplier Handbook Many p-i-n silicon cells are used in com.. the effective rise ratio. then. But dark current which may are available with rise times (10 to 90%) of 1 be 10. the 1/2-inch frared sensitivity are again the important side-on photomultiplier has a projected pho- qualifications.g. In oil-well logging measurements this rather poor blue sensitivity. 0. ally not rated for operation at temperatures tant qualifications.14 square centimeter. Photomultipliers can bi-alkali photocathode can tolerate temper- be obtained with good spectral sensitivity in atures up to 150° C or even higher for short the range 200 to 900 nm. Silicon cells have cycles. centimeters. ENI is the same type of specifi- nanoseconds. and avalanche silicon cells. However. are of the order of 10 . A rapidly growing application for photo. The qualifying attributes for a cathode-ray tube or a large scintillator. the photomultiplier is usually the Sensitivities are also relatively independent best choice of a detector. At very low light the range 10 to 20 nanoseconds. an advantage when the source is small for Smoke detectors now use large numbers of direct coupling or for lens imaging. The NEP is the power level into the may be of the order of 20 microseconds. Here. Most often the bandwidth is maintain good signal-to-noise characteristics specified as 1 hertz and the wavelength of the for the silicon cell. inherent rise time of silicon cells may be in Signal-to-Noise Ratio. but dark current does increase involving the shorter wavelengths. but are excellent consideration is important. the rise time (NEP). Gain for an avalanche photo. and of a photomultiplier tube.50 to 80° C. also or 2 nanoseconds using a 50-ohm load. LED’s and p-i-n silicon cells. because measurement is generally the signal-to-noise of the cell’s capacitance. tocathode area of 0. A similar ap. although rapidly. One way of describing the limit to time is much longer depending upon the detection is to state the Equivalent Noise In- choice of load resistance. of the silicon cell is its good response in the Sensitive Area. cation except the unit instead of power may 8 . tocathode and double about every 10° C.

pp. 335 (1936). specifications are for a l-hertz ban 4.. Rajchman and R. “An 900 nanometers or the ENI is 8 x 10 . Janes. Photomultiplier tubes are not 13. “The at 400 nm is about 7 x 10-16 watts. or the secondary emission phototube. reasonably high. pp.M.. H. tiplier tube photometer.” JOSA.5 x 10.H. both for a l-Hz bandwidth. (McGraw. 27. and A. Physik. Silicon p-i-n diodes have 11. Rev. 29. gain of about 100. Physics and applications (1948).l3 electrostatically focused multiplier lumens. V. 558-566 (1939). For a p-i-n silicon photocell. Peak emission for such a developments in phototubes. Stability. Instr. materials. 2. pp. Nucl. J . dwidth. Kallmann. Anger.” These L’Ecole Polytechnique from the coupling resistor. J. the photomultiplier is clearly design..B.” Bell Lab. H. Hofstadter. IRE. Glover. superior in this category. Salzberg. source is near 1000 nm and thus closely Vol. this large resistance then increases the effec. A.A. The phototube. Simon. “Recent temperature. Simon and B..E. The high gain of the photomulti. 7. 43-54 (1941). by which the fundamental photo. 6. Inc. p. 1968. of from 103 to durchsichtige Photokathoden. Zworykin and J. R. the very good 14. 10 8. 24. 37.A. The NEP of a silicon ava. P i e r c e . (E) (1963). particularly good reference device for this 15. Both values are for a l-hertz band.A. and L.” Phys.L. In fact. J. Vol.H. "The secondary-emission multipli - nanometers may be of the order of 2 x er-a new electronic device. For a photomultiplier such as one used for April 3. Marshall. Quarterly trolled by the applied voltage provides flex. “A tion transfer studies using p-i-n silicon photomultiplier radiation detector. 450. 1923 (Filed 1919). H. “Logarithmic photomul- stability of the silicon p-i-n cell is a con. 100 microseconds. 1954). A photomultiplier can have a gain 413-423 (1941).l3 lumens. R.” Proc. Sci. Also. Sweet.H. R . “Scintillation camera”. 166-170 are satisfactory. 1938). Vol. the NEP at room temperature 3. however. 10. 13. “Electron-multiplier width. Snyder. tungsten source operating at 2856 K color 9. Rev. 10. Natur u Technik (July reason. Silicon avalanche photodiodes have a Vol. P h o t o e m i s s i v e no gain. Patent 1. Introduction be luminous flux. NS-15. Contract DA 36-039-AMC-02221 ibility in operation. matches the spectral peak of the silicon “A review of the development of sensitive devices. of secondary electron emission. M. 20 lumen in these descriptions is that from a (1940). V. Sommer. Federale (Zurich. p. 16. 351-375 (1936). IRE. dards has been conducting special calibra. 29. 72.” Electronics. A. Vol. When the light level is (1968). Vol.F. phototubes. Rajchman. EN1 is about 7 x 10 . Vol. IRE. 18.. 27-33 (1958). 9 . Coltman and F. pp. and its range of gain con.” Phys. noted for great stability although for low “Secondary-electron emission. p. pp. Gain. Both Vol. factor. Report.” Proc. spectroscopy. Rev. Iams and B. R. Glover. siderable advantage. U. 17. 582 (1947). R. lanche photodiode is about 10-14 watt at 8. G. Slepian.K. The silicon cell makes a 432 (1947). Vol. tive rise time of the silicon device to about “The electrostatic electron multiplier. 265. 5 . Zworykin. 74. E. p. Research in electron special amplifiers. “Alkali halide scintilla- REFERENCES tion counters. the NEP at 900 Malter.” RCA Review.watts.l1 Vol. cathode signal is multiplied. diodes..E. pp.M.O.” I E E E anode currents and careful operation they Trans. Vol.K. John Wiley and Sons. Morton. plier frequently eliminates the need of 12. “Le courant residue1 coupled into a load resistance of about 5 dans les multiplicateurs d’electrons elec- megohms in order to avoid noise domination trostatiques.S. 101. Rajchman. J. J. Vol. or the EN1 of 1. pp. Vol. Thus. Hill Book Co. 1947). lumens. 16. IRE. Proc. 100 1.” 2. H. Williams. “Uber zusammengesetzte. Sci. Unfortunately. pp. Gorlich. 23. emission from semiconductors. P. p.” Proc.A. the National Bureau of Stan. pointed out that the silicon diode must be 6. 55-64 (1935). Also it should be 305-309 (1938). Bruining.W. Record.

these equation for determining the maximum states are separated in distinct “shells”. the 19th century. In 1890. tron: In an agglomeration of atoms. mally only the lower energy states are filled. 3. some of the electrons absorb ther- ed in electron-volts. all lower metal. During the latter part of metal-vacuum interface. the photoelectric effect is character. must be given to an electron to allow it to The diagram shown in Fig. only which he received the Nobel Prize. a voltage to the level of the potential barrier at the or current resulted. The emission of electrons resulting from the action of light on a photoemissive sur- face was a later development. (1) shows that the maximum energy of trons of the atom. Elster and ENERGY Geitel produced a forerunner of the vacuum phototube which consisted of an evacuated glass bulb containing an alkali metal and an auxiliary electrode used to collect the 92CS . nor- kinetic energy E of an emitted photoelec. particularly for the outermost elec- Eq.Energy mode/ for a metal showing metal. and in 1888 Hallwachs measured the photocurrent from a zinc plate subjected to FERMI ultraviolet radiation. 3 is for a escape the surface of a metal. He energy which must be given to an electron at found that when one of a pair of electrodes the top of the energy distribution to raise it in an electrolyte was illuminated.32289 negative electrical carriers (photoelectrons) emitted by the action of light on the alkali Fig. In a single atom. energy levels are filled.2. Basic Photoelectric Theory The modern concept of photoelectricity stems from Einstein’s pioneer work for According to the quantum theory. 3. as shown in Fig. 3 . As the temperature is increased. As a result. Photomultiplier Design PHOTOEMISSION In the energy diagram for a metal shown The earliest observation of a photoelectric in Fig. mal energy which permits them to occupy 10 . the relationship of the work function and the Fermi level. the work function represents the effect was made by Becquerel in 1839. these states are modified by interaction with neighboring (1) atoms. The one electron can occupy a particular quan- essence of Einstein’s work is the following tum state of an atom. For each temperature of absolute zero. energy levels tend to overlap and produce a tional to the energy of the light quanta hv continuous band of possible energy levels. the observation of a photovoltaic effect in selenium led to the METAL development of selenium and cuprous oxide photovoltaic cells. the outer the emitted photoelectron mv2/2 is propor. Hertz dis- covered the photoemission phenomenon in 1887.

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In general. On the other hand. materials are also sought for coating the grids and More recent applications are found in the generation of plasma for precision etching and in highly-effi- Corresponding author.navy. The combined effect of a large escape depth of the secondary electrons and a low vacuum-barrier height is responsible for the extraordinarily high secondary-electron yields observed on hydrogen-terminated diamond samples.e-mail address: cient electric lighting. Yater. Shih *. high secondary-electron-emission Secondary-electron-emission processes under materials are desirable for grids in electron multipli- electron bombardment play an essential role in vac- ers and for cathodes in crossed-field devices.nrl. devices may need to be judiciously selected in some Crossed-field devices. USA Received 14 June 1996.00 Copyright © 1997 Elsevier Science B.mil. indus- efficiency in the energy conversion. magnetrons and cases to enhance the secondary-electron emission crossed-field amplifiers (CFA). The wide band-gap in an insulator prevents low-energy secondary electrons from losing energy through electron-electron collisions. have established a and in other cases to suppress the emission. thereby resulting in a large escape depth for the secondary electrons and a large secondary-electron yield. Exotic applications [1] are shih@estd. low advantages include high efficiency. The materials used in the is the area of our interest. While in some devices. Our secondary-emission study of diamond demonstrates that the vacuum barrier height can have a strong effect on the total yield. Consequently. Hor. C. Low-emission trial processing and radiation therapy equipment [1]. insulating materials have high secondary-electron yields. Their microwave and millimeter wave power tubes. PII S01 69-4332(96)00729-5 . R. the crossed-field amplifier (CFA) is an example where the cathode requires an efficient secondary- electron-emission material. Abrams Natal Research l_xlboratory. All rights reserved. In long history of applications in radar systems. Fax: + 1-202-7671280. The transmission of the secondary electrons is one of the critical factors in determining the magnitude of the secondary-electron yield. DC 20375. low secondary-electron-emission materials are desirable voltage. Introduction the tube walls to prevent RF vacuum breakdown. accepted 23 August 1996 Abstract Secondary-electron-emission processes under electron bombardment play an important role in the performance of a variety of electron devices.. which uum electronic devices. Washington. and final escape of the secondary electrons over the vacuum barrier. J. they also for depressed collectors in order to ensure a high find wide applications in microwave cooking. 1. but a provision to supply some level of electrical conductivity is necessary in order to replenish the electrons lost in the secondary-electron- emission process. the anode and the grid require materials that suppress the secondary-elec- tron-generation process. surface s c i e n c e ELSEVIER Applied Surface Science 111 (1997) 251-258 Secondary electron emission studies A. Secondary-electron-emission processes will be discussed by a three-step process: penetration of the primary electrons.V. being explored for the generation of gigawatt-power 0169-4332/97/$17. e. low cost.g. transmission of the secondary electrons through the material. and compactness.revised 28 July 1996.

which is close to the (wireless power transmission) using an electroni. which demand high mond demonstrates the important role of the vacuum resolution and fast response for small and close-to. considered to play only a minor role in the sec- field devices (CFD's) is noise reduction. process is organized according to the distinct steps ciently high secondary-electron yields to satisfy the used in all of the theories. slowing down through collisions have a major effect on the signal-to-noise ratio [4. with electrons and ions and transferring kinetic en- In particular. which device's needs.252 A. layer dx. Shih et al. In mi- crowave-oven applications. Secondary-electron-emission is a complex pro. (2) transport of the internal sec- and theoretical efforts are pursuing noise reduction ondary electrons through the sample bulk toward the in CFDs with vigor. assumed free-electron picture [9].g. barrier. involves the overcome of the vacuum barrier. A good knowledge of secondary-electron-emis. All of N(x) = B( R . Thus. The re. although in principle they should have compa- internal secondary electrons by kinetic impact of the rable noise characteristics [2. /Applied SurJace Science 111 (1997) 251-258 microwaves using a magnetically-insulated-line. the secondary-electron-emission process in a mostly cept. gether targets in a cluttered environment. the developments are summarized by Devooght et al. ex- oscillator (MILO) concept. number of the secondary electrons produced in the While the earlier models produced an overall agree.~ (2) the important characteristics of the secondary-elec- tron emission. e.5]. the success of these efforts. was One of the major current challenges to crossed. the sec- quirement on the signal-to-noise ratio becomes more ondary-electron-emission behavior observed on dia- stringent in radar applications. The final step. A thorough understanding of the surface. The secondary-electron- The primary electrons are assumed to travel in a emission characteristics of the cathodes are found to straight-ahead path.x)"/"+ ' (3) the theories predict well only the functional depen- . N(x). dence (but not the magnitude) of the emission. AEGIS CFA's. However.3]. and (3) escape of the electrons through the secondary-electron-emission processes is essential to solid-vacuum interface. energy distribution of the secondary electrons. the main problem was ergy B. results have demonstrated that a very high electron Most of the theories treat the energy loss according emission (primary or secondary) would cause the to the 'power law'. vations. In some applications. We will discuss cally-steerable-phased-array-module (ESPAM) con. a potential interference with the neighboring band allocated to the new 2. Earlier dx E" (1) treatments have been reviewed by Dekker [6] and by where E is the energy of a primary electron at a Hachenberg and Brauer [7]. such as the secondary-electron yield A straight forward derivation [ 10] leads to as a function of primary-electron energy and the . Both experimental primary electrons. as done by Jenkin and Trodden sion processes are crucial to the design of these [10]. More recent theoretical depth x. The discussion of the secondary-emission only limited materials are available which have suffi. qualitative manner. is assumed to be equal to the energy loss in ment with experimental observations as good as the the layer d E divided by the average excitation en- more elaborate later models. numerical simulations and experimental ergy to internally generated secondary electrons. [8]. dE A cess. and A is an arbitrary constant. the lack of justification for the simplifying assump- dE tions [8]. and theoretical treatments are numerous. These theories were able to predict most of N(x)dx = .. ondary electron generation band noise of the magnetrons. ondary-electron-emission process. At present. and will support the discussion with our obser- devices. transition of the CFD to a low noise state [5]. and for beaming power cept in the simple case of A1. Primary electron penetration and internal sec- 'wireless' services calls for a reduction in the side. CFDs are The theories treat secondary-electron emission as much noisier than coupled-cavity traveling-wave occurring in three distinct steps: (l) production of tubes.

.... At very low primary ener- nate deeper beneath the surface. as commonly DEPTH R observed on most materials. (3) reveals the increasing importance of sec. ... .. Changes in the secondary-electron yield with incident theory and 300 eV and 7 keV for the experiments. .. 0 = ° oo 1. i .. angle 0. . The value obtained for n is valid over the Primary Electron Energy (eV) energy range between 300 eV and 3 keV for the Fig. pendent yield curve is bell shaped.. The resulting energy de- ...80 .. ' • • . the escape of the high primary energies.. 2 of yield curves taken on a molybdenum function of distance along the primary-electron path. At very high primary energies for which R >> X~. The depth (X~) concepts.. is easily explained [10]. ondary-electron production near the end of the pri- mary-electron path and Eq.. the expo- nential nature of the escape process causes the de- Z crease in the number of internal secondary electrons z that escape to be more rapid than the increase in 0 I.. .i. clean molybdenumsample. generation of internal secondary electrons.. 0.... .. the internal secondary electrons origi.. which is fairly close 500 1000 1500 2000 to 0. (4) points out that the process or by a diffusion process which involves a penetration depth of the primary electrons increases large number of scattering events.. . and due to the small primary material is modeled by either a single-scattering energy only a few secondary electrons are created. and the internal yield per unit length X s• is low. / Applied Surf'ace Science I l l (1997) 251-258 253 2. A.. .. In all of the models. ' ... .60 R (4) (n+ 1)a 1.. the high-velocity electrons internal secondary electrons is described by an expo- have a relatively short time to interact with the nential decay law with a characteristic escape depth lattice electrons. which can be understood on a cess. .00 " .. ... as determined by electron transmission mea- surements in A1203 [11] as well as by fitting the 0.00 and E~ +1 . . . energy for which R ~ X~... The yield has a maximum value at a primary 13. The former fact is clearly explicitly take into account the electron-cascade pro- shown in Fig. . . • ' • .. the ob- served yield also rises with primary energy. As the primary electrons lose energy. gies for which R << X~. the internal secondary elec- The transport of secondary electrons through the trons escape efficiently.. the shape of the secondary-elec- combined effect is that as the primary-electron en. .. 2..20 4 0° where R is the maximum penetration depth and E o : 22. .35. At electrons..40 'reduced yield curves' [6] taken from many materi- als.. i approximate value of n = 0. 1.. Since the number of internal secondary electrons generated increases with primary energy.. .. . The data were taken on a Eq... . i .. the Based on the penetration-depth (R) and escape- interaction time increases and so does the yield. A quantum mechanical calculation [7] derived an 0..39.. which is the electron multiplication that occurs physical level by considering a simple description of during the slowing-down of the internal secondary the primary electrons moving through the solid.5 ° is the initial energy of the primary electrons.. An example is shown in Fig.. i . . . Shih et al.?/ 0° The best fit for the value of n was found to be II 0. .35.. tron yield curve as a function of the primary energy ergy increases. . 1. . I .... sample. Normal incidence is at 0 = 0°. Some later models with increasing energy. The production rate of internal secondary electrons as a Fig. the observed yield decreases with primary 0 w energy.. Conse- 0 GI quently.

~ for a metal is on the order of unity. ple charging will decrease the secondary emission trons. The wide band gap prevents sec- mary beam. increases with 0: E. the energy at which the electron scattering. 50. 2O The maximum yield 6r~. 22. only a top 10-20 A thick layer is lisions with electrons and ions to fall below the composed of BeO. The family of yield curves shown in tron-impurity collisions are mainly responsible for Fig. Otherwise. Since E. .. 3. respectively. x as well.. sam- high energy generates many internal secondary elec. 520. Consequently.5. a larger 0 When the secondary-electron-yield coefficient ex- results in a larger Era. in general. E F and 05 are the Fermi energy and the work function of the metal. escape depth becomes large. Therefore. electron-phonon and elec- which R >> X~..x occurs at an the yields are high in insulators [6]. Because of the absence of electron- num sample [12]. The kinetic energy of a sec- ondary electron must be at least E F + 05 when it 10. lattice vi- brations. (4). M g O / A u cermet is . Shih et al. the minimum kinetic energy for a Primary Electron Energy (eV) secondary electron to escape is the electron affinity Fig. and defects.. the secondary electrons lose energy by a factor cos0 relative to that at normal incidence through the excitation of valence electrons into the ( 0 = 0)..254 A. and 60 °.0 reaches the surface in order to escape. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 In insulators.. and the enhancement in yield is from participating in such electron-electron colli- more apparent at the higher primary energies for sions. the difference between the vacuum level and the yield from diamond. Since the penetration depth R and the [6]. For example. the secondary electrons lose energy by interacting with conduction electrons. .p more oblique angles.0 (for Pt) [6].. = less energy as it moves through material and the 490.. primary energy E are related by Eq. the yields are larger at ondary electrons with kinetic energy less than E~. E . Consequently.8 0.. In oxi- secondary electrons lose enough energy through col.. dized beryllium.0 ::" large number of conduction electrons result in the small secondary-electron yields found with metals. a larger 0 results in a 6 . beneath which metallic Be sup- vacuum level. If the typically on the order of an electron volt for insula- primary beam is incident at an angle 0 to the tors. there is a net electron flow from 3.. high secondary-electron yields are yield to 1. is 6. and it varies between 0. In metals. respectively. and 660 eV for 0 = 0.~. For these electrons. The energy-loss mechanisms for inter. This large minimum escape energy and the high collision probability due to the il 4. /Applied SurJace Science I 11 (1997) 251-258 A similar qualitative discussion can be made about conduction-band minimum. 550. Different approaches have been used in not always observed because most of the internal practice to provide electrical conductivity. The electron affinity is the variation in yield with incident angle.5 (for Li) and 1. the secondary electron loses much maximum yield occurs. composed of a mixture of Mg and Au micro-crystal- tors. the number of emitted secondary elec- trons exceeds the number of arriving primary elec- trons.40. Transport of internal secondary electrons the emitting sample into vacuum. assuming a straight-ahead path for the pri.. Since there are few conduction electrons in surface. However. 2 were taken at various 0 on a clean molybde. a primary electron with a reasonably order to replenish the lost electrons.. plies the electrical conductivity. conduction band. the energy loss.. ceeds one.8 for NaC1 and 25 for single-crystal MgO larger R. and some level of electrical conductivity is necessary in the sample in In general.20[ nal secondary electrons differ in metals and insula. 580. Effect of electrical conductivity on the secondary-electron X. and the minimum escape energy E v + 05 is typically about 10 eV. the maximum penetration depth is reduced insulators. energy for which R cos0 = X~.

In diamond. 4 shows an energy distribution curve (EDC) [14] found that the potential barrier at a solid-vacuum of the secondary electrons emitted from a H- interface controls the final shape of the secondary. they provided experimental evidence of Na adsorption on W. The sharp peak is larger in spectra amond samples [15-18]. 0 5 1'0 " ' 1'5 but enhances the secondary-electron yield by more ENERGY (eV above EF) than an order of magnitude. A phe. extremely high secondary-electron yields from H- appropriate dopants are used to provide the neces. nomenological approach by Bouchard and Carette Fig. The measurement tech- electron energy distribution. 600 W microwave power. These premises are very low. Fig. terminated diamond sample.. terminated [ 19].~ diameter. In contrast. B-doped. The data was taken at a primary ondary-electron yields from hydrogen-terminated di. theories do not regard the vacuum-barrier height as The energy of the secondary electrons is measured having a strong impact on the magnitude of the relative to the Fermi level E F of the sample. 3 shows that the sec. 3 compares the a wide-band gap in diamond (5. All samples were acid cleaned to remove surface impurities such as Si and non-diamond carbon. with the Au particles Our study reveals that two of the key reasons for the providing the conducting path [13]. spectra taken with higher primary electron energies. We will show below that hydrogen-termina- tion of diamond lowers the vacuum level by 1. Recent investigations have found very high sec. and therefore B-doped diamond samples tron-yield data and the secondary-electron-energy- are conductive. .47 eV) which allows secondary-electron-yield curves from N-doped and low-energy secondary electrons to have large escape B-doped diamond samples. and 170 k l ) cm. Hydrogenated diamond samples are H- escape process at the solid-vacuum interface. electron energy of 1000 eV. diamond sample. Shih et al. Secondary-electronEDC of an as-receivedhydrogenated. For example. B is a shallow acceptor in are supported by the analysis of the secondary-elec- diamond. terminated diamond surfaces are: (1) the presence of sary electrical conductivity. . Fig. xlO However. Jenkins and Trodden [10] argued that "most of the secondary electrons have energies greater than 10 eV. which reduced the work function by nearly 3 eV but increased the yield by only 60%. Escape of secondary electrons over the vacuum samples that we studied were subjected to a 30-min barrier hydrogenation process at 20 Tort hydrogen pressure. This model and other nique has been discussed in an earlier paper [20]. and all three as-received samples All of the diamond samples were grown by chem- showed comparably high yields. A. and 800°C sample temper- Most of the theories do not explicitly treat the ature. \ that changes of the order of a volt in the work function of the surface would have only a small effect on the secondary emission coefficient". Fur. ~'\ / Ec + Egap thermore. ./Applied Surface Science 111 (1997) 251-258 255 lites of about 50 . then lifted off in a free-standing form.. The three B-doped samples studied distribution spectra taken on diamond samples as here have electrical resistivities between 50 f~ cm presented below.45 eV ~ * . . . 4. Most of the diamond 4. 3. . Fig. . [18] found a taken from samples with a saturated hydrogen coverage or in yield as high as 86 from a (100) diamond surface. we should expect . Malta et al. and (2) a very low or even negative electron diamond. the results of secondary-electron emission studies on diamond disagree with the conventional wisdom. tration of secondary electrons residing near the bot- ondary-electron yields from the N-doped diamond tom of the conduction band to escape. For this reason. N is a deep donor in depths. The yield curve ical vapor deposition (CVD) on Si substrates and taken from one of the samples is shown in Fig. and at room temperature N-doped diamond affinity at the surface which permits a large concen- samples are insulators. The yield.

a large fraction of the total emitted secondary elec- trons. When the electrons because of the absence of electron-electron vacuum level falls near or below E~. for the H-terminated diamond sample. resulting in a high secondary-electron tering is demonstrated in Fig. They represent tion of low-energy secondary electrons from being emitted. 5. although narrow (FWHM > 0. These electrons are piled the vacuum level due to the heating prevents the high-concentra- up just above E c as showed in Fig.f~'J sample is compared with that from the same sample after heating at 1000°C for 15 min./ the vacuum-barrier height increases by about 1. where Egap.p above E v. Below E c + Egap. Fig. The 'turn-off' of electron-electron scat- can escape. The vacuum level is ordinarily at the energy of the EDC. The 1. energy width. these electrons scattering. and in some cases over 90% of the emitted electrons are contained in the sharp peak. an abrupt change in the emission inten- where the emission onset occurs.47 eV for diamond. The conduction band minimum E c is an energy Eg. diamond 10 ~ after H-desorption ondary-electron yield drops precipitously. diamond sample after a 1000°C heating. the sec- ondary-electron EDC from a H-terminated diamond oo . Above Ec + Egap. /Applied Surface Science 111 (1997) 251-258 diamond sample used in the illustration is a B-doped 3 sample. 6 shows the secondary-electron yield curves taken on 500 I000 1500 2000 2500 3000 the same sample before and after heating• Primary Electron Energy (eV) The other important factor for the large yield is Fig. In the enlarged part yield. This observa. 4.45 eV and is too high for the quasi-thermalized elec- II30~ ~ 20 trons to escape.45 eV rise in ized electrons (0.025 eV). 6. Simultaneously. of a negative electron affinity (NEA) when the vac. B-doped.. 4. They ENERGY (eV above EF) are called quasi-thermalized electrons because the Fig. The position of E~ in Fig. electron-electron scattering occurs which results in a tion indicates the presence of a NEA on at least part small escape depth and a drop in the emission inten- of the surface• sity. This high concentration of low-energy electrons is also present in the electron-stimulated 5 10 15 secondary-electron distribution from diamond. . Photoemission EDCs from diamond have been shown to contain a high concentration of "quasi thermalized secondaries in the lowest conduction band" [22]. . A large reduction in the secondary-electron yield from the large escape depth of the low-energy secondary diamond occurs with hydrogen desorption. H-termination of diamond is essential for the low electron affinity and is consequently crucial to the 70 high secondary-electron yield• In Fig. EDC taken from the H-terminated sample. Curve A is the is much larger than that expected for fully thermal. the sec. Accompanying the hydrogen desorption.5 eV). and curve B is the EDC taken from the sample after the heating. The heating is sufficient to desorb a large fraction of the surface ~. Shih et al. is 5. resulting in a large escape depth and Fig. only electron-phonon and electron-impurity scatter- uum level can be below the emission onset energy• ings can occur. 40 ~/" with H-termination hydrogen.256 A. which has a Fermi level above but near the valence band maximum E v. 4 shows that the emission onset occurs below E~ relatively high emission intensities. 4 was determined by a Z method described previously by Shih et al. 5. except in the case sity occurs at the energy E c + Egap. the band gap energy. [21]. Change in the secondary-electronEDC of a H-terminated. resulting in a disappearance of the sharp peak in the EDC.

Summary inant portion of the secondary electrons emitted from H-terminated diamond samples. 7. The ity. R. have not studied any sample with a resistivity be- was previously considered to play only a minor role tween 170 ~ cm and 50 k f~ cm. resistivity between 50-170 k12 cm and are transpar- the novel characteristics are manifested by the dis- ent. For H-terminated diamond. Emax occurs at A consideration of the penetration depth of the pri- about several hundred eV for most metals and at mary electrons and its relation to the escape depth of about 1000-2000 eV for most wide-band-gap mate- the internal secondary electrons explains the depen- rials [7]. a high concentration of quasi-thermalized secondary elec- trons is present above the conduction-band minimum 80 of diamond. . narily high secondary-electron yields from H- co 20 terminated diamond samples. Hydrogen-termination on diamond sur- faces lowers the vacuum barrier height to near or below the conduction-band minimum which releases 6O a flood of low-energy secondary electrons and boosts o 50 the total yield tremendously. which in turn means a high Emax.O'Od " . diamond points to the possibility of using other high . . and has a resistivity between 50-170 l-I cm. the knowl- Fig. We which involves the overcome of the vacuum barrier. an excessively also depletes the number of conduction electrons high impurity concentration may reduce the escape available to sustain the emission process. . Shih et al. The lower yield curve is taken from the highly tinctive sharp feature in the secondary-electron EDC B-doped sample which appears black and opaque and by the exceedingly high yields. The higher yield curves are typical for low or Diamond provides an opportunity to explore a moderately B-doped diamond samples which have a possible novel secondary-electron-emission process. Fig. The low kinetic en- Secondary-electron-emission processes have been ergy of these electrons may be responsible for the discussed using a three-step process: (1) generation unusually large escape depth which is revealed by of internal secondary electrons during the slow-down the unusually high Emax. A large X~ means a large final escape of the electrons over the vacuum barrier. levels. A. examination of the scattering events experienced by B impurities are introduced in the CVD diamond the internal secondary electrons explains the differ- samples to provide the required electrical conductiv- ence in yield found for a metal and an insulator. (2) transport of the internal the maximum secondary-electron yield occurs at an secondary electrons through the material. However. Earlier we discussed that of primary electrons. 6). The final step. An in the measurements (see Fig. but it the low-energy secondary electrons. Since electron-phonon and electron-impurity presence of a wide band gap allows a large escape scatterings are the main energy-loss mechanisms for depth for the low-energy secondary electrons.5'00' " 20'0O ' ' 25OO ' 30'00 impingement prevents the wide application of dia- Primaw Electron Energy (eV) mond in actual devices [16]. 7 compares the yield curves of measures employed to supply electrical conductiv- taken on diamond samples with different B-doping ity were given. 5. Effect of the B impurity level on the secondary-electron edge gained from the secondary emission study of yield from diamond. However. in the secondary-emission process. 10 The potentially rapid degradation in the yield from H-terminated diamond due to electron and ion °0 ./Applied Surface Science 111 (1997) 251-258 257 The quasi-thermalized electrons constitute a dom. 500""' . Examples depth and the yield. The low electron affin- 40 ity at the surface and the large escape depth of the ~ J High B concentration secondary electrons are responsible for the extraordi- II 3o / ~ . and (3) the energy for which R = X~. the yield contin- dence of the secondary-electron yield on the energy ues to rise over the 0 to 3000 eV energy range used and the incident angle of the primary electrons.

Surf. Van Vechten and D. Posthill. P. Proc. Advances materials with low electron affinities. Butler of the NRL Chemistry (Dover. Advances in Research Abrams.J.L. L. Bouchard and J. [5] H.P. D. Interface Anal. Devooght. R. shop on Crossed-Field Devices. Shih and B. Humphreys. Syrup. Hor. Dubus.A.B. Tech. Lau. NSWC/Crane Division and in part by the Vacuum [12] A. Thin Solid Films 253 (1994) 151. 413. 1958) p. Ye. Young. 37 (1992) 128. 1959) p.C. J. Res. Mat.C. Y. Workshop on Devices 41 (1994) 2448.J. Dubus and J. Trodden.E. Levin. 1995. [3] G. R. Proc. Turnbull (Academic [22] F. Yu. J. / Applied Surface Science 111 (1997) 251-258 secondary-yield materials. Sci. Proc. R. R. Pehrsson and J. 202. Jr. [6] A.Thoms. Thomas.G. 251. August 15-16. Mat. Anal. New York. IEEE Trans. Ya Usikov. Arbor. Butler. of [19] B. C. Elect. Proc. I. R. Soc.A. F. Dekker. East- Press. Mat.J. 54. Rudder. Jenkins and W. Brauer. man. 100 (1980) 251. R. Ramesham and M. G. Malta. G. Symp. Phys. . [17] D. Ritz. Dehaes.A. Michigan.Y. 21 (1994) 138.258 A.A. Elect.J.. Dehaes.E. Work. Shih. 339 (1994) 39. in Electronics and Electron Physics (Academic Press. Comm. B 36 (1987) 5093.Z. J. J. Dombroski. MacGregor. Soc. T. Workshop on Crossed-Field Devices (1995) (3) 1804 (1994). of the First Int. P. of the First Int.T. Res. Wang. Acknowledgements [9] A. Crossed-Field Devices (1995) 236. Carette.D. Fountain. This work is supported in part by [11] J. Hachenberg and W. Himpsel.G. [21] A.. Phys. Jr. [20] A. Posthill. New York. Shih. Rev. Marton.D. Hudson. Proc.L. namely wide band-gap [7] O. Workshop on Crossed-Field Devices (1995) G. Rev.E. in: ed. Surf.A.O. Chan and T. Devooght and J. Knapp.P. Phys.A. Int.E. Surf. [18] D. Mantini and 66. L. Shih and C. J. 75 the First Int. [13] V.F.J.T.P.R. eds. 1965) p. Soc. Sobocinski. B 20 (2) (1979) 624. Ruden. B 36 The diamond samples studied were supplied by (1987) 5110. A. J.P. Seitz and D. 416 (1996) 311. Shih et al. Dayton. 416 (1996) 461. P. Rev 103 (1956)292. division. McDowell.B. Hobbs and G. A.E. Ann [16] G. [15] G. Abrams. [1] D. Belov. C. Malta. Rose. Rev. Mearini.E. Semenov. Markunas. J. J. Phys. Pehrsson and J. C. and Applications. Hor and R. [2] T.C. Mantini and Sov. Humphreys. J. Butler. Devices 40 (1993) Electronics Initiative.. Phys. J. [8] J. Ya. ed.X. Res. New York. Appl. Ruden. Krainsky and J. Electron and Ion Emission Drs. 824. [10] R. Yater. Dayton. Markunas. IEEE Trans. 18 (1992) 514.E. I. in: Solid State Physics. A. of the First Int.J. Proc.L.H. [4] J. T. Yater. Hor and R. M. Mearini. M. Chernin and Y. Elect. Boles. J. Pehrsson. Proc. Krainsky. Syrup. References [14] C.A.

LHC-VAC Administrative Secretariat LHC Division CERN CH . Collins. The ratio of the number of reflected electrons to the total number of re-emitted electrons has been measured and its variation with the primary electron energy will be shown. a numerical approximation to express the secondary electron yield as a function of the primary electron energy will be given for the low incident electron energy region (E < 50 eV). B. Henrist. Hilleret and G. I.1211 Geneva 23 Switzerland Geneva. New experimental results concerning the total secondary electron yield for very low primary electron energy (between 5 eV and 50 eV) will be also given in the case of as received copper. Baglin. As a consequence of these new experimental data. For the prediction of the consequences of this effect the measurements of the secondary electron yield carried out at CERN are an important source of information. Furthermore the energy distribution of the re-emitted electrons is drastically influenced by the primary electron energy. Vorlaufer Abstract The secondary electron emission of surfaces exposed to the impact of energetic electrons contributes significantly to the electron cloud build-up. It has been shown that the decrease of the secondary electron yield due to the electron bombardment could reduce sufficiently the consequences electron cloud effect. 24 June 2002 . N. To understand further the origin of this decrease. EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH European Laboratory for Particle Physics Large Hadron Collider Project LHC Project Report 472 A SUMMARY OF MAIN EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS CONCERNING THE SECONDARY ELECTRON EMISSION OF COPPER V. the results of experiments showing the variation of the electron induced desorption yield with the incident electron dose will be compared to the concomitant reduction of the secondary electron yield.

The deflection plates and lens of the electron gun are driven by a computer program which optimises their settings on a dummy sample to maximise the transmitted primary current.1 0.7 0.3 2. Initially (1978) the electron dose was delivered to the sample using the measurement gun. current pulses and data handling) was identical. In EPA1. Its energy resolution is limited to some eV and the energies given do not take into account any correction of contact potential between the filament gun and the sample.5 2. The vacuum system is bakeable and is evacuated by a turbomolecular pump.9 0. The yield was continuously measured at the bombardment energy. They consist in an electron gun delivering a focused primary electron beam of energy variable between 45 and 3000 eV.3 the second system used was based on the same principle as the laboratory system. After bake out the pressure reached in the system is in the low 10-10 Torr region.1 1.3 1. the measurement procedure (beam optimisation. The dose effect was studied using various procedures. Because of the rapid destruction of the expensive gun filament. This beam hits the surface of the sample under normal incidence at a circular spot (approximately 3 mm diameter). a 4 grids hemispherical energy analyser has been used. collects the secondary electrons. For the measurements short pulses (30 ms) of low intensity (some nA) are used to reduce the electron dose received by the sample (10 nC/mm2 for a complete energy scan).2.1 THE EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEMS The measurements of the secondary electron yield versus electron energy have been carried out in two separate systems described previously1.5 1.5 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Energy (eV) Figure 1: Variation of the average secondary electron yield versus electron energy for 25 as received copper samples For the energy measurements. coaxial to the primary beam.9 1.7 1. 2. this method was abandoned and a rustic flood gun was added to the laboratory system allowing to irradiate completely the sample 2 . A conical cage.

The SEY at 4 eV lies between 0. The bars are used to display the spread between the minimum and maximum S. The dose is determined by integrating the current collected on the sample. 3 . As the sample bias voltage changes the collection efficiency of the sample.6 and 0.4 0. 23-01-01/ A.) measured on 25 as received copper samples cleaned following the LHC recipe. 23-03-01 /5.6 e-4 1.surface.Y. next section). The average maximum is 2.0 31-01-01/ 1.06 (σ = 0.6 e-3 0.6 e-4 31-01-01/ 5.8 0. independent of the electron energy. The main difference between these two methods to accumulate the dose is that in EPA any artefact linked to the presence of a hot filament for the production of the impinging electron has been eliminated.6 0.16) for an energy of 271 eV (σ = 25). the photon dose needed to condition the sample are not directly comparable when the sample bias is modified.R.E.E. at each energy for these 25 samples.8. 1.2 31-01-01/ A.R. In EPA the electron dose was accumulated by biasing the sample to a variable positive voltage that attracted the photoelectrons created by the synchrotron light.01 e-2 23-03-01 / 9. The low energy part of the δ (E) curves was measured recently and is displayed in Figure 2 for various electron doses (cf.2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Energy (eV) Figure 2: Variation of the average secondary electron yield versus electron energy for copper samples and energies lower than 30 eV 2 THE VARIATION OF THE SECONDARY ELECTRON YIELD OF COPPER VERSUS THE PRIMARY ELECTRON ENERGY Figure 1 shows the mean secondary electron yield (S. The two curves labelled 23/03 AR and 31/01 AR show the SEY as a function of the energy for electron energies between 4 eV and 30 eV. A change in the bias voltage modifies the mean energy of the incident electrons as well as their amount.Y. Below 10 eV the as received curves tend to indicate a constant value of the SEY.

0 1.4 DELTA MAX EPA 99V 2. It gives the SEY of copper at 500 eV energy versus the electron dose.e. In Chamonix X 1 it was proposed to take profit of this effect to obtain the decrease of the copper SEY necessary to operate LHC without “electron cloud effect”.8 1.4 1.6 DELTA MAX 23-03 DELTA MAX 31-01 ELECTRON GUN measured at 500 eV 2.3 THE CHANGE OF THE SECONDARY ELECTRON EMISSION WITH THE INCIDENT ELECTRON DOSE The variation of the SEY with the electron dose is an effect leading.(fully conditioned sample).2 1. The area irradiated by the beam was a circle of approximately 2 mm diameter.E-06 1. • The curve note “delta max EPA” gives the variation of the maximum SEY against the dose of electron collected with a bias of 99 V (i.3.1) is obtained for an electron dose close to 10-2 C/mm2. The minimum of the SEY (close to 1. 4 .E-07 1.E-03 1. This brought us to modify the experimental set up and procedure in order to decrease as much as possible the electron dose received by the sample during the measurements4.0 1.E-05 1. These curves show that an electron dose between 8x 10-4 and 2x 10-3 C/mm2 is necessary to reach a SEY lower than 1. 2. the variation of the SEY of as received copper is plotted against the incident electron dose for various measurements made using various procedures and under various experimental conditions: • The curve noted electron gun was obtained in 1979 using an electron gun on a copper sample.E-02 Dose (C/mm2) Figure 3: The variation of the secondary electron yield with the incident electron dose In Figure 3. to underestimated secondary electron yield.2 2.6 1.E-04 1. The impinging electrons had an energy of 500 eV. 99 eV impinging electron energy). when not properly taken into account.E-08 1. • The 2 curves noted ‘delta max 23-03” and “delta max 31-01” were obtained this year using a flood gun irradiating the whole sample with an electron energy of 500 eV.

the ordinates are normalised to 1000 for the maximum emitted intensity. 4 THE ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF THE SECONDARY ELECTRONS.In Figure 2 the low energy part of the two later curves (23-03 and 31-01) are also shown. the data presented here are related to a copper close to the “conditioned state”. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND CURVES REFLECTED/TRUE SECONDARIES VERSUS INCIDENT ELECTRON ENERGY The preceding measurements have shown the peculiar behaviour of the SEY as the primary electron energy decreases. The reproducibility is very good.4 EPA 800 eV EPA 350 eV 0.6 EPA 99 eV LAB SAMPLE 13 0.D. It must be emphasised that. COPPER 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 ENERGY (eV) Figure 4: Variation of the secondary electron yield versus the primary electron energy for 6 fully conditioned (10-2 C/mm2) copper In Figure 5 the energy distribution of secondary electrons emitted by a copper sample are shown using two normalised axis: the abscissae are normalised to 1 at the incident electron energy. This distribution was studied using a 4 grids hemispherical energy analyser.2 LAB GUN 500 eV ARGON G. because of the large amount of incident electrons needed for this type of measurement. 1. 5 . These peculiarities could be related to the change in the shape of the secondary electron energy distribution.4 1. The energy axis is shifted by an unknown amount (< 3eV) due to the unknown contact potential between the filament and the sample. On this graph the increased importance of the reflected electrons at low primary electron energy is striking when the curves measured at 10 eV and 550 eV are compared.6 1. is illustrated in Figure 6 which shows a slight shift towards lower energy in the position of the “true” secondary electron peak when the incident electron energy is raised. the SEY are continuously decreasing below 10 eV and are close to 0. also reported in the literature5. A second fact.2 at an energy of 4 eV.2 1 0.8 LAB SAMPLE 12 0.

5 NUMERICAL EXPRESSIONS FOR THE RELATION BETWEEN THE SECONDARY ELECTRON YIELD AND THE INCIDENT ELECTRON ENERGY Usual expressions given by M. This ratio is given in Figure 7 as a function of the primary electron energy. 1000 900 Ep= 10 eV 800 Ep=30 eV 700 Ep= 100 eV 600 Ep=300 eV 500 Ep=550 eV 400 300 200 100 0 0. 550 eV). 100. The simple expression given by M.J. In the low energy region (<100 eV) the importance of the reflected electrons becomes more important as it can be deduced from Figure 5. Both formulae give good fits to the measured curves for a given energy range. Furman produces a reasonable fit in the low primary energy part (Ep< 1000 eV) which is the most interesting for LHC.00 0.20 0.The “true”secondary electron peak is found around an energy of 2 eV. Scholtz7 can be used to numerically express the variation of the true secondary electron yield δs with the primary electron energy (Ep). 30.00 NORMALISED ENERGY Figure 5: Normalised secondary electron energy distribution for conditioned copper 6 . The reflected electron contribution has been assessed from the previously shown experimental data on the secondary electron energy distribution for copper. Furman6 or J. 300.60 0.40 0. For this reason the fit formula proposed here uses the Furman formula corrected for the contribution of reflected electrons. Furman’s relation for the true secondary electron yield is: E s×( p ) δs = δ MAX E MAX E s s −1 +  p   E MAX  δMAX. s and EMAX are 3 parameters used to obtain the best fit to the experimental.80 1. Using the data partially presented in Figure 5 the ratio between the number of reflected electrons and the total number of emitted electrons has been calculated for the five energies considered (10.

Ep= 10 eV 1000 Ep=30 eV Ep= 100 eV 900 Ep=300 eV 800 Ep=550 eV 700 600 500 400 E max 550 300 Emax 10 200 100 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 ENERGY (eV) Figure 6: Secondary electron energy distribution for copper ( below 10 eV) 100% REF/TOT FIT II FIT II LOW ENERGY 10% EXP FIT 1% 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 PRIMARY ELECTRON ENERGY Figure 7: The ratio between the reflected and the total number of re-emitted electrons in the case of copper 7 .

The numerical value used to fit the experimental data presented in Figure 1 are given in
Table 1.

Table 1: Fit parameters for the true secondary yield (M.Furman formula)

SAMPLE STATE AS RECEIVED FULLY CONDITIONED
δMAX 2.03 1.13
EMAX 262 318
s 1.39 1.35

To introduce the correction due to the reflected electrons two approximations could be made
depending on the accuracy needed. Of course as it appears in Figure 7, the correction for reflected
electrons is only significant at energy lower than 300 eV and amounts to more than 10% for
energies below 100 eV. A relation 7 allows to fit the experimental curve given in Figure 7:
ln( f ) = A0 + A1 × (ln(E p + E0 )) + A2 × (ln(E p + E0 ))2 + A3 × (ln(E p + E0 ))3
To obtain the best fit in the low energy part (below 300 eV), the following constants
has been used:
A0 = 20.699890, A1= -7.07605, A2= 0.483547, A3= 0, E0=56.914686
(Curve labelled FIT II low energy).
For use up to higher primary electron energy (2000 eV), the following coefficients
should be used:
A0 = 0.300207076, A1= 0.044915014, A2= -0.155498672, A3= 9.50318 x 10-4, E0=0
(Curve labelled FIT II)
A simplified exponential relation of the form:
f = R0 × exp(−E p / w)
can also be used below 100 eV using the following numerical constants:
R0= .64438713, w=43.2268304. (Curve labelled EXP FIT)
The accuracy of the various approximations can be appreciated from Figure 7.
The various formulae used to account for the reflected electron contribution at low energy
combined with Furman’s formula have been checked against the measured value of the total
secondary electron yield (δt) in the two cases of as received copper and fully conditioned copper
(dose = 10-2 C/mm2). To calculate δt, the following formula was considered:
δt = δS + δR ,
δR = f × δt ⇒ δt = δS + f × δ t
1
Hence: δt = δ s ×
(1 − f )
The results of the two fits are compared to the experimental results on the two Figures 8 (as
received case) and 9 (fully conditioned case). In both cases the agreement with the measured
secondary electron yield is good between 1000 and 100 eV incident energy. For energies greater
than 300 eV, the contribution of the reflected electrons can be neglected and M. Furman formula
used without correction. The low energy part (Ep < 100 eV) of the two graphs 8 and 9 is expanded
on the two graphs 10 and 11 to compare the results of the two fitting formulae to the experimental
results. Above 20 eV incident energy, both formulae give the same results. Below 20 eV (i.e. when
the reflected contribution accounts for more than 25% of the total number of secondary electrons)
the exponential fit gives increasingly underestimated value.

8

2.2

2.0

1.8
CU AS RECEIVED
1.6

1.4

1.2
EXPERIMENTAL DATA (AVERAGE ON 25 SAMPLES)

1.0 FIT FURMAN
REFLECTED
0.8
FIT + REFLECTED
0.6 EXP FIT + REFLECTED

0.4

0.2

0.0
0 200 400 600 800 1000
ENERGY (eV)

Figure 8: The numerical expressions for the various contributions to the secondary electron yield
compared to the experimental measurements in the case of as received copper.

1.2

1.0

CU EXPOSED TO 0.01 C/mm2
0.8

EXPERIMENTAL DATA
0.6 FIT FURMAN
FIT+REFLECTED
REFLECTED
0.4 EXP FIT + REFLECTED

0.2

0.0
0 200 400 600 800 1000
ENERGY (eV)

Figure 9: The numerical expressions for the various contributions to the secondary electron yield
compared to the experimental measurements in the case of fully conditioned copper

9

1.8
CU AS RECEIVED
1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0
EXPERIMENTAL DATA (AVERAGE
0.8 ON 25 SAMPLES)
FIT FURMAN

0.6 REFLECTED

FIT + REFLECTED
0.4
EXP FIT + REFLECTED

0.2

0.0
0 20 40 60 80 100
ENERGY (eV)

Figure 10: The numerical expressions for the various contributions to the secondary electron yield
compared to the experimental measurements in the case of as received copper (Ep < 100 eV)

1.0
CU EXPOSED TO 0.01 C/mm2
0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5
EXPERIMENTAL DATA
0.4 FIT FURMAN
FIT+REFLECTED
0.3
REFLECTED

0.2 EXP FIT + REFLECTED

0.1

0.0
0 20 40 60 80 100
ENERGY (eV)
Figure 11: The numerical expressions for the various contributions to the secondary electron yield
compared to the experimental measurements in the case of fully conditioned copper (Ep < 100 eV)

10

6 COMPARISON WITH OTHER PUBLISHED DATA
Measurements of the secondary electron yield of as received copper have been published in
references 8,9. They are compared to the results obtained at CERN for as received copper in
Figure 12. The agreement between CERN measurement and Hopman measurements is good. The
measurements made at SLAC gives a maximum secondary electron yield, which is significantly
smaller than those obtained in the two other labs. The different measurements obtained for a
primary electron energy in the vicinity of 1000 eV are close to each other.
A dose dependence curve has also been given in reference 8. This curve is compared with a
typical curve obtained at CERN in Figure 13. As noticed in Figure 12, the initial yield is much
smaller than what is measured at CERN and the yield decrease proceeds at a slower rate. The fully
conditioned state was apparently not obtained in that reference 8.
HOPMAN,VERHOEVEN AS RECEIVED OFHC COPPER Appl.Surf.sci 150,1-
7,(1999)
B. HENRIST AS RECEIVED OFHC COPPER CERN 31/01/01

2.5 R.E.KIRBY OFE AS RECEIVED COPPER SLAC PUB-8212

2.3 R.E.KIRBY PEP-II HER COPPER SLAC PUB-8212

2.1

1.9

1.7

1.5

1.3

1.1

0.9

0.7

0.5
0 1000 2000 3000 4000
ENERGY (eV)

Figure 12: The variation of the secondary electron yield versus the primary electron energy as
obtained in three different laboratories

11

B. HENRIST CERN 31/01/01
2.4
R.E. KIRBY PEP II HER COPPER SLAC
PUB-8212
2.2

2

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1
1.E-09 1.E-07 1.E-05 1.E-03 1.E-01

DOSE (C/mm2)
Figure 13: Comparison of the dose dependence of the secondary electron yield as measured at CERN
and at SLAC
7 ESTIMATION OF THE QUANTITY OF GAS RELEASED DURING THE
CONDITIONING.
During the electron bombardment of a surface, leading to the above mentioned decrease of the
secondary electron yield, a significant decrease of the electron induced desorption yield is also
observed10,11. The desorption yields data, obtained in a separate system, on an as-received copper
sample, are presented together with the data concerning the secondary electron yield in Figure 14 as
a function of the number of electrons impinging per unit area. To allow a better comparison, both
data are normalised to 1 in the initial non-bombarded state. These data allow the calculation of the
amount of gas released during the conditioning of a copper surface by integrating the product of the
desorption yield and the electron dose.
Table 2: Total number of molecules released per unit area during processing for the main desorbed
gases
GASES H2 CH4 CO C2H6 CO2 H2O
QUANTITY (cm-2) 6x10 16 8x10 14 8x10 15 8x10 14 8x10 15 3x10 14

Figure 15 shows as a function of the total number of molecules released per unit surface area,
the secondary electron yield ratio and the desorption yield ratio for three molecular species. These
were chosen (for the sake of clarity) to represent the main desorbed gases of the two types:
hydrogen and carbon containing gases, (H2, CO and C2H6).

12

1.E+00 1

1.E-01

NORMALISED SECONDARY
ELECTRON YIELD
1.E-02 H2
CH4
CO

1.E-03 C2H6
CO2
DELTA MAX 31-01
DELTA MAX 23-03
1.E-04 0.1
1E+12 1E+14 1E+16 1E+18 1E+20
-
ELECTRON DOSE (e /cm2)

Figure 14: The variation of the normalised desorption and secondary electron yields with the electron
dose
These data show that the reduction of both the secondary electron yield and the desorption
yield are two processes evolving in parallel during the irradiation of a surface by electrons. The
upper limit of the total number (the mantissa being rounded to the next integer) of molecules
released during the conditioning of a copper surface is given in Table 2 for the main desorbed
gases. Hydrogen is the main released gas, its predominance is established during the initial part of
the conditioning when desorption yields are the highest and hydrogen the most abundant species,
carbon monoxyde and dioxyde come in second position. These results are in good agreement with
those concerning desorption yields published in the reference 11.The total number of molecules
removed from an as-received copper surface during its conditioning is smaller than 1017 molecules
per cm2 i.e. less than 100 monolayers. The number of molecules released per unit surface area
during the conditioning process is given in Figure 16 as a function of the final secondary electron
yield achieved. Although both the desorption yield and the secondary electron yield evolve in
parallel under electron bombardment, it should not be concluded that the cleaning of the surface is
the origin of the decrease of the secondary electron yield. For example a clean copper surface (e.g.
in situ glow discharge cleaned) has a secondary electron yield higher than a conditioned surface
(see Figure 4, curve labelled: “Argon G.D. Copper”).

13

1.E+00 1.0

1.E-01

SECONDARY ELECTRON YIELD RATIO
1.E-02
H2

CO

C2H6
1.E-03
DELTA MAX 31-01

DELTA MAX 23-03

1.E-04 0.1
x
1E+12 1E+13 1E+14 1E+15 1E+16 1E+17
TOTAL NUMBER OF DESORBED MOLECULES PER UNIT
-2
AREA (mol/cm )

Figure 15: The normalised desorption and secondary electron yields as a function of the total number
of desorbed molecules

1.E+18 H2-23/03
CO-23/03
CO2-23/03

1.E+17 CH4-23/03
C2H6-23/03
H2O-23/03
TOT-23/03
1.E+16
T0T-31/01

1.E+15

1.E+14

1.E+13

1.E+12
1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4
SECONDARY ELECTRON YIELD
Figure 16: The quantity of desorbed molecules per unit area as a function of the final secondary
electron yield

14

3 V. Hilleret. 2 V. Scheuerlein: Proceedings of the X workshop on LEP-SPS performance Chamonix . 1999. O. 1980.Phys. N. Mercier. Scholtz. 50. Furman. N. Based on measurements of the secondary electron energy distribution. Jenninger: Proceedings of the XI workshop on LEP-SPS performance Chamonix . C. The Furman’s expression has been used and the relevant parameters are given to calculate the true secondary electron yield as a function of the primary electron energy. Henrist. 1982 5 R. 3093-3103. Arnolds-Mayer. Res. 4 G. 6. 8 R. 13. A. Grünhagel.R. Taborelli: 7th Europen Accelerator Conference. N.J. B. 150. Hilleret. Baglin. Using these data. 1-7. Verhoeven: Applied Surface Science. Sci. Philips J. it is now possible to better estimate the amount of gas released during the beginning of the LHC operation when multipacting can occur because of the electron cloud effect. J.cm-2. Further studies are going on to try to elucidate the main physical parameters responsible for this beneficial effect. K. Hilleret: Advances in Cryogenic Engineering Materials. A 15.A. 9 H. 2000. Baglin. C. Lanteri. O. Bindi. Gomez-Goni. Kirby. 2001. 2000. C. M.J. Baglin. CERN LHC Project Report 180. 217-220. Using data obtained for electron induced desorption it has been shown that the quantity of molecules removed from a surface during processing is smaller than 1017 molecules. 11 J. 375-389. H. E.W.8 CONCLUSIONS The conditioning of as received copper surfaces has been studied in various experimental set- ups and coherent results have proved its efficiency to reduce the secondary electron yield. Phys. I. le Pimpec: Thèse Université de Paris VI. Henrist. Gröbner. 2000. Bojko. Gröbner. 1 V. Although the phenomenon of conditioning has been obtained reproducibly on many samples. Dijkkamp. 611-621. the exact mechanism leading to this effect is not properly understood. B. Combining both formulae permits to compute the total number of electrons emitted when the energy of the incident electrons is given. Scheuerlein. Hilleret. Hopman. 10 F. 6 M. 141. Mathewson. Collins. in different experimental set-ups. R. 28.Technol. 1996. F. Vienna. B. 1998. B.G. 2000. Vac. N. P.267. a numerical expression has been given which allows to calculate the fraction of reflected electrons with a good agreement to the experimental data between 4 and 500 eV. 7 J. D: Appl. E. A. D. King SLAC-PUB-8212. J. Rostaing. J. This is of course not a comfortable situation as the LHC operation at nominal intensity relies on this effect. 130. Henrist. 1997 15 . J. Schmitz.

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A MgO thin film achieved by the current through the sample from the I t . Taewon Jeong. where the thickness of MgO film at the side- mary electrons in a magnesium oxide 共MgO兲 film move to wall is about 50–300 Å and the thickness at top of the CNT the surface with relatively weak electron–electron scatter.1498492兴 Secondary electron emission 共SEE兲 with bombardment was deposited on the vertically grown MWCNTs using elec- of primary electrons plays an important role in vacuum de. We observe that the yield of SEE increases up to at least 22 000 at a special condition. I s can be easily obtained by measuring I p and I t grown multiwalled carbon nanotubes 共MWCNTs兲. SeGi Yu. while accelerating the secondary electrons to es- was strongly related to the MgO film thickness. it is always desirable to look for the condition in secondary electrons (I s ) in the MgO film. Korea 共Received 22 March 2002.1 Single crystal posited on CNTs compared to the thin film on a flat surface. tron microscope 共SEM兲 image of MgO-coated MWCNTs. tron beam deposition. where E p and V t are primary electron energy 0003-6951/2002/81(6)/1098/3/$19.skku.ac. Emission mechanism for such a high SEE will be further discussed with energy spectrum analysis.5 proach to reproduce high SEE using MgO on vertically In practice. In this report. We ob.193. The yield of secondary strongly dependent on the sample positions and not repro. Center for Electron Emission Source. the porous MgO produces high SEE yield of setup to measure the SEE.org/aplo/aplcr. Young Min Shin. Figure 1共a兲 shows the scanning elec- vices.1063/1. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. and J. generating huge number of secondary electrons in a MgO film. Figure 2共a兲 shows the yield as a function of net primary a兲 Author to whom correspondence should be addressed: electronic mail: electron energy (⌬E). which electrons. For instance.4 Yet the SEE obtained was while its kinetic energy was varied.aip. Sungkyunkwan University. ⫽1⫹I t /I p . Korea Whikun Yi. where I s can be measured by the Faraday cup. The nega- served an unusually high SEE yield of greater than 22 000 tive backbias to the sample decelerates the incident primary 共beyond the limit of a detector兲 at a backbias of 850 V. see http://ojps. plification yield. The secondary electrons generated by the pri. Kim NCRI.209. Jungna Heo. In case of no primary electron. although the nominal thickness of ings due to the absence of free electrons in insulator. Recently a MgO film was sured by applying a positive bias of 200 V to the sample deposited on randomly oriented carbon nanotube 共CNT兲 holder in order to avoid the leakage current to the chamber powder. no MWCNTs were grown by thermal chemical vapor depo. respectively. The I p was mea- which the lowest field is used.kr ence E p -eV t .20. which is defined by the energy differ- leeyoung@yurim. The charge replenishment is CNTs were 300 Å and 20 ␮m. for a bombarded by the primary electrons (I p ) which generates the given yield. 共the current supplied from the substrate兲. where CNTs are encapsulated by MgO only on the top area. 共TEM兲 image. we introduce a systematic ap. NUMBER 6 5 AUGUST 2002 Secondary electron emission from magnesium oxide on multiwalled carbon nanotubes Won Seok Kim BK21 Physics Division and Center for Nanotubes and Nanostructured Composites. Korea Hee Jin Jeong. The MgO-coated CNT films were about 1000 under the high electric field. This eventually gives rise to so called Townsend avalanche effect. accepted for publication 10 June 2002兲 We have investigated effects of electric fields on the yield of secondary electron emission 共SEE兲 from the primary electron bombardment on magnesium oxide 共MgO兲 covering vertically grown multiwalled carbon nanotubes 共MWCNTs兲. where relatively large SEE of maximum 15 000 at a wall.3 However. and electron gun require the SEE materials with a high am. has a SEE yield of about 25 at best. instead.jsp . electron multiplier. P. Jeonghee Lee. insulators are good candidates The inset shows a typical transmission electron microscope for high SEE. In general. 5 The average diameter and length of the grown emission currents are observed. Chang Soo Lee. Box 111. Note that the electric field sition on the Ni-coated Si substrate using a C2 H2 gas at generated by the negative backbias is small such that no field 650 °C. microchannel plate. for instance. and MgO film from an electron-beam evaporator was 3000 Å. secondary electrons are generated. Suwon 440-746. Suwon 440-746. The I p was fixed at 233 nA during the experiment. MgO.00 1098 © 2002 American Institute of Physics Downloaded 30 Jul 2002 to 202. Suwon 440-600. M. Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology. electron emission 共␦兲 is then defined as I s /I p ⫽(I p ⫹I t )/I p ducible either. The strong local field generated by the sharp tip of vertically grown MWCNTs accelerates secondary electrons generated by primary electrons.APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS VOLUME 81. cape from the surface. backbias of 1400 V was obtained.2 On Figure 1共b兲 shows a schematic diagram of our apparatus the other hand. tip about 500–2000 Å. 关DOI: 10.O. finally escape from the surface if they have enough energy to This suggests that relatively small amount of MgO was de- overcome the work function of the materials. and Young Hee Leea) Department of Physics and Center for Nanotubes and Nanostructured Composites. Sungkyunkwan University.

6 ence.aip. Vol. The small peak 1000 Å. The yield is rela- tively small for low E p over the whole range of ⌬E up to 900 eV. No. Figure 2共c兲 shows the yield as a function of the beyond the detection limit of our multimeter.20. independent of the backbias. which is less than one. measuring time with different nominal MgO film thicknesses at a fixed primary electron energy of 1100 eV and the backbias of ⫺850 eV. 共b兲 The yield as a function of not increase with low ⌬E and the maximum peak is ob. The SEE yield backbias for fixed net E p . Figure 2共b兲 shows the yield as a energies. 81. This may indicate the exis. and the negative bias applied to the substrate. 6.Appl. We next measured kinetic energies of the emitted sec- In general. This is in good agreement with our observations of at 1000 eV. 1099 FIG. the MgO film of about 500–2000 Å on the top of the CNT. The very thin film of 1000 Å CNTs gives the yield of up to 800 at best at very high E p of gives a low yield. The TEM image. ondary electrons by an electron energy analyzer 共VG Sci- tion depth is about five times the escape depth in insulator. We emphasize that the MgO film without results from the elastic backscatterings of the primary elec- Downloaded 30 Jul 2002 to 202. 共b兲 The schematic diagram for SEE experimental setup. Phys. 1共a兲. Figure 3共a兲 shows the distribution of the The escape depth of MgO is known as 60–200 Å. as The values of on-set backbias are large at low and large net shown in the inset of Fig. 共a兲 The SEM image of MWCNTs covered with a MgO film. shows the actual thickness of E p .7 which kinetic energy of the secondary electrons in terms of three implies the penetration depth of the MgO film to be 300– different backbiases at fixed E p of 1000 eV.jsp . function of time with different nominal MgO film thick- nesses at fixed E p of 1100 eV. the maximum yield is obtained when the penetra.org/aplo/aplcr. 2. The nominal MgO thickness was 3000 Å. Clam IV兲.. and 共c兲 served near 200 eV. respectively. The yield increases abruptly with drops at larger MgO thickness. 共a兲 The yield for three different primary electron energies as a whose maximum current is limited to 5 mA. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright.193. whereas this value shows an abrupt increase near ⌬E of 250 eV for the E p of 1000 eV. The yield becomes stabilized after long measurement time. indicating again an avalanche effect.7 With further increase of the E p the yield was too large to measure by our multimeter FIG. The minimum on-set backbias exists at net E p of 250 eV. We measured the SEE by varying the the yield as a function of the backbias for various net primary electron thickness of the MgO film. 1. The yield does function of the net primary electron energy. The MgO film with a nominal thickness of 1500 eV and the CNTs without a MgO film gives a yield of 3000 Å gives rise to a maximum yield of 22 000. increasing the backbias. see http://ojps. Lett. indicated by K 1 .209. 5 August 2002 Kim et al. tence of an optimum penetration depth. the TEM image. The existence of the threshold voltage suggests that the SEE mechanism may be related to an avalanche effect.

Kim. Y. the separation dis- tance between the MgO surface and the chamber wall. for instance. the primary electrons should reach the MgO three different backbiases at a fixed primary electron energy of 1000 eV. Seiler. Jeong. The broad peak (K 4 ) from 320 biases. Park. J.5– 10)⫻107 V/cm. Phys. about ten times larger than that of vacuum. Heo. S. J. MgO film thicknesses. Yates. G. This high local field will accelerate the primary electrons arrived near the tip and generate a cascade emis- sion of secondary electrons. J. The potential 8 P. we have investigated the yield of SEE from 800–1000 eV. ⫺800 V is applied between the chamber wall and the substrate. T. 共a兲 The energy distribution for the secondary electrons in terms of enon to occur.193. However.. 492 共1952兲. Y. Choi. T.3 The charge depletion was replenished by the I t . Appl. 251 共1997兲. 5 August 2002 Kim et al. Deposition 8. and back- tributed to the field emission. Z. electrons are obtained as shown in Fig. Hor. C. 22. Although the backbias of. 3. We note that without CNTs such a high amplifica- tion factor could not be observed. primary electron energies. Dekker. No. Jacobs. Kim. J. 88. Y. 11 共2002兲. from the I – V curve of the field emission experiment. K. W. 9391 共1997兲. Angew. corresponding to the voltage difference between K 3 and K 5 in Fig. Ono. Jeong. 2425 共1978兲. where the thickness 共d兲 of the MgO film on top of the CNT was measured from the TEM image. for various vacuum electronic devices. N. A. Lee.. Lee.org/aplo/aplcr. Chem. and F. and Y. under the bombardment of primary electrons due to the es. 6. for the primary electrons is expected. Yi. at a backbias of ⫺800 V. B. Han. i. 249 共1967兲. 81. Phys. Y. Brand. The variance of the SEE yield over the trons. Thus. In order to have avalanche phenom- FIG. since the dielectric constant of MgO (␧⫽9. 6. Kanaya. M. Vap. N. S. The position of the on-set kinetic energy is dependent on the geometry. M. the electric field within MgO is considered to 2 A. J.209. and J. where the sharp peak (K 3 ) at 800 eV is at.8 and the field enhancement factor of a MgO coated CNT film was found to be 700– 1200. J. it is only ⫺480 V that is applied across the This work was supported by the KOSEF through CNNC MgO film with a voltage drop of 320 V between the chamber at SKKU and MOST through NRL and CRI 共J. 251 共1958兲. be small. The electrons generated at the MgO surface (K 2 ) at a entire sample was within 10%. We expect our approach to be applied shown in the diagram of Fig. Park. S.M. see http://ojps. Y. Ishigaki.. G. a higher back- bias is required to ensure the avalanche effect in an MgO insulator. Sci. The SEE yield was measured for various below 800 eV. Downloaded 30 Jul 2002 to 202. and R. For instance. cape of secondary electrons of the surface from MgO. Zettl. as observed from our sion spectrum under a backbias of ⫺800 V. The voltage drop across the MgO film is good reproducibility. 共b兲 film near the nanotube tip and therefore optimum net energy The schematic diagram of the potential drop of the secondary electron emis. Jeong. Rev. This proves that the small diameter of CNTs enhances the local field strength near the tip of nanotubes. since the typical diameter of MWCNTs is about 100–300 Å. 5 H.e. B 55. The secondary electrons start emitting from MgO/MWNTs. This trend of yield originates from an avalanche phenomenon due to the broad energy distribution is very similar for other backbiases strong local field generated by the sharp CNT tip. Woo. C. Phys. Vol. Surf. 111. T. i. In general. 2共a兲. D. H.8␧ 0 ) is 3 H. Jin.aip. The electron energy analysis revealed that this high generated through the whole MgO film layer. 3共b兲. Our data were fully reproducible with repetition of the measurements. 4091 共2001兲. W. R. Lett. the S. We S. H.K. but still cannot explain such a high amplification factor.e. now estimate the strength of the electric field across the MgO 6 H. This process results in the charge depletion on the MgO surface and induces an addition local field across the MgO film. Lim.jsp . Collins and A. S. H. drop across MgO film is considered to be about 500 V.20. S. Lee. J. Abrams. 1 A. Appl. the local field near the tip can be enhanced by a factor of 103 . 4 W. We em- except the position of the on-set kinetic energy (K 5 ) at phasize that this high SEE is obtainable over the sample with around 320 eV. large secondary 7 K. Jeon. Freely. results. W. S. Phys. Lee.兲. J. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright. Therefore. The SEE yield was achieved to be much greater than to 800 eV is considered to originate from the SEE that are 22 000. Solid State Phys. This field may launch the cascade emission of secondary electrons. C. Rev. Phys. Shih. This value is the same order of magnitude of the field strength corresponding to the on-set field of ava- lanche effect in typical metal oxides. The field enhancement factor from a CNT film is usually an order of 103. and F. J. M. 3共a兲. Shin. Phys. backbias of ⫺800 V are negligible within kinetic energies of In summary. D 11. Choi. film. wall and the MgO surface. The average field strength is 500 V/d (500– 2000 Å)⫽(2.1100 Appl. Yu. I. electric field of MgO in this experiment may be enhanced 89. S.

MEASUREMENTS AND STUDIES OF SECONDARY ELECTRON EMISSION OF DIAMOND AMPLIFIED PHOTOCATHODE Qiong Wu Submitted to the faculty of the University Graduate School in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Physics. Indiana University September. 2008 .

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Van Kooten. 2008 . PhD) August 21. Indiana University. Baxter. PhD) __________________________ (David V. ii Accepted by the Graduate Faculty. Hess. PhD) __________________________ (Richard J. Doctoral Committee __________________________ (Shyh-Yuan Lee. PhD) __________________________ (Mark H.

iii Copyright ©2008 by Qiong Wu ALL RIGHTS RESERVED .

iv To my parents. .

Shyh-Yuan Lee for his supervision. v Acknowledgement The work covered in this thesis could not be done without the help and support from a great number of people. Dr. and led me through the hardest time at the beginning. After I joined the group. I am deeply indebted to him for his detailed editing of this document and of all the guidance he has provided. and I believe the benefit I received from this will continue on. Ben-Zvi. and guidance from the very early stage of my accelerator career as well as giving me the opportunity and encouragement of finding this project. all group members offered the most generous help to my day-to-day research and learning experience. After two and half years of course study in Indiana University. His diligence and passion in science always inspired me as a student. advice. He opened my mind to this distinguished field. I moved to Collider-Accelerator Department of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) looking for a PhD research topic. he would then analyze the problem along with me and lead me to a solution. I am also very grateful to Xiangyun Chang for his careful explanation to . Ilan Ben-Zvi’s diamond secondary emission group caught my interest. I would like to record my gratitude to my advisor Dr. always sat with me with patience whenever I am puzzled with the project. as my local advisor in BNL. In the first place. and would like to give him my deepest respect. As a fully experienced and genuinely talented scientist. I am honored to become one of his students. Dr. It is a pleasure to convey my gratitude to them all in this humble acknowledgment.

John Walsh. Triveni Rao. Finally. Joseph Saetta. David Pate. Mark Hess. they taught me so much knowledge that a qualified experimentalist should know. David Baxter. As members in the group. I would like to end this acknowledgement with my sincere appreciation to my family. I also wish to thank the other three scientists on my Doctorate committee: Dr. and Dr. Dr. Their support and understanding is what led me to this point and what made me the way I am. It is my honor to work with them and learn from them. and Richard Talman. The working experience with Xiangyun is very pleasant and profitable. They have given me many good suggestions during my defense and in the thesis. . Richard Van Kooten for agreeing take time to review my thesis. I would also like to acknowledge the people who have contribute in this project: Craig Rhein. and John Smedley. I would like to give my special thanks to Andrew Burrill. vi all my questions and bright thoughts to this project. little by little. Harrold Dorr.

High purity Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond films are used as the amplifier of the electron beam. Secondary electrons are accelerated through the diamond and will emit into vacuum through surface with hydrogen termination. for the electrons are constrained to the bottom of the conduction band. Measurements are done with . metallization coating. and hydrogenation. The entire sample preparing process includes severe chemical etching. high-brightness electron source for accelerators. the primary electrons generate secondary electrons by collision on the order of two magnitudes increase in number. vii ABSTRACT Qiong Wu Measurements and Studies of Secondary Electron Emission of Diamond Amplified Photocathode The Diamond Amplifier Photocathode (DAP) provides a very promising new approach to provide high-average-current. Primary electrons are provided by a traditional photocathode and are bombarded onto tens of nanometer thick metal coating and into the diamond sample. The electrons emitted should have very low thermal emittance. Within 1 micron travel in the diamond.

. The diamond will also act as a vacuum barrier. protecting the photocathode from contamination by the accelerator vacuum.1eV. The emittance measurement is carefully designed to reach the precision of 0. Theoretical calculations and computational simulation are developed to fit with our experimental results. viii specific equipments. and will focus on the physics of electron transfer within and out of the diamond sample. The experiments have already demonstrated the secondary electron gain of over 200 in the diamond and over 70 for emission into the vacuum. The measurements of the gain are taken and compared under different conditions for obtaining the highest amplification. This thesis covers all aspects of this project. and the quality of preparation is controlled by the Atomic Force Microscope and electron or photon spectroscopy.

............................... 7 1........................ 10 2....2 Advantages of diamond for amplified photocathodes .................................................. 15 3............................................ 12 3 Preparation of diamond sample .........................................................4 Very high Mobility and Saturation Velocity ............................3 Energy bands and NEA surface in the diamond ..............2....................... ix CONTENTS 1 Introduction ... 5 1. 1 1..............2...1 Wide Band Gap ...2 Best Rigidity ..................................... 1 1...........................2 Metallization .................................................................................................2....................... 5 1.........................2................................................................................................ 19 ....................................3 Highest Thermal Conductivity .. 6 1................................................................................... 11 2.................................................1 Acid Etching ....... 15 3...2 Temperature and current ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 The Diamond Amplified Photocathode (DAP) Project ..........................................1 Vacuum ............................................. 8 2 DAP Design..... 11 2.....................................

..... 27 4................................1 Ablation in vacuum .............................................................................................................................................2 Ablation in rich O2 environment ........................................................................................................................................................ 40 5................................ x 3........................4 Brazing ............................................. 20 4 Diamond laser ablation ..................3 UV exposure ................................................ 27 4......................1..........................1.................... 42 5...................................................... 34 4...................................................1 Measurement setup ......... 36 5 Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield ........................................... 40 5......... 23 4............................................................................ 22 4..........1........3............................... 20 3...........................................................................................3....... 35 4.............................................3 Laser ablation of polycrystalline diamond ...............................4 Laser ablation of single crystalline diamond ..... 23 4......................................................3 Signal collection circuit .................2 Sample preparation and characterization.................................................................. 40 5...................................................2 Diamond holder and system setup ..1 Laser system .3 Hydrogenation .......1 Primary electron source ................. 45 ...3.................................................................

..................... 66 6 Emission Mode Measurement of Diamond Secondary Electron Yield 71 6. 83 ....................................................2 Experimental results ........................................................................3 Laser effect .. 76 6....................................................................................................................... 73 6................................................................3 Short-pulse measurements .................................................................................. 57 5..................... 61 5................ 46 5.............5 Recombination of the charges in diamond ...................1 Delay time dependence ........................................................................................3 Repetition Rate .......................... 71 6....................................................................3.......................................................... 53 5. 79 6.........2 DC beam or continuous long pulse measurements.......3.................... 63 5............................3.................................................................. xi 5......... 75 6.................................................................. 59 5...........2 Primary Energy .............................1 Current Density ..........................3......3.................4 Energy lost in metal coating and estimation of energy needed for each e-h pair ..............1 Measurement setup ...............................3..................................2 Temperature dependence.......................3 Laser Detrapping .........................................................................

xii 7 Thermal emittance measurement design ..6 Conclusion ........4 Shielding ......................... 92 7................ 94 7............................................................................................................................................2 Limitations.......................................3 Comparison of lenses ...............................................................................................................................1 Methods ......................................... 99 ........................................... 87 7..............................................................................................................................................5 Alignment .................................................. 95 7................ 88 7.... 89 7...................................... 98 8 Summary and conclusion .........................................

............... .................... ....... xiii List of Tables: Table 1.Error! Bookmark not defined................. 7]........................................... 6 Table 1..............1: Energy needed for create one electron hole pair.. .. ....... 13 Table 5... 66 Table 6............ .1: Electron affinity of carbon and hydrogen.....2: Thermal conductivity of various materials [6..................................1: Average radii used in theoratical model calculation............ 8 Table 2.1: Band gap energy list @300K [4]............................................................

.......... 32 Figure 4.........3: 532nm ns pulse laser ablated polycrystalline diamond under optical microscope (left) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) (right).............. 30 Figure 4......5: AFM image of polycrystalline diamond 266nm laser ablated area center... (These curves are obtained by J............7: 213nm ns pulse laser ablated polycrystalline diamond under optical microscope.... ... Smedley and T........ 5 Figure 2... 31 Figure 4............. (These pictures are taken by J............2: Diamond conventional unit cell........... xiv List of Figures: Figure 1.......... ......8: AFM image of polycrystalline diamond 213nm laser ablated area center...........1: Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAF) comparison of diamond before and after acid cleaning..... The middle and bottom pictures are AFM scanning topography and feedback circuit signal of the bare diamond surface. (This picture is taken by J. 25 Figure 4...........2: Raman/photoluminescence spectra of different diamond sample lattice.............. Rao) .. Grimes) .............. ..... Smedley) ....1: A complete DAP system. .......... The scanning cantilever width of the AFM is 0..............1: AFM scanning pictures of typical single crystal diamond sample bare and metalized surfaces........... 14 Figure 3.. 3 Figure 1...... 17 Figure 4. and the structure on the bare diamond surface is the image of the holder of the diamond........................ Smedley and T.................... 10 Figure 2..........................1: DAP Design.. 26 Figure 4.................6: NEXAFS trace of unablated and ablated regions of diamond sample and reference trace for amorphous carbon....... Sample scanned after ultrasonic cleaning in ethyl alcohol....... Sample number HID8....4: 266nm ns pulse laser ablated polycrystalline diamond under optical microscope (left) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) (right)..... Top two are taken by optical camera..... 29 Figure 4..............................04mm.... ........... .............................. (These pictures are taken by J.. Smedley and T................... 33 ................................... (Photo on the left is taken by J.......... 28 Figure 4.........................2: Field and energy bands in the diamond with NEA surface.......................................... .......... Rao). .......... Rao)...........................

..... Rao) .................................................. ...4: Simple sketch of the transmission mode measurement principle................. 56 ....... Different thickness of graphite and AC theoretical absorption curves are also shown as reference.....12: AFM image of single crystal diamond 213nm laser ablated area edge......................1: EGG-3101 thermionic electron gun from Kimball Physics..8: Secondary electron signal of 10μs pulse width with different duty cycles....................................... Smedley and T................... Primary currents are shown in the legend. Smedley) ........................... ......... (These curves are obtained by J................2: Sketch of electron gun pulsing trigger.. 38 Figure 5......... ...... 49 Figure 5.... 51 Figure 5.......3: Diamond holder structure.5: Primary electron signal with pulse width of 200μs......... 43 Figure 5...9: Secondary electron signal of 10μs pulse width with different duty cycles........ Primary electron peak current density is 0........ (These curves are obtained by J............. . 42 Figure 5......................................11: Optical microscope picture of 213nm laser ablated single crystal diamond........10: FTIR spectra of before and after UV exposure of ablated area.... 41 Figure 5..... .............................03A/m2 and the field applied in the diamond is 0.......... 47 Figure 5............... (This picture is taken by J....033MV/m......... 38 Figure 4. .............................................................. 36 Figure 4. ...033MV/m......................... . 54 Figure 5......... ...3MV/m) and high field (bottom: 3MV/m) secondary electron signal of single crystal diamond with 0......................................3mm thickness in transmission mode.......................... 35 Figure 4...03A/m2 and the field applied in the diamond is 0.. Smedley).................... (Created by Chong-Jer Liaw)..................13: AFM image of single crystal diamond 213nm laser ablated area center................. xv Figure 4.........6: Comparison of low field (top: 0.......... No laser beam applied...................................9: Raman spectra of samples following ablation with different O2 pressures................ Primary electron peak current density is 0.. 37 Figure 4... ....... Either side of the high-voltage supply can be grounded..7: Single crystal diamond window gain with primary electron energy ranges from 4keV to 8keV...... Laser beam applied (532nm....... <5mW).......................... 45 Figure 5.......

........ 62 Figure 5................... ... ............12: Gain comparison of with and without laser detrapping under various pulse repetition rates.. <5mW)............. 82 Figure 6.......... Either side can be grounded....... <5mW).............................11: Gain comparison of with and without laser detrapping under different primary electron energies.....13: Maximum gain of different primary electron energy..7: Room temperature (23°C) measurement with laser applied (532nm laser......................................................................4: Secondary signal with different delays for the primary electron after applying the DC field...................3: First pulse gain under room temperature (23°C) with different field and effective energy for each pulse.......................................................... The primary current density is fixed at 0..... 77 Figure 6...................10: Gain comparison of with and without laser detrapping under different current densities.............. ............ Primary current density fixed at 0...........8: High temperature (200°C) measurement with laser applied (532nm laser......................................... The pulse width for each measurement is fixed at 10μs...................................5: Emission signal of the diamond amplifier at 200°C...9: Low temperature (-140°C) measurement with laser applied (532nm laser.. 65 Figure 5.. 84 Figure 6..................................... ....................... ...... 74 Figure 6............... ....... xvi Figure 5...... 85 Figure 6.. Primary electron energy fixed at 6keV...... Effective energy is the energy of the primary beam excluding the energy loss in the metal coating............................................ 80 Figure 6...................................... 86 Figure 7.6: Emission signal of the diamond amplifier at -140°C............................. ... 78 Figure 6............................2: Emission mode gain with DC primary beam.............................................1: Simple sketch of emission mode measurement principle............ 60 Figure 5.................. .....................036A/m2 and energy fixed at 6keV...................04A/m2...............................................1: Setup design for thermal energy measurement of diamond secondary emission................................... ....... ......... ............... 88 ................................................................................................................................14: Diamond electron band structure [27]............... ....... <5mW).................. 71 Figure 6...................... 58 Figure 5.... 67 Figure 6.. ..

...... xvii Figure 7...1eV.....5: Comparison of solenoid and two quadrupoles....... ................. 89 Figure 7.....................7: The offset magnetic field to the center of the electron beam and the waist................................ . 93 Figure 7........6: Solenoid with different shielding........................... 97 ...........3: Aberration and space charge effects on beam spot size on screen........ FWHM difference according to the offset......................... 94 Figure 7.............. ..... 91 Figure 7...2: Acceleration of the secondary electrons by applying a high voltage across the diamond and anode....4: Comparison of solenoid and two Einzel lenses................. ... 95 Figure 7......................................... ..................................................... Thermal energy of the beam is 0........... ....

xviii .

The emitted current is limited by the temperature of the cathode and the electric field. constant power. electron accelerators have served in a large variety of applications. high intensity electron beams with narrow spatial and temporal distributions. In recent years.Introduction 1 1 INTRODUCTION 1. medical science.1 The Diamond Amplified Photocathode (DAP) Project Over many years. This type of cathode can provide high brightness electron beams . Thermal cathodes rely on thermal energy overcoming the electrostatic forces restraining the charge carriers of certain materials. The negatively charged electrode covered with a layer of light sensitive material will emit electrons when struck by photons with energy above the material‟s band gap. Synchrotron Light Sources and Free Electron Lasers (FEL) provide the largest work platforms with high X-ray energy and brightness for biology. and much more. scientists and engineers have made possible high brightness. and short wavelength light sources to be possible. material science. Traditionally electrons are produced in thermionic cathodes. Many applications require continuous current. chemistry. Besides the contribution of electron colliders such as LEP in the precise measurements of important values in the Standard Model. photocathodes became widely used as an electron source.

The photocathode will provide a primary electron beam as a laser illuminates the surface material. which is of interest for FEL and ERL [3]. low emittance and high stability electron beam with a long lifetime. can provide a much higher QE (in the order of 10%) with a much larger photon energy range than metallic materials. Only a few hours of continuous emitting are available at the regime of about 100 milliamps. which is wavelength and material dependent. But they are very prone to contamination so that the lifetime of semiconducting photocathodes is limited. robust and low in cost. The Diamond Amplified Photocathode (DAP) is a new development for electron sources that promise a high current. The QE of the metallic photocathodes is only in the order of ~0. Semiconducting photocathodes. a traditional photocathode and an amplifier. These primary electrons will be accelerated to a few keV under a DC electric field applied between the photocathode . The maximum current a photocathode can deliver depends upon the power of input laser and its QE. Metallic materials such as magnesium and copper are popular in RF guns that operate with low average current [1.Introduction 2 and low emittance when combined with the high electric field available in an RF gun. which is the percentage of photons hitting the photoreactive material surface that will produce an e-h (electron-hole) pair. These metallic materials are easy to prepare. The most important parameter for photocathodes is the quantum efficiency (QE).1%. 2]. The DAP constitutes two main components. such as GaAs.

Figure 1.1: A complete DAP system. The secondary electrons will be emitted into vacuum and accelerated by the RF field of the gun. and its advantages will . The primary electrons will penetrate through the metal coating into the amplifier material and produce secondary electrons with amplification of more than 100.1 shows the schematic drawing of the DAP system with diamond window as the amplifier. Figure 1. Diamond is ideal for this application.Introduction 3 and a thin metal layer coated on the amplifier window. Diamond is uniquely suited to be the amplifier‟s material as will be explained later on.

. they will exit into the vacuum through the diamond surface with hydrogen termination. If the RF field of the gun is carefully adjusted at the right phase to accelerate the electrons in the plasma cloud.Introduction 4 be discussed in the next section. portion of the secondary electrons will be able to transfer across the diamond bulk. The scenario inside the diamond window after primary electrons penetrate through the metal coating is as follows: Within about 100nm travel in the diamond. but it is typically on the order of two orders of magnitudes larger than the number of primary electrons. The electrons emitted are “cold”.e. The number of secondary electrons depends on the primary electron energy. Thus each primary electron will form a plasma cloud of electrons and holes along its range. As the secondary electrons reach the opposite surface. the primary electrons generate secondary electrons and holes by collisions. for the electrons are constrained to the bottom of the conduction band. The electron and holes will recombine within the plasma with the presence of three-body scattering or diffuse and merge into the metal coating to recombine within 1ns unless separated by an electric field. i. The number of electrons that leave the plasma cloud is related to the RF electric field amplitude and the energy of primary electrons (will be discussed in Chapter 5). they have a very low thermal emittance.

47eV. Figure 1.2: Diamond conventional unit cell.567Å (0.1 Wide Band Gap Diamond is the prototype material for the structure shown in Figure 1. which is very wide compared to other materials.2 Advantages of diamond for amplified photocathodes The material of the amplifier is carefully selected to gain the highest Secondary Emission Yield (SEY).2. Diamond has a band gap of 5. 1.3567 nm). with a side length a0 approximately equal to 3. and two atoms per unit cell at room temperature. diamond has many properties which allow it to provide the best performance as an amplifier of electron beams. Table 1.1 shows the minimum band gap energy of several common .2. Among all the materials.Introduction 5 1. The conventional unit cell is face-centered cubic.

67 (indirect) 0. the more secondary electrons can be pulled out before they diffuse into the metal coating. due to the large band gap.47 (indirect) 2150 Silicon (Si) 1. the higher the applied field. According to Table 1.3.4 (direct) 500 Materials with larger band gaps will have the ability of tolerant stronger electric fields.1: Band gap energy list @300K [4]. As primary electrons create e-h pair plasma along their penetration path. High electric field is required for preventing recombination and for increasing the drift velocity of the secondary electrons.36-3.11 (indirect) 30 Silicon carbide (SiC) 2.Introduction 6 semiconductors. diamond can hold up to more than 2000MV/m electric field before breakdown. This rigidity allows it to .354 (direct) 0.1 Indium arsenide (InAs) 0. 1.2. Diamond is the only material that will have negative electron affinity (NEA) with hydrogen termination on the surface.43 (direct) 60 Gallium nitride (GaN) 3. Table 1.1. Material Band Gap Energy [eV] Breakdown field[MV/m] Diamond (C) 5.2 Best Rigidity It is well known that diamond is the most rigid material.04 Gallium arsenide (GaAs) 1.23 (indirect) 100-500 Germanium (Ge) 0. This will be discussed further in Section 2.

The time allowed for secondary electrons to pass through the diamond is less than 30°. the electron acceleration phase limit in the RF gun must be considered.2. . Calculations have been done by others for the single-cell RF gun designed for RHIC electron cooling. In principal.3 Highest Thermal Conductivity The thermal conductivity of diamond is much higher than even copper. The diamond is subjected to several heat sources during amplification of the current:  The power deposited by primary electrons bombardment. a thick diamond is desired for good thermal conductivity and strength. But for RF applications. For operation of a self-supporting film with a diameter of the order of 1cm at this thickness the rigidity of diamond is a great advantage. The RF phase for secondary electrons generated near the backside of the diamond should be at least 5°. The optimized initial phase is less than 35° and the frequency of RF cavity is ~700MHz.e. which is the most widely used thermal conducting material. ~120 ps. The saturation velocity of electron transfer in diamond bulk is ~2×105m/s [5]. 1. i. Thus the thickness of the diamond window needs to be about 30 microns.Introduction 7 be prepared into thin films of only a few microns.

8].4 Very high Mobility and Saturation Velocity The drift velocity of electrons in diamond is in the order of 1×105m/s under an .025 293 1.D.2. Table 1. Simulations in X.  The power deposited by RF shielding on the metal coating.2: Thermal conductivity of various materials [7.3 296 Water 0. The heat produced must be quickly dissipated to ensure the temperature of the whole system does not increase to an unsafe limit.Introduction 8  The power deposited by secondary electron transportation. thesis showed that the diamond secondary emission cathode can easily handle 100W of heat power without wide range temperature change [6].  The resistive heating by the electron replenishment current flowing through the metal coating. Chang‟s Ph.6 293 Air 0. Material Thermal conductivity [W/(m·K)] Temperature [K] Diamond 1000 273 Silver 429 300 Copper 386 279 Aluminum 237 293 Stainless Steel 16.

Introduction 9 electric field of a few megavolts per meter as mentioned above. The electrons under high frequency RF field will only have a very small period of time to transfer through the amplifier in case to be at the right phase when emitted into the gun. the diamond amplifier is easily capable of responding to 10GHz pulses. Along with high rigidity. High mobility is very important for high frequency applications. .

1: DAP Design. Grimes) . (Photo on the left is taken by J.DAP Design 10 2 DAP DESIGN The design of the DAP includes five main components designed to carry out the process of electron emission described in Chapter 1:  Diamond amplifier with its metal coating  Niobium substrate  Sapphire vacuum cell  Photocathode  Supporting window Figure 2. Figure 2. Individual issues of the DAP are discussed below.1 shows the relative size and configuration of the DAP.

the brazing points must be vacuum tight [9]. A 30μm thick diamond window with 10mm diameter can hold up to 1Atm pressure difference. The DAP capsule will protect the photocathode surface from contamination during transportation.1 Vacuum Photocathode performance and lifetime can be very sensitive to certain gas density. In addition to the diamond window rigidity.2 Temperature and current The selection of niobium and sapphire as amplifier substrate and supporting of the vacuum is based on their thermal expansion as well as their thermal and electrical conductivity. thus it must be able to withstand repeated cryogenic cycles to as low as a few degrees Kelvin. The DAP is designed as an electron source for both normal and superconducting guns. 2. An example is the cesium used in coating of a GaAs photocathode to provide Negative Electron Affinity (NEA). Cesium is very reactive and can be easily oxidized and lose its effect. The vacuum inside the DAP can be maintained even during transfer of the assembly in air. The preparation of the DAP involves diamond .DAP Design 11 2.

Good thermal conductivity is also important in the thermal processes.7W/(m·K) is selected according to the above criteria [9].DAP Design 12 brazing. replenishment current is needed to keep the whole system neutral. electrical conductivity of 6. The electron affinity (EA) of an atom or molecule is the energy required to detach an electron from a singly charged negative ion. Most metallic atoms have . Considering the above extreme thermal conditions. the cell must be a high thermal conductive insulator to provide a good thermal path and electric standoff. and thermal conductivity of 53. the energy change for the process. Niobium with a thermal expansion coefficient of 7.e. i. Sapphire with thermal conductivity of 35W/(m·K) at 300K.3×10-6/K.6×10-6/K at 293K is very suitable for these purposes. and thermal expansion of 5. which is a high temperature process. electrical conductivity of 1×10-14Ω-1m-1. Along the same line. Thus the joined material must also be electrical conductive. the material that is joined with the diamond needs to have a thermal expansion coefficient as close to diamond as possible to provide minimum stress.6×10-6Ω-1m-1. As secondary electrons are emitted from the diamond.3 Energy bands and NEA surface in the diamond Diamond is a material that easily demonstrates NEA [10]. 2.

1) The Fermi levels of the diamond and of the termination materials (hydrogen or alkaline elements) are aligned.78 [12] Lithium 59. the vacuum level can be lower than the bottom level of the diamond‟s conduction band. As listed in Section 1.2.47eV.1.51 [15] Potassium 48.1: Electron affinity of carbon and hydrogen. Since the termination material has a relatively low work function.38 [15] The EA of a surface is defined as the vacuum energy level Evac minus the conduction band minimum energy level Ec: EA  Evac  Ec (2. Table 2.004 [14] Cesium 45. As . Atom Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] Reference Hydrogen 72.77 [11] Carbon 121. This will allow the secondary electrons to escape into the vacuum. diamond has a very large band gap of 5.62 [13] Oxygen 141.DAP Design 13 more negative affinity than nonmetallic atoms.

2. For the application as current amplifier. the energy barrier from Fermi level to conduction band of diamond is higher than the work function of most of the metallic elements including hydrogen. . Figure 2. It is reported that the electron affinity of the hydrogenated diamond surface can be as low as -3. 16.DAP Design 14 shown in Figure 2. Photoemission and reflective mode secondary electron emission of hydrogenated diamond has been observed and reported [18-20]. secondary electrons need to transfer through the entire diamond bulk and only the non-recombined electrons can be emitted from the opposite surface.2: Field and energy bands in the diamond with NEA surface. which makes diamond very easy to form NEA. 17].4eV [10.

Preparation of diamond sample 15 3 PREPARATION OF DIAMOND SAMPLE 3. Procedure:  Prepare two work surfaces.  Ensure the ventilation system in the fume hood is on .1 Acid Etching The purpose of acid etching is to eliminate the various atoms and non-diamond carbon layer present on the surface of the diamond sample. thus will add uncertainty to the experimental results. one inside and another outside the fume hood. These elements and structures will define the Fermi level of the area they occupied. A hot plate should be placed inside the fume hood  Prepare large glass containers that can be tightly closed for storing liquid waste  Prepare a plastic bag to collect solid waste such as wipes  Clean all the glassware to remove contaminants  Mount the diamond samples in the sample holder  Position two beakers with deionized water near the hot plate in the fume hood  Wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for safety.

Preparation of diamond sample 16  Place the chromic acid inside the fume hood. away from moisture or any source of water  All the etching must be done under the fume hood. Follow the steps below: o 15 min of saturated CrO5 in H2SO4 (heated so vapors are visible) o Deionized (DI) water rinse o 2 min NH4:H2O (1:10) Ultrasonic o DI water rinse o 2 min HCl:H2O (1:10) Ultrasonic o DI water rinse o 5 Min H2SO4:H2O2 (5:1) boiling o DI water rinse o 2 min NH4:H2O2:H2O (1:1:4) boiling o DI water rinse o 2 min HCl:H2O2:H2O (1:1:4) boiling o DI water rinse o DI water Ultrasonic o DI water rinse . Chromic acid is hygroscopic. make sure to dispose of the chemical waste in the pre-labeled glass containers. Keep hot liquids in the fume hood untill they are cool. After etching. keep it tightly closed.

All information is combined to determine all the final states of the photoelectron that are consistent with conservation rules. In NEXAF. Detailed analysis of the NEXAFS data yields information about the orientation .1: Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAF) comparison of diamond before and after acid cleaning. and the consequent fluorescent photon or Auger electron or an inelastically scattered photoelectron may also be measured. the photoelectron from core level excited by an input x-ray photon is captured.Preparation of diamond sample 17 Figure 3.

7)kJ·mol-1 [22]. The strong acids used in the etching will create oxygen terminations on the diamond surface. The oxygen-carbon bond is very strong. The acid etching would partially remove the amorphous carbon and eliminates iron on the surface. the acid etched sample (blue curve) shows sharper diamond peaks and weaker non diamond peaks. i. The graphite peak around 280eV and second resonance peaks of iron around 350eV in Figure 3.1 gets smaller or vanishes completely after acid etching. Between the two normalized curves. After acid etching.Preparation of diamond sample 18 and the binding of the surface. The oxygen termination will protect the purification of the surface from contamination until we heat it up to 800°C or more. which indicates the possibility for detecting a photoelectron from pure diamond bond is larger. and the spectrum can be analyzed by comparing the peak locations to Ref [21]. the acid etching has eliminated the surface remnant for a certain degree. The curves in Figure 3. with a bond energy D°298(C≡O) = (1076.e.4±0.1 have been normalized according to the photon flux. the sample is kept in a clean environment at 1% humidity for further experimentation. We keep track of the history of each sample. . Each sample is etched and stored separately for identification. so the metal coating migration into the diamond due to electron bombardment and lifetime of the sample can be evaluated.

the thin metal coating on the surface cannot be removed by acid etching following extended electron bombardment.2 Metallization The signal collection highly depends on the details of the metallization of the primary side of the diamond sample.Preparation of diamond sample 19 The migration of metal coating layer into the diamond bulk has been observed on samples which has been used extensively. All the electrons will lose part of their energy in the metal. The former requirement therefore demands metals with EA close to that of the diamond to form an ohmic contact on the diamond surface. 3. i. which indicates that the surface will act as a p-type . and only the remnant energy will contribute in generating secondary electrons. The metal coating will be in contact with the niobium substrate to provide a replenishment current to the diamond. Primary electrons must penetrate the metal coating before entering the diamond for amplification. The metal–diamond contact should be able to allow holes easily escape from the diamond. Clearly the selection of the coating material is important. In fact. The latter requirement prevents the usage of metals which do not interact with carbon once applied. at this specific surface.e. and strong adhesion to survive the extreme thermal process. such as gold. the free carrier should be holes alone. the diamond sample must be replaced. Thus the metal coating has certain aspects that affect the performance of the amplification. In this case.

The hydrogenation in the experiments discussed in the following chapters was performed with pure hydrogen flowing through a thermal gas cracker (MANTIS MGC75) at ~0. . After exposing the bare diamond surface. In the experiments discussed in later chapters. Before applying hydrogen atoms. so metals with high work functions form the best contacts. the metal coating is a ~50nm platinum on top of ~30nm titanium.1 can finished in two steps: brazing and cold welding. 3. the environment needs to be hydrogen atom rich.Preparation of diamond sample 20 semiconductor. where the titanium forms a good bond with the diamond while the platinum provides protection of the titanium from oxidation.4 Brazing The configuration of the DAP as shown in Figure 2. 3. the diamond surface must be freed from other elements by breaking their bonds at a high temperature.5 cubic centimeters per minute.3 Hydrogenation Hydrogenation is the process of applying hydrogen termination to the diamond surface. This can be done by flowing hydrogen gas through a hot filament or gas cracker. and usually this is done with local temperature of 800°C or higher. or applying a hydrogen plasma system.

copper. Cold welding is chosen to avoid a high temperature process that could ruin the performance of the photocathode. and silver (TiCuSil) as the brazing material. Cold welding is planned to be used to join the sapphire vacuum cell and the supporting window of the photocathode. Ticusil is specially designed to join refractory metals and ceramic/diamond. niobium and sapphire are produced by high temperature vacuum brazing with an alloy of titanium. it is important to keep it continuously under ultra-high vacuum.Preparation of diamond sample 21 The contacts between diamond and niobium. Considering that the photocathode material is easily contaminated. Grimes and described in detail in his MS thesis [9]. . This brazing technique is carried out by J. The best solution would be sealing the supporting window onto the sapphire in-situ at the preparation chamber of the photocathode.

The speed of the RIE thinning of the diamond that is commercially available is about 10μm/day. since the electron velocity is much slower in the diamond than in vacuum.Diamond laser ablation 22 4 DIAMOND LASER ABLATION The diamond thickness for amplifier application is critical. The ideal thickness to be used in a 700MHz electron gun for launch phase of 35° would be about 30μm. beyond thinning the diamond to tens of microns with 10 times faster speed than RIE. As an alternative method. because together with the timing of the primary pulse. laser ablation was introduced for shaping the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamonds. a very smooth surface is required to prevent spreading the electrons in time. it defines the phase of the secondary emission pulse. include the laser ablation can also engrave precise patterns onto the diamond surface or into the bulk as desired. but this is a time consuming process if significant thickness reduction or large aspect ratios are required. For the same reason. a highly parallel geometry is required for the diamond plate. In addition. The advantages of this method. This is not achievable with mechanical polishing due to the stress embedded onto the surface during this process. Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) is one of the possible methods to obtain such a dimension. .

ultra-high-purity. Only the 266nm radiation of this laser was used to ablate the sample. (Leopard series.2 Sample preparation and characterization The diamonds used in experiments are all single crystal. The ns laser is a Q switched Nd:YAG capable of delivering up to 400mJ in a 20 ns pulse duration at 10Hz repetition rate. The wavelength of this laser is converted to 266 nm by two successive doubling crystals to provide up to 13mJ energy in 30 ps.Diamond laser ablation 23 4. capable of delivering 125mJ at 10Hz in a pulse duration of 60ps. The energy of the laser beam on the sample was adjusted by introducing appropriate filters in the beam path.1 Laser system Two lasers. both operating at a fundamental wavelength of 1064nm with pulse durations of 10ns and 30ps were used for the ablation. The position of the sample at the focus was identified by the size of the laser beam back reflected from the sample. highly . Two doubling crystals were used in series to generate up to 200mJ of 532nm and 40mJ of 266nm radiation with pulse durations of 14ns and 10ns respectively. The beam from either of these lasers is focused using a nominal 15cm lens to result in a 150μm focal spot size on the target. The ps laser is an actively and passively mode locked Nd:YAG oscillator followed by pulse selector and double pass amplifier. The energy on the target can be varied by changing the pump power of the amplifier. 4. Continuum Lasers) operating at 1064nm.

High purity and small thickness single crystal diamonds contain few electron trapping centers. Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) scanning results of the diamond surface is shown in Figure 4. Secondary electrons have a certain possibility being trapped by these potential wells.1. Electric field shielding is produced due to these trappings. [110] and [111] are not available in ppb purity level. Due to growth rate limitation.8nm over the entire sample.Diamond laser ablation 24 polished and flat thin films produced by CVD. the other two orientations. grain boundaries.3mm. and stress existing due to imperfect lattice structure are possible potential wells for electrons. The size of the diamond samples used in the experiments is typically 4. Impurity atoms. Both sides are polished to surface roughness (Ra) <15nm.0mm × 0.0mm × 4. and the flatness is controlled to under 5 fringes @ 632. The impurity concentration in these diamond samples are all within a few ppb. and the surface orientation is [100]. which are discussed in Ref [6]. .

1: AFM scanning pictures of typical single crystal diamond sample bare and metalized surfaces.04mm. Sample scanned after ultrasonic cleaning in ethyl alcohol. . The middle and bottom pictures are AFM scanning topography and feedback circuit signal of the bare diamond surface. Top two are taken by optical camera.Diamond laser ablation 25 Figure 4. Sample number HID8. The scanning cantilever width of the AFM is 0. and the structure on the bare diamond surface is the image of the holder of the diamond.

and provides the best . This simplifies the motion of electrons drifting through the diamond. reduces the probability of trapping. which is likely due to the abundant randomly oriented crystalline grain boundaries.2: Raman/photoluminescence spectra of different diamond sample lattice. In the secondary emission measurements. only detector grade samples are selected. In Raman/photoluminescence spectra above. electronic grade polycrystalline (100μm grain size) sample HIE5 (green) and detector grade single crystal HID3 (red) show negligible nitrogen impurities (<1ppm). The optical grade samples also show large photoluminescence background.Diamond laser ablation 26 Figure 4. while in optical grade polycrystalline (10μm grain size) sample HIO7 and HIO8 (blue and black) the silicon and nitrogen contents are significant.

3.Diamond laser ablation 27 rigidity and thermal conductivity. 4. motorized translation stage to facilitate movement of the sample in a plane perpendicular to the laser beam and perform raster scanning. We characterized all the ablated samples using optical and atomic force microscopes.3 Laser ablation of polycrystalline diamond 4. Polycrystalline (electronic grade) and single crystal (detector grade) CVD diamonds from Harris International were used for laser ablation.1 Ablation in vacuum Two identical electronic grade diamonds. The sample is then mounted onto a holder that is suspended in a vacuum commercial 2 ¾ inch vacuum cube held at pressures < 1μtorr. The samples were moved in a . with dimensions of 5 mm diameter. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) and x-ray crystallography where appropriate.16 mm thick and optical finish were exposed in succession to 132J of 532nm and 90 µJ of 266 nm at 10 Hz repetition rate. In other samples. these baseline measurements were done on unablated regions on the ablated samples. and the pulse duration was tuned to be at 10ns or 30ps for both wavelengths. labeled as HIE6 and HIE8. The cube is mounted on a dual axis. The sample was pumped down as described above to better than 1μTorr. 0.

Smedley and T. as shown in Figure 4. Since these two samples were identical.Diamond laser ablation 28 raster pattern in both x and y directions 10 times with a scan step of 50 µm for 70 minutes to ablate 1x1 mm2 on the sample.4 shows the images of polycrystalline diamond after ablation with 266nm ~10ns pulse duration laser. data from one sample before processing and from another after processing are compared to study the effect of the process.3.3: 532nm ns pulse laser ablated polycrystalline diamond under optical microscope (left) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) (right). Rao) Figure 4. non-uniformly removing large regions of the diamond surface. (These pictures are taken by J. Both images show clearer raster scan pattern as . Figure 4. although some raster scan pattern is observable. The ablation with 532nm ~10ns pulsed laser was quite destructive. in some cases.

Smedley and T.Diamond laser ablation 29 well as some dark areas. and the surface damage caused by 266nm laser is limited to small craters scattered on the ablated area. Figure 4. (These pictures are taken by J. Rao) .4: 266nm ns pulse laser ablated polycrystalline diamond under optical microscope (left) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) (right).

5: AFM image of polycrystalline diamond 266nm laser ablated area center.Diamond laser ablation 30 Figure 4. .

Diamond laser ablation 31 Figure 4. the ablation process has increased the . Smedley) AFM image shows the ablated area has about 2μm roughness. where the roughness should be controlled to under 1μm. In comparison to the unablated region.6. A reference curve for the amorphous carbon is also shown in the same plot. NEXAFS from the unablated and ablated sections of the diamond are shown in Figure 4. (These curves are obtained by J. NEXAFS is a highly sensitive surface technique that can clearly delineate surface impurity from the bulk impurity and can identify different forms of carbon unequivocally.6: NEXAFS trace of unablated and ablated regions of diamond sample and reference trace for amorphous carbon. The clear trace of the raster scanning is unacceptable for thinning the diamond amplifier.

The strong similarity between the reference plot and the NEXAFS signal from ablated section of the diamond imply that the darkened region is predominantly amorphous carbon (AC). and can be easily removed chemically or in an ozone environment. which is just above the band gap. To form a smooth surface after the ablation.7: 213nm ns pulse laser ablated polycrystalline diamond under optical .7eV energy. The laser is changed to 213nm. Figure 4.8eV energy. the raster scan size is decreased to 5μm to overlap the adjacent ablation traces. which is below the band gap of the diamond where 213nm photon is corresponding to 5. The AC adheres on the surface of the diamond. 266nm photon is corresponding to 4.Diamond laser ablation 32 relative strength of the peak at 285eV while reducing the strength of the peaks at 289eV and beyond 292eV. Thus 213nm laser is opaque to diamond. and the pulse duration is decreased to ~30ps to deposit a comparable energy to the diamond sample as ablations above.

The area within the sharp angle has more material left after ablation than the rest of the area.8: AFM image of polycrystalline diamond 213nm laser ablated area center. single crystal diamond must be applied. .Diamond laser ablation 33 microscope. which is same as the well defined sharp-angled pattern shown in Figure 4. So to obtain a smooth surface. which is differently oriented. Smedley and T.7 within the ablated area are grain boundaries of the polycrystalline diamond. (This picture is taken by J.8. Rao) Figure 4. This indicates the energy absorbed by one orientation is different from another orientation. The fine lines shown in Figure 4.

Optical transmission measurements using 623. As can be inferred from the data. 0. the presence of oxygen did not make a difference to the formation of the non-diamond carbon on the ablated surface.2Torr.9.01Torr using a leak valve and diamond was ablated at each of these pressures.1Torr and <0.3. 0.Diamond laser ablation 34 4. .2 Ablation in rich O2 environment The vacuum chamber was backfilled with oxygen at base pressures of 14.9Torr. The Raman spectra for the ablated surfaces are shown in Figure 4.8nm HeNe laser and optical constants of amorphous carbon indicate that the thickness of the non-diamond carbon layer is ~130nm and does not depend strongly on the oxygen pressure.

Diamond laser ablation 35 Figure 4. Smedley) 4. (These curves are obtained by J.9: Raman spectra of samples following ablation with different O2 pressures.3 UV exposure The ablated surface of HIE8 was exposed to the radiation from a mercury arc lamp (Jelight.3. . GLF-12-SRC) for 6 hours at a distance of 5cm from the lamp.

The UV radiation in air would create a reactive ozone environment. the IR transmission has changed from 65% before the UV radiation to 94% after the radiation. Smedley) In the region of wave numbers from 800cm-1 to 4000cm-1. 4. Ozone would then form CO2 at the presence of non-diamond carbon and left the surface cleaned.Diamond laser ablation 36 Figure 4.4 Laser ablation of single crystalline diamond The dark areas and uneven surface on ablated areas of polycrystalline diamond .10: FTIR spectra of before and after UV exposure of ablated area. (These curves are obtained by J. Different thickness of graphite and AC theoretical absorption curves are also shown as reference.

11. A single crystal diamond sample (HID13) was ablated using a laser pulse of 100µJ energy at a wavelength of 213nm and pulse duration of 30ps at a repetition rate of 10Hz. Figure 4. Rao) .11: Optical microscope picture of 213nm laser ablated single crystal diamond. The optical microscope pictures of the ablated and unablated regions are shown in Figure 4. The sample was raster scanned with 5μm step size. A single crystal was ablated with 213 nm ps laser. (This picture is taken by J.Diamond laser ablation 37 could have been due to the grain boundaries. so the diamond is opaque to the wavelength and all the energy will be deposited at the surface. This energy is above the band gap of the diamond. Smedley and T.

Figure 4.Diamond laser ablation 38 Figure 4.13: AFM image of single crystal diamond 213nm laser ablated area center.12: AFM image of single crystal diamond 213nm laser ablated area edge. .

and it does not show the grain boundaries as Figure 4.3 and Figure 4.11.Diamond laser ablation 39 The roughness in Figure 4.7.4. From Figure 4. . A RIE process can be added to refine the surface of the laser ablated surface. and the raster scanning pattern is hard to distinguish from the AFM images. The combination of both processes is ideal for thinning the diamond sample to a few tens of microns with surface roughness in nanometer scale. Much less dark areas are created in this ablation process. Laser ablation with energy above the diamond band gap is proved to be a feasible method of thinning the diamond with submicron roughness with only a very small amount of non-diamond carbon left on the surface.13 is about 100nm. which is tolerable for the amplifier application. the optical microscope image shows that there is much less surface non-diamond carbon coverage than Figure 4.

5. The gun has up to 10keV output electron energy.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 40 5 TRANSMISSION MODE MEASUREMENT OF DIAMOND SECONDARY ELECTRON YIELD Transmission mode measurements are designed to study the secondary electron generation and transport in the diamond.1.1 Primary electron source Primary electrons are generated from a thermionic electron gun source Model EGG-3101 commercially purchased from Kimball Physics. The cathode material is high-brightness single-crystal lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) with small spot size option.1 Measurement setup 5. The emission into the vacuum uses a different experimental setup and will be considered in Chapter 6. . The electron energies selected for experiments are limited to 8keV to allow a safety margin. which can provide 10μA peak current maximum and 100μm diameter spot size minimum with optimum working distance.

an electric circuit is designed to trigger the blanker inside the gun. Using the delay function of each output of the Stanford DG535 Digital Delay and Pulse Generator shown in Figure 5.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 41 Figure 5. These two successive pulses can be delivered when needed to study the electron or hole trapping in diamond.1: EGG-3101 thermionic electron gun from Kimball Physics. . For short pulse output. With the available electron blanking option.2. two successive pulses can be sent out with programmed timing. the primary beam from the gun can be pulsed. Primary electrons are focused by an Einzel lens structure panels inside the gun.

a sample holder is used for three purposes: Supporting the diamond surface perpendicular to the primary beam. .1.2: Sketch of electron gun pulsing trigger.2 Diamond holder and system setup During the measurement.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 42 Figure 5. and providing an electric field to accelerate the secondary electrons and allow measurement of the secondary current. insuring electrical contact to the primary electron impact surface of diamond in order to provide a replenishment current. 5.

. and the inner diameter of the tube is slightly less than the metal coating outer rim. (Created by Chong-Jer Liaw) In transmission mode measurements. The primary side of the diamond is grounded through the oscilloscope during all studies and the signal is measured on this low voltage level. identically on both sides. The voltage on the resistor is typically 10s of millivolts and therefore the primary surface can be considered effectively grounded. On the other side of the diamond. a copper anode is in good electrical contact with the metal coating.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 43 Figure 5. The anode is connected to a high voltage power supply. The tube is then connected to electrical ground through a current measurement resistor. the diamond is coated with selected thin metal films. A stainless steel tube is pressed onto the primary electron impacting surface (primary surface). Good electrical contact is ensured between the metal coating and the tube to provide replenishment currents. and it .3: Diamond holder structure.

Electrical break down through the vacuum might happen if the voltage is exceeds 5000V. The principle of the transmission mode experiment is shown in Figure 5. A leak checking is done on the whole assembly.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 44 can be set to any voltage between 0V to 5000V. Ceramic spacers and washers are used as insulators given their good performance in ultra-high vacuum. Liquid nitrogen can be fed through the tube and bring the system down to less than -140°C. and the vacuum can reach 2E-9Torr after baking. affecting the vacuum level of the system and for safety considerations. The use of the ceramic spacers also makes the insulation path along the insulator‟s surface very long and the insulator‟s surface is not directly exposed to the electron beams. The long tube which extending out of the system can provide heating and cooling for different experimental conditions. These are very important considerations to improve the insulation ability. which corresponds to more than 15MV/m.4. A cartridge heater is also available to slide down the tube to bring the system up to greater than 200°C. A copper block of relatively large mass with a stainless steel tube connected is at the very back of the holder. The entire stack of components is screwed down onto this block. . The limit of 5000V is governed by the potential breakdown.

VDC is the applied high voltage on the anode. The SEY of the amplifier is calculated by comparing the ratio between the replenishment current and the primary current. As the secondary electrons move away from the injection surface to the opposite electrode and leave the diamond.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 45 Figure 5.1. Either side of the high-voltage supply can be grounded. replenishment current enters the diamond .4: Simple sketch of the transmission mode measurement principle.3 Signal collection circuit According to the sample holder design for transmission mode measurement. high voltage is applied to the copper anode for secondary electron acceleration and collection. 5. Current I measures the replenishment current as the secondary electrons transits through the diamond.

5. It is found that more than 90% of those electrons are captured by the electrode when the primary beam is focused in that hole.2 Experimental results The electrode of the primary electron side of the holder is designed with a tubular shape (similar to a Faraday Cup) to collect most of the secondary electrons that are generated by the primary electrons on the metal coating surface and escape to vacuum. pulsed secondary electron signals are measured by oscilloscope. The signal collection circuit needs to have a fast response and good sensitivity to small signals. The ratio between the secondary current and primary current will give the SEY under the given applied electrical field in the diamond. With the experiment setup discussed in Section 5.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 46 from the ground electrode and can be detected by the oscilloscope connected to the holder. The primary electron current is measured by focusing the beam inside the hole and applying no field on the diamond. .1. The signal cable is kept short to reduce the distributed capacitance. The signal is then compared with the primary electron signal.2.

Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 47 Figure 5. The trapped electrons will form an electric field. the secondary electron drift velocity is not saturated. Therefore. The opposing field causes the succeeding electrons to experience a weaker accelerating field. Under a low applied field. i. we observe a decrease of the signal or SEY. If the pulse is adequately long.5: Primary electron signal with pulse width of 200μs. fewer electrons will be able to leave the plasma region and reach the anode. The electron thermal energy at equilibrium is also smaller than that at higher applied field and therefore under a low applied field these electrons have a larger probability of being trapped.e. the effective field will decrease continuously in amplitude as . opposing the applied field.

At a high applied field situation. the trapping centers in the diamond bulk are limited.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 48 more and more electrons are trapped. the equilibrium state would be reached when the trapped electron field fully cancels the applied field. and no more secondary electrons will be able to leave the plasma range. the field decrease due to the trapping is small compared to the applied field.3. Eventually. By using high-purity single crystal diamonds. The decrease of amplitude in each pulse will be negligible. . Efforts to reduce trapping will be further discussed in Section 5.

Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 49 Figure 5.6: Comparison of low field (top: 0.3mm thickness in transmission mode. The SEY or gain can be calculated by: .3MV/m) and high field (bottom: 3MV/m) secondary electron signal of single crystal diamond with 0.

Gain vs.7. and this plot is a good tool for explaining the performance of the diamond amplifier [23].1) The sign of the additional term equal to 1 added at the end of Equation (5. .Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 50 gain = secondary current signal amplitude / primary current signal amplitude 1 (5.1) is to reflect the negative polarity of the primary current signal. field inside the diamond sample can be plotted as shown in Figure 5.

Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 51 Figure 5. With no applied field the electrons and holes will all recombine with three-body scattering or diffuse into the metal coating.7: Single crystal diamond window gain with primary electron energy ranges from 4keV to 8keV. According to each curve in Figure 5.7. The electrons that make it through the plasma region without recombination (or trapping) and arrive at the opposite surface will contribute to the gain. leading to no gain. These will be separated under the applied field. The plasma formed as each primary electron penetrates through the diamond comprises electron-hole pairs. Primary currents are shown in the legend. the .

The minimum applied field needed for reaching saturated gain is less than 0. Detailed explanation of recombination will be discussed in Section 5. As the applied field increases. With the increase of the applied field. which shows that the recombination is significant. which corresponding to 150V on the anode in our setup. The gain under saturation only depends upon the primary electron energy. and this can be avoided by detrapping methods that will be discussed in the next Section.5. the charge carriers reach the saturation drift velocity and the gain saturates. This indicates that the diamond amplifier has the capability of increase the input current by two orders of magnitude. more electrons can move away and the time needed for total separation decreases. thus the gain increases. With 8keV primary electron energy. With a relatively fast-response circuit. The signal in a pulse dropping continuously for low field is due to trapping of the electrons. . the value of the peak in the beginning of the signal corresponds to the number of electrons that are pulled out of the plasma.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 52 gain started with a small value under low electric field in diamond.5MV/m. the saturated gain is nearly 250. Thus the value of the signal used for calculating the gain is taken at the peak of the pulse in soon after its onset.

during sample preparation process. Thus. as current flows into the diamond. distortion of the crystal lattice. the number of trapped electrons will increase with time. The electrons also have the possibility of escape from the trapping centers due to applied electric field and thermal activity. These electrons will create electric field with opposite polarity to the applied field. etc. given the large number of potential trapping centers. Under a continuous pulse mode with high repetition rate. Figure 5. the succeeding pulses will all be affected by the electrons trapped during the preceding pulses. So the escape probability increases with increasing anode voltage and the time with current off between pulses. The trapping centers can be impurities. If the applied field is high enough and/or time between pulses is long enough to make the number of electrons released from the trapping centers comparable with the number of electrons that are being trapped in one pulse. However. and introduce trapping centers. the diamond is subjected to high temperature. the .3 Laser Detrapping Due to the trapping mechanism diamond can easily have excessive electrons held within potential wells. These aggressive procedures may introduce stress or impurities into the sample.6 shows the decrease of gain within the first pulse.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 53 5. and can be decreased by using high purity single crystal diamond samples. grain boundaries. surface etching and metallization.. The probability of electrons being trapped by the trapping centers is constant.

Detrapping of the electrons in a transmission mode is made possible by applying a laser beam to the system during the experiment.033MV/m. The equilibrium state is also dependent of the current density of the primary beam. Photons will excite the trapped .8: Secondary electron signal of 10μs pulse width with different duty cycles.03A/m2 and the field applied in the diamond is 0. Primary electron peak current density is 0.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 54 signal will reach equilibrium. Higher current density will result in more electrons trapped in the diamond. No laser beam applied. Figure 5.

Most of the trapping centers in our diamond samples are rather shallow.34eV in energy.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 55 electrons. which is 2. are applied to observe a significant change in gain under relatively low field. . Eventually all the trapped electrons would be de-trapped. Photons of 532nm (green) wavelength. A laser pointer with <5mW power is used to provide the detrapping light. and a slot was opened on the holder along the path of the light to allow the photons to reach and interact with the diamond. these exited electrons will move under the field of the trapped electrons. If the applied field is set to zero.

03A/m2 and the field applied in the diamond is 0.e.8 and Figure 5.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 56 Figure 5. Both figures show that the smaller the duty cycle. . Primary electron peak current density is 0. more time between pulses. By comparing the corresponding curves in Figure 5. Laser beam applied (532nm.033MV/m. The following sections will discuss laser detrapping under different conditions as well as field dependence.9: Secondary electron signal of 10μs pulse width with different duty cycles. <5mW).9. i. the larger the signal. it is obvious that laser beam played an important role in increasing the signal by releasing the electrons from the trapping centers.

and signals under the equilibrium state are recorded for gain calculation both with and without the laser beam.8MV/m.3.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 57 5. The primary beam energy and spot size is fixed using the control system of the gun. more electrons will be trapped. which should be the maximum gain under such applied field. for higher primary current density.1 Current Density The total number of trapped electrons is determined by the product of probability of trapping and the charge density within the trapping region in the diamond. The time required for the system to reach equilibrium varies with current density. The signal observed after equilibrium is much lower than the first pulse unless the applied field is extremely high. . Without laser detrapping. The beam is pulsed at 10Hz repetition rate and duty cycle of 0. The applied field is increased from 0MV/m to above 1.01%. The peak of the first pulse is recorded as the total number of electrons created. but is within the range of 1 minute under all of our experimental conditions.

Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 58 Figure 5.25mm2) ≈ 0.7A/m2. With the same primary electron energy. and the diameter is fixed at 3mm. . The secondary electron current density is the product of the primary current density and the gain.10: Gain comparison of with and without laser detrapping under different current densities. So the highest current density of the 4 cases should be 5μA/(π × 2. The transverse distribution of the primary beam is near uniform. Primary electron energy fixed at 6keV. the maximum gain under specific applied field should be the same.

but changing the primary electron energy from 5keV to 8keV.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 59 Figure 5. Compared with the maximum. or current densities since the spot sizes for all case are the same. the gain obtained without laser detrapping shows a large decrease in value under low field and even under high fields when primary current density is high.2. but it would cost for a much higher applied field. the set up without laser detrapping requires a much longer time for each data point.3.2 Primary Energy Primary electron energy determines the saturated gain as discussed in Section 5. . The gain curve with laser detrapping is very close to the first pulse gain curve. and the secondary electron current density changes correspondingly. 5keV and 8keV still show the same trend. In the measurements. With the current density fixed this time. To reach equilibrium state. 5. even under a very small field and very high current density. gain curves without laser were only taken for 6keV and 7keV. The laser still brings the equilibrium gain close to the maximum gain at each applied field. which is the maximum limit.10 shows the significant effect of laser detrapping in all 4 different primary currents. Saturation of the gain curve can be reached without laser detrapping.

5MV/m. but with the laser.11. it only requires <0. As shown in Figure 5.04A/m2.11: Gain comparison of with and without laser detrapping under different primary electron energies. The maximum gain increases with the primary electron energy.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 60 Figure 5. the gain requires about 1MV/m of applied field to saturate in the 6keV case and even more in 7keV case. without laser detrapping. and so does the secondary electron current. The primary current density is fixed at 0. The gain with laser is much closer to the expected value than the gain without laser before reaching .

. the gain under low field will be determined by the time lapse between pulses. For a more comprehensive study compared to Figure 5.8 and Figure 5.3. 5.3 Repetition Rate If the secondary current density is the same by fixing the primary electron energy and primary peak current density. Figure 5.9.12 below shows the laser effect on gain under different duty cycles.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 61 saturation.

However.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 62 Figure 5. Laser detrapping is essential to maintain a high gain under high repetition rates. and . the decrease in signal is rather trivial for the duty cycle of 1E-4. Primary current density fixed at 0. In the experiment for the measurement above. Without the laser. The pulse width for each measurement is fixed at 10μs. it became noticeable for duty cycle of 1E-3.12: Gain comparison of with and without laser detrapping under various pulse repetition rates. the pulse width is kept at 10μs continuously.036A/m2 and energy fixed at 6keV.

which is ~5.33MV/m. which is corresponding to 2. This energy is less than half of the band gap of diamond.34eV. The intercept on horizontal axis in Figure 5. Other wavelengths have not been test quantitatively yet. According to Ref [24. For a coating of ~50nm Pt on top of ~30nm Ti.29 ± 0. With the correct selection of wavelength. Laser detrapping shows significant increase in gain in transmission mode measurements. the energy lost is Elost =3. Only the remaining energy contributes to the value of maximum gain in all curves in Figure 5. and the amount lost depends on the metal variety and thickness. The saturated gain should be a linear function of the primary energy.7. and this ensures that all secondary electrons are created by the primary electrons rather than by photons. The data of the maximum gain is averaged over data from 1MV/m to 2. the energy needed to create one e-h pair is fixed. . The laser used for detrapping is 523nm in wavelength. the repetition rate would be 1000Hz. 25]. For a duty cycle of 1E-2.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 63 unacceptable for 1E-2.7eV.13 should be the energy lost in the metal coating Elost. the trapped electrons can be released by photon-electron interaction.15keV. which is still very low compared with the frequency in most operating electron guns.4 Energy lost in metal coating and estimation of energy needed for each e-h pair Primary electrons lose their partial energy in the metal coating. 5.

The discrepancy between the linear model and the transmission measurement result is over 100%. and ΔxPt≈50nm and ΔxTi≈30nm are the thickness of the two layers of metal respectively. .45g/cm3 is the density of Pt and ρTi=4.556keV . the stopping powers for electron energy of ranged from 4keV to 8keV for Pt and Ti are: E E  12MeV  cm2 / g  20MeV  cm2 / g . This is due to the thickness measurement of the metal coating is not accurate. Then the total energy loss in the metal coating calculated from this model is: Etotal  EPt  ETi  1.  Pt xPt Ti xTi where ρPt=21. which is very big.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 64 From the linear model approximation of the incident electron energy loss [26]. and should be verified.506g/cm3 is the density of Ti.

2) maximum gain Thus: . The energy needed to create one e-h pair is: primary electron energy-energy lost in metal Ee-h  (5.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 65 Figure 5.13: Maximum gain of different primary electron energy.

Primary Energy [keV] Energy [eV] 4 19.14 [27].Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 66 Table 5. Saslow et.06±1.1: Energy needed for create one electron hole pair. al.5 Recombination of the charges in diamond Diamond is an indirect band gap material. and its electron band structure has been published in 1966 by W.63±3.82 7 19. .93eV.25±1.82 ± 4.80±1. 25].29 5 19.61 6 20. as shown in Figure 5.67 8 20.66eV and 17eV [24. 5. Former simulation approaches reported smaller values of 14.33±2.60 The average is 19. The difference is possibly due simplification of the models and system error of the experiment.

The subscript labeled the number of energy band. L and X are boundary points at (2π/a)(½. Figure 5. and the horizontal axis is the value of wave vector k in the reciprocal lattice. and each line indicates a different energy band.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 67 Figure 5.14: Diamond electron band structure. or Brillouin zone. Λ and Δ are two axes along ΓL and ΓX directions respectively.14 shows a calculated band structure of the diamond which agrees with experiment. ½. The vertical axis is the energy of the electron with 0eV as the Fermi level in diamond. The figure covered a primitive cell of the reciprocal lattice in the frequency domain. The zone center is Γ. ½) and (2π/a)(100). .

let us apply some numbers. or radiative recombination. Assume the SEY of the primary electron is 100.3eV Electrons present in the conduction band quickly settle into the energy minimum of that band.Δ1 = 5. The only way to promote this recombination is to simultaneously emit (or absorb) a phonon that compensates for the missing momentum vector. However. For indirect band gap materials. electrons in this minimum cannot rejoin the valence band by simply losing energy. Given that the plasma is formed tangent to the interface and all charge particles are moving with random walks. To illuminate the process. or a three-body collision with the impurities in the diamond. and initial RMS radius of the plasma after thermal relaxation .4eV minimum value. Any electron or hole crossing the diamond-metal interface will be recombined immediately in the metal layer and the defect rich diamond near the metal boundary.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 68 The band gap of the diamond is: Γ25 . the electrons and holes are merged into the metal continuously through this diffusion process. Γ25 . Another possible path for the secondary electrons to recombine is to move to the metal layer by diffusion. The secondary electrons and holes diffuse under Brownian motion once they are created. They require some source of momentum allowing them to observe both the laws of conservation of energy and of momentum and fall into the valence band. such a combined transition has a very low probability.Γ15 = 7.

8×1014Hz.  0 me  0 mh where me and mh are effective masses of electron and hole inside the diamond. The density of the charged cloud under this assumption would be: ne (t  0)  nh (t  0)  n0  2. 2 p which is much larger than the RMS radius of the plasma.h  . For applied DC (or slowly varying) field. The Debye radius of this cloud should be: 1/2  k T  D   2 B   4.4 1025 / m3 . therefore it is reasonable to assume the effective masses are similar and both close to the rest mass of electron. the attenuation constant is: c  plasma 1   540nm .e  and  p . 30]. The plasma frequencies for both electron and hole clouds are: n0e2 n0e2  p . The mobility of the two charge carriers are comparable and both are in the 10 5m/s scale [29. This indicates that the applied field penetrates through the full length of the .11010 m  0. which is more than 20 times smaller than the dimension of the cloud.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 69 is 10nm. Plug in the values for the equation above. Therefore the charges can be considered as plasma at the initial state. the plasma frequencies should both be ~2.41nm  q N0  under room temperature.

As the electric field pulls the electron cloud away from the interface to prevent loss of the electrons. the gain is small under low electric field.7. . The gain will not change as much after the electron drift velocity saturates within a short distance.Transmission mode measurement of Diamond Secondary electron yield 70 electron and hole clouds at the initial state without much decrease in the amplitude. High electric field can accelerate the electrons to their saturation velocity away from the incident surface within a short period of time. the diffusion process. This explains the gain curve shape in Figure 5. and increases rapidly with the field amplitude until the drift velocity of the electrons can reach the saturation velocity. so that fewer electrons are lost. The eventual gain measured in the experiment is the compromise of the two motions. The plasma would start to separate under applied electric field. on the contrary. Therefore. will keep pushing electrons into the metal to be recombined.

Figure 6.Emission Mode Measurement of Diamond Secondary Electron Yield 71 6 EMISSION MODE MEASUREMENT OF DIAMOND SECONDARY ELECTRON YIELD 6. . Either side can be grounded.1 Measurement setup The emission mode measurement system reproduces the setup of the transmission mode measurement discussed in Chapter 5. with the exception that we introduced a vacuum gap between the copper anode and the diamond surface. and the termination of this surface is changed to hydrogen instead of a metal coating.1: Simple sketch of emission mode measurement principle.

With this improvement.Emission Mode Measurement of Diamond Secondary Electron Yield 72 With hydrogen termination. the thermal emittance of the diamond amplifier can be measured by imaging the beam spot size on the CCD camera.U metal . The effective energy of the primary electrons contributed to the emission is calculated as Eeffective  E primary .Elost . the NEA surface will allow the secondary electrons to escape into vacuum and get collected by the anode. The grounding of the anode is designed for application of a phosphor screen and a CCD camera. If a focusing device is applied between the anode and the phosphor screen and the distance is carefully chosen. . The emitted electrons can be measured by an oscilloscope connected to either the anode or cathode. In the anode connection measurements. An amplifier circuit was designed and added for signal collection. the anode is grounded and the metal coating on the incident side is negatively biased. the response time decreased from ~1μs into ~20ns. where Eprimary is the primary electron energy at the exit of the gun. Umetal is the negative bias voltage on the metal coating. and Elost is the energy lost in the metal coating. The design for this measurement will be discussed in Chapter 7.

We use a commercial thermal gas cracker (Mantis MGC-75) to carry out this process which leads to create negative affinity surface (NEA) on the diamond. sufficient time is allowed for all possible trapping events to occur. The field applied to the diamond during experiments is about 1MV/m.Emission Mode Measurement of Diamond Secondary Electron Yield 73 6.5C/cm2. and to cancel such field. The signal measured on the anode side comprises the trapping and releasing of the electrons in the diamond. the diamond is heated to above 800°C to break the carbon-oxygen bond and leave free dangling carbon bond on the surface. which is about 1 trapped electron per 10. Hydrogen gas is broken into atoms (or “cracked”) and impacts the diamond surface.2 DC beam or continuous long pulse measurements The trapping issue in emission mode measurement is more problematic due to the critical process of hydrogenation. it is likely to have residual dangling carbon bonds on the surface without any hydrogen attached. For the hydrogenation process. The signal detected is purely caused by emitted electrons and has no capacitive coupling components.000 conventional unit cells on the surface. . This is a very small number considering the occupation of hydrogen coverage during CVD diamond [111] surface growth can be as low as 86% [33]. the trapped electron density only needs to be 0. The dangling bonds are capable of trapping the secondary electrons transferred to the hydrogenated surface. With a continuous primary electron beam. During the formation of carbon-hydrogen bonds.

3eV [34. the green laser detrapping is not as effective in emission mode. which will reduce the number of dangling bonds on the surface. and green laser had no effect on the signal. The signal will increase with better hydrogenation.2: Emission mode gain with DC primary beam. 35]. because the electrons are trapped much deeper by dangling bonds on the surface than the trapping under the surface caused by impurities and stress in lattice. . Since the dangling bond state energy is more than 1.Emission Mode Measurement of Diamond Secondary Electron Yield 74 Figure 6. The signal is much smaller than the transmission mode measurements.

a train of pulses of 40μs was sent to impact the diamond from the electron gun.Emission Mode Measurement of Diamond Secondary Electron Yield 75 6. the applied pulse would be very short. the diamond performance is significantly better in short-pulse measurements. For short pulse measurements. and have much higher possibility to emit. electrons in the beginning of the first pulse applied to the diamond will experience a strong. With the fast response signal collection circuit. As an example. As in transmission mode measurements. the proposed e-cooling facility in Brookhaven National Laboratory has a frequency of 703MHz.3 Short-pulse measurements Despite the small signal in the DC beam mode. the diamond was first set at neutral. Shortly after (<3s) the electric field was applied. unshielded applied field. and the change of the signal due to trapping and shielding of the field is reflected later in the pulse. In real applications. Therefore the performance of the diamond amplifier with short pulses is more important and practical. . only the SEY of the first pulse was recorded. This ensures that the front segment of the pulse experienced the field as applied. The gain in the beginning of the pulse is much higher than the value measured under equilibrium state. The pulse from the source must be much shorter than 1ns.

This will „clean up‟ the diamond electrically and achieve a neutral state after a very short time. the diamond is first bombarded with continuous primary electrons and no electric field is applied.Emission Mode Measurement of Diamond Secondary Electron Yield 76 6.1 Delay time dependence During pulse measurements.3. . Any previously trapped charge will cause attract opposite species to transport through the diamond and recombine.

Effective energy is the energy of the primary beam excluding the energy loss in the metal coating. There are also few trap centers in the bulk to trap the charge carriers and therefore cause shielding to the applied field. the time delay of the first pulse after applying the electrical field is critical to the amplitude of the gain. . High purity single crystal diamond is a good insulator.3: First pulse gain under room temperature (23°C) with different field and effective energy for each pulse. In pulsed measurements.Emission Mode Measurement of Diamond Secondary Electron Yield 77 Figure 6. as in the application of diamond detectors. however free charge-carriers inside the diamond that move according to the applied field.

and the decrease . For all four applied field strengths.Emission Mode Measurement of Diamond Secondary Electron Yield 78 Figure 6. <1s and 3s.4: Secondary signal with different delays for the primary electron after applying the DC field. Figure 6.4 shows the difference between two delay times. The gain at the beginning of the pulse is mainly defined by the existing field in the diamond when the pulse is applied. the first pulses with longer delay time have smaller gain at the beginning of the pulse and decreased under approximately the same rate with the shorter delay time pulses.

Emission Mode Measurement of Diamond Secondary Electron Yield 79 afterwards shows trapping by the diamond as discussed above. There is another mechanism of trapping and possibly this is the dominant reason for the signal‟s decrease with time. This will generate a hole in the valence band.2 Temperature dependence As the diamond samples are pure single crystal diamonds. but this will probably not be an issue in the real application. which is very long compared to the eventual use of the diamond amplifier. . The hole moves to the cathode surface under the influence of the applied electric field. The dangling bonds in emission measurements are serious obstacle for achieving a large gain. Notice that the delay time effect is significant here on the scale of seconds. The time it takes the holes to traverse the thickness of the diamond is under one nanosecond. This is demonstrated in the transmission measurements where the signals are much higher than that in the emission mode. Before the primary electron would reach the diamond. and this will lead to charging up of the emitting face and thus to a decrease of the field of the diamond. the trap centers‟ density in the bulk is very small. the dangling bonds of the surface atom would capture electrons from nearby carbon atoms. that is the effect of the dangling bonds. 6. Thus the data above with long time scale is just to show the exaggerated difference.3. This will result in a gain decrease due to the density of the dangling bonds.

The heating procedure leads to H2O removal from the H-terminated surface of the CVD diamond as described in reference [37].5. Figure 6. The NEA .Emission Mode Measurement of Diamond Secondary Electron Yield 80 Nevertheless. the density of ionized dangling bonds is a function of temperature in materials. In Figure 6. the diamond sample was heated to 250°C and kept under this specific temperature for more than 3 hours to remove the H2O molecules attached on the hydrogenated surface. and this will be critical because the diamond amplifier will be operated at a low temperatures in actual applications [36].5: Emission signal of the diamond amplifier at 200°C.

the sample was reheated to 200°C and kept under such temperature during the experiment.3. the decrease of the gain is much faster than that decrease observed at room temperature. which shows room temperature (23°C) results. To ensure the monolayer of hydrogen is not covered by atoms from the residual gas. liquid nitrogen cooled system should give higher gain than the above two cases.Emission Mode Measurement of Diamond Secondary Electron Yield 81 surface of the diamond should be improved after the heating cycle. the gain at the beginning of the pulse in the high temperature (200°C) environment is much lower. Higher temperature with lower SEY is consistent with the dangling bonds density positive dependence over the temperature. This indicates that the trapping effect on the surface of the diamond is more significant under higher temperature. . Also in high temperature signals. Under the same conditions. Comparing with Figure 6.

3 under high field. With high SEY. to obtain the best performance of the diamond amplifier. and the temperature of the whole system is calibrated to be at -140°C.Emission Mode Measurement of Diamond Secondary Electron Yield 82 Figure 6. Hence. This indicates that the field does not decrease as fast as under higher temperatures. the sample and holder are cooled by a liquid nitrogen cooling loop. the system can still maintain the gain for a fairly long time. namely many more electrons are emitted within the pulse. . The gain in this case is higher than Figure 6. For the gain results shown in Figure 6.6: Emission signal of the diamond amplifier at -140°C.6. it should be operated with the ambient temperature as low as possible.

and this will also increase the dangling bond ionization by a small degree. All three figures show much lower gain and faster falling edge than the corresponding temperature with no laser applied in Sections 6. Therefore trapping centers considered under transmission mode are less effective to the signal in emission mode.7.3. the diamond amplifier will achieve reasonable gain (>50) in nanosecond or shorter pulses under low temperature.1 and 6. Figure 6.9 are three emission temperature measurements with laser applied and only temperature difference.3.8. and photons create more dangling bond ionization. . The photons also will heat up the surface temperature by photon-electron interaction.2. The photon‟s energy is above the energy gap between the dangling bond and the top of the valence band.3. the main concern comes from the dangling bond on the hydrogenated surface. So the laser increases the ionization probability of the dangling bonds. and Figure 6.3 Laser effect In transmission measurements. the laser helped improve the gain of the diamond. Figure 6.Emission Mode Measurement of Diamond Secondary Electron Yield 83 Thus with proper hydrogenation. 6. This is reasonable considering the high purity and careful surface treatment of the diamond samples. But under emission mode. All figures are plotted with the same scale for easier comparison. The shielding from the dangling bond ionization is more serious under emission.

7: Room temperature (23°C) measurement with laser applied (532nm laser. <5mW).Emission Mode Measurement of Diamond Secondary Electron Yield 84 Figure 6. .

. <5mW).Emission Mode Measurement of Diamond Secondary Electron Yield 85 Figure 6.8: High temperature (200°C) measurement with laser applied (532nm laser.

9: Low temperature (-140°C) measurement with laser applied (532nm laser.Emission Mode Measurement of Diamond Secondary Electron Yield 86 Figure 6. Hence under higher temperature. Focusing on the shape and amplitude of the signal. . it is noticeable that the higher the temperature. <5mW). the dangling bond density is defined mainly by the heating source applied instead of the laser. This also proves the dangling bond charging density is highly dependent on the temperature. the less the difference between with and without laser results. The thermal energy brought by photons is very small due to the low power of the laser.

the properties of the hydrogenated surface and the electric field in the diamond. to collimate an . As laser shaping techniques improve.1eV. The thermal emittance of positive electron affinity photocathodes in terms of the thermal electron energy is a large fraction of an electron volt. being a negative electron affinity (NEA) cathode. The thermal energy of the secondary emission beam depends on the characteristic of the diamond sample. The diamond amplified photocathode. promises to deliver a very small thermal emittance. depending on the type of photocathode. The beam coming out of the diamond NEA surface is accelerated towards an anode.Thermal emittance measurement design 87 7 THERMAL EMITTANCE MEASUREMENT DESIGN The ultimate emittance of a laser-photocathode gun is limited by the thermal emittance. The design is shown in Figure 7. This has never been measured in a transmission mode. The measurement system should have the ability to measure this small emittance. The anode has a small hole. and yet it is expected that the thermal energy is not a strong function of the field. this limit is becoming more important. Theoretical expectations as well as measurements in the reflection mode point towards a temperature less than 0.1. Therefore the aim is to measure the thermal emittance of hydrogenated NEA diamond.

Figure 7.1 Methods Common to all possible focusing schemes for thermal energy measurement is the application of a small aperture on the anode plate to limit the beam size. we can compare the measurement with simulation [38]. 7.Thermal emittance measurement design 88 output beam. It can also be calibrated with known thermal emittance electron source such as a thermal cathode. Therefore. such that the .1: Setup design for thermal energy measurement of diamond secondary emission. The main idea of the measurement is to compensate the strong linear defocusing effect at the anode by applying a linear focusing lens and measure the waist spot size downstream. The output beam is focused on a screen by a solenoid. The waist spot size is only a function of the thermal emittance and is less affected by the other components.

7. Figure 7.2 Limitations The aperture in the anode applies a defocusing force on the electron beam.2: Acceleration of the secondary electrons by applying a high voltage across the diamond and anode. the field applied for acceleration is constrained by the need to obtain a good gain in the diamond amplifier. and will cause an increase in the beam spot . The schematic layout of the cathode and anode is shown in Figure 7.Thermal emittance measurement design 89 beam size after a drift distance is measurable.2. In addition. A larger aperture will lead to a stronger aberration. which is mainly a linear force with a small component of nonlinear aberration.

On the other hand this will make the imaging more difficult. From simulation results in Figure 7. A small aperture in the anode also leads to a lower current with smaller space charge effect. . Space charge is another issue in increasing the spot size.3. increasing the accuracy of the measurement.Thermal emittance measurement design 90 size on the screen. we choose the upper limit for each effect.

3: Aberration and space charge effects on beam spot size on screen.Thermal emittance measurement design 91 Figure 7. .

Results from simulation of different kinds of focusing lenses are shown in Figure 7.4 and Figure 7. All curves in both plots are simulated with same distance from anode to lens (2cm) and from lens to screen (25. The simulation also shows that the closer the lens is to the anode and the further is the screen location. From the simulation above.Thermal emittance measurement design 92 The upper limit of the aperture and current is determined by a choice leading to a small change in the spot size. the better the resolution.5cm) for comparison.3 Comparison of lenses The criterion of choosing the focusing lens is the growth rate in beam waist spot size with respect to thermal energy of the cathode. the growth rate of a 0. but the nonlinear effect due to small aperture is significant. and this will result in large systematic error for spot size measurement. In both plots. an aperture radius of 100μm and a current of 10μA are chosen. A large growth rate as a function of temperature will minimize the system errors.5. the solenoid has a faster growth rate compared to other lenses.4. In Figure 7.5cm aperture Einzel lens is comparable with a solenoid. . 7.

.4: Comparison of solenoid and two Einzel lenses.Thermal emittance measurement design 93 Figure 7.

Figure 7. . it can be concluded that solenoid is the final choice of focusing lens. From above simulation results. Shielding the solenoid is very important to prevent a magnetic force on the electrons during acceleration.6 shows the performance of a solenoid with and without shielding. and compares with hard edge field. which will reduce the resolution.Thermal emittance measurement design 94 Figure 7.4 Shielding All components in the measurement setup have low permeability. 7.5: Comparison of solenoid and two quadrupoles.

Solenoid without shielding gives the worst resolution (green). Shielding material of 1mm thick with relative permeability μr~20.6: Solenoid with different shielding. 7.Thermal emittance measurement design 95 Figure 7.000 around the solenoid coil will decrease the magnetic field at the anode to <1.5 Alignment The setup design is based on highly accurate alignment of the anode pinhole and the solenoid center axis.000 (blue) is comparable with hard edge ideal case (red).5Gauss. . It is very important to have the secondary electron beam. while the resolution of solenoid with shielding of μr=20.

The third is located at the center of the start point of the solenoid field. During the alignment. Along the laser path. the offset of secondary electron beam away from the solenoid center axis is maintained to be less than 150μm. Two are mounted on the center of the flanges at each end of the system. With the laser beam passing all four pinholes.Thermal emittance measurement design 96 after passing through the anode pinhole. . a laser beam is passed through the system downstream of the electron path. the anode pinhole and three additional 250μm diameter pinholes are used to conduct the alignment. symmetrically distributed around the solenoid center axis in the transverse direction. This avoids distortion of the waist spot on the screen.

Thermal emittance measurement design 97 Figure 7. Thus the error caused by offset after alignment should be controlled within 15%. Thermal energy of the beam is 0. and the tilt angle can be controlled to better than 5mrad.7 shows the simulation of the beam waist FWHM change due to a different offsets of the electron beam for 0. A quadrupole lens may be added to the drift section for additional correction so as to lower the error even more. FWHM difference according to the offset. .7: The offset magnetic field to the center of the electron beam and the waist.1eV. Figure 7.1eV thermal energy. This procedure also ensures that the solenoid axis is perpendicular to the anode surface.

Thus. Careful alignment and shielding is very important in minimizing the systematic error. lens should be as close to the anode as possible.01eV. The limit of thermal energy measurement from aberration of aperture of anode and space charge effect is 100μm in radius and 10μA for secondary electrons respectively. . and the screen should be relatively far away from the lens.1 and the calibrated simulation plot of FWHM waist spot size vs.6 Conclusion With the design of the solenoid lens based measurement system shown in Figure 7.Thermal emittance measurement design 98 7. thermal energy. the waist of electron beam will be imaged on screen at a specific location. For good resolution. By changing the focusing strength of lens. a CCD camera with pixel size ~5μm should be able to analyze the beam waist spot size down to 50μm diameter. we should be able to determine the thermal energy of diamond secondary emission to about 0.

metallization. the electron beam available to the eventual application is increased by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude in current.Summary and conclusion 99 8 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The Diamond Amplified Photocathode (DAP) is a novel approach to generating electrons. diamond can hold more than 2000MV/m field before breakdown. By following the primary electron beam. The diamond amplifier also is capable of handling a large heat load by conduction and sub-nanosecond pulse input. Diamond also provides the best rigidity among all materials. which requires further thinning with RIE or laser ablation.47eV which allows for a good negative electron affinity with simple hydrogenation. cleaning with acid etching. These two characters offer the capability of applying high voltage across very thin diamond film to achieve high SEY and desired emission phase. Diamond has a very wide band gap of 5. and hydrogenation. which is generated by traditional electron sources. with an amplifier. The ideal thickness for 700MHz beam is ~30μm. The best mechanical polishing available can provide high purity single crystal diamond films with no less than 100μm thickness and <15nm Ra surface roughness. RIE can achieve atomic layer removal precision and roughness . The preparation of the diamond amplifier includes thinning and polishing.

which gives the gain of more than 200 for 4. the ablation process on the diamond can easily achieve removing a few microns per hour from the surface and <100nm roughness. The SEY for this mode provides one secondary electron per 20eV energy. Hydrogenation will terminate the diamond surface with monolayer of hydrogen. Laser detrapping can help the signal maintain the gain with 10μs pulse and duty cycle of 1. in which the diamond is prepared as in the actual application. Laser ablation proved that with <266nm ps laser beam.67×10-7. The electric field applied and the primary electron energy is limited by the . The method is using hydrogen cracker to strike hydrogen atoms onto the bare diamond surface to form H-C bonds. and form NEA so that secondary electrons in the conduction band can escape into the vacuum. In transmission mode measurements.21MV/m.Summary and conclusion 100 eventually. the diamond amplifier was coated with metal on both sides. the SEY is ~20 for 700eV (effective energy) primary electrons under 1. In emission mode measurements. For amplifier application.7keV (effective energy) primary electrons under 2MV/m. but the time consumption for this procedure is very significant. Two independent experiments were carried out to determine the transport of the electrons within the diamond and their emission at the surface. so results simply depend only on the electron transport within the diamond. laser ablation is an adequate and efficient process to make ultra thin diamond wafers following mechanical polishing.

Thermal emittance of the diamond secondary emission is critical for the beam application. but the results show good trend toward large gain under high field.Summary and conclusion 101 experiment setup.01eV. . A careful design is setup to measure with very fine precision and accuracy of 0.

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steady level by space charge and beam loading effects. 2) fast response. Technology and Components.175 MΩ. However there are a few applications based on this effect. including A Multipactor Electron Gun (MEG) is developed for the gun description. Tang. the MEG beam current as high as possible. C. in the small industrial and medical accelerators. while the MPGs in [3] and Gun (S-band) reached a high macro-pulse current density [4] and the MEG in this study worked in the second one. terminated and CsI-terminated CVD diamond cathodes. The gun design. X. X. The electron beam is produced. as a result. In this paper. the natural frequency is 2806 MHz.73 mm.cn 07 Accelerator Technology 3203 T26 Subsystems. a waveguide INTRODUCTION and a RF window (the picture of the MEG is shown in Multipactor is a resonant secondary electron emission Figure 1). of multipactor. such as the multipactor electron guns (MEG) [1-6]. This paper presents the recent prepare the appropriate cathode material in order to make experimental results of the S-band MEG using hydrogen. It can also be used is 3. the current electron beams due to self-bunching mechanism MEG usually works in detuning conditions. adjustable. According to multipactor dynamics. Small current (~ 100 mA) secondary emission enhanced photoinjector [11]. The MEGs in references [1] and [2-5]. cathode preparation and high power THE MULTIPACTOR ELECTRON GUN experiment are described. Tsinghua University. of 10 A / cm2. but the cathode material was not mentioned When MEG works in large current status.3. long RF parameters are measured before hot tests. By replacing the grid with a two-surface hydrogen. When the current in the cavity reaches a Figure 1: Photograph of the Multipactor Electron Gun. the unloaded coupling power microwave generator systems. status corresponding to low impact energy (< 2 keV). simple structure. CAHTODE PREPARATION terminated single crystal thin diamond film. Beijing 100084. The MEG can be seen as an improvement of the thermionic RF gun. Among these guns.thu. P. discharge frequently observed in accelerator structures. a secondary electron emission beam current was obtained. R. the MEG has brightness injector. By substituting the thermionic cathode with a secondary electron emission cathode. ___________________________________________ *Work supported by the National High-Tech Research and Development Program of China # zhaijy03@mails. greater than 900 mA working in TM010 mode. the MEG will The preparation of high performance secondary produce electron beams of even larger current density and electron emission material is the key point of making an good beam quality. Scotland THPCH174 MULTIPACTOR ELECTRON GUN WITH CVD DIAMOND CATHODES* J. multipactor ion pump [9] and flat thin display [10]. cathode preparation and the high the high power microwave generation in the Accelerator power experiment. It is usually undesirable and will be suppressed in most cases. the natural frequency of the cavity The advantages of MEG are: 1) short duration. Zhai#. microwave frequency multipliers [7]. cathode. The MEG can form compact and efficient high the unloaded quality factor is 1972. the back bombardment of the thermionic RF gun is used to form the multipactor process. RF windows et al.edu. a multipactor electron materials having high second cross-over point energy. amplified and bunched simultaneously in the cathode-grid gap. it has to use in the literature [3]. only the Micro-Pulse Electron [2] worked in the first status. couplers. and the beam exit hole with a secondary electron emission grid. This scheme is similar to the two operation statuses [12]: 1). Other . At the gap lifetime and tolerance to contamination due to cold distance of 2. a secondary electron emission grid with transmittance of 40 %. The aim of this study is to select and Lab of Tsinghua University. Zheng. S. An electron beam with 5 μs The MEG is composed of a cylindrical RF cavity macro-pulse. cathode and its position adjuster. China Abstract gun with CVD diamond cathode is presented. the shunt impedance is 0. high changes rapidly. large current (~ 1 A – 10 A) status corresponding to high and then different kinds of such RF guns were developed impact energy (>5 keV). Proceedings of EPAC 2006. The first MEG was designed in 1969 by Gallagher [1]. Y. radar receiver protectors [8]. 10 Hz repetition rate. 2). Edinburgh. Since no frequency tuner is designed. the outgoing electron beams will be the saturation emission The gap distance between the cathode and the grid is current. which may be used as a high MEG.

Table 1: Growth Parameters of CVD Diamond Films Gas Supply 1 % CH4 12 hrs. distance of 2. The thickness of the time scale. Technology and Components. The growth parameters are shown in Table 1. and experiment is to adjust the gap distance in order to fit the the micro-pulse current density is estimated to be 12 A / cathode material requirement and in the same time change cm2 with the duration of 30 ps. Figure 2 power delivered to the cavity (top). Other . The hydrogenation procedure involved Figure 3: Beam current of MEG with hydrogen exposure to H2 plasma for 30 minutes while the cesiation terminated CVD diamond cathode (bottom) and RF procedure involved exposure to CsI vapour. Diamond is one of the best cathode materials for directional couplers.5μm. Substrate Thickness 0. The secondary electron emission yield 7404B oscilloscope. film is about 5 μm. This is caused by the secondary electron emission E2V MG5349 magnetron (frequency range 2993 MHz . Edinburgh. The emission may be restored or 3204 07 Accelerator Technology T26 Subsystems.THPCH174 Proceedings of EPAC 2006. The emission current density of the discharge will occur [15]. Scotland which is corresponding to high escape depth of the 3002 MHz. The forward RF CVD diamond films is due to the negative electron power from the directional coupler and the macro-pulse affinity formed by the hydrogen or CsI termination at the current from the faraday cup are measured by a Tektronix film surface [13]. and the grain size is about 0. At the determined by the thickness of the CVD films [14]. The repetition rate is 10 Hz. Figure 4: Beam current of MEG with CsI terminated CVD diamond cathode (bottom) and RF power delivered to the cavity (top).2 % The Boron doping is to provide conductivity for the diamond films. diamond films on Mo substrate grown by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD). the waveforms are shown in Figure 3 The cathodes used in the MEG are polycrystalline and 4. parts. material. both on a 1μs / div. hydrogen terminated and CsI terminated CVD diamond The high power experiment system is composed of an films. The method of the high power hydrogen terminated diamond cathode is 1. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS When the RF power in the cavity (or the corresponding The macro-pulse current of the hydrogen terminated gap voltage) grows to the susceptive region and the and CsI terminated CVD diamond cathode is 920 mA and transient beam loading is just appropriate. The is also dependent on the crystal quality which is mainly pressure remained ~ 10-4 Pa during the experiment.5 mm.06 mm Substrate Temperature 870 °C Microwave Power 1700 W Boron Doping (B2H4) 0. time scale. vacuum pumps and other necessary MEG. Figure 2: SEM image of the CVD diamond film. the power level of the RF source to initiate the The emission current decreases rapidly both for multipactor process. the multipactor 600 mA respectively. peak output power 3. shows the SEM image of the film.2 A / cm2. both on a 1μs / div. circulators. yield declination due to continuous high current density electron bombardment. The emission electron beam is collected by a The excellent secondary electron emission property of faraday cup with a bias voltage of +50 V.1 MW).

et al. We are also investigating the other robust cathode IEEE. Initial experimental study of the Pd-Ba alloy and MgO films [20]. Dayton Jr J A. 07 Accelerator Technology 3205 T26 Subsystems. Ben-Zvi I. [13] Yater J E. Tang C X. terminated CVD diamond film cathodes. 2005. and Secondary electron emission from CVD diamond a 920 mA pulse current. EP 0809271 A2. Suetin N V. Surface and Interface Analysis. Proceeding of IEEE. 30(2): Application. 21: 138-143. 26(5): 345-347. 1999. Vacuum. Zheng S X. Journal of Applied Physics. Z. accelerators. [9] Yokoo K. High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics. Zheng S X. tested in the Accelerator Lab of Tsinghua University. Dzbanovsky N N. [17] Mearini G T. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. Shih A. 32(5): 265-268. In: Proceedings of IEEE. 2006. Beijing: MEG for the small industrial and medical linear Tsinghua University. Proceedings of 2005 Particle Accelerator Conference. 253: 151-156 linacs. Multipactoring electron gun for high duty diamond films. micro-pulse electron guns and accelerator applications. This hydrogen gas feed experiment with RF electron generation. 1997. The multipactor electron gun. In: [18] Mearini G T. 1969. Dayton J A. IEEE IEDM Tech. Wang Y X et al. 87(11): 8103-8112. 2003. 1253- [19] Zhai J Y. Len L K. Tang and his Observation of secondary electron emission from colleagues at the University of Science and Technology diamond films. Experimental study Proceedings of the 1999 Particle Accelerator on the beam dynamics of Micro-Pulse Electron Gun. The cathode [15] Kishek R A. Multipactor 1254. et al. [8] Carlisle T P. Master’s Thesis. REFERENCES Investigation of diamond films for electronic devices. [1] Gallagher W J. 1994. Conference. 2006. Burrill A. A flat thin display environment [16-18]. 1992. 2003-10- 14. Vissenberg G. IEEE. Krainsky I L. Mako F M. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Microwave and Telecommunication Technology (CriMiCo 2002). IEEE. [4] Len L K. Technology and Components. 2006. Journal of the Society is now in progress in our lab in order to maintain the for Information Display. which may be used in multipactor electron gun. IEEE. Sazonov B V. performance and extend the lifetime of the diamond [11] Chang X Y. Mako F M. Proceedings of EPAC 2006. 2005. Theoretical and experimental investigation of cold emitters for alenotron amplifiers. Krainsky I L. US Patent. 2001. 1978. Self-bunching electron guns. 2000. 949-952. Other . European Patent Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics. [5] Guharay S K. [6] Galdetskiy A V. Thin Solid Films. 70-74. 92: Beijing for preparing the CVD diamond films. et al. Ono S. Secondary electron emission characteristics of single-crystal and polycrystalline CONCLUSIONS diamond. In: the hydrogen ions may be a new problem [18]. Interaction of multipactor discharge and lifetime is under further investigation. Edinburgh. 2002: 172-173. 12: has been obtained using the boron doped hydrogen 2208-2218. But the graphitization of the diamond films by secondary emission enhanced photoinjector. Zwart S. Dig. High-speed ion pump with a multipactor cathode-the multipactor ion pump. [7] Mako F M. The authors are grateful to Prof. Tang C X. Electron gun having multiple transmitting and emitting sections. Diamond and Related Materials. In: Proceedings of the 2001 Particle Accelerator Conference. 1981. W. A multipactor electron gun has been designed. materials such as OFHC copper. 57(1). Scotland THPCH174 enhanced if the surface is exposed to hydrogen or CsI [10] Dijk R. 13 (3): 221-225. 59(8). Cu-Al-Mg alloy [19]. 6633129. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. 94-95. Gilmour A S. 1994. High-current 30(Suppl. Fabrication of an electron multiplier utilizing [2] Liska D J. X band high power multipactor receiver protector. [12] Zhai J Y. 5 μs pulse length electron beam films. In: [20] Zhai J Y. experiment on a Micro-Pulse Electron Gun. 2711-2713. 1997-11-26 147-150. et al. built and [14] Dvorkin V V. 2084-2086. 1971. High [3] Mako F M. Electron gun. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS [16] Bekker T L. I): 99-101. Study of cathode. RF structures: [PhD thesis].

Jorg Kewisch. such as ultra-high-power Free. e. and band gap.. Electron Lasers (FELs). N and P. Department of Energy and partially funded by the US Department of Defense 2251 c 0-7803-8859-3/05/$20. Upton. electron cooling of hadron accelerators. self-interstitial electron beams is a key technology for a large number of interstices. Triveni Rao. they can be The laser light illuminates on a high-QE photocathode. Proceedings of 2005 Particle Accelerator Conference. An (SEE) from diamond has been in the reflection mode experiment was performed to measure the secondary where the primary and secondary electrons are on the electron yield and other properties. Zvi Segalov. John Smedley. of the window creates a negative electron affinity (NEA) Most of the work on Secondary Electron Emission which allows the electrons to leave the diamond. Yongxiang Zhao. The secondary current two orders of magnitude higher. The primary electrons produced on the can be much longer than the capture time. A low the thin metal film deposited on the backside (left side) of current primary electron beam with energy of a few the diamond window and produce in the diamond a large thousand electron-volts strikes a specially prepared number of secondary electrons.. The release time such as CsK2Sb. foreign The creation of high average-current. Peter Johnson. though the lattice. e. BNL.S. Andrew Burrill. A hydrogen termination at the exit surface surface of the diamond. B.g.S. But for SEEP application the electron must go through diamond. high-brightness electron beams. Steven Hulbert. NY 11973 U. The secondary electrons drift through the diamond under a high RF electrons are created at the back side of the diamond and electric field and emerge into the accelerating proper of drift through the window under the influence of a strong the “gun” through a Negative Electron Affinity (NEA) [1] electrical field. Energy-Recovery Linac (ERL) The defects generate states with energy levels in the light sources. The primary electrons penetrate high-current. INTRODUCTION In general.. which are accelerator-based systems. formed by group of interstices. Knoxville.g. they can be captured by the defects. Once the carriers are captured by defects. H and Li. When charge carriers (electrons or holes) move many more. Ilan Ben-Zvi. vacancies and grain boundaries. Fig. Figure 1: The schematic of the secondary emission enhanced photo-injector * Work performed under the auspices of the U. Tennessee MEASUREMENT OF THE SECONDARY EMISSION YIELD OF A THIN DIAMOND WINDOW IN TRANSMISSION MODE* Xiangyun Chang.1 shows a schematic layout of such a device. discussed in this paper.00 2005 IEEE . high brightness interstitial atoms. The Secondary Electron diamond window which emits secondary electrons with a Yield (SEY) can be more than 100. Abstract photocathode are accelerated to a few thousand electron- The secondary emission enhanced photoinjector volts by the DC field applied between the photocathode (SEEP) is a promising new approach to the generation of and a diamond window. diamond may has the following defects: foreign substitutional atoms. released by thermal excitation or light. The results are same side of the sample with no external electric field.A.

5 20 ~30 6 8. The electrodes are connected to the dimensions as the above sample. The primary electrons strike the diamond. The minimum spot size of the primary electric field across the diamond electron beam is less than 1mm in diameter. c 0-7803-8859-3/05/$20. there are too many traps and grain boundaries in the sample.2. of the SS plate holes is 2. front side has a diameter of 4mm and a thickness of It is expected that the single crystal diamond with high 20nm.. THE EXPERIMENTAL SETUP The primary electron energy ranges from 0eV to 6keV The test setup is schematically shown in Fig. The and the current ranges from 0A to 5µA. The trap concentration with thickness of 200µm and diameter of 6mm provided in the diamond must be small for the diamond amplified by Harris International.1 20 >200 8 0. supplies ranging from -5kV to +5kV independently. were the back side (left side) coating has a purity would have the best electron (and hole) diameter of 4mm and a thickness of 50nm.e. Tennessee THE EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Trapping creates space charge and partially • Polycrystalline diamond: compensates the external field (field shielding). to enable easy alignment and good contacts with the coatings.00 2005 IEEE 2252 . Eeff is the effective primary electron front side (right side) of the diamond with current ranging energy. They are mounted onto a sample holder and placed provided by the Apollo Company with the same in a vacuum system. The hole transmission was measured. V1 and V2 are floating power diamond.5 10 2~3 At low temperature (80K) the gain was reduced by more than 3 orders of magnitude.5mm. stainless steel (SS) plates. The diameter transmission. Figure 2: Schematic of the electron (or hole) Figure 3: SEM picture of the cross-section of the sample 1 transmission experiment. currents. i. The reason is presumably that the sample quality is not good enough. The aluminum coating on the cathode application. Ip is the primary current and F is the from 0 to 10µA. No electron or diamond is coated on both sides with aluminum. The maximum SS plates and are led out of the vacuum so that one can transmitted hole current measured (V1 is positive while apply voltages on the aluminum films and measure the V2 is grounded) is listed in Table 1. The primary electrons are emitted from a Table 1: Hole transmission in a single crystal 0~5keV electron gun. Eeff (keV) Ip (µA) F (MV/m) Gain (I2/Ip) 8 0. which are isolated from one • Sample 1 diamond: another by kapton films are pressed against the aluminum Another measurement was done on a diamond sample films. Proceedings of 2005 Particle Accelerator Conference. It also We first measured a Polycrystalline diamond sample generates dark currents and heat. Knoxville.

low temperature measurements. 3 high current through the diamond. The grain size is very small (<1µm) on 400 5keV the substrate side and even on the growth side the grain 4keV size is not very big. Similar to the room temperature case. No other contaminant atoms were reported diamond for constant primary current of 20 nA at 80K although we suspect there may be other contaminants too. Tennessee Fig. One also notices that the high gain curves do not field curve. The diamond is a type 2a with a modest nitrogen concentration of about 60 ppm (1.3x10-19 Figure 5: Electron transmission through the natural /cm3). We also measured the hole transmission by changing 300 the polarity of the field across the diamond. Eeff≈4keV.” show the saturated gain property at high field gradient. 200 2keV We got high electron transmission gain (I2/Ip~200) 100 under the following conditions: Ep=4keV. temperature and primary energies of 1. 3x2. 2. Proceedings of 2005 Particle Accelerator Conference. Abrams. V1=80V. The small lumps on the surface (~ a 300 3keV few µm) may also indicate small grains.20nA through diamond films are presented. 3. V56. The diamond was Fig. Single crystal requirement seem more important.4 shows four plots of electron transmission gain temperature of 80K. Shih. It has a rectangular shape.3 is the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) 600 picture of the cross-section of the sample 1 diamond. 2. and R. Other details of the curve also will require further low energy electrons are totally absorbed in the aluminum investigation. The transmission through the natural diamond was The slope of the curve at high field gradient increases as sensitive to the primary beam position and spot size. 200 4k. No hole transmission was measured.20nA 3k. Gradient (MV/m) REFERENCES [1] J. “Electron Figure 4: Electron transmission through the natural transport and emission properties of C(100)”. 4 and 5 keV The diamond was checked with a microscope and was verified to be of good crystal quality. It is obvious that the maximum gain decreases gain than expected just by SEY from the primary fast as we decreases the primary electron energy. It’s Electron transmission gain 500 clear that the substrate side (bottom) is different from the growth side (top). 3 and 4 keV 2253 c 0-7803-8859-3/05/$20. Knoxville. To have better transmission properties.20nA The measurements of charge carrier transmission 100 1k. Yater. we expect that the electron 0 transmission through diamond will be appropriate for 0 2 4 6 8 SEEP.00 2005 IEEE . At an electrons.5 shows the plots of electron transmission gain for coated on both faces with aluminum 30 nm thick. such as the clear bend in the current vs.64mm2 and a thickness of 160 microns. Ip≈5nA and F=20MV/m. E. coating. 0 • Natural diamond 0 5 10 Gradient (MV/m) The natural diamond was purchased from a Russian company. Even at low temperatures we still get through the diamond for constant primary current of 20 very high gain. With better quality diamond. diamond for constant primary current of 20 nA at room Physical Review B. We are not sure what the exact mechanism for electron energy of 1 keV the gain disappears because the that is. leading to a sets of experiments as seen in the room temperature and larger SEY. R4410. This the current through the diamond increases. we observe a higher and 4 keV. constant primary current of 100nA at a diamond Fig. a single crystal pure diamond is 50 desired. at nA at room temperature and four primary energies: 1. and primary energies of 2. A.20nA CONCLUSIONS 150 2k. This may led to large variation of the electron transmission between possibly due to ionization of impurity atoms. This is because the Nitrogen 250 impurity is a deep trap for holes while a shallow trap for electron transmission gain electron.

J. 3. reduced pulse height distribution.195 . However. Since the gain progression is geometric. and its application offers PMT and MCP detectors are utilized in many fields of science. Thompson a. SPN Bruyeres-le-Chatel. UK d Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique. Univeristy of Bristol.P. and their planar materials (e. All rights reserved. low noise. there are many fields where the the dynode surface. synthetic CVD diamond is easy geometry lends itself to high-resolution imaging.: +44 116 252 3498.05. Secondary electron emission and chemical stability. Introduction The performance of in vacuo secondary electron gain devices such as PMTs and MCPs is fundamentally limited by the number Despite the widespread success of solid-state imaging devices of secondary electrons produced by a primary electron impacting such as the ubiquitous CCD. cost. can exhibit negative electron affinity tions. both in reflection and transmission mode. a regime where signal amplification is essential.A. ARTICLE IN PRESS Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 610 (2009) 253–257 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A journal homepage: www. high-yield. Despite stability to use at high signal currents would produce a step advances in solid-state avalanche gain technologies. and present measurements of secondary yield from CVD diamond dynodes in reflection mode. 1). easily Keywords: manufactured secondary electron emitter for electron multiplication in devices such as photomultiplier CVD diamond tubes. Univeristy of Leicester. Enhanced timing: Boron-doped (p-type) diamond surfaces E-mail address: jsl12@star. St. a distinct advantage in terms of device size. produce a narrow energy distribution of low-energy secondary 0168-9002/$ . especially at higher voltages. France a r t i c l e in fo abstract Available online 12 June 2009 Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond offers great potential as a low-cost. Fox b.ac. with formats to produce [3]. fax: +44 116 252 2464.com/locate/nima Investigation of the secondary emission characteristics of CVD diamond films for electron amplification J. Lapington a. P. Lapington). N. Bristol BS8 1TS. Photomultiplier We describe an experiment to characterize the secondary emission yield of CVD diamond Detector manufactured using different processes and process parameters and discuss the degradation of secondary electron yield and experimental difficulties encountered due to unwanted electron beam- induced contamination. UK b Department of Chemistry. along with several other high band- PMTs are the workhorse detector for photon-counting applica- gap semiconductors. East Sussex TN38 9NS.le. compared to traditional photomultiplier tube (PMT) and microchannel plate (MCP). D. Milnes c. exceeding 4000  4000 pixel2. significant advantages: from space-based astronomical UV [1] and X-ray observations. to advanced high-speed imaging and photon-counting detectors and describe future plans in this area.V. doi:10. a sensitivity to detect single-quanta accurately in time and space is technology providing improved dynode emission with the required. Its potential for high secondary electron yield offers several significant benefits for these devices Dynode including higher time resolution. dynode materials [2] (see Fig..1016/j.W.2009.g. Ga1yAlyN). UK c Photek Ltd. Howorth c. from medical imaging as PET scanners to detection of exotic (NEA) with suitable surface preparation.V. to microscopic analysis and diagnosis of in vivo biological processes. such as the (SEY). Leonards on Sea. & 2009 Elsevier B. unlike other higher band-gap to achieve picosecond event timing resolution. 1. AlN. May b. Taillandier d a Space Research Centre. 91297 Arpajon Cedex. faster signal rise time.S. Tel. Enhanced SEY: Diamond. We discuss the application of CVD diamond dynode technology.see front matter & 2009 Elsevier B.uk (J.  Corresponding author. V. Boron-doped diamond film depos- solid-state semiconductors limit the ultimate response time and ited using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) techniques has been signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared with the fundamental shown to exhibit significantly enhanced secondary electron yield limitations for in vacuo electron gain devices. Simplified design: Higher SEY results in a lower number of dynodes being required for a given gain. Leicester LE1 7RH.nima. 2. We describe techniques utilized to overcome these difficulties. All rights reserved. a major factor particles as neutrino detectors. the physics of advance in the performance. MCP detectors have the capability enhancing SEY. J. and complexity..S.elsevier. 1.

Low noise: Its wide band gap (5. electrically insulated conductive arm supporting up to four 1 cm2 samples and a small Faraday cup (SFC) for beam current calibration. 4. diamond’s smaller pulse height variance and low noise promote operation at lower gain with a smaller number of stages. The sample support arm can be moved laterally by 725 mm and rotated 3601 around its axis. etc. 2. . little affected by long- term storage. thus alleviating the overall voltage requirement. PET scanners. expensive materials such as GaN and GaP. Fig. which can only be grown on lattice matched substrates e.f. Fig. 6. Fig. it has lower thermal noise than traditional dynode materials at high temperatures. The montage below is the false colour SEY PSP Vacuum Technology [7]. large-area coat- ing technique and is applicable to shaped substrates c. 7. Its SEY remains high after exposure and it can be reactivated [6]. However.S. A schematic diagram of the SEY characterization apparatus. Experimental setup The SEY characterization apparatus is a bakeable stainless- steel vacuum system with a centrally mounted. Large-area: CVD deposition offers a low-cost.47 eV) precludes the thermal excitation of electrons at typical operating temperatures cf. 5.g. sapphire. 3. The SFC is the sight of the beam. materials with comparable SEY (e. allowing detector operation at lower gain and better energy resolution for scintillation counters. A photograph of the sample arm with three samples. 2 shows a schematic diagram of the apparatus and Fig. produces a focussed electron beam image produced by scanning the electron beam. Narrow pulse height distribution (PHD): The Poisson statistics of high-gain diamond dynodes intrinsically produce a narrower PHD with improved SNR. Lapington et al. ARTICLE IN PRESS 254 J. Conversely. (a). One potential drawback of diamond’s higher gain is the increased voltage required per stage. SEY coefficients of three common dynode materials (inset—Photonis PMT Handbook) cf. 2. 3b is an SEY image showing with a spot size of o50 mm at 1 mA. CVD diamond for different surface terminations [2] and data (grey squares) from our research programme.26 eV). / Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 610 (2009) 253–257 Fig. manufactured by aperture between sample 1 and 2. GaP—2. 1. The ELS5000 electron gun. electrons [4] allowing improved confinement of trajectories with improved time resolution and reduced background [5]. Inkjet printing of diamond nanoparticles and subsequent growth into patterned films has also been demonstrated. Lateral motion is used to position one of the samples or the Faraday cup in the path of a beam of electrons generated by an electron gun and rotation allows the beam incidence angle to be varied or the samples placed out of Fig.g. Stability: CVD diamond has a stable SEY. 3a shows a photograph of the arm with three samples and the SFC aperture. working distance of the SFC aperture (the black hole in the middle).

50 2. The former nominal SEY of an initially ‘‘clean’’ material. Evidence in the form of visible Secondary electrons produced by the electron beam impinging contamination. This occurred in two with the support arm and is mounted on an insulating support at forms. despite the 107 mbar. electron measured SEY from any sample material. we have qualitative proof that. 3b). known as electron beam-induced contamination the sample are collected by a stainless-steel cylinder. which surrounds the arm. 6514 Electrometer and 6485 Picoammeter.5 18 0. unless already very low. This technique also allowed the ammeters taking measurements every 10 ms. beam-induced contamination is still present. the xy beam deflection. and as diffuse in the side of the LFC. . good electrical insulation allowed electron beam currents in the the expected result when the beam is fully collected in the SFC.S. Both the sample support arm and pump set replaced with an oil-free system comprising an Edwards the LFC are electrically insulated allowing them to be biased and Maglev turbo and scroll pump. though the ultimate vacuum their respective collected currents to be measured using a Keithley achieved was not appreciably lower. Fig. The electron beam enters through a small aperture with adsorbed contaminants on the sample surface. These modifications drastically reduced the rate of SEY degradation with total beam charge. exposure to the electron beam. / Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 610 (2009) 253–257 255 15–75 mm. had reached a stable regime. (3) energy scan at a single ILFC SEY ¼ (1) point to produce SEY versus beam energy data. At this stage the vacuum system was cleaned and the sample are captured by the LFC. and (4) other Isample þ ILFC calibration procedures. Focussing was carried out by scanning the beam in two measurement procedure. the beam focus. The HV was typically pulsed for 0. and save and display results. which was used to control the electron dimensions across the SFC aperture using the beam deflection gun HV. The LFC is coaxial the presence of organic contamination. The contribution of Initially the system was pumped with a Leybold turbo pump the two SEY degradation mechanisms to this data is uncertain. which causes the disappearance electrometer input can be biased.50 Extracted Charge (mC) Fig. Lapington et al.00 1. (b) has shadows whose geometry suggested either the presence of a extended length to minimize the solid angle of the external large-angle component in the beam distribution or isotropic chamber seen by emitted secondary electrons from the sample.50 1. or. suggesting interaction of the beam its closed end. pointed strongly to Faraday cup (LFC). evolution of contaminants from a remote source back along the Both measures serve to ensure secondary electrons from the beam line. both operating as Another mechanism for SEY degradation is hydrogen deso- precision ammeters. Early on in the experiment it was noted that the decontaminated vacuum system and oil-free pump set. however. from areas subject to long-term exposure. (ii) the beam current can be be reduced. 4 shows a plot of the 3. they are difficult to in the SFC. both highly structured. The overall flux was method requires the electron beam to be sufficiently well reduced by both pulsing the beam and lowering the beam current. the large [8]. of NEA [9]. 4. (2) xy area beam scan and SEY image capture. and imaging the aperture by means of the measured and take synchronised measurements from the Keithley am- SEY. only the rption from the diamond surface. the sample current equalling the beam current. and rotary backing pump. The LFC can (a) be biased and.5 Secondary Electron Yield 20 19. ARTICLE IN PRESS J.0. distinguish. 1–10 nA range to be used even when several hundred volt biases Elsewhere. Several then given by modes of operation allowed: (1) automated beam focussing. This approach was used to enable measurement of the calculated from the sum of sample and LFC currents. reaching an ultimate pressure of however.5 19 18. A plot showing the degradation of SEY with increasing electron beam charge. and beam energy of up to 5 keV. The time profile the beam profile to be calculated by deconvolution of the circular of measurements was used to select a window where the currents SFC pinhole from the imaged SEY (see Fig. Results variation of SEY for a single 100 mm spot illuminated by the electron beam versus total deposited charge.5 mm. The SEY was meters.3 s with constructed produced an SEY of 1. but their effect can be alleviated if the total flux can confirmed by a zero LFC current.00 2. These can be interchanged. calculated using the sample and LFC currents. (i) the beam can be collected completely beam and are sensitive to total beam flux. The low-noise Keithley ammeters and The focus was adjusted to achieve zero SEY over the aperture. This is evidenced by 21 20. the phosphor-bronze shim from which the SFC was were applied to the LFC. Since both electron beam-induced contamination and Two independent methods can be used to calibrate the hydrogen desorption are produced by exposure to the electron electron beam current. The beam can be degraded rapidly over time-scales of minutes as a result of electrostatically deflected in the xy plane by 75 mm. and to initialize capability. focussed to completely pass through the SFC aperture of LabView was used for the software platform to automate the 0. process the data.00 0.

5.5 3 Electron Beam Energy (keV) Fig. Fig. Lapington et al. 7. 6 shows a plot of the best results obtained for boron-doped. dopants and dopant concen- trations. 6. Measured SEY versus beam energy data for hydrogen-terminated B-doped CVD diamond deposited on molybdenum (sample A) and silicon (sample B) substrates. 18 0 deg 15 deg 16 30 deg 45 deg 14 60 deg Secondary Electron Yield 75 deg 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0. With the apparatus modified to reduce the SEY degradation effects. we measured the SEY of a variety of diamond samples from various sources. 5. However. measurements of variation of SEY with angle of illumination with the electron beam. which shows a photograph of the SFC after prolonged showed no trace of actual elongation of the beam distribution that exposure to the electron beam.S. The best SEY value so far obtained of 45 for B-doped diamond on silicon at 2. SEY 50 45 40 Secondary Electron Yield 35 30 Sample A Sample B 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 0. Typically. this deposit implies. CVD diamond coated on silicon and molybdenum substrates. This would be apparent as elongation of the However. / Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 610 (2009) 253–257 Fig. these must be regarded as preliminary.5 1 1.5 3 Electron Beam Energy (keV) Fig. ARTICLE IN PRESS 256 J. in the presence of degradation due to electron beam-induced contamination. Measured SEY versus energy for hydrogen-terminated B-doped CVD diamond deposited on molybdenum.5 2 2. Fig.5 2 2. incidence show unexpected behaviour (see Fig.4 keV is the highest reported for hydrogen-terminated material and a strong driver to apply this technology to electron multiplication. and differing crystallinities. inkjet-printed nanoparticles). with the electron beam at various angles of incidence. 7). A photograph of the SFC before (left) and after (right) prolonged However.5 1 1. producing a diagonal dark stain. concurrent SEY imaging of the area around the SFC SFC aperture in the SEY image owing to convolution of the beam and aperture distributions. . manufactured using different methods (CVD.

This is due to the imaging applications. Lapington. However. attempting to establish the relevance of SEY reduction due secondary electron multiplication dynodes in actual detectors to hydrogen desorption. Abrams. the high granularity of the surface plays a role in reversing this trend or. London A 358 (2000) 473. a linear detector design with minimum charge spread and [10] J.B. [7] PSP Vacuum Technology. Instr.R. May. and 2.W.E. utilizing transport along grain boundaries [10]. ARTICLE IN PRESS J. private communication.T. Appl. The scale of the latter is the more serious operating in two modes: issue. Conclusions diamond is different. The transmission technique is conceptually superior. Primary track lengths at typical energies coupled with the minority carrier diffusion length requires (a) film thick- References nesses o200 nm. J. Gsell. J. 96 (2004) 446. J. Surf. It is technologically more demanding. Interface Anal. Miller. Microanal. P. [8] A. R. Yater. the secondary electron escape mechanism from polycrystalline 5. Soc. L.E.pspvacuum. and secondary electrons exit through the input surface should not affect the NEA of the output surface. Shih. We have obtained SEY results from B-doped hydrogen- terminated CVD diamond comparable or better than reported elsewhere. [4] J. Krainsky. Either. ideally suited for angle with respect to the surface normal). Butler. resulting in an increase in secondary electron escape incorporation of internal drift fields. G. probability. Technol. [6] G. Vladar. while We have plans to investigate the application of diamond as in parallel. 2) (2005) 764. Primary and secondary electrons [2] J. other. Mearini. Cook.S. Cui. J. Brandes. Gsell. A 16 (1998) 913. mesh or electroformed grid. Coated mesh [3] P. Rev.B. A.T. Dayton Jr. J. Phil. providing [9] J.E. Postek. Phys.S. Ley. UK. Pehrsson. T.E. or (b) thicker films with an internal drift field to increase the secondary diffusion length. S.L. Reflection: diamond is deposited on an open conductive wire Meth. reduced depth of penetration normal to the surface at higher challenges being mechanical support of very thin films or angles. [1] J. Chakrabarti. Future developments induced contamination effects within the apparatus and are continuing to develop counter measures to this limitation. Microsc. M. as has been suggested by other authors. Trans.T. . B59 (1999) 5847. A A513 (2003) 159. Phys. Nucl. 21 (1994) 138. /www.A.. V. Appl. 82 (1997) 4538. Lapington et al. enter and exit through the same diamond surface. Phys. Successful demonstration of high SEY from a transmission dynode 1. 11 (Suppl. I.E. J. Ristein. Macclesfield.C. Photek Ltd. we are still encountering electron beam- 4.comS. A. Vac. Shih. dynodes (not CVD diamond) are already used in some imaging [5] Jon Howorth. Transmission: primary electrons enter through one surface of a will circumvent this problem since hydrogen desorption from the thin film of diamond. J. Yater. Sci. / Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 610 (2009) 253–257 257 is expected to increase with angle of incidence (defined as the guaranteed electron collision at every dynode.. R. being unavoidable in a detector context in reflection mode. PMTs.

12!. yet commonplace. who coined the name ‘‘multipactor’’ ~from tipactor may result in window breakage. there is a growing number of appli. © 1998 American Institute of Physics. lengthening the conditioning process. Through various mechanisms mul. K. Multipactor has been observed as early as 1924 by the possibly increasing noise levels in crossed-field devices and Guttons ~see Ref. Phys. from the is the first theory that includes this interaction between the MHz range to tens of GHz. II!. in which they experimentally outlined part of the region sus- a! Electronic mail: ramiak@ipr. Perhaps the first systematic study of multipactor came from Gill and von Engel of Oxford University in the 1940s. Most notable are those of cations for the discharge.7. releasing even more electrons. Maryland 20742 Y.umd. of multipactor theory ~Sec. which may in turn be accelerated by the rf fields and recent theories on accessibility and saturation of multipactor made to impact again. Michigan 48109-2104 ~Received 18 November 1997. taking into account the dependence on surface materials. A. but was not identified until Farnsworth perhaps causing damage. The presentation is divided into two sections: one on. Valfells.16–18 The capability of multipactor to induce for electrons emitted with zero initial velocity. † Invited speaker.. in conjunction. Am. susceptibility curves are constructed to indicate the regions of external parameter space where multipactor is likely to occur. In both cases. this discharge can occur for a wide range of frequencies. and in a wide array of geom. Gilgenbach Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences. in 1936 ~see Ref. pactor in gaseous breakdown experiments in 1930s and despite all of the above. University of Michigan. we review recent advances at the Univer- Multipactor discharge is a resonant vacuum discharge sity of Michigan in the theoretical understanding of multi- frequently observed in microwave systems such as radio fre. focusing on recent models of multipactor accessibility and saturation. INTRODUCTION used for the protection of sensitive receivers. advanced a b! Electronic mail: yylau@umich.6. Y. A. multipactor based on the discharge ~see Ref. accepted 12 January 1998! This paper reviews the history of multipactor discharge theory. multipactor discharge and the surrounding rf structure.8 microwave into account both space charge forces and interaction with tubes and devices. and R. It can detune a micro- II. the inherent resonant Daniellson.PHYSICS OF PLASMAS VOLUME 5. III!.a) Institute for Plasma Research. Soc.13–15 The the structure ~loading and detuning!. It can dissipate sub. 21!. case of Multipactor is usually undesirable. In the case of a dielectric. To our knowledge. The underlying mechanism behind the multipactor theory employs a realistic model of secondary electron emis- discharge is an avalanche caused by secondary electron sion for various surface materials. Afterwards we describe the trons. dealing with two-surface multipactor ~Sec. and another tween two surfaces. a decade later. 42. To put the recent theories emission. The discharge also heats the surface. In some circumstances ~see Ref. HISTORICAL REVIEW19 wave signal ~with detrimental consequences for space com- munications systems!. IV!. The discharge can take place on a single surface or be. The two cases are contrasted in light of experimental observations. ERB#223. College Park. 20!. @S1070-664X~98!92205-4# I. single-surface multipactor on dielectrics ~Sec. and also iden- breakdown is under study for application in plasma display tify single particle phase focusing and stability of the dis- technology. 1949 ~1997!. Two cases are treated in detail: That of a first-order. while its capability to dissipate energy has been charge. Kishek†. In this paper. The two stantial amounts of energy fed into microwave cavities. bunching in multipactor has been explored for use in electron The latter derive the resonance condition on the transit time gun technology. 1940s led to many early theories.00 2120 © 1998 American Institute of Physics . and that of a single-surface multipactor on a dielectric. multipactor is found to deliver about 1% of the rf power to the surface.9–12 and rf satellite payloads. pactor.1–6 accelerator structures. Primary electrons accelerated by rf fields can im.edu theory that recognized the sensitivity of the solution to a 1070-664X/98/5(5)/2120/7/$15. and of Henneburg et al. thus cases are contrasted in the conclusion. concentrating on the special. taking quency ~rf! windows. University of Maryland. 20!. and the effects of space charge and cavity loading. Ang. NUMBER 5 MAY 1998 Multipactor discharge on metals and dielectrics: Historical review and recent theories* R.22 *Paper kWeaI2-6 Bull. For example. two-surface multipactor.edu ceptible to multipactor and. Ann Arbor. in their proper context we start with a brief historical review pact a surface and release a larger number of secondary elec.b) L. M. and so discharge. It is worth noting that. Lau. Our etries. The discharge is modeled from first principles. Observations of multi- may even induce vacuum breakdown. destroying the ‘‘AC Electron Multiplier’’! for an amplifier he invented vacuum.

and do so at a time when the . iams retained the constant ‘‘k’’ assumption of Gill and von Engel. ing the geometry ~e. while in Many of the advances in understanding multipactor and the Sec.6 coatings and other discharge between two metallic surfaces. Vol.33. the modified theory became known as the ‘‘constant- k’’ theory and for decades remained the classic theory on the until recently. Gill and von Engel introduced the ad hoc assump- tion that a parameter k. 5.40. but unfortunately cannot are released with a monoenergetic nonzero initial velocity of be applied in all situations and are likely to degrade over a few eV ~in Sec. multipactor grows only for impact ener- electron trajectories subject to a given rf field. eters E max and d max .24 because of its utility in con. called the first and in designing multipactor-free structures. In order to avoid the complications of a distribution of random emission ve- locities. Plasmas. d. Neither the trajectory computations nor the accessibility More recently. 5.18. the multipactor codes are limited to calculating single. and derived from first principles. and hence relatively little survives in the open literature. we adopt Vaughan’s empirical for- electrons so as to eliminate multipactor. The secondary electron yield.22 realistic assumption of a monoenergetic nonzero initial ve.1. mula for the yield. the figure!. second cross-over points. with the goal of altering the trajectories of electron.17.21. based rather on that by Henneburg tor current or the time scale over which multipactor evolves. of the form pends on the discharge affecting the surface characteristics (V g0 /D) sin (2p ft1u). May 1998 Kishek et al. In Sec. TWO-SURFACE MULTIPACTOR ON METALS for suppressing multipactor: conditioning of the In this section.27.8. None of these satu- effects of materials and of cavity loading. are particle-in-cell ~PIC! codes being applied to A.34 Yet even to.10. IV we further include a random distribu- time. moving the location of a rf is a function of impact energy and angle of the primary window21.’’6. et al. 1.21 The most promising method so far has been modify. Vaughan’s theory Many early researchers have suspected that debunching due replaces the baseless assumption of constant k with the more to space charge forces can saturate the multipactor. the advances in illustrated in Fig.36 The accessibility theories have also been extended to various types of geometries. Since Hatch and Will- FIG. Vaughan21 has promoted an alternative to theories say anything of the saturation level of the multipac- the constant-k theory. and it was not until Hatch and Williams reformulated the theory in the 1950s to explain their own multipactor experiments20 that reasonable agreement was obtained. but it was not until Vaughan in 1988 that anyone attempted locity. Upon impact. there are three general approaches III. 1 where the yield as a function of impact multipactor theory moved at a much slower pace.43 The dependence on impact energy is Despite the wealth of experimental data.8. Single-surface just released from one plate must be accelerated strongly multipactor on dielectrics poses a special problem. These two parameters determine two gence of many computer codes to model multipactor and aid energies for which the yield is unity. In Sec. No. 2121 nonzero emission velocity of secondaries.1.31.16. remained proprietary to in.g. In general. A perpendicular rf electric field. where f is the frequency of the rf enough to quench itself.23.. however. Clearly.42 In this paper. multipactor to be the cause of saturation. E 1 and E 2 . although each riving the susceptibility curve.32 and geometrical modifi- assume two parallel plane surfaces. respectively ~shown in day.21 Mako18 and Vaughan’s theory. Other researchers19.1–5 and enough to reach the other plate. where d .25–30 have since then adopted to analytically estimate the level of saturation. Only recently gies in between E 1 and E 2 . III B we shall look at the first theory to of rf devices.26. such as For the multipactor discharge to be sustained. There is no physical basis for this assumption. multipactor proliferated in all types pactor. developed. energy is determined by the two material-dependent param- ability of more powerful computer platforms led to the emer. Fur- thermore. equal to the impact velocity of the primaries relative to the emission velocity of secondaries. ration theories accounted in any way for the important pro- In the decades following the rf breakdown experiments cesses of loading and detuning of rf structures by the multi- of Hatch and Williams. sibility and saturation of multipactor on dielectric windows. separated by a gap of cations. and its suppression became a major concern. IV we shall look at the first complete theory on acces- suppression techniques. secondaries inhibit the growth of multipactor. few satisfactory theories have been accessibility of multipactor. Currently. dustries. we address the subject of a multipactor components by the discharge. is constant. we ‘‘surface treatments.Phys. electrons single-surface1 or coaxial37–39 geometries. surface treatments are and V g0 is the amplitude of the voltage across the gap. tion of emission velocities!. ac- aimed at reducing the effective secondary electron yield to celerates electrons inside the gap. III we use this theory in de.41 structing susceptibility curves. explore this loading effect in resonant structures. Susceptibility curves multipactor. The avail.. extended it to include a Riyopoulos27 also assumed space charge debunching of the crossed-magnetic field.33–35 Conditioning is a lengthy process that de- width D.35!. Dependence of secondary electron yield on impact energy. and extend it to include the treated this effect somewhat differently. Riyopoulos et al. Gill and von Engel’s attempt at using the theory to interpret their experimental results was flawed.11. For simplicity.

which will be described in greater detail below!. ~1a! A~ N p ! 2 14 22480 V g max 05 ~ f D !2. and monoenergetic energy.g. for age is plotted against the product of the frequency and gap a first-order (N51). Figure 3 is an ex- launched with nonzero initial velocity to reach the other ample of a susceptibility curve showing the resulting voltage plate.. in physical units.21 no explicit formulas for them have thus far been provided. The voltage boundaries V gmin and V gmax can be derived it becomes a simple matter to calculate the upper bound by a simple integration of the force law. as well as the launch phase. For easy reference. ~d max56. allowing us to map the regions of external parameter space in which multipactor is possible. V gmax . There is no simple closed-form solution of V gmax for nonzero E 0 . 2. we display. of 21 rf cycles for multi- pactor to take place. hence. FIG. ~1b! Np where the voltages are in volts. u. 5. . relating the gap voltage amplitude to the external parameters one locates the point on the graph in Fig. going back to the In addition to the boundaries on the voltage presented plate of origin.19 Note that this is valid only for a they appear as straight lines of slope 2 on a log–log plot. No. Plasmas. 2 that corresponds f and D. May 1998 Kishek et al. 5. then reads off the correction factor. A negative phase is possible if the emission velocity is boundaries for a first-order multipactor as pairs of diagonal nonzero and the electric field changes sign before the elec. two-surface multipactor. This example is for it numerically. upper bound.5.21. Such maps are called susceptibility curves in the literature ~e. ~1b! only for the special case E 0 50 ~therefore we call it V gmax0!:30 22480~ f D ! 2 2 ~ N p f D ! A44960E 0 V g min5 . lines. a pair of and D is the gap separation in cm. E max5600 eV! and alumina ing transcendental equations. and the secondary-electron emis- sion energy E 0 is in eV. the gap width D is in cm. two-surface multipactor assuming a general nonzero monoenergetic emission energy E 0 ~in eV!. For each order of the multipactor. Here. E max51300 eV!. This transit time condition ~or synchrony condition! relates the rf voltage and frequency to the geom- etry. Fig. Next. is obtained is a direct result of the higher voltages and. This results in an equation Eq.30 first-order (N51). one for each of a number of monoenergetic initial ve- tron hits the plate of origin.22 E 0 52 eV ~—!. and reversing again just before touching that above. First.Vgmax). ~1b! introduced by the geometry.20. field has reversed ~or is close to doing so! in order that the secondary electrons released from the impact also be accel- erated.3. literature thus far! further constrains the existence of two- Although such curves that include the dependence of surface multipactor. v 0 . the gap volt. This consideration leads to a condition on the transit time of the electrons. thus defining the Multiplying this correction factor by V gmax0 gives the desired voltage boundaries. the higher at the maximum negative phase that allows an electron impact energies at higher ( f D) products. assuming a monoenergetic emission energy. that the transit time should be near an odd number. This originates from the consideration V gmin or V gmax on the emission energy. E 0 . Typically. we (V gmin . is ob. have been that the secondary electron yield must be greater than unity published. one uses time condition x(t5N/2 f )5D.. of secondary electrons. and the emission to the given frequency. ~1b! to calculate V gmax0 for a zero initial velocity. V gmin in Eq. and V gmax in Eq. another factor ~which has been largely ignored in the plate. that which results in the electron reversing. The maximum voltage. only for a narrow range of launch phases. expressing the maximum nega. imposing the transit V gmax in the case of a nonzero initial velocity. N. ~1a!44 for general emission energy E 0 . Universal curve to determine the upper limiting voltage. where the number N is called the order of the multipactor. Given the frequency and the geometry. 3. Vol. 2 that the importance of a non- tained at the maximum stable phase u 5 u m zero initial velocity decreases for higher ( f D) products. the frequency f is in GHz. 2 the correction to Eq. gap separation. the voltage boundaries scale as ( f D) 2 and hence nonzero initial velocity. With this graph. Note from Fig. V gmax . and 10 eV ~. Susceptibility curve for a two-surface multipactor showing the ef- fects of nonzero emission velocity and surface materials. f is the frequency in GHz separation ( f D). V gmin . For zero emission velocity in a parallel plate show in Fig. but it is possible to solve FIG. This 5arctan (2/N p ).25 namely. 3. E 0 . Gill and von Engel had solved the result. The orbits are stable nonzero initial velocity. the curve immedi- ately provides us with the voltage range for multipactor Reformulating the results of Gill and von Engel.2122 Phys. The maximum negative phase is locities. 5 eV ~-•-!.21. tive phases in terms of their ‘‘k’’ parameter. lines defines the region in which multipactor is possible. constructed for oxygen-free copper ~d max51.. The minimum voltage.!.

f D. trons experience the maximum possible impact energy. II. Vaughan21 and in greater depth by Riyopoulos.33E 1 ~depending on many particulars!. ~3! Pd 2A r̄ Once the conditions for existence of multipactor are sat. We have later extended this model to account for the nately.33E 1 (Q*10). and the impact energy has to be in the vicinity of E 1 ~Ref. 5. Setting that to 1. 5eV g0 /m(2 p f D) 2 is the normalized steady-state gap volt- . prior researchers have proposed space charge 2 forces to be the ~only! saturation mechanism.15•N . with the simulation results and predicts that anywhere from tative features of the experimentally observed data.19 1%–50% of the input rf power can be dissipated in the mul- tipactor: P m 2B1 AB 2 24AC m̄ B. and r̄ sented in our model by a RLC circuit with a quality factor Q.2! show that if the starting impact energy is greater than about 1. 2123 for the avalanche to occur. which in turn loads the rf structure. Similarly. ~3! gives the 100 Np2 100 fraction of rf power consumed by the steady-state multipac- where f is in GHz.27 Unfortu. these surface materials provide additional conditions on the existence of multipactor. which would in fact be significant in the intense space dition of a second electron sheet. derived from a dynamic theory. of the surface material. Vol. ~2! dominant case!. ted vertical line in Fig. This phase-focusing mechanism results in the alumina are provided in Fig. These suscepti. pactor.Phys. May 1998 Kishek et al. The impact energy in the steady state is equal to gives the second boundary. Set. as investigated by space charge forces. first-order discharge. Saturation 5 • . This agrees well bility curves. When the gap voltage is strates the adequacy of the single-sheet model. as well as by the evolving image to saturate by space charge debunching. Plasmas. 1!. any seed electron can trigger the discharge.1!. which we represent with the dot. Our extensive simulations ~with Q in FIG. This demon- the force law for the impact energy. 3. 4. We have proposed a model of the multipactor discharge that includes such interaction with C5 F 1 p 2 G 1 2 ~ m̄ 1 n̄ 0 ! 1 ~ m̄ 2 n̄ 0 ! 2 2r̄ 2 . The boundaries imposed by a given The simulations have been augmented with an analytical material are then30 derivation of the steady-state power dissipated in multipactor A S DA ~for a resonantly driven. where F S D G isfied. 4. sooner or later a saturation mechanism will set in.27 While B5 ~ m̄ 2 2 n̄ 20 ! . Examples for oxygen-free copper and ~Fig.16–18. 28!. thus focusing the electrons into the driving voltage ~in the absence of multipactor! by solving a narrow bunch despite their mutual repulsion.0. at V gmin and u min . It is possible in such a situation for the multipactor voltage across the gap. Extensive simulations based on our one-dimensional ting that equal to E 1 gives the first boundary. I m (t). then cavity loading alone is insufficient in saturating the multipactor. 2 4 4 the structure.30 The first such condition is that the starting impact energy cannot be below E 1 ~or else d . mutual repulsion between the space charges through the ad- ing. 3!. repre. n̄ 0 5 n 0 /2p f D is the normalized emission veloc- current.30 The formula shown in Eq. m̄ 5( A2E 1 /m)/2p f D is the mension inside a gap between two parallel plates. Ignoring any nonzero initial charge density of one sheet growing at the expense of the velocity of secondaries. P m is the power consumed by the steady-state multi- single infinitesimally thin electron sheet travels in one di. Model of a two-surface multipactor and interaction with rf circuit.29 The two-sheet model has charge. ~1-D! model show that the interaction of the multipactor with tical line on the susceptibility curve ~see Fig. 5. at least for the at the upper voltage boundary ~V g0 5V gmax0 and u 50! elec. ity of the secondaries ~assumed monoenergetic!. however. tor as a function of external parameters. the solid ver. As shown 4 2 4 p in Sec.28 In this model. No. even for voltages in the range (V gmin . The ava- lanche of electrons cannot go on unchecked. and 1 1 p 2 2 A5 ~ m̄ 2 n̄ 0 ! 2 1 2 2 ~ m̄ 1 n̄ 0 ! . and E 1 in eV. regime Q*10. a Here. d max&1.21.5 that we have studied. E 1 . D in cm. espe- cially in resonant structures. the loading of rf p structures by multipactor can play a significant role. the rf circuit. this is a likely mechanism in some cases. the latter papers completely neglect the effect of load. Through normalized impact velocity corresponding to the first cross- Ramo’s theorem. a combination of detuning and de-Q-ing.45 the motion of the electrons induces a wall over point. which is illustrated in Fig. revealed a novel phase-focusing mechanism caused by the We now proceed to translate these boundaries onto the dependence of the secondary electron yield on impact energy susceptibility curve. The second condition on the impact energy arises from dy- namic considerations. show the quali. Since E 1 depends on the surface materials. the first cross-over point energy. the impact energy can be related to other in our two-sheet model. the most pre- E1 4 E1 0. The motion of the electron sheet is driven by the modified rf radically.Vgmax). and the discharge appears spo. is the the lower voltage boundary.17 N1 . results in the dominant saturation mechanism for resonant rf structures minimum possible impact energy. 3. P d is the drive power. the range 10–1000 and d max51.

No. and for every transit assigns it a random value.40 Over a long time. The pres- ence of fixed charges creates dc electric fields which change the relationship between the electron motion and the rf. considerably lengthening the condi- electric fields. 5.5. May 1998 Kishek et al. The for the surface to become sufficiently conditioned to quench Monte Carlo simulation tracks a macroparticle over a large the multipactor and allow the voltage to rise to its full design number of transits. 6. a property of the IV. we can see an average simulate multipactor in a resonant cavity. depending on the external parameters of the simu- model.36 thus validating our assump- rial. namely that cavity loading by the multipactor can lation: E rf0 . Their impact energy supplied. ~3! is simplified by assuming a resonantly driven cavity. Simulations with Q. In Fig. result in saturation with an average impact energy in the With the aid of such Monte Carlo simulations. the rf electric field on the other. Moreover. Plasmas. the susceptibility curve and the saturation mechanism in this case are very different from those of the two-surface multi- pactor discussed in Sec.2124 Phys.30 These simulations corroborate experimental ob- and angle. and r̄.0.1000 show that once the voltage reaches a multipactor-prone region. In this section. III. . Vol. 6! concluded that a full distribution of initial velocities pro- showing the regions susceptible to multipactor for any com- duces the same results as a monoenergetic velocity that is the bination of external parameters and for any dielectric mate- average of such a distribution.36 Their more so- trend of growth or decay in the charge density of that mac- phisticated simulations verify the predictions of our simple roparticle. Model of a single-surface multipactor in a parallel rf and normal dc powering such a cavity. dielectric surfaces are ca- pable of supporting a distribution of fixed charges. This assumes a distribution of emission energies for secondary from the rf electric field and so impact the surface at an electrons. shown for various velocity and angle will be attracted back to the surface by the values of d max0 ~from the innermost boundaries. which is related to the surface material. 5!. we were vicinity of the first cross-over point. 5. A. Note that the power dissi- pated in a multipactor discharge in the steady state is essen- tially a function of just two external parameters: m̄ . it locks in as the multipactor avalanche dissipates all the additional power energy higher than the emission energy. which is related to the energy supplied to the structure. and the material used. d max051. The figure displays a set of boundaries. the dc electric field is plotted on one axis and tion. As will be seen. E rf0 sin(2p ft1u). 3. In addition. both of which determine the yield. the frequency. During transit. depend on the servations since. 5!. E DC .1. we use Monte Carlo methods to simulate a realistic distribution of initial velocities for the secondaries. it can only exist for a narrow band of frequencies around the resonant frequency of the cavity. 5. The slow response time and the large amount of energy stored in a highly resonant cavity can lead to difficulties in FIG. tioning time. 6. we focus on a situation where the rf electric field. age in the absence of multipactor. subsequently used a 1-D PIC code to distributions. Although Eq. is parallel to a dielectric surface ~as is usually the case near transmission windows!. 2. The width of this frequency band is found to be proportional to the gap voltage amplitude and inversely proportional to the Q of the cavity.46 Since multipactor is a resonant discharge.0!.40 We as- sume that the surface has a net positive charge which sets up a restoring dc electric field. peaked at an energy E om /E max050. dc electric field ~Fig. SINGLE-SURFACE MULTIPACTOR ON surface material.005.0. a DIELECTRICS pair for each value of d max0 ~the value of d max for normal incidence! of the surface material. inside of which multipac- In contrast to metal surfaces. initial velocity and angle according to realistic Gopinath et al. and has been used to derive a more general formula for the latter case. they gain energy 6. our model is capable of simulating off- resonance drive. Universal susceptibility curve for a single-surface multipactor on a dielectric as a function of the dc and rf electric fields.5. and 9. Susceptibility curve Electrons emitted from the surface with a random initial FIG. they have able to construct a universal susceptibility curve ~Fig. The fields are normalized to the frequency of the rf and also to E max . 2. it typically takes hours or days phase of the rf and the random initial velocity and angle. E DC ~Fig.0. in practice.

on the other hand. which follow the dynamic evo- window. A fully dynamic model has to ac- count for such variations in the surface charge density. as V.Phys. Point A d max0 increases. 7. In reality. however. This greatly widens the parameter space for ary. the saturation mechanisms are quite tipactor. growth. point B is reached. FURTHER DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION well as for the changing rf field due to the loading by the A. window and lead to breakage. 2125 tor grows. the poor heat conduc- nonresonant structure!. 6! we have emission energies! and is of the order of 0. as multipactor can readily for saturation ~Fig. 7!. by the multipactor. the theories presented in this paper survey the first that this power is independent of most external parameters attempt on multipactor susceptibility curves and saturation . are much less sensitive to such a movement along the vertical line from A to C in Fig. In light of the historical development of multipactor electric surface. consequently. as will be shown shortly. this curve can be used to predict the saturation level of multipactor and the amount of energy dis- sipated. and single-surface multipactor is accounted for using a transmission line model. Plasmas. The surface on a dielectric. At saturation. Therefore the rf field must linearly increase with an increasing dc field to maintain the same yield. No.1 widens.5%–1% of the rf assumed that the charge on the window. Finally. Comparison of multipactor on dielectrics to that multipactor. The loading of the rf surface multipactor on metals. the second. Simulations have revealed that the effect of the ceptible. compare favorably with experimental measurements. Such a model has been very recently on metals developed41 and used to predict the dynamic evolution and It is instructive now to contrast the two cases of two- saturation of multipactor on a dielectric. E 1 . Space charge forces detuning by the multipactor. which eventually lead to its between the multipactor macroparticle and the surface are saturation. Saturation ~only weakly dependent on the details of the distribution of In constructing the susceptibility curve ~Fig. The remarkable result is theory. further aids the space charge field rather than the rf. The most striking difference. B. 7. May 1998 Kishek et al. and so does the multipactor region. Hence. such a curve is simple to understand. and therefore saturation occurs near tivity of dielectrics possibly makes it sufficient to destroy the point B. Hence the lower boundary corresponds to the first crossover point. 5. Dielectric electric field and is indicated on the susceptibility diagram as windows. The electrons gain their energy from the rf. Evolution of a single-surface multipactor on a dielectric. if the rf elec- tric field is too low ~high!. B. Since the dc electric field is the restoring force. Summary It is now straightforward to estimate the surface charging of the dielectric. Although in both cases the discharge is found charge responsible for the dc electric field is now broken into to saturate with an impact energy in the vicinity of the first two parts: a small fixed charge necessary to initiate the mul- cross-over point. where the impact energy averages around the first cross- multipactor and makes the dielectric surface much more sus- over point. Loading of the rf changes only the rf grow to a large extent and ‘‘lock in’’ the voltage. the energy gained from the rf.41 Yet this amount can be sufficient to overheat the electric field. The The space charge forces and the dynamic growth of the sur- proximity of the charges to the dielectric surface. and the upper boundary corresponds to the second crossover point. time make the passage of the cavity voltage through narrow It is evident that there are two mechanisms responsible multipactor bands very difficult. 6!. confirm the validity of the susceptibility curves de- rived from the kinematic model ~Fig. is static and unchanging. and therefore the dc power. 5. loading and saturate primarily by space charge forces. the average impact energy of electrons will become below E 1 ~above E 2 !. These simulations. it must occur at the lower bound- surface case. and a time-varying part that is created by the mul- different. lution. and are indicated by a movement on forces. increasing it reduces the transit time and. Furthermore. and ~in both cases! the yield will drop to below unity. as FIG.35. Even though the power dissipated by multipactor on loading is very small in this case ~the dielectric window is a a dielectric window is relatively small. Since saturation is a combi- of the resonance condition on the transit time in the single- nation of these two effects. is the absence the horizontal line from A to B. and therefore the heating of the dielectric due to multipactor. Physically. Resonant cavities are quite sensitive to loading and tipactor secondaries leaving the surface. unlike the face charge density correspond to a change in the dc electric two-surface configuration. as well as the power deposited on the di. The large amount of energy and slow response included in this model.41 tional surface charging. This curve can be quite useful in designing mi- crowave components to avoid multipactor. Vol. the range of impact energies for which d designates an initial combination of electric fields that permit multipactor . and the results of this theory ary emission process of the multipactor itself creates addi.

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3D SIMULATIONS OF SECONDARY ELECTRON GENERATION AND TRANSPORT IN A DIAMOND ELECTRON BEAM AMPLIFIER * R. Muller. CO 80303. high brightness port allows us to investigate electron gain from diamond in and low thermal emittance electron beams in current and a transmission mode setup (D. which holes will start drifting in opposite directions. To assist in the devel- gun. USA Abstract the number of primary electrons. 7. we have implemented To optimize the performance of the DAP concept. The scatter- t dad@txcorp. we report on our work to enable the sim- tive development [2. within the VORPAL [4] computational framework. BNL. negligible contamination problems. and impurity scattering processes over a rities. A emission surfaces are prepared to have a negative electron promising candidate for the electron source is the recently affinity (NEA) in order to increase the emission. holes [5]. J. it is of algorithms within the VORPAL particle-in-cell framework considerable interest to understand the generation of secon- for modeling secondary electron and hole generation. generating more electron-hole (e-h) pairs. from semiconductor device simulations [10]. J. NY 11973.Busby. ulation of charge transport in diamond. Dimitrovl. and inelastic scattering processes. Initially.com ing rates for the elastic and the inelastic (calculated with . surface effects at both metal coated and NEA sur- wide range of charge carrier energies. Moreover. requires two orders of magnitude less laser power. The ability to sim- cathode (DAP) has demonstrated the potential to address ulate both secondary electron generation and charge trans- the need for high peak and average current. tions [9] at low energies (f'. For the elastic scat- duced secondary electrons is generally much larger than tering in the medium energy range we used the rates given * We are grateful to the US DoE for supporting this work under the in Ref. A. concentration and type of impu- elastic. and is expected to have a long lifetime in comparison to existing photo-cathodes. Cary. These are the primary electrons that are accelerated electrons in diamond with medium range of energies (from to energies of about 10 keY before impacting a diamond about 50 eV to 10 keV) was treated by considering elastic window. phonon. Diamond tron bunches with low emittance and energy spread. The diamond amplified photo. 7] and considered ficiently high energy can also participate in such inelastic secondary electron generation effects with it [5]. The algorithms include characteristics (thickness. J. Large num- is a key component of the proposed luminosity upgrade bers of the secondary electrons are transported through the for RHIC. Boulder. Upton. ing to the generation of secondary electrons and holes. When these primary electrons enter into the dia. we implemented first the Ash- secondary electron or a hole that is produced with a suf. Q. the DAP has proceedings). To address and discussed. for simulation of INTRODUCTION secondary electron generation and charge transport in dia- mond. scattering leading to generation of secondary electrons and plifier was recently proposed [1] and is currently under ac. T. USA I. processes. X. Rao. 8]. The free charged carriers also experience inelastic scattering involving the emission The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) contributes or absorption of phonons (lattice excitations). to generation of secondary electrons and holes [6. R. E. However. Wu. agreement [8] with the rates from band-structure calcula- ate additional e-h pairs. the free electrons and wide range of ions. D. we have been developing models. the total number of pro. requires the acceleration of high-charge elec- diamond and emitted from one of its surfaces. Results from simula- faces) and how a diamond amplifier couples to the overall tions using the implemented capabilities will be presented operation of the complete photoinjector system. [6. ley model described by Ziaja et al. in these future accelerator-based systems. Recently. Smedley. Chang. The short time scale (of the order of 100 fs) dynamics of ode. with the latter leading mond. Keister. opment of such an electron source.J 10 eV). they experience inelastic scattering processes lead. Dimitrov et al. A novel electron cooling section. this problem. and daries and their transport in diamond samples with different for charge transport in diamond. Here. These we also implemented the TPP-2 optical model for the in- inelastic scattering processes continue until none ofthe free elastic scattering that produces scattering rates in better electrons and holes has sufficiently high energy to gener. Ben-Zvi. MODELING SECONDARY ELECTRON The idea for the DAP operation consists of generating GENERATION AND TRANSPORT first a beam of electrons using a conventional photocath. The elec- developed concept of a high quantum efficiency photoin- trons are emitted into the accelerating cavio/ of an electron jector with a diamond amplifier [1]. If an exter- fundamental advances to nuclear physics by colliding a nal field is applied in the diamond. 3]. A. [8] but our implementation [5] is based on methods DE-FG02-06ER84509 grant.. Any For the inelastic scattering. Tech-X Corp. we implemented models for the inelastic A new concept for a photo-cathode with a diamond am.

05 to 10 MV/m. imp.. mal emittance). For comparison. 1 at T = 300 K.J.___L_. imp. study [5] and present only new results from the transport simulations here.--L-~._. The data plotted in Fig.18 s) was used during the creation of the out including the electron-phonon scattering. ondary electron generation with this model in a previous tic) scattering processes.. free electrons have energies close to the bottom of time interval. Charge transport cannot be simulated accurately with. 1 shows that in the medium electron energy range.. t2Emit to handle all scattering processes (it also includes null col- lisions [10] to increase the efficiency). f3Emit We have implemented a general Monte Carlo algorithm f2Ab. The total propagation time of these simulations acoustic phonons we implemented Monte Carlo algorithms was approximately 20 ps. 1~. Decreasing the temper. these models approximate the energy bands locity obtained with the phonon scattering models on the with a parabolic dependence on the electron wave vector applied external field magnitudes' in a range values from and have ellipsoidal constant energy surfaces. For the simulations described here. ically of 24 x 24 x 24 cells.. We specifically studied the dependence of the drift ve- In diamond..... We reported effects related to the sec- electron-phonon (low energy inelastic) and impurity (elas.. Both in. [11]) at two concentrations is also shown together with the electron-phonon scattering rates. The rates for the emission and absorption of acous.. ature of diamond reduces these rates [11].. shown in the bottom plot of Fig.L.. J.JL.L.======~----... The domain was split into a three-dimensional grid..J.1 Energy (eV) 10 ELECTRON TRANSPORT SIMULATIONS In this Section. '" .-. the rates for secondary electron gen- eration and for elastic scattering are several orders of mag- nitude larger than the electron-phonon and charged impu- rity scattering ones.: : : : : : ~t tering [9] from the periodic potential of the carbon ions as _.7 keY. The free (conduction band) electrons in diamond also ex..L.L_l. Phonon scattering was not enabled during this fields. ify that the models can describe the transport of electron . the VORPAL data the conduction band and drift with temperature effectively was dumped. This is a range of interest for use in tervalley and intravalley electron-phonon processes are in.J 10 1 E(eV) eV and lower) the secondary electron generation rates are comparable to the electron-phonon rates. respectively. a small time step ties. However.the TPP-2 model) processes are shown in the top plot of tic phonons and the three optical phonons considered are Fig. mean free times of the low energy scattering processes).L----L. _. At low toseconds..L-.-or------.. deDII. In between scatter- ing events.._____JI. secondary electrons (to resolve the mean free time for these tic processes lead to additinal relaxation of the the electron processes) which happens during the first few hundred fem- energies to reach the drift state in an applied field.. we discuss representative results from simulations with the implemented models on electron" Figure 1: The top plot shows the inelastic scattering rates transport after secondary electrons and holes are generated for generation of secondary electrons and holes (calculated using one of the models for inelastic scattering. the particle-in-cell algorithms in VORPAL [4] provide the capability to self-consistently move particles interacting with electromagnetic fields... The bottom plot shows the rates for energy of 2. At the end of this interval. diamond amplified photo-cathodes. with a cell edge size of 0. deDII..1 tice excitations) and elastic scattering from charged impuri.L_J. at low electron energies (10 1013L. the rates for scattering of electrons from charged impuri- ties (using the model from Ref. t3Ab.. typ- perience low-energy inelastic scattering with phonons (lat...L. 1. (usually 8 x 10. and to enable scattering of the free charged carriers with For the low-energy inelastic scattering with optical and phonons.I..L...l-.. based on the models given by Jacoboni and Reggiani [11].L. The 9 and f type rates are for transitions between parallel and perpendicular valleys.. 0. Our goal was to ver- cluded.1m. the input file modified to increase the time equal to the temperature of the diamond crystal (a highly step (for faster simulation runs while still resolving the desirable property for generation of beams with low ther. We used from the TPP-2 model) together with the elastic rates in the the Ashley model for the results here and primary electron medium energy range.__l.64e20 tom of the conduction band does not include elastic scat- 10 14 :.----L--l-.01 0. Note that mod- 10 15 r. . 8e2O eling of electron transport with energies close to the bot- •• . g3Abs _ g3Emit done for the medium energy range [6]... These inelas. « •. 1.

P. and T. secondary electron cascades in diamond. The relaxation time 3. 1. Hajdu. electron-phonon scattering is shown in Fig. Phys. 97:064905-1/9. Ito. The dependence of the average electron drift velocity [9] T. Auger- electron cascades in diamond and amorphous carbon. T. Smedley. These val. 6 10 12 t Ips) REFERENCES [1] I. Ziaja. Kamakura. Segalov. BNL. (given in the legend). 2005 Particle Accelerator Conference. Z. Rao. Hajdu. B. D. Q. T. The results show that it takes of the order of a few pi. and J. These simulations test the implemented electron-phonon scattering models. i 0 • [5] D. IEEE. Figure 3: The obtained average electron drift velocity vs 66:024116-1/9. [8] B. Ziaja. L. We presented results from trans- port simulations to determine the electron drift velocity de- pendence on the applied field. Accelerator Conference. Phys. [7] B. Taniguchi on the applied field magnitude obtained from the VOR. Reggiani The Monte Carlo method for the solution of charge transport in semiconductors with ap- SUMMARY plications to covalent materials Rev. band-structure Monte Carlo simulation results given bridge University Press. Monte Carlo simulations of electron transport properties of PAL simulations with the models we implemented for the diamond in high electric fields using full band structure 1. R. number 2251- coseconds to reach the steady state. Rao. Hajdu. Ben-Zvi. Dimitrov. 2002. Mod. Grimes. Segalov. Electric Field Magnitude (MV/m) Rev. Phys. Cam- tailed. 2044-6. and 1. WU Recent Progress on the Dia- mond Amplified Photo-cathode Experiment In 2007 Particle • '. and transport in diamond. The relaxation behavior of the drift velocity to steady Measurement of the secondary emission yield of a thin di- state from simulations at two field values is shown Fig. A. 2004.6 for the fields of interest. 3555-7. X.8 velocity obtained from VORPAL agrees well with experi- ~ mental data and more detailed band-structure calculations '=0. 1.s 0. Rao. 1. editor. 95:4866-74. T. Burrill. pp.4 ~ are adequate to simulate electron transport in diamond for studying DAP properites. D. Fundamentals of Carrier Transport.. Smedley.2 from diamond surfaces with negative electron affinities and effects related to trapping of electrons in diamond. 64(214104-1/8). Jacoboni and L. 2000. Chang. 1. J. Y. London.. J. Szoke. In future developments. S. by Watanabe et ale [9]. I. Horak. 2. C-AD Acceler- indicate the rate of convergence to the (time) average values ator Physics Report C-A/AP/149. Johnson. amond window in transmission mode. [2] X. Q. Chang. Appl. Szoke. Nieter and 1. X. Chang. Kewisch. 1983. 2005. 3. VORPAL: a versatile plasma simu- i 105 • lation code. and K. Wu 3D Simulations of ~ Secondary Electron Generation and Transport in a Diamond ~ • Amplifier for Photocathodes In 2007 Particle Accelerator Conference. T. We described here the overall modeling capabilities we have implemented within the VORPAL computational . A. decreases when increasing the applied field. 64:645-705. R. Hulbert. [4] C. Watanabe. 1. Unified model of port in diamond agrees well with experimental data. T. IEEE. This gives us confidence that ~ g • the electron-phonon models we implemented in VORPAL . applied field from VORPAL simulations of electron trans. Appl. [3] X. 2007. Smedley. Figure 2: The drift velocity evolution at two applied fields Secondary emission enhanced photoinjector. A. B. Phys. Busby. pp. IEEE. we will ~ investigate how to incorporate models of electron emission ~ 0. Z. Chang. and J. 1. Ben-Zvi. 196:448-473. Bruhwiler. D. 2004.2005. second edition. Cary. 1. Lundstrom. Space- time evolution of electron cascades in diamond. A. 1. Burrill. Teraji. Phys. Cary. • 0. Rev. D. 2004. 0 . P. van der Spoel.clouds with drift velocities in agreement with experimental framework for simulation of secondary electron generation measurements for this range of applied fields. [10] M. R. Zhao. van der Spoel. Ziaja. 2001. In C. ues agree well with experimental data and the more de.2007. [11] C. The drift 0. 1. Rao. Ben-Zvi. A.. Kewisch. and Y. R. Comput. Ben- Zvi. D. Phys.1 1 10 [6] B. A. Johnson.

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Tulsa. Early devices depended upon metal oxides of various sorts and those materials exhibited secondary electron emission in the range of 4 to 8 fold multiplication of initial electron input. scintillation counting. so that the oscillatory multiplication of electrons will continue under self-power and without any further input of electricity from outside sources. When an electrode coated with emissive material is bombarded with electrons then it emits additional electrons in a multiplicative manner. radar jamming and a multiplicity of other devices. Oscillator-Generator Powered by Secondary Electron Emission By Bruce Darrow Gaither. It is further an objective of the invention to apply part of the electrons so multiplied as feedback to the input of the vacuum tube. and it is upon this foundation that the present invention depends. Numerous subsequent inventions applied the secondary emission phenomena to various uses. Oklahoma The instant invention discloses a generator of electricity which is produced by a self-oscillating electron multiplier wherein the startup power is replaced by secondary electron emission. . signal amplification. Austin and Starke reported that the metal surfaces impacted by cathode rays emitted a larger number of electrons than were incident. The technique of coating electrodes in tubes with materials which exhibit a high secondary emission coefficient continues to today. In the 1930’s radio tubes began to apply secondary emission materials in vacuum tubes to amplify signals and multiply electrons. In 1902. It is a purpose of the present application to present an oscillator which will amplify the initial input of electrons through the use of secondary emission coatings on the electrodes. such as film sound.

the electrodes which impinge upon the anode may be extracted from the tube and applied to output. In either . Cathodes were placed on each end of the tube and a positively-biased anode was placed in the middle. classic tube designs have been given a new vitality by the advances in materials and component parts. The present device improves upon the configuration disclosed by the Farnsworth Multipactor Oscillator and Amplifier. A higher secondary emission coefficient results in an additional multiplication of initial electron input. and that means that a greater portion of the multiplied electrons can be diverted from the output of vacuum tubes and reapplied to the input of the tube.Since the 1930’s new materials and configurations have been tested and modern secondary emission materials can exhibit secondary emission coefficients as high as 60-100 fold multiplication. If the anode is in the form of a ring then the focused stream of electrons are attracted in the direction of the anode but their focus causes them to miss the ring and instead pass through the bullseye and then continue toward the second electrode. The cathodes on each end were then continually reversed in polarity. The instant invention constitutes an improvement upon the classic configuration because the modern materials allow the oscillator to be used as a generator of electricity while the device is being powered by it’s own internally-produced current. This serves to focus the stream of electrons as they near the midpoint of the tube where the positively charged anode is located. The electromagnetic lens is still used. Thus. and then they were reversed in charge. In either configuration of the anode. In the various devices employing that configuration cathodes and anodes were coated with secondarily emissive materials. so that one end was negative while the other was positive. Wound around the outside of the vacuum tube is an electrical coil. This change in polarity was accomplished at a frequency which resulted in initial electron input being multiplied as it bounced back and forth between the electrodes. The anode may also be formed of a conductive substance in the form of a wire mesh. so that outside power sources can be turned off once the device is started.

So the time of the cycle of the electricity applied from the outside to the two cathodes must be twice the time of flight for the cloud of electrons. once they pass all they way through the tube and strike the other cathode. in one location at any time. of course. It should be noted that the electrons. Philo Farnsworth patented many secondary emission devices. They occupy an amorphous space between the electrodes. The cloud of electrons is not.5 centimeters apart. Thus the problem of phase control between the travel time of the cloud and the frequency of the applied voltage can never be exact. The relationship between the travel time for the electron clouds of secondary electrons and the frequency of the oscillation of the cathodes is important. and applied frequency to the cathodes was 30 megahertz and 100 megahertz that the secondary . Nevertheless it is important to keep the two frequencies in phase as much as possible. multiply and produce another cloud of electrons which are thereupon accelerated toward the first cathode. He remarked that in a tube where the two cathodes were 5. But the frequency of the movement of the electron cloud tends to predominate over the applied voltage to a certain extent. The electron movement and the frequency of the alternating polarity to the cathodes needs to be in phase so that the oscillations of the tube itself will continue. Eventually space charge will build up to the point that an equilibrium level will be reached within the tube. including oscillators. The cycle of endless multiplication results in a flow toward the anode due to the increased electron density.ring or grid anode configuration there is provided ample room for the electrons to pass through and for the anode to be permeable to electrons. Electrostatic beam focusing by using a coil wound around the middle of the tube will tend to lessen the space charge by minimizing the spread of the electrons as they near the anode in the center. and the anode will tend to extract electrons in each half cycle in an amount equal to the excess of secondary of primary electrons.

So any configuration of the instant invention would involve an optimal combination of these two competing design considerations. so that it is referred to as a ladder. 2.071. These electronic components are cheap and readily available on the open market. They are designed to take a low voltage and to step it up to a high voltage.580 granted August 30. As stated in US patent 2. methods of causing such oscillations in various modes having been described in the patents of Philo T. in general. But the battery will supply the power necessary to energize the Cockroft-Walton circuit . No. 2.168. Each succeeding stage doubles the voltage from the previous stage and simultaneously cuts the previous amperage in half. of great simplicity. with the voltage applied to the tube. Atomic accelerators used this kind of voltage multiplier to achieve high voltages for their early-day experiments. In general.052. 1937.516 granted February 23.128. while a larger oscillator makes space charge saturation less of a factor. and No. ease of starting oscillation and stability of oscillation when started in tubes of this character increases with the size of the tube. A simple battery can be used to provide the needed power for the present invention. and with the current drawn. Farnsworth. “It is now well known that multipactors or electron multipliers can be made to generate self- sustaining oscillations. usually involving merely a parallel resonant circuit connecting two of the elements of the tube. among others.” As a general design consideration a smaller transit distance for the electrons makes it easier to accelerate the electrons. together with a source of direct current and potential for supplying the primary energy. The well-known configuration tends to double the voltage at each step. 1938. with a Cockroft-Walton voltage multiplier being interposed between the battery and the tube in order to step up the voltage to the required level. This kind of ladder voltage multiplier is composed of a series of capacitors and diodes. within reasonable limits.emission oscillator required input power of 350 volts and 800 volts respectively. Circuits utilized in causing these tubes to generate such oscillations are.

Figure One illustrates the basic configuration of the oscillator tube. A battery or other current source is located at the bottom of the diagram in Figure One. The type of oscillator circuits used by the Farnsworth inventions can be replaced by modern crystal oscillators or ceramic oscillators. semiconductors and transistors replace the old fashioned circuits in the prior art.which then makes a bias of positive polarity for the anode in the oscillator. Therefore the current osciallator tube is an improvement over the prior art. Thus. The anode.. The input current travels from the battery to a clock frequency transistor or chip which impresses the current with a frequency of either fixed or variable timing. and the mere maintenance of the anode in positive bias tends to attract free electrons without input of additional electrons. is located on the other end of the vacuum tube. meaning that the number of electrons are increased. The oscillator multiplies power. which are ubiquitous and cheap today. is located in the middle of the tube and it is always charged with a positive bias. 1. part of the output is used. In addition. The device tends to be self- oscillating once it begins operating. 2. 3. is negative in the initial cycle of the oscillator. The second cathode. DETAILED DESCRIPTION In the drawings. and the amperage increased. new coating materials result secondary emission coefficients ten or twenty times higher than the materials used in the original Farnsworth oscillators. if necessary to power the frequency resonant circuit which flip-flops the cathode polarity. The first cathode. Then the clock frequency is fed to a flip-flop chip or transistor which serves to divide the frequency into two outputs. one at the top of the cycle and one at the . Part of the multiplied output of the oscillator is used to recharge the battery. and is charged positively on the first cycle. The regime of the oscillator is to use low voltage for the cathodes and high voltage for the positive anode.

The only difference was that there was an additional cup placed behind the active cathodes to help catch the stray electrons after impact. with one anode and four cathodes. Figure Two shows a modification of the present device in which output from the oscillator tube is reapplied to the input sequence. Electrons are emitted from the negative cathode at each step. Said prior art is disclosed in Figure Four and constitutes one of the possible modifications of the current invention. equipped however with improved emissive coatings and miniaturized components. One cathode is positive while the other is negative at all times. 3. at the applied frequency.bottom. So a positive charge is applied to one cathode while a negative charge is sent to the other cathode. is positive while cathode. the polarity of those cathode inputs is alternated. Electrons are emitted from the negative cathode and are attracted and accelerated toward the positively-charged anode. in which cathode. is positive at step one. PATENT HISTORY US 2091439 FARNSWORTH . 2. So the original cloud of electrons merely drifts without acceleration and they eventually orbit toward the positive anode. is negative and cathode 3. where they are extracted and sent to output. Farnsworth sometimes found it convenient to make a tube with five electrodes instead of three. The multiplied cloud is another cloud and it is the cloud which goes back in the other direction. But the oscillator tube worked the same way. When the electrodes so accelerated impact the other cathode with sufficient velocity then secondary electrons are emitted. So a cloud of say fifty or sixty electrons bounces off the second cathode and that cathode is then attracted toward the positive anode. 2. is negative in the second half-cycle. 2. Then. 1. and then the poles reverse and the cathode. After the first cloud of electrons hits the cathode then that cloud is no longer accelerated. Figure Three is a diagram of the basic oscillation cycle. and the other cathode. 1.

US 2138920 HOLLMANN US 2143378 KALLMANN US 2168052 SNYDER GB 451866 PERCIVAL GB 503359 FARNSWORTH TELEVISION .

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photomultipliers. the secondary emission materials exhibit differing emissive characteristics depending upon the spectra of radiation with which they are bombarded. Presently batteries have been employed for this purpose. Microwave wireless systems or solar power have also been proposed as means to recharge the batteries.Self-Charging Cellphones and PDA’s regenerated by Secondary Electron Emission By Bruce Darrow Gaither. well logging devices. Also. The different kinds of secondary electron emissive materials have been developed and these various materials multiply the bombarding electrons at their own coefficient of emission. night vision goggles and digital tv display devices. . and the voltage used to accelerate the bombarding electrons is known to be a major variable in these devices. The principle of secondary electron emission has been known since Austin and Starke reported that the metal surfaces impacted by cathode rays emitted a larger number of electrons than were incident in 1902. The present invention discloses a method and apparatus for first recharging batteries. Radio and television tubes starting in the 1930’s employed secondary emission materials and numerous devices and applications using electron multiplication have been devised. Oklahoa The proliferation of innumerable handheld devices such as cell phones and personal desk assistants has created a need for a longlasting method of powering said devices. and secondly to power the device during usage and simultaneous recharging of the battery. Tulsa. Certain materials exhibit an electron multiplication effect when they are bombarded with high velocity electrons. such as radiation detectors.

and then the multiplied electrons generate electricity to power the device and to recharge the battery while it is being used by an individual. When the heat image is received the electrode multiplies that signal until it can be made into a visible light image and transmitted to the goggle eyepieces. . The initial electrons gathered from the infrared source need to be accelerated to high enough velocity to maximize the secondary emission. But some materials are not emissive to visible light. such as a Cockroft-Walton circuit can increase the voltage of the battery to a high enough bias to attract the incoming electrons. so a battery is used to power an anode with a positive charge bias. The emissive materials on the electrode then multiply that signal. The instant device employs the same characteristic of the human body to emit infrared radiation. The human body is known to emit infrared radiation due to its’ heat. Part of the electrons so gathered goes to recharge said battery and part of the current goes to meet the power requirements of the handheld device.Figure One below details the known characteristics of various secondarily emissive materials as to the wavelength of the light to which the materials respond with electron multiplication. but they multiply electrons which are in the infrared light spectrum. A voltage multiplier. Thus the cell phone or PDA will not run short of charge while it is being held by the individual. When the electrons strike the emissive surface then they are gathered and the effect is a multiplication of CURRENT. The applications of secondary emissive materials to night vision goggles provides the principle upon which the current invention is based. When the device is held in the hand or placed in a pocket near the body it becomes irradiated with infrared radiation. Thus. some materials are known to multiply electrons at the wavelength which corresponds to visible light. These goggles apply light which strikes the emissive surfaces in the infrared range. and the battery will recharge by the self- produced current from electron multiplication.

Photomultiplier Handbook.Figure One. Burle Industries. Table 1 .

478.149 Fijol 05/1992 ABSTRACT A small initial current is sent through an electron multiplier which is self-energized.902 Malik 10/1983 4.135.687 Quam 12/1950 3.190 Evankow 07/1986 5.404 Simon 10/1972 4.128.645 Farnsworth 11/1938 2.408 Goodrich 04.117. SECONDARY EMISSION POWER MODULE FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE By Bruce Darrow Gaither Tulsa.602.699.174.487 Farnsworth 09/1939 2.342 Catanese 08/1977 4.041.410.213 Simon 11/1969 3. Once the multiplier is in operation the input current is shut off and said multiplier then supplies electricity to a second electron multiplier which is a multistage device. Multiple steps of electron multiplication occur until sufficient electricity is obtained to energize an electric motor which powers an automobile./1964 3. Oklahoma US PATENT DOCUMENTS 2. .553.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The instant disclosure relates to the subject of electric cars. but the current invention improves the state of the art by providing for a power system based upon secondary electron emission similar to the photomultipliers manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics and the classic Multipactor tubes invented by Philo Farnsworth. . In this instance an initial current is sent through a current multiplier which is scaled to a degree which is designed to dovetail with the requirements of the electric motor. Usually such motors will have requirements for electricity which can be expressed in terms of volts and amps. Thus. but this disclosure is meant to include all possible variations thereof without limitation by the illustrations or descriptions hereinafter used by the inventor. and any combination of batteries. alternators or electric generators (whether powered by gasoline or electricity) will satisfy the power requirements of the electric motor which turns the wheels of the car. Usually the electric automobile is powered by an array of 12 volt batteries. An electric motor is a device which is well known to those acquainted with the art. the hereinafter-described invention is meant to be a general description of the invention and it is not meant to foreclose all possible permutations or variations of the invention which may be configured to meet the requirements of any particular electric motor.

etc. the multiplicative effect of successive cathode/anode combinations with each step being higher than unity.0 (electrons emitted/electrons inserted) it is called "greater than unity". would continue to multiply electrons without the addition of any external power. Thus. Philo T.. But if a hot cathode or a battery-powered or Ac-powered input were used to initiate the process that the level of input would be constant and the multiplication effect would be linear. so as to use a regenerative feedback. which. When these substances are exposed to a stream of electrons then they emit electrons on their own. A long list of other substances. Thus. These radio tubes found a number of applications in other fields of early electronics. designed a number of devices employing secondary emission and which featured multiple impacts of electrons upon anodes within a vacuum tube. It has been long known that certain substances exhibit a "secondary electron emissivity" when they are bombarded with electrons. including the field of television.. Based upon this data the golden age of radio employed vacuum tubes which depended upon the process of secondary emission. The initial electric current for this device may be visible light. and then the mutliplied electrons are finally subjected to transformers or voltage regulators to more closely guarantee a constant current of the desired quantity and quality for the use of the electric motor. finally produced a huge multiplication of the initial current. when an element or alloy emits electrons in a ratio greater than 1. In one such device Farnsworth calculated that he could produce over 4 times the initial number of electrons on each successive impact. Some of these elements in an amount greater than unity. Substances such as Cesium and Magnesium were found to emit secondary electrons in a ratio of up to 8 times the number of initial electrons by which they were bombarded. He termed these devices "multipactors" for the multiple impacts upon the secondary emissive materials. He noted that in a cold-cathode configuration wherein light was used to trigger a photo-emission to start this device that the input would be of a variable and not a constant or predictable level. .There is presented a current multiplier which may be fabricated in the form of a vacuum tube or a semiconductor device or a combination of the two. a small current initiates the process and a multiplication process occurs which increases the number of electrons to the desired level. or a current from a battery or generator. This device resulted in a self-sustaining multipactor. The current is conveyed through one or more cathode/anodes and is multiplied thereby until the current meets the needs of the electric motor of the vehicle. and that the output would vary according to the input. alloys and layered combinations of metals and other elements have been described. once it is started. as in the manner of the photocathodes of Hamamatsu. In the days of radio tubes a number of such substances were studied carefully and their secondary emissivity charted. and that if he fabricated a vacuum tube containing multiple such impacts in succession then he could generate 4x4x4x4. the inventor of television. Farnsworth. Then Farnsworth invented a device which took part of the output of the secondary emission cathodes and anodes and then reapplied it to the input of the device. Thus.

This has likewise been the case with secondary emission devices. of an emitted photoelectron. It is for this reason that the device. a battery can be used to provide the initial current for this target charging. In some configurations the target electrode may need to be charged to a positive potential that exceeds the potential of the emitting electrode so that the electrons will be attracted at the target with sufficient speed to penetrate the secondary emissive material sufficiently to initiate electron multiplication. cannot be termed a perpetua mobilia device. Einstein's law is that theorem which describes the work function involved in the process of photoemission. The state of the art in photomultipliers (PMTs) has also evolved into smaller and more efficient devices. whether they are in tubes or semiconductor chips. though self-energized. the evolving devices must still be enclosed in a vacuum envelope. But secondary emissive materials of a very low work function or of a negative electron affinity will tend to negate the need of charging the target electrode to a positive potential. Heating occurs in the multiplication of electrons by secondary emission. The well-recognized principle of secondary emission over unity merely provides scintillation to the initial tube once it is already in operation. In any event. and the potential can be regulated by using a Cockroft-Walton circuit to produce a sufficient potential as desired for the target electrode. In those configurations of the current invention wherein light is to be used to stimulate photo- emission to trigger the multiplication. The self-energization is a function of the heat generated and low work function of the specialized materials. then additional devices and circuits must be employed to assure the predictable and constant linear multiplication required to power the electric motor. and is not violative of the laws of thermodynamics. In the work which won Einstein the Nobel Prize he determined the amount of kinetic energy. As the state of the art progressed most of the radio tubes were replaced with semiconductor devices which performed the same function. Sufficient cooling must be provided in the form of air or water cooling. and because the atmosphere is insulative and not conductive to electricity. The multipactor tube was microengineered and placed on a semiconductor chip. but due to the characteristics of cesium which deteriorates in the atmosphere.The design of these Farnsworth multipactor tubes is included in the Figures below and the aforestated Farnsworth patents are incorporated herein by reference as if fully set forth herein. E. E=hv-phi . These elements are not discussed or included in this patent disclosure. In the instant device the output desired is to be of a constant and predictable level. so there is provided a non-photonic initial input in some configurations.

is one which has a very low work function. the band levels at the surface can be bent downward so that the effective electron affinity is actually negative. Such devices may include transformers. The best coatings for the cathode/anode combinations.Where hv is the energy quanta of the light and phi is the amount of energy requried for the electron to escape the surface of the metal. A number of other substances were thereafter discovered to exhibit this negative electron affinity and therefore exhibit extremely elevated levels of secondary emissivity multipaction. Sometimes the current may pick up a ripple in this multiplication process and need to be . In the case of photoemission. So Gallium Phosphide. expressed in terms of "Gain" increase as the amount of input electricity is increased. By suitably treating the surface of a p-type semiconductor material. magnetic amplifiers or operational amplifiers might be applied in this fine-tuning process. voltage regulators. it has been possible to achieve extended-red and infrared sensitivities greater than those obtainable with any other known materials. thus providing a much greater secondary-emission yield. In the case of secondary emission. Cockroft-Walton circuits or other ladder circuits.E. it is desirable for the "work function" to be minimized in order for more energy to be liberated by the secondary emission material. treated with Cesium was the subject of this initial discovery of Negative Electron Affinity. In addition to the control of the input levels of electricity devices extrinsic to the secondary emission devices can fine tune the current produced so that the final product is of the levels desired to power the electric motor of the car. Thermalized electrons in the conduction band are normally repelled by the electron-affinity barrier. Thus the energy emitted by the secondary emission substance is equal to the energy of the light MINUS the "work function" required for the electron to escape the metal. Many of these multiplication levels. But there was devised an effect which made this work function process much more efficient by making a NEGATIVE subtraction. then. Various means then exist whereby the gain from the initial input current can be controlled.5 kV for GaP:Cs. secondary electrons can be created at greater depths in the material and still escape. Simon and Williams An early paper by described the theory and early experimental results of secondary emission yields as high as 130 at 2. Electron affinity is the energy required for an electron at the conduction-band level to escape to the vacuum level. which in effect ADDED to the energy quanta of the light. Simon while working at the RCA Laboratories developed his revolutionary concept of Negative Electron Affinity (NEA). the advantage of the NEA materials is that these electrons can now escape into the vacuum as they approach the surface. Therefore. In the early 1960’s. The first practical application of the NEA concept was to secondary emission. R. as Einstein described. So increasing the input to the cathode/anode pairs will further enhance the multiplication effect.

This will assure a reliable and constant amount of electricity which will make it easier to produce a linear amplification of the intial input. In this part of the process the materials employed shall be of the type similar to the Gallium Phosphide (Cs). Then the second step would be 100 times 100.487 (1937). which can also include Gallium Arsenide or Gallium Nitride.000 or a multiplication of 1 million from the initial input of the . an array of tubes and/or semiconductor devices.smoothed by other devices or circuits. Once the self-energized tube is multiplying electrons then that output us conveyed to the input of secondary emission devices employing negative electron affinity and which multiply electrons at a much higher rate of gain. and applying a calculation based upon a gain of 100 to 1 for each step we can easily determine that the first step would produce 100 times as many electrons as are input from the self-energized electron multiplier. In this disclosure Farnsworth describes that it is easier to start this device than it is to get it to stop. Thus. and other extrinsic devices which do not employ secondary emission but which serve to modulate and regulate the signal which ultimately results from the secondary devices and which extrinsic devices are employed to shape the current to meed the needs of the electric motor.174. Although a solar cell or photocathode could be used to provide the initial jumpstart for the device.135. then. A third step would be 100 times 10. once the self-energized vacuum tube gets warmed up it will continue to multiply electrons on its own and the power source can be turned off in order to save the batteries. including synthetic diamond. Such a module includes a power source. In the manner of the multistage multipactor of Philo Farnsworth. US Patent 2. can be recharged by the ultimate output of the module while the secondary emission process of multiplication is carried on using internally-produced power. Using Gallium Phosphide as an example. The first of the array of secondary emission devices shall be of the type described by Philo Farnsworth in his Self-Energized Alternate Current Multiplier. the preferred embodiment should use a battery in the range of 12-15 volts. or 10. The batteries. In order to insure that the electrons will not scatter before they hit their target electrodes. a multistage process is then initiated. DETAILED DESCRIPTION This invention discloses a module which is designed to produce electric current sufficient to power an electric motor for an automobile. a magnetic focusing device may be provided in the space between the emitter and the target electrode.615. or other materials which shall not be described here. and said magnetic device may be either a permanent magnet or electromagnet whose purpose is to deflect and confine the beam of electrons. but these devices are all well-known to those acquainted in the art and need not be discussed here. US Patent 2.000 times as many electrons.

Also the desired level of multiplication is known from the specifications of the electric motor to ultimately be powered. is vital to the need for accelerating voltage. The greater the number of multiple electrodes the more involved the accelerating voltage apparatus will be. the present invention applies the prior art involving a self-energized multipactor tube which then provides power for a second tube. Thus. If this accelerating voltage is required in the instant invention then the output of the electron multiplier tube can be used to recharge said battery so that the accelerating voltage can be applied as needed indefinitely and without the need for external power. the second tube in the present invention may not need to be a multistage tube. small variations in the signal will likewise be multiplied and can result in undesirable effects. This means that. with part of the power of the secondary tube being used to either power a battery for the accelerating voltage CW circuit. or the initial self-energized multipactor can have part of its output diverted to power the CW circuit. This biasing voltage should either meet or exceed the charge on the incoming electrons. If . depending upon the materials and the motor. The graphs and formulas provided from the Hamamatsu PMT handbook demonstrate that it is common for such devices to exhibit gains in the range of 106 to 108. At lower levels such an intermediate modulation extrinsic device might not need to be employed. At multiplication levels of this degree then. The selection of materials. A voltage regulator or transformer or smoothing circuit can be employed at this stage. and the problem of accelerating voltage may be eliminated or lessened to a large degree. In these devices a battery is sometimes used to provide a biasing charge to the target electrode to attract the incoming electrons of opposite charge. Where the voltage is required the current from a battery may pass through a Cockroft- Walton circuit and be tapped at the appropriate step of the ladder to supply the voltage required to each particular electrode. Therefore it is possible that an extrinsic device or circuit be interposed between the self- energized device tube and the negative electron affinity device in order to modulate and regulate the output of the Farnsworth device and assure. In the case of a single electrode with coating of very low work function or of negative electron affinity the accelerating voltage field may be foregone completely. as much as possible.self-energized electron multiplier device. and the remainder to supply the second electron multiplier tube. Thus. If a material is used which has a very high secondary emission gain then the device will be able to divide the current output therefrom and apply it to the accelerating voltage requirements. that the input of the higher multiplication device be constant and smooth. and part to recharge the battery. The operation of many electron multipliers and photomultipliers requires that an accelerating electric field be applied to the device so that the stream of electrons will hit the target electrodes with sufficient speed to penetrate the electrode and cause secondary emission. then. a separate kind of voltage multiplier such as a CW ladder is used to step up the voltage from a battery in order to charge the electrodes in the electron multiplier tube.

windshield wipers of the automobile. Thus. Such a secondary emission module will be capable of powering larger electric motors. and also to power the headlights. and it will not need to be plugged into Ac current overnight to recharge like the plug-in cars require. and then to recharge the battery. microdevices employing this principle sometimes create difficulties in the formation of sharp points at the micro level and in the creation of vacuum spaces on the semiconductors due to the fact that extremely high vacuum levels. Current dividers will also be employed so that the ultimate current from the secondary emission devices be divided into separate paths in order to first power the motor. The current invention represents an improvement over the current state of the art in electric automobiles because it will produce a small and lightweight and versatile power supply as compared with the bulky and heavy battery arrays employed at this time. Instead the instant invention will be completely self-contained and self-energized. It is clear that such levels of current can be obtained by a module containing the described array of secondary emission devices that the requirements for a simple electric motor might be obtained with considerable ease. MATERIALS Materials selected for their secondary electron emission properties may vary widely depending upon the degree of electron multiplication needed and the cost and difficulty in fabrication and deposition of these materials upon electrodes. will employ well-known devices which may step down the voltage or step up the amperage and change the frequency of the current to meet the needs of the motor. The module described herein. beyond the normal vacuum levels which would suffice for regular tubes. It will also constitute an improvement in that it will not need to be recharged every 40 miles like a single battery would. then. The savings in space and weight will enable the electric car to be smaller and more spacious to the passengers and allow more carrying space. with only an initial battery for start up being employed. Rectifiers may be employed to convert between AC and Dc and the current may be shaped and scaled to suit the needs of the battery charger and the auto electric devices respectively. thus advancing the art as to trucks and cargo vehicles and other work vehicles of heavier weights. a trade-off of design characteristics is indicated when it comes to the selection of materials for the secondary emission of electrons. In addition. and that battery being recharged after self-energization occurs. and will constitute an improvement over the golf cart type of electric cars. . The ultimate output of the secondary emission devices then will need to be adjusted so that the voltage and amperage requirements of the electric motor be matched as perfectly as possible.there is no accelerating voltage then there is no need for a separate power source for the Cockroft-Walton circuit which might be unnecessary.

A silver base which is then oxidized and coated with a thin layer of cesium was the preferred combination at one time due to the fact that it would be both photo-emissive and cathode-emissive. silver. The principle of negative electron affinity and the development of new materials and processes has expanded the range of possibilities and further elevated the gain of secondary emission possible. and this invention is meant to include all such secondary emission materials and negative electron affinity elements and processes for fabrication and assembly. whether stated herein or not. gold and others are commonly-known elements. As the graphs indicate in the figures below. the instant invention is not meant to be limited to a two-tube design and it may also include a single tube configuration or any other combination involving any number of tubes in cascade design. and for the negative electron affinity materials to be used in the second tube in the module. But the preferred configuration is to use the tradition cesium oxide coated with cesium for the first tube in the module due to the well-defined and predictable secondary emission performance in this three electrode configuration. It shows that Cesium and Magnesium are the highest. and also with Gallim Nitride and Cesium.000 volts. Next amalgams or alloys of the emissive materials are found to multiply the initial input of electrons at elevated levels. especially metals. with a secondary gain of about 8.Many materials. magnerisum. Recent advances have resulted in processes for the creation of thin films and coatings involving synthetic diamonds through the chemical vapor deposition of carbon upon substrates. Each of these materials carries with it a separate process for fabrication and assembly. So there is no single material combination which is proper in this design. Otherwise. So. Much higher levels of secondary emission have been attained through the use of Gallium Phosphide treated with Cesium. A complete rendition of these newer materials is unnecessary here. and that the steady output of the first tube is then to be applied to the second tube. copper. exhibit secondary emission of electrons. calcium. . In the drawings: FIGURE 1 is a chart showing the secondary emission yield versus primary electron energy for various metals. cesium. Llacer & Garwin of the Stanford Linear Accelerator have predicted a 1000 fold gain for Gallium Arsenide at primary voltages of 20. Likewise research into carbon nanotubes have created another branch of secondary emission materials. The reasoning here is that the first tube is to be used to create a steady and reliable power source which is internally-generated and self-energized. a configuration where another power source could apply current to a single multistage multipactor tube using negative electron affinity materials would be likewise generative of electricity and would suit the purposes of this invention.

reaching a peak of from 10^6 to 10^8--or one million to one hundred million fold multiplication due to secondary emission.FIGURE 2 is a short discussion of Einstein's Law. which describes the energy of an emitted photoelectron. Thus Gallium Phosphide treated with Cesium has a gain which increases with the increase in input boltage. This figure discusses the benefits of a multistaged series of secondary emission cathode-anodes. to feedback the multiplied current to power the multipactor once it has been started. The relevant fact in this discussion is that the energy emitted by a metal will be the initial energy minus the work function. FIGURE 8 is a diagram of the Farnsworth Self Energized multipactor and a description of the patent. The gain increases as the increase in supply voltage. known as a Silber Arrow. and explains how a million-fold multiplication can be obtained. is to be of similar design and configuration. This design has one cathode and two anodes. This design takes advantage of the multiplication of greater than unity of the secondary emissive materials. and comparing with Magnesium Oxide. as more fully discussed above. a classic body design which can be retrofitted with an electric motor powered by the present invention. and that self-sustaining operation of the device will result from back-coupling the output . FIGURE 4 is a graph which shows the gain of photomultipliers which have a negative electron affinity. has been chosen as the initial recipient for the instant invention's secondary emission module. This body type. FIGURE 3 is a chart which shows the secondary emission of newer. FIGURE 6 is a picture of a 1931 Pierce Arrow. a material with a low work function. Firgure 8a is a diagram and description of a multipactor oscillator by Farnsworth which explains that the multipactor design is capable of generation of large amounts of power. the secondary emission module. FIGURE 5 is a discussion of the methodology used for the figures used in Figure 4. Nikola Tesla retrofitted a 1931 Pierce Arrow with an electric motor. with said gain approaching 100 for this material. FIGURE 7 is a diagram and description of the 1938 Multipactor patent made by Philo Farnsworth. such as Cesium coated Silver Oxide. The second tube of the instant invention. but not a negative affinity material. materials which exhibit a Negative Electron Affinity. but without limitation as to the number of stages of multipaction employed and without reference to the particular materials to be used in these electrodes. powered by a secondary emission tube array and module.

which has even greater multiplicative power. FIGURE 10 is a perspective view of the instant invention. A power tube module where the first tube using secondary emission has a three electrod configuration. Figure 11 also contains a diagram of the circuit for the electric current and electrons of the module. with one cathode and two anodes. Then the power goes to a second multiplying stage by flowing through a negative electron affinity device. A power tube module wherein the first tube is self energized by virtue of regenerative feedback from one of the anodes and the fact that the initial start-up current is multiplied by the principle of secondary electron admission. A power tube module to provide the electricity requirements of an electric motor in an automobile or truck or other vehicle. 2. Once again the current is multiplied. The signal is then input into the second tube. The output of this self-energizing device then passes through a device which contains a regulator and modulator. FIGURE 11 is a diagram of tube one of the secondary emission module. 4. to an even higher degree. and the second tube makes use of this internally-generated current to provide the bulk of the needed current multiplication. Thus the first tube provides a regular and constant current which is self-generating. A variable capacitor and a choke coil are used to control the tube. CLAIMS What I claim is: 1. A power tube module for vehicles in which one tube employs the principle of secondary electron emission. FIGURE 9 is a flow chart which depicts the present invention. This figure depicts a two-tube configuration. 3. which then passes through a self-energized multipactor. placed in a concentric or coaxial arrangement. The power source initially actuates a self-energized multipactor. and then an ultimate current is obtained. . and finally the current is adjusted to fit the end desired--here an electric motor for a car. and that large amounts of power can be drawn down off of the intermediate electrodes before the electron emissions reach the final electrode. The second tube contains the newer negative electron affinity materials. showing a three- electrode configuration. and featuring one cathode and two anodes placed coaxially thereinside the cathode. It shows that a battery provides the initial supply. which may then be fine-tuned using a regulator and divider to dovetail the ultimate current to the end desired.of the tube to the input.

which battery can be switched off after the initial warmup of the first tube. 8. and which battery can be recharged by the ultimate output of the second tube. A power tube module wherein the first tube is self-energized and the remaining output thereof is applied to the second tube. .5. which then applies the principle of negative electron affinity to further optimize the process of secondary electron emission so that a multi-stage multipactor or Farnsworth tube is configured to multiply the initial input to a still greater degree. 6. and which power tube module can be operated for most of the time through the electrons internally produced and multiplied by said secondary electron emission principle. A power tube module wherein the first tube is self-energized after start-up and the remaining output of said first tube is then regulated and modulated to assure constancy and quality to signal and then said remaining output is applied to the second tube in the module. 7. A power tube module wherein the first tube powers the second tube which then multiplies the electron input to a great degree and then the output of the second tube is further regulated and modulated so that it will produce an electric current which closely meets the requirements of whichever electric motor is to be used to power the electric vehicle. A power tube module wherein the electrical current to initiate the process of secondary emission multiplication is provided by a battery.

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inventor . FIGURE 11 by Bruce Darrow Gaither.

semicircular or other unorthodox shapes. spiral. (3. This device is of a similar design to that of a cyclotron. which destroy synchronization between particle orbits and rf fields. Beam energy is limited by relativistic effects. few designs have been claimed which involve a secondary emission electron multiplier employing a circular accelerator. with a circular or toroidal vacuum chamber being the conduit in which charged particles are accelerated and extracted. home or business. CIRCULAR ACCELERATOR EMPLOYING SECONDARY ELECTRON EMISSION By Bruce Darrow Gaither Tulsa. Consequently it is an improvement on the prior art of cyclotrons. with most of them configured in a linear accelerator form. The operation of the uniform-field cyclotron [E. Numerous electron multipliers are known to the art. The containment and accelerating devices in the present disclosure are then much smaller and less expensive and complicated than those required for a large-scale cyclotron. Oklahoma The present invention discloses a circular accelerator employing secondary emission.39)] is independent of kinetic energy. The present invention is designed to provide a sufficient amount of current to power an electric auto. The instant invention is designed to generate electricity in a much smaller amount.A cyclotron has constant magnetic field magnitude and constant rf frequency. with some in undular. Science 72. Lawrence. Resonance between the orbital motion and an accelerating electric field can be achieved for ion kinetic energy that is small compared to the rest energy…. 0. Such cyclotrons have been reported to generate electricity in the millions of volts and to require complicated and expensive containment and accelerating magnets and electrostatic devices. . 376 (1930)] is based on the fact that the gyrofrequency for non- relativistic ions [Eq. such as the hundreds of volts. Heretofore.

radar jamming and a multiplicity of other devices. such as film sound. Stanley Humphries. signal amplification. The inside of the accelerating channel is coated with materials which exhibit an enhanced secondary electron emission coefficient due to their negative electron affinity. but this kind of secondary emission is caused by the unintended bombardment of the containing structure by the accelerated charged particles. Early devices depended upon metal oxides of various sorts and those materials exhibited secondary electron emission in the range of 4 to 8 fold multiplication of initial electron input. scintillation counting. Numerous subsequent inventions applied the secondary emission phenomena to various uses. Cyclotrons are characterized by large-area magnetic fields to confine ions from zero energy to the output energy Principles of Charged particle Accelerators. Austin and Starke reported that the metal surfaces impacted by cathode rays emitted a larger number of electrons than were incident. The instant disclosure details a device in which the inside of the toroidal channel is intentionally designed to multiply electrons through secondary electron emission. Secondary Electron Emission has been exhibited in cyclotrons from their inception. . Chapter 15. and it is upon this foundation that the present invention depends. and is not usually the result of plan or design. When an electrode coated with emissive material is bombarded with electrons then it emits additional electrons in a multiplicative manner. The virtue of cyclotrons is that they generate a continuous train of beam micropulses. In the 1930’s radio tubes began to apply secondary emission materials in vacuum tubes to amplify signals and multiply electrons. The technique of coating electrodes in tubes with materials which exhibit a high secondary emission coefficient continues to today. the cyclotron is useful only for ion acceleration.Therefore. In 1902.

.Since the 1930’s new materials and configurations have been tested and modern secondary emission materials can exhibit secondary emission coefficients as high as 60-100 fold multiplication. being negatively charged. is to accelerate the electron so that it attains sufficient velocity to trigger the secondary emission. Materials such as gallium phosphide. and said invention is not limited to construction or fabrication with any one kind of emissive coating. An electron. or others not directly discussed here. silver coated with cesium. magnesium coated with cesium. The accelerator principle calls for one electrode to be negative and the other positive. which is now positive. The two electrodes are semicircular in shape and they are separated by a small gap. then. and many more electrons are released. The present invention involves the use of two electrodes inside an evacuated toroidal channel. When it bombards the coated electrode the emissive coating causes electron multiplication. This cycle repeats itself at a sufficient frequency to assure high velocity in the ever-multiplying electron cloud. In this device a circular accelerator is used to attain that electron velocity. have demonstrated a low work function so as to exhibit enhanced secondary electron emission when bombarded with accelerated electrons. They again bombard the coated electrode at sufficient velocity to cause further multiplication. and for the polarities to reverse on a periodic basis. Then the polarity changes and the multiplied electrons are then attracted to the other electrode. gallium nitride. this application shall use carbon nanotubes or synthetic diamonds in a thin film as the exemplary emissive coating material. gallium arsenide. will be attracted to a positively charged electrode. So the negative electrode will release an electron which will be attracted toward the other electrode due to its positive charge. however. The instant device can operate with a coating of any of the above-mentioned materials. The key. When an electron encounters or bombards one of these emissive materials at a sufficient velocity then it liberates additional electrons from that material. For the sake of illustration. carbon nanotubes and synthetic diamonds. to name a few materials.

. The rotation of the electrons causes an increase in kinetic energy. Thus. This secondarily emissive wire mesh is charged positive throughout the cycle. the present invention amplifies both amperes and volts. As they travel their mass increases and the electrons rotate in a constantly increasing spiral toward the outside of the chamber. a third embodiiment of the present invention is to coat a grid or wire mesh with the materials exhibiting a high secondary emission coefficient. or by coating portions of the cathode dees with emissive materials. which is expressed in amperes. When the electrons reach the outer wall of the device they are extracted and the resulting current can be applied to output or as regenerative feedback to the accelerator. and it is a mesh which is permeable to the flow of the electrons to a sufficient extent to attract electrons. Power is a term which is defined as amperes multiplied by volts. The outer edge of said ring support structure can be used to extract current from the tube and divert it to the outside of the vacuum envelope to a work circuit for use in output or to be applied to input for the electrodes. Therefore. so the electron population is contained in those directions and the electrons have nowhere to go but in the direction of the circulation around the inside of the accelerating toroid. however. Several hundreds of volts is sufficient to meet that need. the instant disclosure results in an exponential amplification effect. This wire mesh is arranged to be perpendicular to the flow of electrons around the channel and is supported by a ring. Although such a configuration could be used to achieve extremely high voltages.A magnetic field is provided on the top and bottom of the device. and to allow the vast majority of electrons to pass through the mesh without impact on any particular orbit. which is expressed in volts. During the course of time. The multiplication of electrons causes an amplification of current. Although the multiplication of electrons may be accomplished by coating the entirety of the toroidal channel with secondarily emissive materials. the accelerated electrons will impact said mesh and be multiplied. the aim of the device is merely to produce sufficient power to satisfy the requirements of an electric automobile or home or business. to multiply electrons which impact the mesh.

expensive and cumbersome containment and accelerating apparatus is not necessary in the current invention.Therefore. PATENT HISTORY US 1948384 LAWRENCE US 2630549 SZIKLAI DE 687265 BRIOT . and the objective of this invention can be achieved by a device which is of relatively small size.

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PRIOR ART .